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HOLMES COUNTY REPUBLICAN.
3. r.- umtz, e. s. rsrr, EiilTOns and I'EornlETOES. JIiLLEnsnrEG, O., : : : Dec. 8, 1S70. THE PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE. Wc lay before our readers this week the Presidnt's Message, which is a document worthy the careful examination of every reader. Ow ing to its length we have not the time nor space to comment on it this week. For the same reason a large amount of local and other news is crowded out. ATLANTIC CABLES. The old Atlantic cables hare ceased to transmit news either way for some reason or other. All the news we get now, comes over the French cable which also works very badly. For this reason it is very difficult to get correct reports from the seat of war. THE WAR. Dispatches from Tours on Friday saj- that on Thursday a sanguinary battle was fought in Front of Paris. General Drucot with 100.000 men, made a grand sortie from that city, and crossed the river Maine. The movement was completely suc cessfully. On the other hand a dis patch from Vcrsailes, from Prussian sources, announces that a lively fire was kept up during the whole of Tuesday night from the forts around Paris, and that on Wednesday morn ing the garrison made sorties at sev eral points on the Seine and Marne. The Prussian positions were attack ed at eleven o,clock in the morning, and 3Tanguinary battle took place, in which the 'Wurtemburg troops were mainly engaged, supported by a portion of the Twelfth, Second, and Seventh corps. The fighting continued until night, the French being everywhere repulsed. The fighting was mostly done on the east and south-east of Paris. Gam betia announces that the army of the Loire has successfully resisted an attack on the right and left wings, and is now moving forward. He al so gives as a result of these sorties arouncT "Pans, the evacuation of Am iens, by the Prusians, who hastened to support the Germans around Par is. A French dispatch from Lille, of later date, denies the evacuation of Amiens by the Germans, and says a German force has entered Albert, eighteen miles from Amiens on the road to Arras and Lille. A private cable dispatch received at New York on Saturday says that by sifting a vast number of confused and contra dictory dispatches received at Lon don up to a late hour that morning, the fact is undeniable that the French forces on Friday actually won a victory near Orleans, but the Germans certainly repulsed the at tack before Paris. The French army have not affected a junction with Trochu as reported. For the REPUBLICAN. CORRESPONDENCE. ORRVILLE, O., Dec. 5, '70. EnrrOES ItErnuiiCAx: It is an every- day occurrence to hear old men remark that they have never .witnessed an Au tumn of more beautiful weather. Cer tainly we could not reasonably ask for a more favorable season, as the past week has been more like tbo midst of Spring time than the beginning of bleak December. A great many other things besides true love do not always run smooth. Some months ago a promising young man whom I will name Joe Chapman, for short, purchased a livery stable in this place merely to have something for pastime between meals, while he bo journs at a first-class hotel, and makes big kites and paper balloons to amuse the boys and make Sunday school cele brations attractive. The big checkered balloon didn't go' up but the probabili ties are that the dashing Joseph will. Unlike mosrgenaemanorielsure Joseph has failed to como to time on his board bills, and, as a natural consequence, the services of the constable were brought into requisition and the personal effects of our festive one are advertised at con stable's sale. The proprietor of the ho tel thinks he can run a hashery but "Xot for Joe." Mr. Thos. Heed, who recently took possession of the St. Cloud, has wisely come to the conclusion that keeping a hotel is not his forte, and I have no doubt that the general public will readily con our in lib decision. The house, whichis most splendidly located for transient or local custom, is now offered for sale by the owner, a farmer near town. There .-em3 to be a disposition on the part of a few individuals to prevent the extension of our incorporate limits. They may succeed in delaying.the move ment for a few months but the HI will which they will thus engender will greatly overbalance any benefit they may expect to derive. A matter of pub lic necessity and benefit should not be hindered by any well dUposed.persons A protracted meeting has been held at the Methodist church during the past two weeks, but without very much suc cess asyet.- yir. Weirich, late of 3Iillersburg, is running a good trade here in the baking business. A young lady who' resides at no great distance from this village has been try ing glycerine as a perfume, but like the Japanese who used Spaulding's pre pared glue for hair oil, concluded that it is not a success. A new time schedule on the Pittsburg, Ft. "U'ayne & Chicago It. W. took effect yesterday. Passenger trains -leave this station as follows: Wcst-Exprcss, CSt a. m., 3Iall, 1.52 p. m., Express, M5p. m., Express, 88 p.m. East Express, GS1 a. m., Mail, 9.15 a. m., Ex press, 11.55 a. m.; Express, 9.05 p. m.' On this time the morning 'train from Mill- ersburg makes direct connection each WAYNE. The Eclectic Medical College at Cincinnati, was destroyed by fire several nights since. Decrease of debt in November, $G,475,S60; decrease in nine months ending December 1st, $101,019,982. The public debt statement shows a reduction of $7,000,000. Some workmen engaged in dig ging a well at Independence, Ky.,on the23d ult., calne upon gas, which ignited, and has since been burning. President's Message CONGRATULATORY—COMPLETION OF RECONSTRUCTION. To the Senate and Jloutc of Representatives: A year of peace and general pros perity to this nation has passea . . ... f since tne last assemoung oi con gress. We have, through a kind Providence,bcen blessed with abund ant crops, and been spared from complications and war with foreign nations. In our midst comparative harmony has been restored. It is to be regretted, however, that a free exercise of the electtve franchise has been denied to citizf ns in ex ceptional cases, in several of the States lately m rebellion, ana tne verdict of the people has thereby been reversed. The btates ol Vir ginia, Mississippi and Texas have been restored to representation in our national councils. Georgia, the only State now without representa tion, mav be confidently expected to take her place there also at the beginning of the new year,anu tnen let us hope will be completed tne work of reconstuction. With an aouiessencc on the part of the, whole people in the national obligation to pay the public debt, created as the price of our Union, the pensions to our disabled soldiers and sailors and their widows and or phans, and in the changes to the Constitution which have been made necessary by a great rebellion, there is no reason why we should not ad vance in material prosperity and happiness as no other nation ever did alter so protractea ana aevasia- tating a war. UNITED STATES PROTECTION EXTENDED TO FOREIGN RESIDENTS OF FARIS. Soon after the existing war broke ont in Europe, the protection oi tne United states Jiinisicr in rana was invoked in favor of the North Ger mans domiciled in French territory. Instructions were issuea to grant, protection. This Has been followed hr an extension of American pro tection to citizens of Saxony.Gotha, Hesse, and saxe-Oohurg, uoiomDia, Portugal, Uraguay, the Dominican Venezuela in Paris. The charge was an onerous one, requiring con Kt.mt and severe labor as well as the exercise of patience, prudence and (rood iudffement. It has been ner- nrmcfi to tne entire sausiacuou ui this government; and as I am official U- informed, enuallv so to the satis faction of the government of- North liermany. RECOGNITION OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC. As soon as I learned that a repub lic had been proclaimed at Paris.and that the people of France had ac- auiesced in the change, tne .Minister of the United States was directed by teleghraph to recognize it, and tender my congratulations and those of the people of the United Statos. The re-establishment in France of a system of government disconnected with the dynastic tra ditions of Europe, appeared to be a proper subject for the felicitation of Americans. Should the present struggle result in attaching the hearts of the French to our simpler forms of representative government, it will be a subject of still further satisfaction to our people. y nne we make no effort to impose our in stitution unon the inhabitants of other countries, and while wc adhere to our traditional neutrality in civil contests elsewhere, we cannot be in different to the spread of American political ideas in a great and higbly ClTUizea country iiko r ranee. OUR REFUSAL TO INTERFERE IN THE STRUGGLE. VTn were asked bv the new gov crnment to use our good offices joint ly with those ot tne European pow ers in the interests of peace. An- ctror TT?ia mndn that the established policy and the interests of the United States forbade them to intenere in T ascertained informally and unofficially that the government oi .worm liermany was not then aisposeu ix usveu i" ouuu rnni-ncpntnt.inns from nowers. and though earnestly wishing to 6ee the blessings oi peace resioreuiu mo belligerents, with all of whom the United states are on leruia ui mrau ship, I declined on the part of this pnt to take a steD which could only rosultin the injury to our true interests without advancing the object for which our intervention vnlred. Should the time come when the action of thc.United States can hasten the return ol peace by a single hour, that action will be heartily taKcn, OUR NEUTRALITY OBLIGATIONS. I deemed it prudent, in view of the number oi persons oi uermau and French birth living in the United States, to issue, soon after official notice of a state ot war iiaa oeen roi-niiWl from hnth bellurcrcnts. a proclamation defining the duties of the United States.as a neutral, anu the obligations of persons residing within the territory to ODservo tneir laws and the laws of nations. The npnfl.imnt.ion was followed bv others as circumstances seemed to call for them. The people, thus acquainfcd in advance of their duties and obli gations have assisted in preventing violations of the neutrality of the united states. THE CUBAN INSURRECTION. It is not understood that the con dition of the insurrection in Cuba has materially changed since the close of the last session of Congress, In an early stage of the contest, the authorities of Spain mauguratea a system of arbitrary arrests of close confinement, of military trial and execution of persons suspected of complicity with the insurgents, and of summary embargo of their properties and requisitions of their revenues by executive warrant. Such proceedings, as far vs they affected the persons or property of citizens of the united States, were in violation of the treaty of li'Ja, between the United States and Spain. Representations of injuries result ing to several persons claiming to be citizens of the United States, by by reason of such violations, were made to the Spanish government. From April, I860 to Juno last, the Spanish Minister at Washington had been clothed with a limited pow er to aid in redressing such wrongs. That power was found to be with drawn, in view, as it was said, of the favorable situation in which tho is land of Cuba then was, which how ever, did not lead to revolution or suspension of the extraordinary and arbitrary functions exercised by the executive power iu Cuba; and we were obliged to make our complaint at Madrid. In the negotiations thus opened, and still pending there, the United States only claimed that for' future the rights secured to thoir citizens by treaty should be respect ed in Cuba, and that ns to the past a joint tribunal should bo establish ed in the United States, with full jurisdiction over all such claims. Before such an impartial tribunal each claimant would be required to prove his case. On the other hand. Spain would be at liberty to traverse every material fact, and thus com plete equity wouia De done. SUCCESSFUL ARBITRATION. A casewhich atone time threaten cd seriousiv to affect the relations between the United States and Spain has already been disposed of in this way. The claim of Col. Loyd as- pinwall, for the illegal seizure and detention of his vessel, was reierrca to arbitration by mutual consent, and has resulted in an award to the United States for the owner of the same of nineteen thousand seven hun dred and two dollars and fifty cents in gold. Another and long pending claim of like nature that of the whale-ship Canada has been dis posed ot by friendly arbitration au ring the present year. It was refer red, by ioint consent of Brazil and the United States, to the decision of Sir Edward Thornton, Her liritan nic Majesty's minister at Washing ton, who kindly -undertook the labo rious task of examining the volu minous mass of correspondence and testimony submitted by the two gov ernments, and allowed to the united States the sum of one hundred thou sand sven hundred and forty dol-ars and nine cents in gold, woich has since been paid by the Imperial Uov- ernment. These recent examples show that the mode which the Uni ted States have proposed to Spain for adiustintr the pending claims is just and feasible, and that it may be agreed to by either nation witnoui dishonor. It is to be hoped that this moderate demand may be acce ded to by Spain without further de lay, should the penaing negotia tions unfortunately and unexpect edly be without result, it will then become my duty to communicate that fact to Congress and invite its action on the subject, THE PEACE CONFERENCES The long deferred peace confer ence between Spain and tne aiuea South American Republics has been inaugurated in Washington under the auspices of the United states. Pansuant to the recommendation contained in the resolution of the House or Representatives of the 17th of December, 1866, the Executive Department of the Government offer ed its friendly cmces lor tne promo tion of peace and harmony between Spain and the allied Republics. Hesitations and obstacles occurred to the acceptance of the offer, Ultimately, however, a conference was arranged, and was opened in this city on the 29th of October last, at which I authorized the Secretary of State to preside. It was attended by the Ministers of Spain, Peru, Chili, and Ecuador. In consequence of the absence of a representative from Bolivia, the conference was ad journed until the attendance of a plenipotentiary lrom that Kepumic could be secured, or other measures could be adopted towards compass ing Its object. The allied and other Republics of Spanish origin on this continent may see in this facta new proof of our sincere interest in their welfare, our desire to see them bless ed with good governments, capable of maintaining order-and preserving their respective territorial integrity, and of our sincere wish to extend our own commercial and socinl rela tions with them. The time is not probably far distant when in the natural course ot events the .Europe an political connection with this connection will cease. Our policy should be shaped in view of this probability, so as to ally the com morclal- interests of the Spanish American States more closely to our own, and thus give the United states all the prominence and all the advan tace which Mr. Monroe, Mr. Adams and Clay contemplated when they proposed to join to the Congress of Panama. THE ANNEXATION OF SAN DOMINGO. Durincr the last session of Con grcss a treaty for the annexation of the Kepublic ot san uomingo to the United States failed to receive the requisite two-thirds vote of the Senate. I was thoroughly convinc ed then that the best interests of the country, commercially and ma terially, demanded it3 ratification. Time has only confirmed me in this view, I now firmly believe that the moment it is known that the United States have entirely abandoned the subject of accepting as a part of its territory the island of San Domingo, a free port will be negotiated for by European nations. In the Bay of Samana a large commercial city will spring up, to which we will be tnb- butary without receiving correspon ding benefits. The Government of San Domingo has voluntarily sought this annexation. It is a wpak power, numbering probably less; than one hundred and twenty thou sand souls, and yet possessing one of the richest localities under the sun, capable of supporting a popu lation of 10,000,000 of people in luxury. The people of San Do mingo are not capable of maintain ing themselves in their present con dition, and must look for outside support. I. hey yearn lor tho pro tection of our free institutions and laws, our progress and civilization. Shall we refuse them? The acquisi sition qf Sap Domingo is .desirable because of its geographical position. It commands the entrance to the Carribbean Sea and the isthmus transit of cpmmerce. It possesses the richest sou, best ana most capa cious harbers, most salubrious pji mate, and the most valuable pro ducts of the forest, mine and soil of any of the West India islands, Its possession by the United States will in a few years build up a coast raise commerce of immense magni tude, which will go far towards re storing to us our lost merchant ma rines. It will give to us those arti cles which we consume largely and do pot produce, thus equalizing our exports and imports. In case of foreign war, it will give us command of all the islands referred to, and thus prevent an enemy from again possessing himself of a rendezvous upon our coast. At present our coast trade between the States bor dering on the Atlantic and those bordering on the Gulf of Maxico is by the Bahamas and the Antilles. Twice we must, as it were, pass through foreign countries to get from Ucorgfa to ti)e east -coast ot Elorida. San Domingo, with a sta ble Government, under which her immense resources can be developed will give remunerative wages to 10,- 000 laborers not now upon the island. This labor will take advan tage of every available means of transportation to abandon tho adja cent islands and seek the blessings of freedom and its sequence, each inhabitant seeking the rewards of his own labor. Porto Rico and Cuba will havo to abolish slavery as a measuro of self-prescrvatioil to re tain thejr laborers, San Domingo will become a large cqnsumorof tho products of northern farms And manufactories. Tho cheap rate at which her citizens can be furnished with fcjod, and the introduction in the island of improved machinery will make it necessary that contigu ous Island's should have the same advantages in order to compete with her m the production or suger, cof fee, tobacco, tropical fruits, &c. This will open to us a wider market for our products. The production of our own supply or these articles will cut off more than own supply of theso articles will will cut off more than one hundred millions of our annual imports, besides increas ing our exports. With such a pic ture it is easy to see how our large debt abroad is ultimately to be ex tinguished. With a balance of trade against us. including interest of bonds held by foreigners, and money spent by our citizens traveling in foreign lands equal to the entire yield of the precious metals in this country. It is not so easy to see how this result is to be otherwise accomplished. The acquisition of San Domingo is an adhesion to the Monroe doctrine, and is a measure of national protection. It is assert ing our just claim to a controlling influence over the great commercial traffic soon to flow from west to cast by way of the Isthmus of Darien; itis to build up our merchant ma rine: it is to furnish new markets for the products of our farms, shops and manufactories; it is to make slavery insupportable in Cuba and Porto'Rico at once, and ultimately so in Brazil; it is to settle the un happy condition of Cuba, and end an exterminating conflict; it is to provide the honest means of paying our honest debts without overtax ing the people; it is to furnish our citizens with the necessaries ot eve ryday life at cheaper rates than ever before, and it is in a line rapia striae toward that greatness which thcin telligence, industry and enterprise of the citizens of the United States entitle this country to assume among the nations. In view of the impor tance of this question, I earnestly urge upon Congress early action ex pressive of its views as to the best means of acquiring San Domingo. My suggestion is that by a joint resolution of the two Houses of Congress, the .Executive be author ized to appoint- a commission to negotiate for a treaty with the au thorities of San Domingo for the acquisition of that island, and that an appropriation be made to defray the expenses of such commission. The question may then be determin ed by the action of the two Houses of Congress upon a resolution of annexation, as in the case of the acquisition of Texas So convinced am I of the advantages to flow from the acquisition of San Domingo.and of the great disadvantages I might almost say calamities, to now lrom its non acquisition, that I believe the subject has only to be investigated to be approved. THE MEXICAN FREE ZONE. It is to be regretted that our rep resentations in regard to the injuri ous effects, especially upon the rev enues of the United States, of the policy of the Mexican government in exempting from import duties a large tract of its territory on our borders, have not only been fruit less, but that.it is even proposed in that country to extend the limits within which the privilege adverted to has hitherto been enjoyed. The expediency of taking into your se rious consideration the proper means for countervailing the policy re ferred to will, it is presumed engage your earnest attention. It is the obvious interest, especially of the neighboring nations, to provide against injury to those who may have committed high crimes within their borders, andj who may have sought refuge abroad. For this pur pose extraditiohtreaties have been concluded with several of the Cen tral American Republics, and others are in progress. THE VENEZUELAND FUND. The sense of Congress is desired as early as may bo convenient upon the proceedings of the Commission on claims against Venezuela and commented on in the messages of March 4, 1869, March 1st, 1870, and March 31, 1870. It has not been deemed advisable to distribute any of the money which has been re ceived from that Government until Congress shall have 'acted upon the subject THE TIEN-TSIN MASSACRES. The massacre of French and Russian residents at Tien-Tsin, un der circumstances of great barbari ty, were supposed by some to have been premeditated, and to indicate a purpose among the populace to ex terminate foreigners, in the Chinese Empire. The evidence fails to es tablish such, a supposition, but shows a complicity by7 the local au thorities and the mob. The Gov ernment at Pckin, however, seems to have been disposed to fulfill its treaty obligations, so far as it was able to do so. Unfortunately, the news of the war between the Ger man states and France reached Chi na soon after the massacre. It would appear that the popular mind became possessed with the idea that this contest extending to Chinpsn saters, would neutralize the Chris tian influence and power, and that the time was coming when the su perstitions mass might expel all for eigners and restore mandarian influ ence. Anticipating trouble from this cause, I invited Franco and 2forth German- to make ail author ized suspension of hostilities in the cast, where tbey were temporarily suspenaea oy act or tho command ers, to act together for the future protection in China of the lives. and property of Americans and IJurope aqs, as of EXCHANGE OF TREATY RATIFICATIONS. Since tho adjournment of Congress the ratification of the treaty with Great Britain for abolishing the mixed courts for the suppression of- slave trade have been exchanged. It is believed that the slave trade is nqw cqnfined to the eastern coast of Atrlca, whence the -slaves are taken to Arabian markets. The ratifica tion of the naturalization Conven tion between Great Britian aud the United States havo also been ex changed during the recess, and thus a long standing dispute between the two governments has been settled in accordance with the principles al ways contended for by the United States. it in RELOCATION OF OUR NORTHWESTERN BOUNDARY LINE. In April last while engaged in lo cating a military reservation near Pembina, a corps of engineers dis covered that the commonly received boundary lino between the Unjtcd States and tho British possessions at that place is about fifty-seven hundred feet south of the true posi tion of the zenith parallel, and that the line, when on what is now sup posed to be the true position of that para!!nl- WOUW.Icave the tort oi the Hudson Bay Company at PcuMna lyithin the territory of tfoc United States. This information being communicated to the Britjsh Gpv crnracnt. I was requested to con; by for the sent, and did consent, that British occupation of the fort of the Hud son's Bay Company should continue for the present. I deem it impor tant, however, that this part of the boundary line should be dcfinitely fixed by a joint commission of the governments, and submit herewith estimates of the expense of such a commission on the part of tho Uni ted States and recommend that an appropriation for that purpose be made. The land boundary is al ready fixed and marked from the summit of the Rocky Mountains to the Georgian Bay. It should now be in like manner marked from the Lake of the Woods to the summit of the Rocky Mountains. THE ALABAMA CLAIMS. I regret to say no conclusion has been reached for the adjustment ol the claims against Great Britian, growing out of the course adopted by that Government during the re bellion. The Cabinet of London, so far as its views have been ex pressed, docs not appear to be will ing to concede that Her Majesty's Government was guilty of negli gence, or did or permitted any act during the war by which the United States has any just cause of com plaint. Our firm and unalterable convictions are directly the reverse. and therefore recommend to Con gress to authorize the appointment oi a commission to take proof of the amounts and the ownership of their claims on notice to the representa tive ot Her Majesty at Washington, and that authority be given for the settlement of these claims by the United States, so that the Govern ment shall have the ownership of the private claims, as well as the responsible control of all the de mands against Great Britian. It cannot be necessary to add that when ever Her Majesty's Government 'shall entertain a desire for a full and friendly adjustment of these-claims the United States will enter upon their consideration with an earnest desire for a conclusion consistent with the honor and dignity of both nations. UNFRIENDLY ACTION OF THE CANADIAN AUTHORITIES TOWARD AMERICA. The course pursued by the Cana dian authorities toward the fisher men of the United States during the past season has not been marked by a lnendly feeling. By the first arti cle of the convention of 1818, be tween Great Britain and the United States, it was agreed that the inhab itants of the. United Stales should have forever in common with Brit ish subjects the. right of taking fish in certain waters therein denned, In the--water-Tiot' included in the limit named in tho convention with in three miles: of ports of the Brit ish coast, it has been the custom for. many years to give to intruding fishermen of the United States reasonable warning of their viola tion of the technical rights of Great Uritian. lhe Imperial Government is understood to have delegated the whole or a share of its jurisdiction or control of these inshore fishery grounds to the colonial authority known as the Dominion of Canada, and this semi-independent but irre sponsible agent has exercised its delegated powers in an unfriendly wav-. vessels have been seized with out notice or warning, in violation of the custom previously prevailing. and have been taken into the coloni al ports, their voyages broken up and the vessels condemned. There is reason to believe that this un friendly and vexatious treatment was designed to bear harshly upon the hardy fishermen of the United States, with a view to political effect upon this government. The stat utes of the Dominion of Canada assume a still broader and more un tenable jurisdiction over the vessels of the United states. They author ize officers or persons to bring yes seis hovering within three marine miles of any of the coasts, bays, creeks or harbors of Canada into port, to search the cargo, to exam ine the Master on oath touching the cargo and voyage, and to .inuict up on him a heavy pecuniary penalty if true answers are not given; and such a vessel is lound preparing to fish within three "marine miles of any such coast, bay, creeks, or har bors without a license, or after the expiration of the period named. in the last license granted to it, they provide that the vessel with her tackle, &&, shall be forfeited it is not known that any condemnations have been made under this statute, Should the authorities of Canada attempt to enforce it, it will become my duty to take, such, steps as may be necessary to protect the rights of the citizens of the United states. It has been claimed by Her Majesty's officers that fishing vessels of the United States have no right to en ter the open ports of the British possessions in North America, ex cept for the purposes of shelter and repairing damages, of purchasing wood and obtaining water; that they have no right to enter at the .British Custom Houses, or to trade, except the pnrchase of wood and water. and that they must depart within twent--four hours after notice to leave. It is not known that any seizure of a fishing vessel carrying the flag of the United States has been made under this claim. So far the claim is founded on any al leged construction of the convention 1818, it.cannot be acquiesced in by the United States. It is hoped that it will not bo insisted upon by TlnT- "AT filftci-'o f ' r-n-r-ti tv. .1.-, T..w "j ... , . uv.vtuutiu. aim ing the conferences which preceded the negotiation of the convention of 1818, the British Commissioners proposed to expressly exclude the fishermen of the United States from the privilege of carrying on trade with any of Her Britannic Majesty's suDjccts residing within the limits assigned for their use, and also that should not be lawful for the ves sels of the United States engaged such fishing to have on board any goods, wares or merchandise what ever oxcept such ns may be neces sary for the prosecution of their voyages to and from said fishing grounds; and any vessel of the United States which shall contra vene this regulation may be seized, condemned and confiscated with their cargoes. This proposition, which is identical with the construc tion now'put upon the language of the convention, was emphatically re jected by the Amerioan commission ers, and thereupon was abandoned tho British pleni-potentiaries, and article one as it stands in the Con vention was substituted. If, how ever, it be said that this claim is founded on provincial or colonial statutes, and not upon the Conven tion this government can but regard them as unfriendly and in contra vention of the spirit of tho treaty, tho faithful execution of which Imperial Government is alone responsible. I recommend you to confer upon tho Executive the pow er to suspend by proclamation the operation of tho laws authorizing trausit of goods, wares and mer chandise in bond across the territory of the United" States to Canada; and further, should such an extreme measuro become necessary, to sus pend the operations of any laws Thereby the vessels of tho Domin ion of Canada arc permitted to en ter the waters of the United States. FREE NAVIGATION OF THE ST. LAWRERCE. A like unfriendly disposition has been manifested on tho part of Can ada in the maintenance of a claim of the right to exclude the citizens of the United States from the navi gation of the St. Lawrence. Tho river constitutes a natural highway to the ocean. With an aggregate population of about 17,600,000 in habitants.and with an aggregate ton nage of 661,367 tons upon the waters which discharge into it, the foreign commerce of our ports on these waters is open to British competi tion, and the major part of- it done in British bottoms. If the Ameri can seamen be excluded from this natural avenue to the ocean the mo nopoly of the direct commerce of the lake ports with the Atlantic would be in foreign hands, their ves sels on trans-Atlantic voyages hav ing an access to our lake ports, which would be denied to American vessels on similar voyages. To state such a proposition is to refute its justice. During the adminis tration of Mr. John Quincy Adams, Mr. Clay unquestionably demon strates the natural right of the citi zens of the United States to the navigation of this river, claimin that the act of the Congress of Vi enna, in opening tho Rhine and other rivers to all nations, showed the judgment of European jurists and statesmen to be that the inhab itants of the country through which a navigable river passes have a nat ural right to enjoy the navigation of that river to and into the sea, even though passingthronghtheterritory of another power. This right does not exclude the coequal right of the sovereign possessing the territory through which the river debouches into the sea to make such regulations relative to the policy of the naviga tion as may be reasonably necessary but those regulations should be framed in a liberal spirit of comity and should not impose needless burdens upon the commerce which has the right of transit, It has been found in practice more advantageous to arrange these regulations by mu tual agreement. The United States are ready to make any reasonable arrangement as to the police of the st Lawrence, which may be suggest ed by Great Britain. If the claim by Mr, Clay was just when the pop ulation of the States bordering on the shores of the lakes was only 3,400,000, it now derives greater force and equity from the increased population, wealth, production and tonnage ol the States on the Oana dian frontier, since Mr. Clay ad vanced his argument in behalf of our right, the prineiple for which he contended has been frequently and by various nations recognized by law or by treaty, has been extended to several other great rivers. By the treaty concluded at Mayence in 1831 the Rhine was declared free from the point where it it is first navigabl into the sea. By the convention be tween Spain .and Portugal, conclu ded, in 1835, the navigation of the Douro throughout its whole extent was made free for the subjects of both crowns. In 1853, the Argen tine Confederation, by treaty, threw open-the free navigation of the Par ana and Uruguay to the merchant vessels of all nations. In 1856, the Crimean war was closed by a treaty which provided lor the iree naviga tion ot the Danube, initios Hon via, by treaty-, declared that it re garded the rivers Amazon and La Plata, in accordance with fixed prin ciples of national law, as highway or channels opened by nature for the commerce oi all nations, in loo'J the Paraguay was made free by treaty, and in liecember, lbb, the Emperor of Brazil, by imperial de cree, declared the Amazon to be open to all the frontier of Brazil to the merchant ships of all nations, The greatest living British authority on the subject, while asserting the aDsiract rignt oi tne isnnsn claims say: "It seems difficult to deny that lireat lintain may ground her refu sal upon strict law, but it is equally aitncuit to deny, nrst, that in so doing she exercises harshly an ex treme and hard law; secondly, that ner conduct with respect to tne nav igation oi tne St. Lawrence is in glaring and discreditable inconsis tency with her conduct with respect to the navigation ol the Mississippi, Oh the ground that she possessed a small domain in which the Missis sippi took its rise, she insisted on this right to navigate the entire vol ume of 'its waters, on the ground that she possessed both banks of the St. Lawrence, where it disem bogues into the sea, she denies the United States the right ot naviga tion, though about one-half of the the waters ot Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron and Superior and the whole of Lake Michigan, through which the river flows, are the property of tne united states. lhe whole na tion is interested in securing cheap transportation from the agricultural States of the West to the' Atlantic. seaboard, To the citizens of those States it secures a greater return for their labor, to tho inhabitants of seaboard; it offers cheaper food, to the natioii an increase in the annual surplus of wealth. It is hoped that the Government or threat Uritain will see the justice of abandoning the narrow and inconsistent claim to which her Canadian provinces have urged her adherence. OUR DEPRESSED COMMERCE. Our depressed commerce is a sub ject to which I called your special attention at the last session. 1 sug gested that we will in the future have to look more to the countries south of us, and to China and Japan for its revival. Our representatives to all these governments have exert ed thoir influence to encourage trade between the United States and the countries to which they are accred ited, but the fact exists that the car rying is done almost entirely in for eign bottoms, and while this state of anairs exists, we cannot control our duo share of the commerce of the world; that between the Pacific States and China and Japan, is about on all tl0 carryiug trauc now con ducted in American vessels. I would recommend a libcraj policy to ward that line of American steam ers one that will insure its success and even increased usefulness. The cost of building iron vessels the only ones that compete with foreign ships in the carrying trade is so much greater in the United States than m lorcign countries, that with out somo assistance from tho Gov ernment thoy cannot bo successfully built here. There will bo several propositions laid before Congress in tho course of the present session, looking to a rcmody for this evil. Even if it should' be at somo coat to the national treasury, I hope, sush encouragement will be given aB will a sccuro American shipping on tho jbigb seas and American shipbuild ing at home. CARE OF NATIONAL ARCHIVES. The condition of the archives at the Department of State calls for the early action of Congress. The build ing now rented by the Department is a frail structure, at an inconvenient distance from the Executive man sion and from thother Departments It is ill-adapted to the purposo for which it is used, has not capacity to accommodate tho archives, and is not fire-proof. Its remote situation, its slender construction, and the ab sence of a supply of water in the neighborhood, leaves but little hope of safety for either the building or its contents in case of the accident of a fire. Its destruction would in volve the loss of the rolls containing the original acts and resolutions of Congress, of the historic records of the Revolution, and of the confeder ation of the whole series of diplo matic and consular archive since the adoption of the constitution and of the many other valuable -records and papers "left with that department when it was the principal deposito ry of the government archives. I recommend an appropriation for the construction of a building for the Department of State. TRANSFERS FROM DEPARTMENTS. I recommend to you the reconsid eration of the propriety of transfer ring to the Department of the Inter ior, to which they seem more appro priately to belong, all powers and other duties in relation to the terri tories with which the Department oi state is now charged by law or usuage, and from the Interior De partment to the War Department the Pension Bureau, so far as it regulates tne pavrnent oi soldiers pensions, I would further recommend that the payment of naval pensions be trans ferredtoone of naval bureaus of the Navy Department. THE ESTIMATES. The estimates for the expenses of tne Government for the fiscal year are i8,Z44,34b Ui Ies3 than lor th current one, but exceed the appro priations'for tho presentyear for the same items $8,972,127 56. In this estimate, however, is included $22. 338,278 37 for public works hereto fore begun under Congressional pro vision, and of which only so much is asked as Congress may choose to give. The appropriation for the same works for the present fiscal year was $11,984,018 08. RELATIVE VALUE OF GOLD AND CURRENCY. RENCY. The average value of gold comparea witn national currency lor tne wnoie oi tne year 1HB9, was about 134, and for the eleven months of .1870 the same relative value has been about-115. The approach to a specie basis is very gratifying, but the fact cannot be denied that the instability of the value of our cur rency is prejudicial to our prosperity ana tonus to Keep up, prices to the detriment ol trade. The evils of depricated and fluctuating currency are so great, that now when the premium on gold has fallen so much it would seem that the time ha's ar rived when, by wise and prudent legislation, Congress should look to a policy which would place our cur rency at par with gold at no distant REDUCTION OF TAXATION. The tax collected from the peopl nas been reduced more than $80,000, uuoyer annum. By steadiness our present course there is no rea son why in a few short years the national tax gatherer may not dis appear from the door of the citizen almost entirely, With the revenue stamps dispensed by the postmasters in every community, a tax uDon liquors of all sorts, and tobacco in its forms, and by a wise adjustment oi me tanii wnicn will put a duty only upon those articles which wc could dispense with as luxuries, and on those or which we use more than wc produce, revenue enough may be raisea alter a lew years ot peace, ana a consequent reduction of in debtedness. To fulfill all our obli gations, a further reduction of ex pense, in addition to a reduction of interest account, may be relied on to maKe this practicable. Kevenue reform, if it means this. has my hearty support. If it im plies a collection of all the revenue for the support of the Government, for the payment of the principal and interest oi tnepuoiic debt, pensions. etc., by directly taxing the people, then I am against revenue reform. and confidently believe the people are with me. If it means failure to provide the necessary means to de fray all expenses of Government, and thereby repudiation of the pub lie debt and pensions, then I am still more opposed to such kind of revenne reform. Revenue reform has not been defined by any of its advocates to my knowledge, but seems to be something which is to supply every man's wants without any cost or effort on his part. A true revenue reform cannot be made m a day, but must be the work of rational legislation and of time. As soon as the -revenue can be dis pensed with all duty should be re moved from coffee, tea, and other articles of universal use not pro- aucca dj- ourselves. The necessi ties of the country compel us to collect revenue from our imports, An army of collectors and assessors is not a pleasant sight to the citi zens, but that or a tariff for revenue is necessary. Such a tariff, so far as it acts in encouragement to home products, affords employment to la bor at living wages in contrast to tho pauper labor of the old world. and also in the development of home resources. THE ARMY. Under the act of Congress of the 15th day of July, 1870, the army has gradually been reduced, so that on the first of January, 1871. tho num ber or commissioned officers and men will not exceed tho number contemplated by law. Tho War De partment building is an old struc ture, not fire proof, and entirely in adequate in dimensions to our pres ent wants. Many thousands of dol lars are now paid annually for rent of private buildings to accommo date ta various iiuroaus ot tho Lie partmcnt. 1 recommend an appro priation for a new War Department building suited to the present and growing wants of the nation. The reportof the Secretary of War shows. very satisfactory reduction in the expenses of tho army for tbo last uscal year. 1-or details you are re ferred to liis accompanying report. L-uuaiicuti THE NAVY DEPARTMENT. The expenses of tho navy for tho whole of tho last year, i. c, from December, 1869, the date of tho last report, arc less than nineteen mill ion dollars, or about ono million less than they wcro tho previous yoar. The expenses of th,p jfavy Depart ment in, his fiscal year sinco July 1st 8lipvs,'fpr tho flvb months, a de crease pf oyer two million four hun dred thousand dollars, from those of the corresponding months of last year, lhe estimates for the current year were $28,205,678 37: those for next year are $20,683,317, with $95,100 additional for temporary and permanent improvements. These estimates arc made closely for tho most economical maintenance of the naval establishment as it now is, without much in the nature of per manent improvement. The appro priation made for the last and cur rent years were evidently intended by Congress, and arc sufficient only to keep the navy on its present foot ing, the repairing and refitting of our old ships. This policy must of course gradually but surely destroy the navy, and it is in itself far from economical, as each year that it is pursued the necessity for more re pairs in ships and navy yards be come more imperative and more costly, and our current expenses are actually increased lor tne mere re pairs of ships, many of which must soon be unseaworthy and useless. I hope, during the present session of Congress, to be able to submit to it a plan by which naval vessels can be built and repairs made with great saving upon the present .cost. It can hardly be wise statesmanship in a government which represents a country with over five thousand miles of coast line on both ocean's, exclusive of Alaska, and containin forty millions of progressive people, with relations of every nature with almost every foreign country, to rest with such inadequate -means oi en forcing any foreign policy, either of protection or redress, separated by the ocean from the nations of the Eastern Continent, our navy is our only means of direct protection to our citizens abroad, or lor the cn forcemcnt of any foreign policy. THE POSTAL SERVICE. The accompanying report of the Postmaster General shows a most satisfactory working of that depart ment with the adoption oi the rec ommendation contained therein, par ticularly these relating to a reform in the franking privileges and the adoption of correspondence cards, self-sustaining postal .system may speedily bo looked of, and at no distant day a further reduction of the rate of postage be attained, I recommend the authorization by Congress, to the Postmaster Gen eral and Attorney General to issue all commissions to officials appoint cd through their respective depart ments. At present these commis sions, where appointments are made, are issued by" the State Department. The law in all the departments of Government except those of the Postoffice and of Justice authorizes each to. issue its own commissions CIVIL SERVICE REFORM. Always favorinir practical refonm.1 rcsDect- fally direct your attention to one abnse of long standing wnicn L would uxc 10 see remorea-oy this Congress It is a reform in the Civil Ser vice of the country. I -would have it go beyond the mere fixing of the tenure of office of clerks and employees, who do not require the advice and consent of the Senate to make their ap pointments complete. I would have it govern not the tenure but the manner of maklnir all appointments. There is no duty which so much embarrasses theExecutive and heads or depart ments as that of appointments, nor is there any snch arduous or thankless labor imrjosed on Senators and Representatives as that of finding Siaces lor constituents, xne present system oes not secure the best men, and ofteu not even fit men for public place. The elevation and purification of the civil service of the Govern ment will be halted with approval by the whole people oi tne umtea oisies. REFORM IN THE MANAGEMENT OF INDIAN AFFAIRS. Reform in the management of Indian Affairs ministration rrom its inauguration to the pres ent day. The experiment of makinir it a mis sionary work was tried with a few agencies iven to tneuenomination oi i nenas, ana nas of Congress reducing the army renders army arm v. uuiccro iueiigiuie ior civu positions, xne In dian agencies being civil offices, I determined to give all tne asrencics to snch relirious denom. inations as bad heretofore established missions amonir the Indians, and DcrhaDs to some other denominations wno would undertake the work on the same terms, 1. c as a missionary work. The societies selected arc allowed to name their own agents, subject to the approval of tbo Ex ccutive. and are expected to watch over then and aid them as missionaries and Christians, add civilize the Indian, and to train him in thw arts of peace. The Government watches over the ofiicial acts of these agents, and requires of tnem as strict an accountability as ir they were appointed in the regular manner. 1 entertain tne confident hope that the policy now pursued win in n lew years Dnng au tne Indians upon have school bouses and churches, will bo pur. suing peaceful and self -sustaining avocations, and where they mav be'visited bv the law. mcrvauuus. wuere uitr will iivr in nnn abiding white man with the same Impunity mi ub nun iBii 111c civiiueu wmce settle ments. I call your anecial attention to tlm re. port of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 11111 lniorniation on this subject. THE PUBLIC DOMAIN. During the last fiscal year 8,093,4T3 acres of thenublicland wasdisnosed of. Of thu nnm. tity a,oo,;riii acres were taaen under the home stead law, and 2,159,515 acres sold for cash. The remainder was locatee witn military warrants. coUege or Indian scrip, or applied in satisfac tion of grants to railroads or for other public u.K9. aiio cuuiu uuuer uiu Homestead law dur inir thelast year covered 961 .345 acres mow thn during the preceding year. Surveys have been vigorously prosecuted to the full extent of tho means applicable to the purpose. The quantity of land in the market will amply supply the demand. The claims of the settlers under the homestead or the nre-emntion laws, irp tint. .i U iimitku n tuuuj uujtTLv iu iaie at pri vate entry.. Any unappropriated surveyed iiuuuuMuuiuaj, iv a uumeu amount, do ac uireu unuer cue iormer 13TTS, ii me rartven' tied to enter under them will eomnlv-with thn requirements they prescribe in regard to the icomcuwo buu KUinvauQa. xae actual settler's preference risrht of rmrchase i rrn hmnripr and extends to Lands "whirh werpnncnrr-ovAH -t h. timn nf Ma cattlmiiaaf IXI- .. tnprlv (nnflnml within mnnh noiw.-n-a-. 1 1 . and at one period of our history was conferred onlyby special statutes. They wereenacted to legalize what was then regarded as an un authorized intrusion upon the National domain. The opinion that tho public lands should be re garded chiefly as a source of revenue is no longer maintained, mo rapm settlement and successful cultivation of them is now justly Luuiuci ui uiuic importance 10 our weil-DO- ing than is the fund which the sale of them would produce. The remarkable growth and jnujpci ii ui uut uc amies auu lemiones at test the wisdom of the legislation which in vites the tiller orthe soil to secure a permanent home on terms within tho reach of all Th nf oneer who incurs the dangers and privations of ouuumui uic,uiiu Aiua in jajiugiao iounua- uuu vi iiuw luiumuiiM t'iums, rcuaerss signal service "to his country, and is entitled-to its ipecial favor and protection. "The laws secure welfare. They should, therefore, be cherished nac ooject ana laraeir Dromote the ippnpr.ii as a permanent feature of our land &rtfm. Good faith requires us to give full effect to ex. iaui3. 4.uc uuiu nuuuruu ana oenincent policy of setting apart certain sections of pub lic land for educational nunccs in thn now Statot should be continued. When ample pro vision shall have been made for these objects, I suuuniasa uuwuun wunny a serious consid eration whether the residue of our national dn. main should not bo wholly disposed of under mo pro iiuu vi iiomcsieau and pre-emption laws. In the addition to tho swamp and over flowed lands r ran ted to the State in which thav are suuatcu, tne in nas xacen unaer the agricul tural college acts and for internal improve ments or improvement nurnoscs. under tha ut of September, 184t, and the acts supplementary mriciu. mure iinu uctru tumuvru un in inn Ift( nf tho l.nt fUrsl rimr lit- A rquivatem evidence cu 11110 10 sc&ies ana CQT puraiioos x,.o-v-t i-ww acres: ior railways, canals and uagon roads.Jt U estimated that an (iiniiiivuaiiiuautii; v ,- t,Ou U'lWI OCXVS IS still due under grants for like uses. Thennlirv of thus aiding tho States in building works o'f iuii-rnai luipnitviuriib was inaugurated more than forty years since in tho grants to Indiana and Illinois to aid those States, in opening ca nals to connect the waters of the Wabash with thote of Lake Erie and the watpr nf th Illi nois with those of Lake Mirhlfran. it- fal lowed with some modifications in the grant of iu m wuiuuHJvi me iiuauis central j;au way, lourtoen btates and sundry corporations have received similar subsidies in connection withrailwavscomnletedor in struetiou. As the reserved secilons are rated at the double miu;inuci, the sale of them at the pxce ua mus in many instance in- ICmniiledtne Trcasurv fnr tho trrnntcit lnl Tha construction of some of these thoroughfares has undoubtedly given a vigorous impetus fo tho development of our resources ami lhe set tlement of the more distant portions of the country. It may. however, bo well Insisted been characterized by indiscriminate and pro fuse liberalily. Tho United States should not loan their credit in aid of any enterprise un dertaken by State or corporations, nor grant lands in any instance unless thn projected work is of Aoknauled-red national Importance, and l strongly Inclined to the opinion that uiai wucn oi our ipmsiaLion in tut ruMni ti subsidies of either description, hut should Con grci determine otherwise, I earmvUv recom mend that the right of settlers and of the pub lie should be tho more effectually secured br .'irujiiniu ivgiiaiiou. -Which us. THE PATENT OFFICE. Durinz the year endinir Se ntomtar nh. if?M there were tiled In the 1 'a tent Office 11H11 ap plications for patents, ftrd lft) applications tor the extension of D tents; l3,6- patents In cluding rc-Usues and designs were issued, 110 extended, and 1,099 allowed but not isued by reason of the non-payment of tho tln.nl fee. The receipts of this office during tho fiscal vear were 1130,3)1 in excess of its expenditures. THE CENSUS. Tho work of tho Census Bureau has been en ergetically prosecuted. The preliminary re port, containing much information of special value aud lntervst. will bo readv for delivery tha present sesslau. The remaining volumes will be completed with all the despatch consist ent with perfect accuracy in arranging and classifying the returns, we shall thus at no ay i roriiifhea wit an authentic rX. our n x record of our condition and resources. Itwilt I doubt not attest the growing prosperity of tho country, although during the decade which has just closed it was so severely tried by the great war w aged to maintain it Integrity and . l'V i J uui HIT lUSULUUUU PENSIONS. Puring the last fiscal year the sum paid to pensioners, including tin co.t f disbursement was S27.7S0.S11 11: and 1.738 bnnntv lan.i rants were issued. At it close liesti names were on tho pension rolls. The labors of the Fcnsion Office havo been directed to a very se vere scrutiny of the evidence submitted in favor of claims, and to tho discovery of fictitious claims which hare b?pn heretofore allnrcorf The appropriation for the employment ofsne- ciai agenis ior me investigation oi irauanas been judiciously used, and tbc results obtained have been of unquestionable benefit to the service. EDUCATION—AGRICULTURE. The subjects of education and agriculture aro of great Interest to the success of our Republi can Institutions, happiness and grandeur as a nation. In the interests of one a bureau has been established in the Interior Department the Bureau of Education and in the interests of the other a separate department that of Agriculture. I believe great general good is to follow from the operations of both these bu reaus, if properly fostered. I cannot commend toyourcareful consideration too highly the re ports of the Commissioners of Education and Agriculture, nor urge too strongly such liberal legislation to secure their efficiency, THE POLICY OF THE ADMINISTRATION. In conclusion, I would sum up tbc policy of the Administration to be a thorough enforce ment of every law, a faithful collection of the tax provided; for economy in the disbursement of the same; a prompt payment of every debt of the nation; a reduction of taxes as rapidly as the requirements of the country will admit; the reduction of taxation and tariff to be so ar ranged as to afford the greatest relief to the greatest number; honest and fair dealing-q-ith all otter people, to the end that war with all its blighting consequences may be averted, but without surrendering any right or obligation due fc ns; a reform in the treatment of Indians and in the whole civil service of the country, and in sccurinr a Dure, untrammelled balloLat which every man entitled to cast a vote may do so just once at each election, without fear of molestation or proscription on account of his faith, color. U. S. GRANT. EXECUTIVE MANSION, Dec. 5, 1870. SEAL ilASUFACTUEEE OF , BOOTS, SHOES, MlXIiERSBTJRG, OHIO. I "WOULD aespectfully announce to the pub lic that I am prepared to fill all orders for making Ladies' & Gentlemen's MUUUU U 111 XUlMjfc In the best and most approxed style. I Keep none but the Best Workmen and Warrant All my Work. Repairing Done in Superior .Style. J" Rooms over Bird's Clothing Store, cor nerof Washington and Jackson Streets. Stf 3J. WT1AT,. A WORD TO THE WISE AND If WILL NOT BE LOST! If yoa examine the Immense Stock of FOREIGN & DOMESTIC Bn Girl .Notions, Hats arid Caps, Xadies' Furs, Queeiistv'are,' Glassicare, Carpets, mm. Groceries! is now MARKED DflWX tn nrWt will insure aspcedr saleof the entire stock. Purchasers sat Utr yourselves bv looking XL our BAKGAISS. 'You will .nlmil. ir tou tr that wc sell the SSSrrErXTO, at Sue per yard. ALL WOOL T-Z.V.vrjCatSSo.iieryard BED iJU.VA-irn,at?3pcrpair. '. v CHOICE SUGAR, at 10c. per pound. , GOLDEX STJtrP, at 3c per gallon. . ' , .4 TIP.TOP r.IO COESEE, at Mc. per pound. You will And ns at our Old Stand on the Corner. J. E. KOCH-3r? JftUersburg, O., Rcmctnbcr we aro still Headquarters for Teas!' Agent for tho Gnat Merchants' Union Tta Co. ofX.iY. YOUXG HYSON" TEA, atWc. per pound. Come and See Us. Ilring along your Butter, Eggs, Lard, &a, 1 '.It ' r , which we will pay you the Highest rrice ST. 33. KOOB, J x-. Farm fbi Snle- undersigned offers forsalotheTalnaMA larraanouuas id naney xann, suuaieii mile west of Mlllcrsburr. on the road leading to Nashville. Said farm contains 1( acres, well Improved, w ith good buildings, w ell aivrt-u, ami goou iimprr ami craj. enns easy, j or lunner particulars inquire John rhllllps Ave miles west of JIiUcftburg Oct. 18, lSTJ,-eui3 JAMES CLANCY.