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Jv Tiff' J"W?" ffK -- wsfc&T s I! f ft? U THE MESSAGE. Tirst Message of President Har rison to Congress. -His Views on Tariff Revision, Pensions, the Circulation, Silver Coinage, Steam- shlo Subsidies and Other Question. Washington, Dec. 4. The President's mes--Sage was received In both houses of Congress yesterday at noon and is principally as fol lows: To the Senate and House of Repreentatite$: Few transactions in the administration of government are even temporarily held In the confidence of those charged with the conduct of public business. Every step taken is under the observation of an intelli gent and watchful people. The state of the Un jn is known from day to day and sugges tions as to needed legislation find an earlier "voice than that which speaks in these an nual communications of the President to Congress. Goodwill and cordiality have character ized our relations and correspondence with other Governments, and the year closed leaves few international questions of impor tance unadjusted. No obstacle Is believed to exist that can long postpone the consider ation and adjustment of still pending ques tions upon satisfactory and honorable terms. The dealings of this Government with other States have been marked by frankness and sincerity, our purposes avowed and our methods free from intrigue. This course has borne rich fruit in the past, and it is our duty as a Nation to preserve the heritage of good repute which a century of right dealing with foreign Governments has secured to us. It is a matter of significance and no less of congratulations that the first year of the second century of our constitutional exist ence finds as honored guests within our bor ders the representatives of all the independ ent States of North and South America met together in earnest conference touching the best methods of perpetuating and expand ing the relations of mutual interest and friendliness existing among them. That the opportunity thus afforded for pro moting closer International relations and the Increased prosperity of the States repre sented will be used for the mutual good of nil I can-not permit myself to doubt. Our people will await with Interest and con fidence the results to flow from so auspicious A meeting of allied and in large part identical Interests. Recommendations of this International -conference of enlightened statesmen will have the attention of Congress and its co operation in the removal of unnecessary bar riers between the Nations of America. But -while the commercial results which It Is hoped will follow this conference are worthy -of praise and the great Interest they have excited, it is believed the crowning benefit will be found in the better securities which may be devised for the maintenance of peace among all American Nations and settlement of all contentions by methods Christian civilization can approve. While viewing with interest our National resources and products, the delegates, I am sure, will find a higher satisfaction in the evidences of un selfish friendship which everywhere attends the intercourse with our people. An international marine conference, hav ing great possibilities for good, has lately assembled and is now In session in this cap ital. An invitation was extended by the Gov ernment, under the act of Congress of July -9, 1S8S, to all maritime nations to send delegates to confer touching the revision and amendment of the rules and regulations governing vessels and to adopt a uniform system of marine signals. The response to this invitation has been very general and very cordial. Dele gates from twenty-six Nations are present in the conference and they have entered upon their useful work with great zeal and with an evident appreciation of its importance. So far as the agreement to be reached may require legis lation to give it effect the co-operation of Con gress is confidently relied upon. It is an in teresting and unprecedented fact that the two international conferences have brought here the accredited representatives of thirty three Nations. Bolivia, Ecuador -and Hon duras are now represented by resident en voys of the plenipotentiary grade. All the States of the American system now maintain diplomatic relations at this capital. In this connection it may be noted that all the Nations of the Western Hemisphere, with one exception, send to Washington Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipoten tiary, being the highest grade accredited to this Government. The United States, on the contrary, send envoys of the lower grade to some of our sister republics. Our represent ative in Paraguay and Uruguay is a Minister Resident, while to Bolivia we send aMinlstcr Resident and Consul-General. In view of the importance of our relations with the States of the American system our diplomatic agents in those countries should be of the uniform rank of Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. Certain missions were so elevated by the last Congress with happy effect, and I recommend the completion of the reform thus begun, with the inclusion also of Hawaii and Haytl, in view of their relations to the American system of States. I also recommend that timely provision be made for extending to Hawaii an invitation to be represented in the International conference now sitting at this capital. RELATIONS WITH CniNA. Our relations with China have .the atten tlntivc consideration which their magnitude and interest demand. The failure of the treaty negotiated under my predecessor for the further and more complete restriction of Chinese labor, immigration and with it the legislation of the last session of Congress dependent thereon leaves some questions open which Congress should now approach in that wise and just spirit which should characterize the relations of two great and friendly powers, while oursuprcme interests demand the exclusion of a laboring element which experience has shown to be incom patible with our social life. AH steps to compass this imperativo need should he accompanied with a recognition of the claim of those strangers now lawfully among us to humane and just treatment. The acces sion of the young Emperor of China marks, wc may hope, an era of progress and pros perity "for the great country over which he is called to rule. SAMOAN AFFAIRS. The present state of affairs in respect to the Samoan Islands is encouraging. The conference which was held in this city in the summer of 1SSS between the representatives of the United States, Germany and Great Britain had been ad journed because of the persistent divergence of views which was developed in its delib erations. The subsequent course of events In the islands gave rise to questions of a seri ous character. On the 4th oi February last the German Minister at this capital in behalf of his Government proposed a resumption of the conference at Berlin. This proposi tion was accepted, as Congress in February last was Informed. Pursuant to the under standing thus reached commissioners were appointed by mc, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, who proceeded to Ber lin and the conference was resumed. The deliberations extended through several weeks and resulted in the conclusion of a treaty which will be submitted to the Senate for its approval. BRITISH AFFAIRS. The questions which have arisen during the past few years between Great Britain and the United States are in abeyance or in course of adjustment. On the part of the Government of the Do minion of Canada an effort has been ap parent during the season just ended to ad minister the laws and regulations applicable to the fisheries with as little occasion for friction as was possible, and the temperate repressions of this Government in re spect of cases of undue hardship or of harsh representation; hare In most cases bees met with measures of transitory relief. It Is trusted that the attainment of our Just rights under existing. treaties and by virtue of the concurrent legislation of the two contiguous countries will not be long delayed and that all existing cause of differences may be equitably adjusted. I recommend that provision be made by an International agreement'for visibly mark ing the water boundary between the United States and Canada In the narrow channels that join the great lakes. The conventional line therein traced by the Northwestern surveyyearsagoisnot In all cases readily ascertainable for the settlement of juris dictional questions. A just and acceptable enlargement of the list of offenses for which extradition may be claimed and granted is most desirable be tween this country and Great Britain. The territory of neither should become a secure harbor for the evil doers of the other throuzh anv available shortcoming in this regard. A new treaty on this subject be tween the two Powers has been recently ne gotiated and will soon be laid before the Senate. OTHER FOREIGN QUESTIONS. The Importance of the commerce of Cuba and Porto Rico with the United States, their nearest and principal market, justifies the expectation that the existing relations may be beneficially expanded. The impediments resulting from varying dues on navigation and from the vexatious treatment of our ves sels on merely technical grounds of com plaints In West India ports, should be re moved. The progress toward an adjustment of pending claims between the United States and Spain is not so rapid as could be desired. Questions affecting American Interests In connection with railways constructed and operated by our citizens in Peru have claimed the attention of this Government. It is urged that other Governments in pressing Peru to the payment of their claims have disre garded the property rights of American citi zens. The matter will be carefully investi gated with a view to securing a proper and equitable adjustment. A similar Issue 13 now pending with Portugal. The Delagoa Bay railway in Africa was constructed under a concession by Portugal to an American citizen. When nearly completed the road was seized by the agents of the Portuguese Government. For mal protest has been made through our Minister at Lisbon against this act and no proper effort will be spared to secure proper relief. v In pursuance of the charter granted by Congress and under the terms of its contract with the Government of Nicaragua tho Inter-Oceanic Canal Company has begun the construction of the important water way be tween the two oceans. Grave complications for a time seemed im minent in view of a supposed conflict of ju risdiction Between Nicaragua and Costa Rica in regard to the accessory privilege to be conceded by the latter Republic toward the construction of works on the San Juan river, of which the right bank is Costa Rica terri tory. I am happy to learn that a friendly arrangement has been effected between the two Nations. The traditional good feeling between this country and the French Republic has re ceived additional testimony in the participa tion of our Government and people in the International Exposition held at Paris dur ing the past summer. The success of our exhibitors has been gratifying. The reports of the Commission will be laid before Con gress in due season. This Government has accepted, under proper reserve as to its policy in foreign territories, the invitation of the Government of Belgium to take part in an international congress which opens at Brussels on the 16th of November for the purpose of devising measures to promote the abolition of the slave trade of Africa, to prevent the shipment of slaves by sea. Our in terest in the extinction of this crime against humanity in the region where it yet survives has been increased by the results of emancipation within our own borders. With Germany the most cordial relations exist. The questions arising from the return to the Empire of Germans naturalized in this country are considered and disposed of in a temperate spirit to the entire satisfaction of both Governments. It Is a sonrce of great satisfaction that the Internal disturbances of the Republic of Hayti are at last happily ended and that an apparently stable Government has been con stituted. It has been duly recognized by the United States. A mixed commission is now in session in this capital for settlement of long-standing claims against the Republic of Venezuela, and it is hoped that a satisfactory conclusion will be speedily reached. Questions continue to arise at our relations with several countries in respect to the rights of naturalized citizens. Especially Is this tho case with France, Italy, Russia and Turkey and to a less extent with Switzer land. From time to time earnest efforts have been made to regulate this subject by con ventions. An improper use of naturalization should not be permitted, but it is important that those who have been duly naturalized should everywhere be accorded recognition of the rights pertaining to citizenship of the country of their adoption. The appropria tions of special conventions for that purpose Is recognized in treaties which this Govern ment has concluded with a number of Euro pean States, and It is advisable that the diffi culties which now arise in our relations with pther countries on the same subject should be similarly adjusted. The recent revolution in Brazil in favor of the establishment of a republican form of government is an event of great interest to the United States. Our Minister at Rio Janeiro was at once instructed to maintain friendly diplomatic relations with the Pro visional Government and the Brazilian representatives at the capital were instruct ed by the Provisional Government to con tinue their functions. Our friendly inter course with Brazil has therefore suffered no interruption. Our Minister has been further instructed to extend on the part of this Government a formal and cordial recogni tion of the new republic so soon as the majority of the people of Brazil shall have signified their assent to its establishment and maintenance. Home Matters. Within ourTown borders a general condi tion of prosperity prevails. The harvests of theJast summer were exceptionally abun dant and the trade conditions now prevail ing seem to promise a successful season to the merchant and the manufacturer and gen eral employment to our working people. THE TREASURY-. The report of the Secretary of the Treasury for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1SS9, has been prepared and will be presented to Con gress with the fiscal operations of the Gov ernment, and I avail myself of it to obtain some facts for use here. The aggregate re ceipts from all sources for the year were $3S7,O50,O5S.S4. It was derived as follows : From customs, $223,S32,7il.6S; from internal reve nue, $130,SS2,513.92; from miscellaneous sources, $32,335,503.23. The ordinary expenditures for the same period were $231,096,615.60, and the total ex penditures, including the sinking fund, were $329,579,929.25. The excess of receipts over expenditures was, after providing for the sinking fund, $57,470,129.59. For the current fiscal year the total revenues, actual and estimated, are $385,000,000, and the ordinary expenditures, actual and estimated, are $293,000,009, making, with the sinking fund, a total expenditure of $341,321,1169, leaving an estimated surplus of $43,678,883.01. During the fiscal year there was applied to the purchase of bonds, in addition to these, for the sinking fund $90,456,1723, and during the first quarter of the current year the sum of $3733337.77, all of which was credited to the sinking fund. The revenues for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1591, are estimated by the treasury department at $385,000,000, and the expendi tures for the same period, including the sinking fund, at $341,43M77.70. This shows an estimated surplus fey that year of $43, 569 ,57? 30 ; which is more likely to be increased than reduced when the actual transactiOBS are written up. thb stnux.es. The existence of so large an actual aad an ticipated surplus should hart the lamed!. ate attention of Congress with a view to re ducing the receipts of the treasury to the needs of the Government as closely as may be. The collection of moneys not needed for public uses Imposes an unnecessary burden npon our people and the presence of so large a surplus in the public vaults is a disturbing element in the conduct of private business. It has called Into use expedients for putting it Into circulation of very questionably pro priety. We should not collect revenue for the purpose of anticipating our bonds be yond the requirement of the sinking fund, but any unappropriated surplus in the treas ury should be so used, as there is no other lawful way of returning the money to cir culation, and the profit realized by the Gov ernment offers a substantial advantage. The loaning of public funds to the banks without interest, upon the security of Gov ernment bonds, I regard as an unauthorized and dangerous expedient. It results in a temporary and unnatural Increase of the banking capital of favored localities and compels a cautious and gradual recall of the deposits to avoid Injury to the commercial Interests. It is not to be expected that the banks having these deposits will sell their bonds to the treasury so long as the present highly beneficial arrangement is continued. They now practically get interest both upon the bonds and their proceeds. No further use should be made of this method of getting the surplus into circulation, and the deposits now out standing should be gradually withdrawn and applied to the purchase of bonds. It is fortunate that such use can be made of the existing surplus, and for some time to come of any casual surplus that may .exist after Congress has taken the necessary steps for a reduction of the revenue. Such legis lation should be promptly but very consid erately enacted. THE TARIFF. I recommend a revision of our tariff law, both In its administrative features and in the schedule. The need of the former Is generally conceded, and an agreement upon the evils and inconveniences to be remedied and the best methods for their correction will probably not be difficult. Uniformity of valuation at all our ports Is essential, and effective measures should be taken to secure it. It is equally desirable that questions affecting rates and classifications should be promptly decided. The preparation of a new schedule of cus tom duties Is a matter of great delicacy, be cause of Its effect upon the business of the country; of great difficulty, by reason of the wide divergence of opinion as to the objects that may be promoted by such legislation. Some disturbance of busi ness may perhaps result from consideration of this subject by Congress, but this tempo rary ill-effect will be reduced to a minimum by prompt action, and the assurance which the country enjoys that any necessary changes will be so made as not to impair the just and reasonable protection of our home industries. The ineqalities of the law should be adjusted, but the protective prin ciple should be maintained and fairly ap plied to the products of our farms as well as of our shops. These duties necessarily have relation to other things besides public rev enues. We can not limit their effects by fix ing our eyes on the public treasury alone. They have a direct relation to home produc tion, to work, to wages and to the commer cial Independence of our country, and the wise and patriotic legislator should enlarge the field of his vision to Include all of these. The necessary reduction in our public rev enues can, I am sure, be made without mak ing the smaller burden more onerous than the larger by reason of tho djsabities and limitations which the process of reduction puts upon both capital and labor. Tho free list can very safely be extended by placing thereon articles that do not offer injurious competition to such domestic products as our home labor can supply. The removal of the Internal tax upon tobacco would relieve an important agricultural product from a burden which was Imposed onlybecause our revenue from custom duties was insufficient for the public needs. If safo provision can be devised, the re moval of the tax upon spirits used in the arts and manufactures would offer an un objectionable method of reducing the sur plus. THE CIRCULATION. A tablo presented by the Secretary of the Treasury showing the amount of money of all kinds in circulation each year from 1S73 to the present time is of interest. It appears that tho amount of National bank notes in circulation has decreased during that period $114,109,729, of which $37,799,229 is chargeable to the last year. The withdrawal of bank circulation will necessarily continue under existing condi tions. It Is probable the adoption of the suggestions made by the Comptroller, viz., that the minimum deposit of bonds for the establishment of banks be reduced, and that an Issue of notes to the par value of the bonds be allowed, will help to maintain the bank circulation. But while this withdrawal of bank notes has been going on there has been a large increase in the amount of gold and silver coin in circulation and in the is sues of gold and silver certificates. The total amount of money of all kinds in circulation on March 1, 1S78, was $505,793307, while on October 1, 1SS9, the total was $1,405,- 018,000. There was an increase of $293,417,562 in gold coin, of $57,554,100 in standard silver dollars, of $72,311,249 In gold certificates, of $276,619,715 in silver certificates, and of $14, 073,787 in United States notes, making a total of $71376,403. There was during the same period a decrease of $114,109,729 in bank cir culation and of $642,4S1 n subsidiary silver. Tho net increase was $599, 224,193. The circulation per capita has increased about five dollars during the time coverejd by the table referred to. The total coinage of silver dollars was on November 1, 1SS9, $363,638,001, of which $2S3,539,321 were in the treasury vaults and $60,098,4S0 were in cir culation. Of the amount in the vaults $277, 319344 wero represented by outstanding sil ver certificates, leaving $6,291,577 not in cir culation and not represented by certificates. SILVER COINAGE. The law requiring the purchase by the treasury of $2,000,000 worth of silver bullion each month to be coined into silver dollars of 412Vi grains has been observed by the de partment, but neither the present Secretary nor any of his predecessors has deemed it safe to exercise the discretion given by law to increase the monthly purchase to $4,000, 000. When tho law was enacted February 29, 1S78, the price of silver in the market was $1.20 4-10 per ounce, making the bullion value of the dollar 93 cents. Since that time the price has fallen as low as 9L2 cents per ounce, reducing the bullion value of the dollar to 70.6 cents. Within the last few months the market price has somewhat advanced and on the first day of November last the bullion value of the silver dollar was 72 cents. The evil anticipations which have accom panied the coinage and use of the silver dol lar have not been realized. As a coin it has not had general use, and the public treas ury has been compelled to store it. But this is manifestly owing to the fact that its paper representative is more convenient. The gen eral acceptance and use of silver certificates shows that silver has not otherwise been dis credited. Some favorable conditions have contributed to maintain this practical equal ity in their commercial uses between gold and stiver dollars. But some of thesj are trade conditions that statutory enactments do not control, and of the continuance of which we can not be certain. I think it Is clear that if we should make coinage of silver at present rates free we must expect the difference in bullion values of the gold and silver dollars will be taken account of in commercial transactions, and I fear the same result would follow any con siderable increase of the present rate of coinage. Such a result would be discredit able to our financial management and dis astrous to all business interests. We should not tread the dangerous edge of such a peril, and indeed nothing more harmful could happen to the silver Interests. Any safe legislation npon this subject must se cure the equality of the two coins in their commercial uses. I have always been an advocate of the use of silver in our currency. We are large producers of that metal and should not discredit K. To the plan which vtU be presented by the SecreUry of tk Treasury for the Issuance of notes or certifi cates upon the deposit of silver bullion at' its market valne, I have been able to give only a hasty examina tion owing to the press of other matter, and to the fact that it has been so recently formulated. The details of such a law require careful con sideration, but the general plan suggested by him seems to satisfy the purpose to con tinue the use of silver In connection with our currency and at the same time to obviate the danger of which I have spoken. At a later day I may communicate further with Congress on this subject. THE CHINESE- The enforcement of the Chinese Exclusion act has been found to be very difficult on the Northwest frontier. Chinese landing at Vic toria find it easy to pass our border owing to the impossibility, with the force at command, of the customs officers of guarding so long an Inland line. The Secretary of the Treas ury has authorized the employment of addi tional officers, who will be assigned to this duty, and every effort will be made to enforce the law. The Dominion exacts a head tax of $50 for each Chinaman landing, and when these persons in fraud of our law cross into our territory and are apprehended our offi cers do not know what to do with them, as the Dominion authorities will not suffer them to be seat back without a second pay ment of the tax. An effort will be made to reach an understanding that will remove this difficulty. COAST DEFENSES. Judged by modern standards we are prac tically without coast defenses. Many of the structures we have would enhance rather than diminish the perils of their garrisons if subjected to the fire of improved guns, and very few are so located as to give full effect to the greater range of such guns as we are now making for coast defense uses. This general subject has had consideration in Congress for some years, and the ap propriation for the construction of large rifted guns made one year ago was, I am sure, the expression of a purpose to provide suitable works In which these guns might be mounted. An appropri ation now made for that purpose would not advance the works beyond our ability to supply them with fairly effective guns. The security of our coast cities against for eign attack should not rest altogether In the friendly disposition of other Nations. There should be a second line wholly In our own keeping. I very earnestly recommend an appropriation at this session for tho con struction of such works in our most exposed harbors. RIVERS AND HARBORS. The Improvement of our important rivers and harbors should be promoted by the nec essary appropriations. Care should be taken that the Government is not committed totbe- prosecution of works not of public and gen eral advantagqand that the relative useful ness of works of that class is not overlooked. So far as this work can ever be said to be completed I do not doubt that the end would be sooner and more economically reached if fewer separate works were undertaken at the same time and those selected for their greater general interest were more rapidly pushed to completion. PROTECTION- OF OFFICERS. The assault made by David S. Terry upon the person of Justice Field, of the Supreme Court of the United States, in Lathrop, Cal., in August last, and the killing of the assailant by a deputy United States marshal, who had been deputed to accompany Justice Field and to protect him from anticipated violence at the hands of Terry, In connection with the legal proceedings which have fol lowed, suggest questions which In my judg ment are "worthy of the attention of Con gress. I recommend that more definite pro visions be made by law, not only for the pro tection of Federal officers, but for a full trial of sucn cases in the United States courts. THE SUPREME COURT. The necessity of providing some more speedy method of disposing of tho cases which now come for final adjudication to the Supreme Court becomes every year more ap parent and urgent. The plan of providing some intermediate courts havingflnal appel late jurisdiction of certain classes of ques tions and cases, has, I think, received a more general approval from the bench and bar of the country than any other. Without at tempting to discuss details I recommend that provision be made for the establishment of such court. TRUSTS AND COMBINES. Earnest attention should be given by Con gress to consideration of the question how far the restraint of those combinations of capital commonly called "trusts" is a matter of Federal jurisdiction. When organized as they often arc to crush out all healthy competition and to monopo lize the production or sale of an article of commerce and general necessity they are dangerous conspiracies against tho public good and should be made the subject of prohibitory and even penal legislation. INTERNATIONAL COPTRIGHT. The subject of an International copyright has been frequently commended to the at tention of Congress by my predecessors. The enactment of such a law would be emi nently wise and just. NATURALIZATION. Our naturalization laws should be so re vised as to make the Inquiry Into the char acter and good disposition toward our Gov ernment of the persons applying for citizen ship more thorough. This can only be done by taking fuller control of tho examinations by fixing the time for hearing such applica tion and by requiring tho presence of some one who shall represent the Government In tho inquiry. Those who are enemies of social order or who come to our shores to swell the injurious influence and to extend the evil practices of any association that de fies our laws, should not only be denied citizenship but a domicile. THE POST-OFFICE. The report of the Postmaster-General not only exhibits the operations of the depart ment for the past fiscal year, but contains many valuable suggestions for the Improve ment and extension of the service, which are commended to your attention. No other branch of the Government has so close a con tact with the daily life of the people. Al most every one uses the service it offers, and every hour gained in the transmission of the great commercial mails has an actual and possible value that only those engaged In trade can understand. The saving of one day in the transmission of mails between New York and San Francisco, which has recently been accomplished, is an incident worthy of mention. The plan suggested of a supervision of the post-offices In separate districts that shall involve In struction and suggestion and a range of the efficiency of the postmasters, would, I have no doubt, greatly improve the service. The unsatisfactory condition of the law re lating to the transmission through the mails of lottery advertisements and remittances is clearly stated by the Postmaster-General, and bis suggestion as to amendments should have your favorable consideration. THE NAVT. The report of the Secretary of the Navy show3 a reorganization of the bureaus of the department that will, I do not doubt, pro mote the efficiency of each. In general, satisfactory progress has been made in the construction of the new ships of war author ized by Congress. The first vessel of the new navy, the Dolphin, was subjected to very severe trial tests and to very much adverse criticism. But it Is gratifying to be able to state that a cruise around the world, from which she has recently returned, has demonstrated that she is a first-class vessel of her rate. The report of the Secretary shows that while the effective force of the navy is rapidly increasing by reason of the improved build and armament of the new ships, the number of our ships fit for sea duty grows very slowly. We had on the 4th of March last thirty-seven ser viceable ships, and though four have since been added to the list the total has not been increased, because In the meantime four have been lost or con demned. Twenty-six additional vessels have been authorized and appropriated for, bat it is probable that when they are com pleted our list will only be increased to 62, a gain of Ave. The old wooden ships are dis appearing almost as fast as the new ones are added. The tacts carry their own argument. One of the new ships may In figaKng strength be equal to two of the old, but it can not do the cruising duties of two. It is important, therefore, that we should have a more rapid increase in the number of serviceable ships. I concur in the recom mendation of the Secretary that the con struction of eight armored ships, three gun boats and five torpedo boats be authorized. THE INDIAN QUESTION. The report of the Secretary of the Interior exhibits the transactions of the Government with the Indian tribes. Substantial progress has been made In the education of the chil dren of school age and In the allotment of lands to adult Indians. It is to be regretted that the policy of breaking up the tribal re lation and of dealing with the Indian as an individual did not appear earlier in our leg islation, large reservations used in com mon and the maintenance of the authority of the chiefs and headmen have deprived tho individual of every incentive to the exercise of thrift and the annuity has contributec an affirmative impulse towards a state of con firmed pauperism. The last Congress enacted two distinct laws relating to negotiations with the Sioux Indians of Dakota for a relinquishment of a portion of their lands to the United States and for dividing the remainder Into separate reservations. Both were approved on the same day, March 2. The one submitted to the Indians was a specific proposition. The other (Sec 3 of the Indian Appropriation act) authorized the President to appoint three Commissioners to negotiate with these Indians for the accomplishment of some gen eral purpose and required that any agreement made should be submitted to Congress for ratification. On the 16th day of April last I appointed Hon. Charles Foster, of Ohio, Hon. William Warner, of Missouri, and Major-General George Cook, of the United States army. Commissioners under the last named law. They were, however, authorized and direct ed first to submit to the Indians the definite proposition made to them by the act first mentioned and only in the event of a failure to secure the assent of the requisite number to that proposition to open negotiations for modified terms under the other act. The work of the Commission was prolonged and arduous but the assent of the requisite num ber was, it is understood, finally obtained to the proposition made by Congress. The Commission provided for by section 14 of the Indian Appropriation bill to negotiate with the Cherokee Indians and all other In dians owning or claiming lands lying west of the ninety-sixth degree of longitude, for the cession to the United States of all such lands, was organized on June 29 last. Two conferences have been held, but no definite results have appeared. The cattle syndicate now occupying the lands for grazing purposes is clearly one of the agencies responsible for the obstruction of our negotiations with the Cherokees. The large body of agricultural lands constituting what Is known as "the Cherokee Outlet" ought not to be, and indeed can not long be, held for grazing and for the advantage of a few against the public Interests and the best advantages of the Indians themselves. The United States has under the treaties certain rights in these lands. These will not be used oppressively, but it can not be allowed that those who by sufferance occupy these lands shall interpose to defeat the wise and bene ficent purposes of the Government. I very urgently recommend that Congress at once provide a territorial government for the people of Oklahoma. Serious questions, which may at any time lead to violent out breaks, are awaiting the institution of courts for their peaceful adjustment. The American genius for self-government has been Illustrated In Oklahoma, but it is neither safe nor wise to leave these people longer to the expedients which have tem porarily served them. THE LAND LAWS. In the administration of the land laws the policy of facilitating, in every proper way.the adjustment of the honest claims of individual settlers upon the public lands has been pur sued. The number of pending cases bad, dur ing the preceding Administration been greatly increased under the operation of orders for a time suspending final action In a large part of the cases originating in the West and Northwest, and by the subsequent use of unusual methods of examination. Only those who are familiar with the con ditions under which our agricultural lands have been settled can appreciate the serious and often fatal consequences to the settler of a policy that puts his title under suspicion, or delays the issuance of his patents. While care Is taken to prevent and expose fraud, it should not be imputed without reason. The manifest purpose of the Home stead and Pre-emption laws was to promote the settlement of the public domain by per sons having a bonafide intent to make homes upon the selected lands. Where this intent is well established and the requirements of the law have been substantially complied with, the claimant is entitled to a prompt and friendly consideration of his case. But where there is reason to believe that the claimant is the mere agent of another who is seeking to evade a law Intended to promote small holdings and to secure, by fraudulent methods, largo tracts of timber and other lands, both principal and agent should not only be thwarted in their fraudulent purpose but should be made to feel the full penalties of our criminal statutes. The laws should be so administered as not to confound these two classes and to visit penalties only upon the latter. The unsettled state of the titles to large bodies of lands in the territories of New Mexico and Arizona has greatly retarded the development of these Territories. Pro vision should be made by law for the prompt trial and final adjustment, before a judicial tribunal or commission, of all claims based upon Mexican grants. It is not "just to an intelligent and enter prising people that their peace should be disturbed and their prosperity retarded by these old contentions. I express the hope that differences of opinion as to methods may yield to the urgency of the case. PENSIONS. The law now provides a pension for every soldier and sailor who was mustered Into the service of the United States during the civil war and is now suffering from wounds or disease having an origin in the service and the line of duty. Two of three necessary facts muster and disability are usually susceptible of easy proof, but the third origin in the service Is often dillicult and, in many deserving cases, impossible to establish. That very many of those who endured the hardships of our most bloody and arduous campaigns are now disabled from diseases that bad a real, if not a traceable, origin in service we do not doubt. Besides, there is another class, composed of men, many of whom served an enlistment of the three full years, and of re-enlisted veterans who add ed a fourth year of service, who escaped the casualties of battles and the assaults of dis ease, who were in every battle line of their command, and were mustered out In sound health and have, since the close of the war, while fighting with the same indomitable and independent spirit the contests of civil life, been overcome by disease or casualty. I am not unaware that the pension roll al ready involves a very large annual expendi ture, neither am I deterred by that fact from recommending that Congress grant apension to such honorably discharged soldiers and sailors of the war as, having rendered sub stantial service during the war, are now de pendent upon their own labor for a main tenance and by disease or casualty are Inca pacitated from earning it. Many of the men who would be Included In this form of relief are now dependent upon public aid and it does not, In my judgment, consist with the National honor that they shall continue to subsist on the local relief given indiscrim inately to paupers, instead of upon the special and generous provision of theNatlos) they served so gallantly and unselfishly. Our people wVl, I am sure, very generally approve such legislation, and I am equally sure that the suJ vlvors of the Union army and navy will fee! sense of relief when this worthy and suffering class of their comrades is fairly cared for. There are some manifest Inequalities in the existing law that should be remedied. To some of these the Secretary of Interior uas caiieu attention. It N gratifying to bo able to state that hr the adoption of new and better methods Is the War Department, the calls of the pension office for information as to the military and uospuai recoius or pension claimants are now promptly answered and the injurious and vexatious delays that have heretofore occurred are entirely avoided. This will greatly facilitate the adjustment of all pend ing claims. NEW STATES. The advent of four new States. South D.i. kota. North Dakota. Montana and Washing ton, into the Lnion under the Constitution. In the same month, and the admission of their duly chosen representatives in our National Congress at the same session. Is an event as unexampled as it is interesting. TIIE WORLD'S FAIR. The proposition to observe the 400th anni versary of the discovery of America by the opening of a World's Fair or Exposition in some one of our great cities will be present ed for the consideration of Congress. Tho value and Interest of such an Exposition may wen Claim tne promotion of the General Government. CIVIL-SERVICE. On the 4th of March last the Civil-Service Commission held but a single member. Tho vacancies were filled on the 7th day of May. and since then the Commissioners have been industriously, though with an inadequate force, engaged in executing the law. They were assured by me that a cordial support would be given them In the faithful and impartial enforcement of the statutes and of the rules and regulations adopted In aid of it. The reform of tho civil-service will make no safe or satisfactory advance until tho present law and its equal administration aro well established In the confidence of the peo ple. It will be my pleasure, as It Is my duty, to see that the law is executed with firm ness and impartiality. If some ot Its provisions have been fraudulently evaded by appointing officers our re sentment should not suggest tho repeal of the law, but reform !n its administration. We should have one view of the matter and hold It with a sincerity that Is not affected by the consideration that the party to which wo belong Is for a time in power. THE NEGRO QUESTION. The colored people did not Intrude them selves upon us; they were brought hero In chains and held in the communities where they are now chiefly found by a cruel slave code. Happily for both races, they are now free. They have, from a standpoint of Ignor ance and poverty, which was our shame, not theirs, made remarkable advances In educa tion and In tho acquisition of property. They have as a people shown them selves to be friendly and faithful toward the white race under temptations of tremendous strength. They have their representatives In the National cemeteries where a grateful Government has gathered the ashes of those who died In Its defense. They have fur nished to our regular army regiments that have won high praise for their commanding officers for their courage and soldierly qua lities and for fidelity the enlistment oath. They do not desire to quit their homes and their employers resent tho interference of the emigration agents who seek to stimuli to such a desire. But, notwithstanding all this. In many parts of our country where the col ored population Is large, the people of that race are, by various devices, deprived of any effective exercise of their political rights and of many of their civil rights. The wrong docs not expend itself upon those whose votes are suppressed. Every constituency In the Union is wronged. It has been the hopo of every patriot that a sense of justice and of respect for the law would work a gradual cure of these flagrant evils. Surely no one supposes that the pres ent can be accepted as a permanent condi tion. It is said that these communities must work out this problem for themselves. Wo have a right to ask whether they are at work upon it. Do they suggest any solution? When and under what conditions la the black man to have a free ballot? When Is he, in fact, to have those full civil rights which have so long been his In law? When Is that equality of Influence which our Government was intended to secure to the electors to be restored? I earnestly invoke the attention of Con gress to the consideration of such measures within its well defined Constitutional pow ers as will secure to all our people a free exercise of their rights of suffrage and every other civil right of the Constitution and laws of the United States. STEAMSHIP SUBSIDIES. I recommend that such appropriations be made for ocean mail service in American steamships between our ports and those of Central and South America, Japan and the important islands In both of tho great oceans as will be liberally re munerative for the service rendered as will encourage the establishment, and in some fair degree, equalize the chancer of American steamship lines in the competi tions which they must meet. That the American States lying south ot us will cordially co-operate in establishing and maintaining such lines of steamships to their principal ports. I do not doubt. We should also make provision for a naval reserve to consist of such merchant ships of American construction and of a specified tonnage and speed as the owners will con sent to place at the use of the Government in case of need as armed cruisers. England has adopted this policy and, as a result, can now, upon necessity, at once place upon her naval list some of the fastest steamships in the world. A proper supervision of tho construction of such vessels would mako their conversion Into effective ships of war very easy. I am an advocate of economy In our National expenditure for the purpose of extending our foreign commerce. The en largement and development of our mer chant marine, the development of a sufficient body of trained, veteran seamen, the promotion of rapid and regular mall com munication between the ports of other coun tries'and our own and the adoption of largo and swift American merchant steamships to naval ues in time of war are public pur poses of the highest concern. The enlarged participation of our people In the carrying trade, the new and increased markets that will be opened for the products of our farmers and factories, the full er and better employment of our mechanics which will result from a liberal promotion of our for eign commerce, insure the widest possi ble diffusion of benefit to all the States and to all our people. Every thing Is most pro pitious for the present inauguration of a lib eral and progressive policy upon this sub ject and we should enter upon It with promptness and decision. CONCLUSION. The legislation which I have suggested, it Is sincerely believed, will promote the place and honor of our country and the pros perity and security of the people. I Invoke the diligent and serious attention of Congress to the consideration of these and such other measures as may be pre sented having the same great end In view. Benjamin Harrison, ExecutiveMansIon,Washington,Dec.3,lSSa Cholera on Board. Lewes, Del., Dec. 4. The ship Ger- mania from Manilla, Cuba, with sugar, arrived here after a passage of 120 days. The ship was quarantined by Surgeon Orr, who found that cholera had broken out on the ship when a few days out from the port and one seaman had died. The ship will be disinfected before allowed to proceed. The Salvation Army headquarters at London and adjoining property burned on the morning of the 3d. Isaac L. Millikin, ex-mayor of Chi cago, is dead, lie was seventy-fa years old. - v m &&L j.