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priai aa I ihen enfeebt d, to. I spread aiasnd tin onn tarsa exieads Th enlightene! watesme, -boiIi of England and of ihiscoeniry, who have advocated toe system of backs 4 mm, have never placed ibeni pon the grauad of being necessary to l ha purpose , supplying more abundant eircalartng medium. Oo tboeonttaryvthey rn torus a, ihM -"It ia ih opinio nf in cm writer on lb 0bjact, mat iDa moat perteci baa N-itealation would bt one which should be precisely equal in arnMint to what the circulation f ttiaaame eoumry .wooiu nc ro (Be recK)M metaia, weretto etner circuit V-Mjh permutrd."" ; : 1 awBank create debt, hot not capl'al. Actual capital it proflac only bjr ibe productive labor of ike oniry. ffAn Increase of bank paper Md bank loans, ia evidence ' i-f aa increase ol debt -in the country. Although bank aiWQ.4. the paper money avstern. they levy a. tribute .ooo th productive industry of tht country, and rait r Jrom tl larjte portion, ol tla proni. in isenown ny Mha fuel that although they add no actual -capital to the wealth .! .ihe country, yet they accumulate large -amounts of it from tbe products of labor. Toe amount pa id to basics, and the losses sustained by tbem ia their " oltmato result, tall upon lot proaucia 01 laoor 11 wiuld be useless m attempt to define tl the insidioo "an:l myjterlo expedient by which tbe machinery of ' . . . . . J .. . v nana ucDis ana paper money iaa piwiunirt ihuuwj, atjJ uturp ibe legitimate light of labor in the iTisiribn- iui ol tbe wealth of the country. The direct tendency i 1 ia system a heretofore conducted in this eountry, is i to lead u the opulence ot la few, and tbe pauperism of tn many.- ..-- i n tfosa idea can be formed of tbe oppressive and deso--laliag effect of the paper money aystem, front some au- theotie reports on the aubjeet ot the losses sostained by V, and which shnnld never be lost sight of in attempts to establish a new aystem of banking. It appears from ' a special report made by the present bank commissioner f. of this) State, lo the Legislature, atthe last session, that I since: the year 1831, nineteen banks in this Slate have ' been closed ap and iound insolvent, and the lost to tbe commanitr by the low price at which their paper was taken up, U estimated at ftt,405,985 91, and the loss by the depreciation of the stock ai $683,264 " 11 estimated in tbe same report, (hat the amount paid by the people of Obio for the price ol exchange in the bu siness of the eonntry above the proper rate, on account pi tbe depreciation of the paper currency, is 810,536, t83 05; making a total loss Within tbe last eleven years, t the peoole of Ohio, of over twelve millions and a halt 1 bit calculation dues not include the losses sus tained by Die people in the bank revulsion which spread desolation and ruin throughout the : State between the year 1814 and 1824. It appears from a report made to the Senate of the United Stares, by the Secretary of the . Treasury, that tbe number of bank which have become insolvent in ibis country, between the years 1789 and 1841 amount to 495, and the. aggregate amount nf the loss sustained by tbe gnveorment of the United Slates and tbe people is eomputed at (365,451,497. It also appear from tbe same authority, that the total amount paid by the community to the banks, for tbe use of them the ten years preceding 1811, in the United State, has been the enormous sum ol $38-2,000,000, which would average, annually, $28,200,000. Accurate statistical and financial journal ot tbe limes, furnish ua with tbe following computation of tbe loste resulting from the recent bank revulsion in tbi eonntry, to wit: On bank circulation and deposits, 54,000,000 Bank capital failed and depreciated, 248 O'i0,000 Company sloik, -, 80.000,000 State stock depreciated, 100,000.000 Aeai estate, . 300,000,000 Total loss, ; . . $78-2,000,000 .,. Startling a these fads may appear, wbeu grouped , together, they do not include any thing like all Hie injn y and uflering produced by I lie immense fluctiMtiom to the ttandard of value, And, h is correctly said t at . "tbe greatest injury j society resulting from this state -( thiag, is in the upheaving of tbe elements ol social - order, and tbe utter demoralization of aaea by the temp- taiiooa to specnlativM, which end ia swindling to ream tKir ttl vrtlln rthM. In 4ffmnrin ti Ilim I system ul banking, it becomes us lo profit by these bitter Jruits of experience, and provide against those evilaad , abuses which, have heretofore been inflicted upon tbe . Buffering people. .... A proposition, has been recently made in tbis Stale sjpoa the coniideratio of the Legjelausre at tbe last ' session, somewhat new i its character to the people of Ohio: - it proposes the establishment of a banking sys- fc asm based upon Government stocks, with the special power a ud exemptions of the old system wider the pro- , visions of a general law. The capital' of the banks is " supposed to I invested in State stocks as an? aliedgtd , security to the bill-holder, or, in other word, the hanks ' ' are to be loucded on the basis of Government debt, and . bank debts are to be made dependent on the debts ol the Government for their security. Of all tbe schemes for t banking which havabeeu dgvisrd this is the most b i actionable and the most dangerous in its tendencies lo i ana independence-and potity ot the Government, and the liberties ol the people. It rests fundamentally upon tbe " same principle upon-which was1 established the bank of Lngland, the capital ol which was originally, and has aoniinued invested fa the stock or deM of tbe (Jorern t'' inent. ' II pioposes a union of bank and Stat -the for , xnatiun of an incestuous and unholy ooaliiion between . an organized and combined jaoneved interest, and the dSivil pnwer upas, which people-depead for the safely of ..- ineir liberties, l ae-dentor la eurrectly sard to be the . slave of ihe creditor, so lb State under this system ' would become ihe-depeadent dt subservient iastramt-nt ' the banking interest. The establishment ofi tbis system v Would at once create-aod Solid up within tbe bosom ol uar own State a combined and extended moneyed pnwei "' Having a direct and leberent interest in perpetuating and I' enlarging the debvot tbe State- Tbe stock of the Stale would not only be- found to- be a profitable investment lor tne capital or the banns, ootaai investment wpoliti al power.. Tbe Govern Blent would Become a olo.ilc v. fortbtlraudsaad lollies ol the banks, The State riebt would grow with the grow tb and rrengtb of th banking rmrr. : ana n tne lapse oi lime, tbe insidious en. " aroichmenttof this power, holdine the enlfrr property ' of the State, subject to taxation, under a pledge from "the Slate to discharge the interest on the public debt, " 'would ultimately transform the Government, a it ha ''Vitne in England, into a mere engine In its own hand ft the collfction ofth profits of labor by the process ol , ., taution. Furthermore, the paper carreney in this State bean. found already, in a great measare dependent on the money market and Stats oi the oredii aytem in the k Atlantic cities, and in England. Bv the proposed sv- Win nf banking; this homfliatinr chain- ol dependence ff: wualdhe aozmemed, and the- value and basin, of our -, nsnnini capital would be dependent noon the nuetna Hons In ibe stoek market in-New York and in London, I ,The currency wiilcH form tne standard of valae In 'Ohio, wonld be made nkecl to the eontrol"o tbedtvi e and Ifrfrtteirmte-pniciiced io-lock jobbing-in Wall r ! atreei, xoric; and rnreadneedie street, London The tnvestment ol the capital oPtae banks in eovern snentMrurilics wvald be no ntlieltT against fraudhlent 'inking;' The atnckholder Jiy arrangements with the ' -'kfokera in New Yotk, eould purchase -stocks open credit apon which to establish iheir banks, andt then lend out t tbemsrlrca the . futids with which to pay lor ilie scks ' upon which th banki were founded. Thus, by indirej "rton. the hanfts can manuf.icture th means' of creating tbrlr own eirprral without drawing one lollaror actus 1: tupiial fma-rae-poclvM of the stockholders themselves, 1, j, The In tout me nt o$ ihe cunial in government secari , t is iv gtf under tke plausible gtib of secui(ly to the Hill-holder. Thi,' However,'! delnsivftCIhe pablc - m lin - nf the erclk ef the-1 tbe- government. . was t-'ipleil for the reJembtioa of tbe-Frencliasignate-A man ;,y; and yet these pApcKcurrencies, beoauae they could - H at all times, n redeemed on demHBd in specie tie pncfiie. and h-cme pest to ilia eonntry. The holes i''of the Rsnk'of England have-always been secured bifa -titMael the natural wealth, bv mearwof ibe-rnriiafof of. bank: beiog a psrtol the-puhlia eVbtrTrt lilis btt , ,npcr.d(-d specif payments, and conilniied fna atnieol . "suspension for twentV ihn-e yeariat 'one tlrht, and1 :i paper irirneiow twenty nee percenp aiscnnni ' Art ac. t eumulaiioa til aoverninem tecorieicsii or pledge of -real fonhe uliiinaie Teiiempiivn et bank, paperrrn ! n-vcr sesure it liom dcpwiniion, IVoibin-bui certainly , , ib Its biine'nal eoveTii;n loin speeie '' on Bomnn-I. by ' '-Itrirpingihecapiiftf always afperMetwnimindi end ut- v 4ag l imyt ahart loans, ii strictly commerciai pouter v.-eiii keep paper moneri.whJia founds and present In . depreciation-. '. . . ' ' " Th Mite deW lit a Joj of aep dl(cltndc"fU W- siniewiw h people or Oh, trbitia whlah. your at- fetinn mnttnt be, too earefutle directed, Tbe follow. tnj, at uearae fa nan be readily, as trtaiaed, In the tta- litioo of tbe State dobt, asii will stand ur the first ot januaty next. . f , ; --Y '-A i t J AnMtat 1st, i ar rl stock, redl In 16511, . 4OO,0M 00 . tttMHIu On l csat siora, ras in In 8oti, . 15,1,000 OOa f ? p rM slock. Id-W W 1.0, 4.041,658 78 "'141.61 9 5 S prcsni stock, ttd'lils In 18AB. S.4. S.779 U J04.766 7. preent weck.-sMW m-' t8i tS.l8l 00 '- 4t3 ' i ft cm stock, rtd'liki fn 1870, 867.063 00 40,013 t 7 ft rent stock. Vtil'U In 1 860( 1 .5UO.0U0 0J 105.000 II Torsi, 17.O50.BPS5O 1.031.J2USI Sinking fuud stock to bs dsduetrt.. U.000 00 4,90 .1 Total ef fsrsif vbt, 16,4.V6oi50 l,OK.240 - . Domestic Dtik '- Amount due tbe sev- eral school fund $1,424,849 C4 f86,830 14 Ouistaodmi domestic .bonds, 731.8C9 36 Surplus revnue paid 44,093 16 paid in by couiMiea, 69,623 66 ' 3,571 42 . 1,944 10 Same, loaned by Slate ofcouaii.s, 88,401 61 Domestic scrip of va rious kind, 29,432 01 1,765 92 Grand aggregate Stale 'debt I9,87,75i 78 inl. 1,167,444 69 The amount of the interest on Ike public debt, the present rear, is abont renal to one haH of the entire burden imposed npon the people oi the State by way of direct taxation. I aia public debt fiaa oeen contracted lor the sole purpose ot the coastructivn ol public works within the Stale. The total actual expenditure of the Stale in m public improvements; including Ihe Miami ExtentiuB Osnal, amounts lo S18,755,9C 00, which is less than th amount of the public debt. Tbis amonnt of tbe actual cost of the investments in public works, was, in part, paid by a direct -tax levied lor some years for that purpose; in part the grants of land by Coagress, ihe proceeds of which amount to $1,357,743 43 About $200,000 ol ihe bonds of the Slate have been redeemed by the proceeds of the land sales. And, besides all this, tbe premiums received on some o) the loans, and the do nations ol lots and subscriptions, ma be safely estimat ed at $500,000. It appeal, therefore, that the amount of the p .blk debt contracted on account of the public works, amount to betwetn two and three million more than the amount of the actual investment of the money borrowed in ibe public works. This amount, of between two and three millions, has been, in some manner Hot as yet fully explained, dissipated and sunk in ihe opera lion ol financiering :n tne creation ana management oi the Slate debt. . . At (be close of the year 1835, the Ohio anc Miami canala were complei ed, and the debt bf the Slate was then 4.500.000. The chief part of the State debt haa been contracted daring ibe late swell and reflux i tbe paper money system, commenting with 1836, and end ing in 1842. showing, what similar occdrrenrts in other countries and at other times, have never failed K exem plify, that government debt has been the Unfailing con comitant of the growth and expansion of the paper mo ney system. The honor and public faith of the State has, hitherto, been strictly preserved, and will, doubtless, ever continue lo be preserved, by a punctual compliance wi n an oui public eneaeements. Tha public virtrte of orlr people. and. their patriotic regard for their liberties and Ihe char acter of republican institutions is a sufficient guaranty that ihe integrity ot the State will be kept inviolate. The public debt, however, imposes onerous burdebs on the people, and creates a hamiliaiing dependence on foreign capitalists, degrading to the independence and character of freemen. More than a million of dollars is drawn from the substance of the people of the State annually, and sent off to d soharge the interest on the pablic debt, wnicn in lis tendency, retard onr prospe rity, aad keeps op the balanee of trade against as. And every fourteen or Bitten years, ine entire amonnt ot the ilebt will be paid in interest, wane ine bnrdensome prin ciple remains, and continues its perpetual drafts on tbe products ol labor, ine system oi government debt, when continued id conjunction with a paper money sys tern, becomes an engine ot immense political power, and the more dangerous because, from trie subtle deceit and complexity of its operations, it bnrlds ap a fa brie oi fac titious wealth, which eompells the productive labor ol the country to become its bumble and obedient subject, in a mannei not readily seen or understood. - it wan ex emplification oftkefaet, that man can be subdued and enslaved more effectually by the subtle operations of money, than by arms, f or centuries tbe feudal system in Europe controlled the distributes ol property, and en abled the tew (o live in idleness, luxury and auluency, and to keep the mass ot ihe people in poverty, ignorance and servility, smee the chains el leudar bondage have worn-otr, ihn ingenuity ol man? has devised Hie more refined and laeidieus maebtnery ot government stocks, paper money ana speaial privileges, by which a lew are enabled lo live on tbe profits oi the labor of the mass ul the people. The ratal consequences ot such a system' of-policy, to the liberties and financial interests of tbe country, leach us the necessity ef taking measures in due time, to ar restiti progress in this State. It is yet within the power of thepeople-of Oafctjo pay off theil public debt. ' The present time neeuHarry propitious for adopting a course of measures leading. io the accomplishment of this desirable object Hresommead, tnerelure, lo your special attention, the paramount hnportanee ot devising vigorous, decisive and efficient means for the ultimate and entire extinguishment of the debt of tie Sta e. Civil government has no higher or more sacred lanc- tton to perfmnvthan to protect every person in th lull enjoyment of hie own property, and the just reward of his own labor. 1 heomM right, in the lundamental law of this State, deeiare,.tfiat "private property ougM, and shall ever be held ioio late;" and that the right ol "acquiring possessing; and protecting, property, is a " n ,tural and inherent and unalienable right " An ajt firt avstem of policy which; by it sab l and and im- pereepNbleoperalloni, create inequalities in tbe mean for the acquisition ol property, takes from labor a por tion of bf rewards, and usurps its legitimate right in tbe distribution" of wealth v the machinery ofgovern- mem tlocks, and paper money, tbe latter of which has .been truly said to be "tha most effeatual mean of fer tilizing tne nebman' tield with the aweat or Ihe poor man' brovs," i a flagrant violation of the spirit of the constitution; and prostate in the dust that sacred right of property wttickplfesat the my foundation of all civil government. .. The affaire of theOhioPenriiteaiiary have been con ducted Willi nsual economy, fidelity and success. The number of convict ia 463, bei g one more than the number a year ago. Tbe products of convict labor for the year past amount to Sil. 191 36; and Ibe expencee amount to $23, 091 19; leaving ibe clear profits of Ihe institution-at $18 191 17. 'the Obio Lnnatie Asylum, the f)af and Dumb Asylum and Ibe Institution for tbe Education of the Blind are ea li ia a flourishing condition, and during the year past nave been managed with consumate skill and ability. These institution are highly creditable to the people of'OHio, & are manifestations of that enlight ened ipiril .of philanthropy which is a distinguished characteristic of the present age. The number of pa lient who have been inmites of the Lunatic Avlum. during the last year, ia- 261, vizr tlG- mate and 100 ilemalesj and ibe whole number discharged i 70. Oi these, 40 'were recovered, 5 improved, 18 remained it a stationary condition, and 6 died. The disbursements ol tbe State during tbe last year, in the support a!-ihe Lon atfe A-vluma mount to fl3, 463 W, and' ine expend! rnre on ihe new addition to the buildings to $11, 19014 The receipts ol in losiuniwn during the year amonm ;to 3,581 91. There are 95 pnpils in the Deal and D -mS Asylum. The disbursements of the Slat in be., hallofrhfs fnstlr'Mlnn, during the year past, amount lo the sum ot jf(3,i;:: 5H I here are 63 pupils in the In Miulkm for tin Educhtioo-pf the Blind. The dtsburse- ments el tbe- Sutis- in stipport of'thf Institution a-eont lo 9,'tftt' 86; MeckeBiesI pursuits heve be-n snc - nientiored Insiiiutioo. - The public bill dings fprtbe- feamm4daflow nfthe LegMatnre, and tbe r. veiaVpnbirroffiorm ot the Slate, are lu a dilapidated eoridltion;- In some respect Incon venient and uncomfortable,' and furnivH nnsuioble and rt'j ir.secuie departments for tbeart-hievesot the State. For feveial yars the Slate baa been ..paying rent tor ronn in.diff'freul.part oeci!y of Co'umhflVnr(h seie.Usrpineof a part-if lb pituf otain,.And e, eorK sibelrsnsLiWUl f a -('the.puWw -bUfi m i-rN en- mresiment- of nny-isiy or 'eenty, ihntwsnJ d.ilbr in ihe fiiineation and materials fur the cententplaNMi xW liale House Is lying wholly useless ,md unproductive. It is evident that the buildings now, in use cannot answer the purpose required by in Slate niaar years lubgvr. 1 therefore recommend id your la- -.'orable ronsideration ihe prorrie'tv ol lakiae measores n ilue time, for the transaction of the .business; of the. orernmenl and the safe-keeping of lbs important pub ic records and papers ol ihe state. TheConstiiu;ion of Ohio, for wise purpo e, ha re sed the chief iml most important functions ol ihe t-1- power ol the State i,,. the legislative brsn h ol th .ovetnment. The bigb "and solemn responsibilities vbich devolve upon you in the exercise 01 these pow is. in leaislatins tor the wlfole people, and Ihe great in- erests ofth Stole, will doubtless be lully appreciated, in conclusion, however, it may not be inuppropriale or me to remark that th benefits of legislation are aot obe measured bv ihe rreat number ot acts passed at a ssion, and thai it ia more difficult to restrain the pro pensity to dotoo much, than too Utile. Inconsiderate ind hasty legislation ha sometimes given rie to we I grounded apprehensions that the grand results of tie icts of an entire session of the Legislature would prove more detr mental than nebeBclal lo the interests or ine people Frequent deparrbre in legislation from true end and great purposes oi eivu gover meni nas given rise to ihe maxim, that "tbe wond is government loo touch." Deeply Impressed with the importance of confining Ibe (unctions W government ro ineir oniy inw ami legiti mate sDbre of action, lb franiers of Wllf ConstiitiHun, in the Mil Of rights, fbjbmed upon the people of this State, "Miai JreqlftSt recurente ro the lundamental pridpH Bf tiril government ! absolutely necessary to preserve Ihe bless hps ttf liberty." The great rrttia, to which we Have all swdrn an adherence, should be the polar Star In gaidihgthe deliberations of legislation, & the touchstone by which lo test the merits ol all mea sures lb Ihe policy of the government. With ah IniMs ible atiherehce en your part to lb only legitimate Objects nf civil government, in a manner calculated toprotccl the ripis bf nil, and insure ike greatest happiness totbe greatest htimber, and a firm reliance ou the benign pro tectiohrtl an Overruling Providence, the liberties othe people will doubtless be safe in your hands. THOMAS W. BAHTLEY. Cotriiattt;, bettwiu 1844.- On motion Mr. coomb. A measure was despatched to the Senate Informing Ihem that the House were waiting iq the hall to receive them, in order that the oath ol office might te adminis tered to the Governor elect. Whereupon, in lb presence of both branches oi tne legislature ihe oalh of ofhc was administered to him by Rueben Wood, one of the Judges of Ihe Suprhme Couri of the Staie ofObio, alter which he delivered Ms inaugoral address. . mm 1 I PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE, , fb iht titnaU ami Utuu ef j Repreitntatives, ef Ihe United glatih W hare rdfifinited cause for express ncour gratitude to :he Supreme Rtiler of ihe Universe for the benefit and bless ng v-bieh our country, under hi kind Provi dence, ha enjoyed dutfhf the past yenr. Notwiihstand ing the exciting scene mffrugn wnicnwtnave passed, noihing has occurred Mi disimb the general peace, or to derange the harmony of our politi al system. The great moral speciaele has been eXhil ited of a nation, upproiimaiHig is namoerio w.rav.w.soi yrvyx, n ing perlormed tbe high and important function pf elect ing their Chief Magistrate lor theteirn ol four years, without the commission of any acts pi violence, er the manifestation of a spirit of insubordination to the laws. The great aad inestimable right of suffrage,' lias been exercised by all who were invested with it, under the laws ot ihedifterenl Slates, in a spirit oictatea aione cy a desire, in Ihe aelerioa of the agent, to advance Ihe in terests of tbe country, and te place beyond jeopardy tbe institutions under which it is our happiness to live. That tbe deepest interest ha been manifested by all our cauntrymen fa iheresnll of the electior, is not fes true, than highly creditable to ihem. Vast multitudes have assembled, from lime to lime, at various place's, for the purpose ct canvassing the menis and pretensions oi loose who were presented for (heir suffrages; but no armed soldiery has teen necessary to- restrain, within proper limits, tha popular al, or lo prevent outbreaks. A principle much more controlling was found in ihe love of order and obedience to the raws, which, with mere individual exceptions, every where possesses ihe American mind, and controls with an influence far more powerful than hosts of armed men. We eannot dwell uuon this picture without recacnlsingin lt'ihat deepand devoted attachment on the patf ol the People, to tbe institutions under wh cn we live, wnicn proclaims tneir perpetuity. The great objection which has always pre vailed aga.insi the election, by ibe People;' of then-Chief Executive officer, has been the apprehension ot tumults, and disorders, which might involve in ruin the entire Government. A security against this, is found not only in ih faet before alluded to,' but in' the iddrttortsf 'tact that, we live bnder a confederacy embracing already twenty-six Slates; no one of Which has power to control ;the election. ' Tbe popular vote in each- Slate is taken at the time appointed by the la Ws, and such vote is an nounced by its Electoral College, Without reference to the decision of the other States. The right of suffrage, and the mode of conducting tbe flection, is regulated by the laws of each State-, and the election is distinctly fed erative in all its-Tirominent features. This it is that, unlike what might be the results under a consolidated svstem riotous Droceedines. should they prevail, could only atfeet the elections in single states, witnout nisiuro . r . 1 ... .' ,. . . ns. lo any daneerons extent, tne iranqniiny oi omers. The rrearexpermieBl of B political confederacy each member of which is snpreme as te all matters appe taining to Ks local Merest, and its internal peace and hnnn mess whi e hv n voluntary compact wim otners. it confides to the utiiied power of all, the protection oi i,s citizens, in matters not domestic-Has been- so far crowned wiiheomplete'success. The world haa wit nessed its rapid growth in weaitn and population;- ana under the etride and direction of a snperinteddine Pro vidence, the developments of Ihe past ma y be regarded but as the shadowing- rorin ot me migniy iuiure. u ihe brifiht prospects we shall find, as patriots and pMil anthropbists, tbe highest inducements to cultivate and cherish a love of union, and lo frown down every mea sure or effort which may be made to alienate the States, or the People of ibe Stales, in sentiment and feeling, Iron each other. A rigid and close aunerence to me terms of our political 'compact, and above all, a sacred observance of the guaranties of the' Constitution, will preserve union on a foundation which cannot be shaken; while personal liberty i placed beyond Hazard or jeop- The snaraniee of religious freedom, of Ihe freedom of the press, ot Ihe liberty of speech, of Ihe trial by jury, of the habeas corpus, and el ihe'domesiic institutions of the States leaving tne private citizen m me uuirxercise oi ihe high and ennobling- attributes oi. bis nature, and to each Slate the privilege, which can only be judiciously exerted by itsell, of consulting tbe means best calculated to advance its own happiness; these are ibe great and imrnmnt enaronlpM af tha Constitutii-n. which the overs of liberty must cherish, and the advocates of union must ever euiktvate, preserving isese,- and aveidlng-all ialerpolaticinby foroed construction, under tht euissofsn imagined exnedienev. unon the.Contii, lotion, the infiuecceol our politics I aystem is destined to be as actively, andi a- beneficially. felt on 'the distant shore oi the Pacific; a it is now on those of the Atlantic Ocean.. TDe only formidable ,impedirnnt in tbe way of it successful expansion (time and space) are so far -in ibe progress of modification, by the imp-overrents oi .ihe age, aa to render no longer speculative the ability oi Represents tiws .bom that remote reeion to oeme no to ,lbe Capitol, so that their constituents shall-participate .in all thebenefiU wf Federal leeisintioaV Thus iti. rihat, in the progress of time-, Ike inrstimnbie principle ol eivu liberty . wilt be eniovtd by mn ran yei unborn. nnd the great, benefits of our system of Governmenl be extended to now; distant and uninhabi el regions. , In viewoi tb vast wilderness yet, to be reclaimed, we may well invite the Jover oflreedom, of every land, to take 1 up his abode amonz na, and assist us in tbe great work jf advancing the si sod a rd of civilization, and giving a wider spread to Ihe arts and lefinrment of cultivated life. Onr prayers should evermore be offered up1 to the Father f ike Universe, for his wisdom to direct ur in the path of our duty, so as to enable us toveonsnnj m.i te, these l.ifji prpoes. ' . . '-,- j , , Uue of ihe sti-oogest oPjrctions wnicn na been nrgeu k.isalnst -MnfederaotM. bv titers on .uorernmeni,! is, lite liability el the member io be tampered with by "orr iri..Oovernvienia, M the People f o'gip vt'ifjit?. eilber in;abcir,lmial,'aflafr,s,;r io ncR.a,a .tretlf4 ihf peace of otber.:or eaadpngemdjki raTc'ty,. of tle.whoJe jf on nek atlempis en our peace and aVy. The Uniied i;on eueracv. we cannot nope to oe euniajy nemoi States aie brconiingioo impurtant in population and ie nouftes not 10 attract Ike observation of other catkins It Iherefore, may, in Ihe progress ol lime, occur that: opinions entirety absinct in the Sifcie in which Ihey may pierail, and In no degree affecting ibeir domestic institutions, may he artfully, bu! se ret ly, encotfi aged with a view to unleimine the Union. Buch opinions naf become ihe foundation ol politieal parties-nniil ar not, the conflict of opinion produting an alienation of iendly leeling amorg IbePeople ol ihe different Slates, nay Involve in one general desn-Bciion the happy Insti jiiions uoder which we live, it should ever be borne In mind, that what is true in regard lo individuals, is equally so jn regard to Slates An interference ot one, ,n the affairs of another, is the fruiifnl source of family dissension and neighbbibood disputes; and the same cauf affects the peace, happiness and prosperity ol States. 1 1 By be most devoutly hoped inat In1 good sente of the American People will ever be ready to repel such attempts, should Ihey ever be made. - There has been no material change in our foreign re lations since my last Annual Message to Coagress. With all ihe Powers bf Europe we continue on the most Irieudly terms. Indeed, it 6 Words me much satisfaction, to state, that at no former period ba the peace of that enlightened abd Inporiani quarter ofthe globe ever been apparently, more firmly established. Tbe conviction thai peace is the true policy bf nations, would seem to be growing and becoming deeper an ongst ibe enlighten ed every where; and there Is no people who have a stronger interest in cherishing the sentiments, and adopt ing ibe mean of preserving and giving ll permanence, lhanihose of ihe United Slates. Amengsi ibese the first and most effective are, ho doubl, the strict observance of justice, and the honest and punctual fulfilment of all engngemebta. But it is not to be forgotten that; in the pre few state of (he world, it is oo less necessary to be ready to enforce their observance and fulfilment, in re feremce to ourselves, than to observe and fulfil ihem. on our part, ih regard to otbei a.. - .v - . ' Since ihe close ol your last session, negotiation has been formally entered upon between ibe Secretary ol State abd her Britanic Majesty's Minister Plenipoten tiary and Envoy Extraordinary residing at Washington ' relative to the rights oi their respective nation in and over the Oregon territory, Tlal negotiation is still pending. . Should It, duiing your session, be brought to a definitive conclusion. Ibe result will be orouipilv communicated lo Congress. : I would, however, again call your attention to the recommendations contained in ptevious messages; designed to protect and facilitate emigration to that - Territory. Tbe establishment ol military posts at suitable point npon the extended line oi land travel, would enable our Citizens lo migrate in comparative safety to the fertile regions below tbe tails ol ibe Columbia, t-na manethe provision ef the existing convention for the joint occupation ol the Territory by subjects ol Great Britain, and the citizens of the United States, more available than heretofore to the latter. These posts Woold constitute places of res for ihe emi- irrint, where he would be sh'liered securely against the danger of attack from Ihe Indians, and be enabled to recover trom ibe exaustion ot a long line of travel. Legislative enactments should also be made which should spread over him the cegis of our laws, ao as to afford protection to nis person ana property when Ac shall nave reached his distant home. .In this latter respect, the British Government has been much more careful of Ihe interests ol such of her people aa are lo be found in thai country, ihpn the United fetales,, hht has made neces- seary provision for their security and protection against in acts ol (be viciunsty disposed and lawless; ana aer cirtnrnr,( reposes in tateiy under the panoply ol her laws., VV hatever may be tne result oi (be pending negociatioii sircli measures are necessary, , -il will, adord me the greatest pleasure t witness a happy and favorable ter mination to ihe existing negociaiion, upon terms com patible with the public honor; 'and the list efforts ofthe Government will continue lo he directed to tbis end. It would have given me the highest gratification, in thistmy last annual communication, to Congress, to have been able to announce to yon the complete and en tire settlement and adjustment ot other mallei in diff erence between tbe United Stales and the Government of Her Britannic Majesty, which were advarted to in a previous message. ... it is so .obviously the interest ol both countries, in respect to the large and valuable com merce which existed between them, that all causes ot complaint, hnwevor inconsiderable, should be with Ihe greatest promptitude, removed, 'hat it roust be regar ded as cause of repret, thai any unnecessary ; delay uuuiu oo perniiurii iu wicrvmc. ai io iruc met,- jo a pecuniary point of view, the matter alluded to, are, altogether, insigniocant in amount, when- compared with the ample resources or that great nation but they, nevertheless, mere particularly that limited class which arise under seizure and detentions o! -American shipa on tbe coast of Africa, Upon the mistaken supposition indulged in a tine urns -me wrong: was commuted, ot their being engaged in ihe salave-trade, deeply affect the sensibilities of Ibis government and People. Great Britain having r ecogmzed iter, responsibility to repair , , i li ... . i , an sucn wrongs, vj acTasiiyn in uincr cases, leaves nothing to be regretted upon. ibe subject, as to all cases prior tome ireaty oi w hashtngion, than the delay in malting snuaoie reparation m tucn ot them aa fall, plainly within the principle of others, which she has lenglcHe adjusted. The njury inflicted by delay in the settlemeni ol Ihese claims,, tails with severity upon the individual claimants, ana mattes a strong appeal to her magnanimity and sense of justice for a speedy set tlement. Other matters, arising out of Ihe construction of existing treaties, also remain unadjusted, and. will con'inue to be urged npon net attention. , - Tbe labors ot the lomt commission appointed bribe two Governments to run the dividing line, established by the Treaty ot wasnington, Were,; unfortunately, much delayed in the sommecemertl of the, season, by the failure of .Congress, at its fast, session, to make' a timel y appropriation of funds to met itieexpenses ofthe American party, and by otntr eatrse. i lie-united States Commissioner, however expresseshis expecta tion rhat, by increased diligence and energy, ine part) will be able to make no tor tost ume. , We continue toreceiveassurancesof the rnosi friend- lofeelingson ihepartof aHihe other Etiropen powers with each, and all of Whom, it is so' obviously otrr in terest to cultivate . tha most amicable refntior. Nor caul anticipate ibe occurrence ot any' event which would be likely, in any aegren, to oisiqid mose rela tions. , Russia, ibe arear northern power, under the iu pidiotts sway of her Emptfor, Is constantly advancing In the road of science add improvement; while France, cuidedb the council of ner wise sovereign, pursues a course calculated fo consolidate the general peace. Spain has ebtaided a breathing spell Of someMUratmn from, tbe interna) cenvtilsions wdich. eave, through so many years, marred aer prosperuy- white A nana, me Netherlands. Prussia.' Belgium, and the other power boi Europe, reap, a. net) harvest of blessings from the J.lnforjuAd tl,a two House of Congress in niv messane orno- ceiulor last, Hint instructioiM had been lvn lo Mr. WtiMimv onr Minister nt Uerlin, to negotiate treaty with tlio Oermsal rliilei eomioiin the Zoll Verein, It'll could be (tons -stlpula-ting, as far It sj pra'cttcabi to acconipllsli H.'fo twlae- Man ofthe heavy duties tsvted na our tleeo, na otinr lead. ln arrlcles or xrleullurtl lroiluell a4ylldliigtnrttirii, on our Bart rolaellon of dutt on stKh wtloh. Hi prodac ilon oft Intr Mimry, ooobouli not oonto-iiit eompotittooior but a lliniloil ooo villi oniolos tiio-proauclDf our.ai.inufacturlnf tdnlrr.V Th Exoeotir. in. t It In such Instruction, con Mtlrfod inlf oi llni la strict eonfotntlty with the wlihraor -t;oiiien4 atitd known throuita. several measures which II Uioil adopti'4; all directed to Ih aecomptitliuient of this Ini- 'porisnt cesun.. ,. 1 n tren'y w, tnerciora, neeotitten; oy vviiirn rwcnuai rcaucitnnr, were tccurea in iimoiuiciiiDTmi nj lie Zoll Tf rein, o totiarcs rlre and utnl. actontpsnlod liy Jiipuloilun tor tli'aitnilnlonorraw eetton, es of daiy. In "n-lnnfe for which htlily iinrnrtanironosfiloa. a rilMCton or (lu I let hnpoMd by th law ofrtie Daila ollio rnfl it o( trtleleo, 'snosl -of wlilclt admniod ftte o( all doty wnrior lb tot of Coasren, eommoiily known na. lh Com nromt law, and dot few of wliklt ,lf nfodmadjto tka Unlied Statom was tttiHilaMd for o onr tmrt.. ' , ' - t " , This treaty was commiMiicated to the Seoate at an early day of its last session, but not actec upoti until neai I a close; when, fortb wnt, as. am bound to presuma, of full lime looensiaer it. it was laid pon tbe lahle,.- Ibis nroaedatend ihe effeel o virtunflv re- jeciiag.it, hi cpnscauenae of a stipulation eontaineol ih ihe treaty that its raUaiiM should be exebaitaed on or belore a day which haa already past,Th ExfciiUve, tend its absolute reieclwa. aave instructions tn bur. miniMrr at ueriin uvrc-ogep 4m; nrgociauon, iar as Iwahiain.aiteweniioD.ofUuie for U c9nif naiifi rfKu.4i.rewru.MtyeTi t say pat ptrrrtj 4n kthia-iesptctAbav bee-tiauccirssuL I m.everthe ieiv 0i " U4.W,liaUhej;reat advarttage yich were intended to be aeenrra by tbe treaty, may ret be t ini happy t liif'm jon t!ai IfiuiiritM f in-' arrs'e riysle " (shim! in July iTit,jijru'illed l tfog f ih. Vi.ilfd State I W fO'v,".a.or.i ihe'di-rrt , irai'fa boiwvnn ihn lw ai'UtrWa. . Vi"TV- I1'1' ,. . metsnra ill p'v itf tfXw ,f,tr :t..Mf b1i(fiff K 2- oietrt; -ibe Irsrte kottSBg. -b-? u.fotern ..cytttal ii . hiifly in forigr. b..ineiib. I fltir.mvf ll sli.e will, " -poedily reoort wHd-Wrst-yJe!i',".''' io ihe fob'a':-ra4ej:''whleb.ulJ,4iliry. .b.en.:;"' efi: ilia sg ii oltura ofllio nil $b)la.t..i.iipral' to ih mitlusl donief -HHh:Meolriek;tv:r f -. No dfiniO'' nitlli)fne baH)oa reta.ljrsflftnpj nor, Mir.ianr. of the ootiiMUh rTrrtiy witj' tfie yh'l . ne Einpir", but enough i ikntwn tn indue jrif 'rn. t hiipes that,' th inision wil bontowned wi'h itie ' w.i f"..? ''A V,-. yVith Brstiltiur r'lalions e'-nlldnBtftlimnst friend- " , ly fuoling. The enninserritl whVnrtitire -iiiel that ' " growing Empii and Ilia United States;' brromhig daily',"? uf greater important to. both,, and it it (he nlerat nf both thai, iho flriel ralititin nf amiiy and good! will," w shonld r-i.ntinue to b rultivsud btiwoert thm." ' , , Tli ' Bniblie of Mew Grened ttdl withhold, u'j withstanding Ih most perserving efi"irt lisva been tin- plo)d by our Cltarg d'Affures, Wr, Olackfora to n due a different result-'-'nrieflnhily in ilia ease of ill brig Mirii And th Oongre ul vniitu'a,aiiaougit ., an arrangemant ba hsen O'enisd batwa.an Our linittr -. and the mitiUtar tf foreign affair of lhat aovernmenl, fur the payment of fJlO.OOO in dichrgorit liahiliii in ilia am eai baa aituihr neglocted to make pro vision lor it payment. It i In b bopad lhat a ton or " justice will toon indue a tettlemtnt nf tbate claim. ' Uur lata aitiiister hibliui, air. renmston, ni i um sd lo Iho United Slilo without having eflicld aa ad- Ktmtnt in Hi aaeond ciairii of ill MacsdpntNn, wlnrn ftulaviii An eroOndi a'loaathar frisolous and union' - iile, Mr, PendUiou's uochso hut keo iirectcd 16 urge' n claim in tnu sb-onaost iormr sua, in uie evani oi a .; kiliir ! ub'ain prmRaiit tdjulmont,lo roporl Ihe tact"' o lbs Exacuiive at as early a day a tioitilila, ilut- the whole mattor may be sonoiiifticated to Congro. , At your last smion. I aubrniiiad, to th aitcnlioW of. Congrots, tli CouvsntiiMi with tha Ropiihtio of ftro of lie 17th M'.fcli. lt)4Iv providing for arijtislmsutof III him of eiiiaons nf ll.a Uniitd atats giiit thai Rom ' (inhlio but . no dt(nilii atliun waa. taken- apnn Ih tthjeet. 1 again invit your tlafttiun and prompt ae oil. ' ... In mv Inat Annual Misge,-.I. fell it to be my dn'y l make known to Congrats,' in letmt b'tlli plain and am phslicv niy opinion at to Iha -war which ba so' long' Kiiited bsiwe-ltxicn,sud f (las. which inc ilia battle f Hsu Jitcinlo, ' ha coiuuted allngsiher of preda tory incursion, attended by eircumatance revolting to humanity I tepoal now. what I thin said, thai, (Iter , ighl year ol lvb ineflucltiai ollortt lo recover iti s. it mi lime lhat the war thoiild , have cad. '1 he Uniitd 8tate had a diri;li eratt in lb question. Tha contiguity ofth nstion io our teirtte'f, w but toe well calculated 10 ihVolv our po. Unjiitl luapici. tin were engendered in ihe m nd nf one .6'r ihe oilier ef the belUgerenl tgamtt us; and a neMiy cunis quence, American inlareti -ware.msde to lunar, and our pe became duly ei,angrtd. lu addition lo which, it mutt hv been ofcvlnui to all lhat the Hhtu. , lion produced by Ih war, (ubjacted both Mexico and TfXs lo the inlrfsrnce el other tj which" wtihoul tlia inter potitii-w of Iheir Government, might eventual in' tha iriosl strious injury ro Ihe United Siaia.' 'Hi it Government,- from liine to lime, tterled ht friendly rfficea1 In bring 6out lormimtian of hotliliuts upon UrrJls hoaor'sble alike fu both th balligerentl i tJefTort in this behalf proved unavailing' Mexico nid, ilrh'ati without an object, to persevere in in war ai,d no oilier alternative wr left the Esocutrv Bui lo lake'idvan-' lag of the Wall known deposition" of TeXit, and fo invite her lo ntr iart-t a treaty for annexing her t'tfiri- lorv In thai ofthe United Stats. ---, v., .. Siaea your last aion, Wetlco ha threatened lo re w ih war. and ha either made or proposes W make. formidatil preparations for invading Toxa. She ha issued br deer'! or procltaiotionr, preptraldry - to the eommsiictmofil of hostilitit, full of thraslt revelling lo hnmanihys and which if otrri'ed into offset, Would? arouse tbe aHention of all ChrittMidofn. This new do- monatration' of feeling, that it loo mtioli reatflri to b li ha been produced in contequenee or the ngo cis ion or m lal iretry ot annexsuon wim a exa. Th Executive, therefore, cWd' not ba itidiffsrent, lo' ich nrocaedinxsi and H fait K to bo due, a well lo iiir tn tha knnnr nf lha nnilntrv. Ihtt Stronr ropr sen ation should be made to the Mexican tiovernancnt' uonn tha ubietil. Tbi wa accordingly tn at will be seen by Ihe copy of ih aeompanying daipatchirronV th Secretary of kitata In tha United Ht.t enyoy l ntexico.' Kiaitoo ns no r inito tuunirv on um-n of th world' by arging anv longer a nkoles and fruil' et content. Such a condition ot things would noi uUiatid upon the European cent nent. Why should it be on this' A war of desolation, men aa it now threa tened by Maxioo cannot now be waged without involv. ine our neacd and Iranduililv. ft it idle to believ lhat such a war could be looked on with idifference by our own citizens, inhabiting adjoining 8tates, and our neu trality would b violaled, in despite or all ttorl on th mri ul tka nnVnrnmilnl to nrevant it. ' 'Tha country i settled wiih emigrant from l)5e United Stat, tindar invitstion held out them by Spain nd Maiibo. Thot amifratitt lv loft .bihintf ihem friend's ind relative who would not fail I svrripathit with , tbem in their difliaultie. ind who Would be lid by those tympatbin to parlicipat in their truglet, however energelio the ac-.Kin oi tne tioyernmeni to oroveni n. nor. wnum ill nuMnrnu and furmidafllo band ef Indian, the moil' rlilto lo be found in any land, which occupy th extensive region contixunut .to the State ofArkan a and as'istouri, arid who in potteiiion of large' trade of country within the ltwMitat of Texas, be likely to' remain pasaivs. The inoltnttion ol thote numerous irihtt lead -tbem invariably la Wat wbevr pretaxt exist. . Mexico hid no iiiet gtnund of displkitur agkiritt thi1 Governmsnl'or People.for negocinting ih treaty VVnit interest oi nerrwi tnoctod oy ineireiiyr one wao poiled of ribtniltr, tine Texas war forever Inst to hr. The independene of Ten wr retogniied by lavaral ofth leaoing power of trier earth. Sh wa free lo treat frrrtb adopt bar wr line of policy free to lak th eoarM which she believed wa best calculated lo to- cttr her hsppmeas. '. Her Govammenl nd People da eidod on annotation lo ih United Slates; and lit Ex eeoliva- W in Iho actpiiiition of vwh a territory, th- eiean or advsneinf -ihorr brmanni nappinsss and cto rv What orinciBl or good Taitl then wa TiolatadT' what m'o ol pnlnical morale trampled under-foolt" So Iar a Mox'u-o herself was ooncornd, tbe-maa-jre should have been regarded by her a hirhlir ben0aial, liar inability lo reennquer Texsd has bVn exhibit', I ra p by iglit now 9; osrt op' ft whirs ruinouoa lent- In tile nwsnlime, rsxos-trat-liooo grnwint in pop- iilatlnn and remiret. Emigration has flowed into hanr territory ftotn all ptrty of th world; iaj aMirrantiwbiclti eofilinuit to irt"rease ut strength-..- ; -r " MexiAn reoJure-' narmanenrnowndary vetwsn lhat. voiine reauhhe and' ItorsaJf. TeXas. at ho ditttni dsy.' If th cnnlinuos separstt and detau-hod from th Unitctts, nratft, will ineViiniilr teok to eonolidile Iter stropgih) bv adding to bar domsia lb aontigmru provinoat ot Wexino. The ipi'it or ravnll irom in nrniitnl-oi lha, Central finarnment ha,'lir(i1ofiw mV'iftrt sttalf ll. lime osmose prnvine ana n n mr.io iniov tnni tney. Would Irn'melinnd tn isKa Hie b'tt 1wraoi.oppnilunil. to prntilsim their inoVpsn-tome; and to form elnse Wa I Is aneet H'ilb 1Va., The, war would llms ba Siid'oM; or if seiua.tion of biiiuni'vr rrould'oeciw rtrey Would -only endure for a ieann. Thi inlsr.net . of MesK-i Ihertfnre, nnuhl in n-itmng.ha heller rnosnll than In peae with., hiw 'hAighVira, which would result In tha aaablithtannt-. of a pnrmmeM onuoJary."' Vpfilt lb raiifVsaitan nt iha. trce'v iba taewie wa prfpar io irttt wfih- bar on iKa.'nv'St liberal tiaiM' ' llne Ik th honuds'ia of' Tt wm. I ft iindafihtnV by tbe titty. Ttta Csscutiva (iropnsed to. alle- lhns nna trm lhat til Ihn world h-.uld Sv iwAnnoitred Nat Snr rout. fisliU. Jta JMCMwatiari upon ihet point enwrl htv bee andnr. .'skan hoiwMo.fri unilst Blataa nd' Mr.. In a inof the rsiifictii -a Of III trely. .VVelmnlrl hsv' h4 a rh;V-.nn power po Ulirity, tn lis eon'liiet. ' prJ a negoflistior;, snd lo hay nnifnrlakan il would, .kava-h.! ap Mnmpt)on a'nSIW .twtoltikjtjM th pnrfa, of.Maair and Tea,' ubjeilng,tta Iff lha ehart, f rrnjaii. .wJiiln in bay o'opoiol in arlvsne nf an. netstiua-. Ig'lsfv JxicoiK any rnatingnl int.re,' tlien'gt kv.UvTVW.iilil bv tyeni tn Itsvo iras ltd kv. w4 -niin leji'MiHsnl pntya bill t "r ila. adeya4JinThiati!pinl,fin rnuld nnt Uv; Hen a.-iad m tv Ih EteeiMiyej. V tlhanl Mint d. fi nr.j.'iO. owa tolnmii ilftiuo that 1(104 R)pv'lta. '