Newspaper Page Text
wiVfaww !& njjj'N'jjf1"' u.AfcSla.iaavit:
THE SMOKY HILL AND REPUBLICAN UNION. "WE JOIN OURSELVES TO NO PARTY THAT DOES NOT CARRY THE FLAG, AND KEEP STEP TO THE MUSIC OF THE UNION;5' t Volume II. JUNCTION CITY, KANSAS, SATURDAY, DECEMBER 13, 1862. Number 7. A COHTEST FOB A WIFE. a mountain valley. tinntAv hflrerpd In from the northern winds, stood the little j 7 e-j ...-.- cottage oi ttabnel Heath. Its occupant, an old deer hunter, had been a wanderer among the Ottowas. Without society, except their occasional companionship, and wholly wed ed to the wild life, yet as age came on him he pined to return to his kind, and wear social fetters. Helena Heath inherited from her mother the daughter of a canadian.hunter both her name and the roaming spirit of her race. From the days of earliest recollec tion she had been at her father's side on the wild prairie, or ranging over tho moun tains. Tho old hunter delighted in nothing more than predatory skirmishes with the Indians, who were wont to acknowledge we debt with interest. Once,.with only two comrades, he was surrounded in his trapping lodge, and forced to stand a week's seige. Then the fearless conduct of his daughter, child as she was, won from him a hunter's praise and a fatherly pride. It was a singular training that sho re ceived; wandering over an uninhabited 'country with a rude hunter, shut out from education, and only taught to read and jrite by An accidental visit for a few weeks at a missionary station, without means of refinement, and having for the language of tier mind only what could be learned from tho voice of nature in its deepest seclusion. She loved the green woods and the mighty forests, for there her soul could live beyond the rough influenco of the only life sho had ever known. Such was the character of our heroine when old Gabriel Heath exchanged his wandering life for a residence in the little cottage on the hill. Here a few acres supplied him with many or the necessaries of life, and be had an opportunity to follow, at his pleasure, the business of his youth ; and comfort seemed to circle round the cottage home, whose exterior was rendered somewhat pirturesque by the natural taste of the daughter. On line days old Heath tilled the ground or hunted among the neighboring bills and by the side of the streams; and in unpleas ant weather he sat by the fireside, smoked his pipe, and told huge stories of old ad ventures. A thriving villago lay just behind the range of hills among which the cottage was nestled, though the cottagers formed but little society with its inhabitants. Long exposure to the sun had veiled but not hidden the beauty of Helena's fair pmplcction with a rich olive, and added to her charms. Constant exposure had given firmness and elasticity to her limbs. No wonder, then, though but seldom seen, and still more seldom addressed, she was deemed the belle of the eurrounding country. Hamblers among the hills had noticed the fair cottager, and became infatuated with her beauty and even became suitors for her hand; but they had all been repulsed. The bold and adventurous she disliked for the coarseness which generally characterized them. Few of the different characters which constantly visited her, did she trou ble herself to notice. Of this latter num ber the most prominent was Thomas Gifford a young lawyer, who had opened his office in the tillage. Educated in an eastern university, and naturally of a retiring cast of mind, Gifford had always avoided the world and lived on with his books, conse quently but a part of his oharacter hadias yet been developed. In his eyes, the beau tiful cottager was the type of what the phi losopher had long sought to find, and he determined to obtain the reality of the child-freshness while they could only con ceive tho ideal. He therefore resolved to mend his deficiencies in her eyes, and his sanguine nature hoped the rest Old Heath looked upon marriage as a necessary evil which one ought to endure sometimes, and he determined that none but a man after his own heart should pos ..yvsg his daughter; and the qualifications necessary, in his view, were strength and agility in manly sports. He took no pains to conceal his determination, and it was sur prising how suddenly such games rose in favor with tbe young villagers. Time passed, and among those who had gained the applause of the old hunter was a sturdy pioneer named Alexander Wilson, though as yet he had not shown any prefer ence for the young forester. Time had also brought the heart of the young lawyer to the feet of the beautiful young cottage girl, while to her his breathing of heart attachment had become an episode well cherished. We have forgotten to mention that oyer the range of hills that formed the pictu resque landscape about the mountain home, a noble river 6pread its limpid waters. Gifford bad always enjoyed all the sports that can be gathered from a rural freedom. Strong at the oar, unerring in tho aim at target shooting, and sinewy in the leap ing wager, he had become quite a favorite, as well as the eavy of his contemporaries. In all his manly feats Helena Heath was the first to praise; and while her pride of bis masculine acquirements was increasing, she could not but feel admiration for his mental attainments; which, after all, found a something kindred and congenial ia her own bosom t One afternoon as young " Gifford was ttrojiug ftloag the shores of the stream above mentioned, he saw the favorite of old Heath, the trapper, Wilson, push out in his skiff. Having frequently been brought in contact with him while pursuing favorite feats of strength, Gifford, out of friendship, walked to the water's edge and wished him a pleasant voyage. " It cannot but be pleasant such a day as this. Come, try a hand with us at the oar this splendid weather," returned Wilson. The temptation was too great to be with stood, and Gifford stepped into the boat, which in a moment shot upon the stream, rising and falling with the waves, and yielding to the pressure of the oars. For a long time the skiff continued to move upon the water. At last the breeze stiffened, und the two companions rested upon their oars to enjoy the movement of the boat as it tossed to aod fro. The sun was sinking slowly in the west, and djrting its horizon tal rays across the trouble waters. At last Wilson said with a smile: " It is now sunset and eventide. I have an engagement; let us return to land." "Certainly," said Gifford; "especially if your rendezvous be of an interesting na ture, perchance with a ladylove." " You aro good at guessing," was the reply. " You have, then, an evening tryst ?" "Yes with the prettiest girl in the country." Gifford thought of his beautiful Helena, and wished his friend possessed one as fair and true. For a few moments both were silent, and then as they approached the land resumed the conversation. "My fair one is very fair. Though I am but a pioneer, I know how to value qualifications like hers." " Ah !" replied bis companion ; " you aro happy then ; but tell mc who this fair one is." " It is a secret ; none but but you have been allowed even to whisper of .such a relation," said Wilson. " A secret sweet and precious, replied Gifford, laughing. "But I too have a heart's idol one who is very kind, and pure as the Virgin. Now for a mutual exchange of secrets, confess your ladylove and you shall know my own." " You would force a confession," remark ed Wilson. Very well, but as I have sworn not to utter her name, had I a scrap of pa per I would write it, then wc could ex change." Gifford produced a blank leaf from a memorandum, and drew a pencil and wrote the magic uame. Wilson likewise, and then they exchanged papers. Wilson read on his " Helena Heath." Gifford read on bis "Helena Heath." Their eyes met; Wilson was embarrassed, Gifford pale with agitation and anger. " Very well," said Wilson, " it seems to me that our mistresses are one and the same." "Impossible! I know Helena Heath too well," returned Gifford. "All that you have said of her is false !" Wilson had all the subdued spirit of tbe restless adventurer. His cmbarassment vanished and he became furious. " False," he echoed fiercely. " Yes, an infamous lie !" responded Gif ford. Stung to the quick he grasped an oar in both hands, and leveled it at his compan ion's head. Gifford evaded the blow, and sprang upon his enemy like a tiger. Wil son dropped the weapon, and the two were closed in a farious embrace. They strug gled, rose to their feet and falling were plunged headlong into tbe stream, lbe waves closed over them, and the Bkiff, half filled with water, slowly drifted out to sea. In a moment both rose to the surface, still clasped in fierce embrace. The shade of night was closing around them, but there was light enough for them to glance at each other and gather fresh courage at the sight. Wilson loosed his hold on his antagonist, to level a blow at his head, but Gifford parried it, and grasp him by the throat, and once more both disappeared beneath the surface of the water. Gifford's energy seemed the most powerful, and tho pioneer, lashed to fury, seized tbe jack knife that he had purloined from the pocket of his enemy and opened it with his teeth, and plunged it into the bosom of the young lawyer, who, with a bubbling cry, released his hold. Night set in, and the dark waves rolled heavily. As he paused to regain his strength he saw the form of his inanimate companion tossed about on the stream, It would be impossible to portray the thoughts that rushed through his mind. Oh ! how bitterly did he regret being so rash. Hav ing regained his strength, the young man began to make for the shore, which he gained. Two days after the following announce ment appeared in the village gazette : "A most lamentable occurrence took place on ' evening. A young law stu dent, named Gifford, well kaown in this vicinity, accompanied by a young man named Wilson in a boat ride up the river. A sudden crust of wind upset tbe boat, and both were plunged into the river. Wilson made his escape by swimming, but his companion found a watery grare." , S The dream of happiness of Helena Heath was now at an end. With all the piognant grief that the susceptible heari. can feel; she lamented the sad fate of her lover, while she could not repress the chagrin she felt at the idea that some adventurous fa vorite of her father would usurp the pre eminence that she had given him. Nearly two years had elapsed, andHel ena Heath still remained unmarried. Old Heath bad selected young Wilson far his future son-in-law, and he sought to com mend him to his daughter ; but, meeting with indifference and denial, he resolved to select from the large circle of the hardy and athletic young men the one whose feats were the greatest, aud compel her to receive him as her lord. At last the day came for the allotted trial, and to the spot marked out for the rendezvous many an eager aspirant came. Among those was a newly arrived settler, who had often made the sinewy and bold look palid with envy at his success. The first trial was that of leaping. One by one the competitors joined in, until a perfect Ajax in limb reached seventeen feet. This settled the question: still, notwith standing this proof of bis prowess, the old hunter heemed dissatisfied at the idea of marrying his daughter to such a stranger. He resolved to become better acquainted with his skill and strength, and suddenly turning, he said : " Come, boys, let's have a little rifle practice two shots apiece, remember." A painted nail was partly driven into a tree. Tho heroes of the other exercise made trial, but were wide from the nail's head. The stranger rubbed his bands, aud seizing the rifle took rapid aim. The nail was driven into the tree. The unknown marksmen once more fired ; the nail's head was bent double. This was more than the rival, who was no other than young Wilson, could bear, and he walked off. All congratulations were offered the lucky victor. Old Gabriel Heath placed the hand of the reluctant Helena in Ins; but she, still treasuring tbe memory of him whom she had so much admired, and who had openedher mind to the world of intellectual beauty, remonstrated against her father's choice to no purpose. For a while the victor visited the abode of the hunter, chatted with him, and walk ed with the daughter. They talked long and fervently together, and he spoke in glowing terms of his love for her. She started at this, for the image of her lost lover seemed to rise and rebuke her. " You love another, then ?" said he. ' Remember that I won you by my prow ess." These words in some tones, might have made her indiguant; but now they only tended to dissipate her reserve, as she replied : What you have said is true. I owe the deepest and richest debt to another, v. ho translated to me the mysterious teaching of nature. I love him, and though he i forever lost to me, yet while I exist I will live for no other hut him." While she was thus speaking, the hunter was regarding her with a serious expression, which hardly become a rejected lover. She was turning from him, when he detained her, and said : "This was the young lawyer, Gifford, was it not ?" "It was," she replied, looking in his face, where the smile had settled into anxiety, " Blessings on you for that word !' he cried ; " I am the loug lost one the res cued and the redeemed !" It was indeed young Gifford,who, through an unseen and mysterious Providence, had not been drowned, but was saved from a watery grave by a fisherman, whose kind care had restored him to life and strength. He told her how he had returned to the village just in time to hear of the wager of prowess for her band; and, confident that he should be brought to her again, -he dis sembled himself, and gained the victory. It is needless to say that the joy of meeting him, of whom he supposed himself the mur derer, was so great that Wilson thought but little of the refusal that be ultimately received from Helena. He could hardly believe his eyes until the generous Gifford took his hand and faithfully promised never to reveal the circumstances of the boat ride, and forgave him for his rashness. Tbe two rivals were rivals no longer, and Gifford lived with tbe lovely daughter of Gabriel Heath daring many years of happi ness, and, successful in business and gen erous in thought, he was the. pride of the village. -Age tempered the rashness of Wilson, who, after the decease of old Gabriel Heath, was the quotation of his pioneer friends. Thomas Gifford never revealed the secret till his dying day. t9 Want, sorrow, disease, all that men call evils, are but disciplinarians that insist upon the scholar's learning his lesson him self, and punish him till he does. m ItjU A young lady, ou being asked what calliofir she wished her sweetheart to follow, blashingly replied that she wished him to be a husbandman. r aaA man in xrerrou aavertises tor a partner in the nurserybusiness. A aew way, perhaps, of adverbsing'for a wife." aaT A flower is sweeter tbe more it pressed. So is ayoang woman. IS -1" i t m 1 law? Value' the friendship of hituwho stand" bv you ia the stsrm : swarias of insects will surround you in the lulshiae. Smob Jjill anb llcpb'n Virion, PUBLISHED EVEKT SiTL&DAT MOUSING BT WM. S. BLAKELY, - - - GEO. W. MAItTIX, -A.t Junction- City, Kansas. OFFICE IS 'BRICK BUILDING. CORNER OF SEVENTH fr WASHINGTON Srs. TL&M9 OF SCBSCBIPTIO : One copv, one year. Ten copies, one year, ... J3 00 1500 Payment required in nil cases in advance. AH papers discontinued at the expiration of the time for which payment is receiv ed. terms or advertising: One square, first insertion, -Each subsequent insertion, $1.00 50 Ten lines or less being a square. Ycaily advertisements inserted on liberal terms. jobwoek don with dispatch, and in the latest style of the art. iCT Payment required for all Job Work on delivery. THE PICKETS BUSS. Private Joel Smapes, of a hard-working, tough-sinewed regiment of Vermont volun teers, was a good shot and a smart soldier. He found great satisfaction in picket duty, and hardly came in after a day's oxercise in that branch of military industry without having a report to make to his superior officer of some new work discovered, some conversation overheard, somo little chance circumstances perceived, that might be of use in gaming an advantage over tbe enemy. Joel was a long, lank, yellow-haired fellow, not very soldierly in speech or bear ing, but of infinitely more service than many a one of our snug, dapper, good looking city soldiers. He was frightfully dun burned, and his face, coarse featured and demure, suggested good humor and power of indurnnce, more than courage or discipline. But there was a twinkle about his small gray eyes, which enlivened them, despite their scanty and characterless white lashes, and impressed the closer sort of obscrvor with a wholesome Tespect for his courage and intelligence. II is nasal voice and drawl, his round shoulders and fiat build, could not shake this respect so long as one kept those clear, cool, foreseeing eves in sight; and Joel's comrades prophesid that he had only to behave himself, aod keep on his own way, to gain a pair of epaulets one fine day. He openly declared that manual labor on earthworks was distasteful to him ; and his officers knowing his value at picket duty, evinced enough consideration for him to keep bim at that service. The position that he liked best was on the slope of a bill, opposite a similar slope, occupied by a sentinel of the Confederates, Tbe last was quite a high bit of ground, whence one might see a great deal of what was going on about tbe batteries further down. Joel believed that the sentinel there statioued learned more than was well for our side. Ho accordingly barrassed and annoyed everyone that showed bis head on the hillside opposite, and left several ad venturous fellows stretched out on the turf, one after another, as a reward for tbeir temerity. It was nearly a quarter of a mile off, but, as I have said, the long Vermonter was a good shot, and it becamo really dangerous for the enemy's pickets to show themselves at all near the forbidden hillside. They soon learned their lesson, and very natural ly acted upon it. Joel, sauntering down his path one fine afternoon, heard a sharp report, and felt tbe wind of a rifle ball that came wonderfully near his head. Turning quickly, be saw the smoke floating up from a little pile of fresh earth on the hill opposite. The ene my had dug a pit, wherein tbe sentinel could sit at ease, and expose his head and arms only when he fired. Private Smapes hastened with praiseworthy prudence to get out of sight, among some cedar3, and watched for some time before quite fixing the location of the foemtn again. Finally, discovering the fresh earth once more, and imagining that he saw a hat just above it, he took a shot in the direction. Up pegged a tall .sentinel, bareheaded, and returned the fire' instantly. He had only been trying the old trick of putting his bat on aranarod. " Tbis'll never dew," soliloquized JoeL " That cuss has got tew good a berth over yonder. I'll jusrbave tew rouse hist out." Th other sentinel's death warrant was in some sort signed from that moment. The crafty Vermonter? brain was at work on the problem of dislodging his maa thence forth. So long as Joel kept quiet so did his antagonist;7 but it was presumable that he could see the batteries in process of con struction, without exposing his head, for the earth taken from tbe pit was carefully piled up ou the side toward Joel. From a thicket at the foot of the two hills, however, ft shot could be thrown lengthways of the trench, and behind this trifiiag breastwork. To gaia tbe thicket, theawithout beiag too visible oa tbe bar ren slope, was Joel's idea. i The next day Private Smapes tosk with hiss a long piece of stout twine and a load ed reyolver, when be went oat oa picket duty. It was act yet dayligbfcbat.tae gray and iedietinet light of dawn had began to pale ia the east ' The sentinel, as soon ta the gaerd peseed ilna. beeteaed to drive a smooth stake lato tbe ground, and to rest-bis musket oyer fork in a cedar tree in front of the stake, the muzzle of the weapon pointing in the direction of the pit on tbe further slope. He then cocked the piece, and having fastened one end of the cord to the trigger, began stealthily crawling down the hill on his hands and knees, paying out the line as he went. It was a hazardous experiment, for the thicket, when he gained it, was very sparse, and so near to the point that the Confeder ate sentry, had he suspected Joel's presence there, could hardly have failed to hit him. Lying down, however, the Vermonter awaited sunrise, and as the shadows faded away in the mists of morning, he saw the light gleam upon a bayonet peering from the trench on the hillside. " Now for to make him show his pictcr," said Joel to himself. Ho pulled the string carefully at first, till it was drawn tight, and then a slight extra tug fired the musket from the cedar above. He bad not calculated wrongly. As soon as the rifleman in the pit heard this matin al salutation from the enemy over opposite, as he supposed, he raised himself up to re turn the fire, and brought his bead and shoulders plainly into sight. The next instant be went heels overhead into the trench again, with a bullet from the unarriog Colt straight through the side of his bead. " The darned fool P said Private Smapes, " didn't he know a fellow might shoot off a gun without having hold on to it ?" The Confederate pickets decided there after that the position was too exposed to be profitably occupied. THE BALD EAGLK The Said Eagle was chosen the emblem of the United States because its character istics are courage aud untamability, and because it is equally an inhabitant of the torrid and frigid zones ; and for its capabil ity of collecting its food on the sea aod land. For these and other reasons it grad ually came to be considered (contrary, however, to the wish of Dr. Franklin) the animal most emblematic of the North American Republic As wo have at hand some interesting stories of the eagle, ire might just as well add them to our answer to your query : The eagle, the conquering symbol of ancient Rome, is still displayed upon the banners of many States. King of birds, the poet make him bear tbe thunderbolts of Jove. Euripides says : " The birds, in general, are tbe messengers of the cods, but tbe eagle is Kim;, and the interpreter of the great deity, Jupiter." The Egyptians consecrated tho eagle to Atxmon, In the Scandinavian Mythology the eagle, reposing on the highest bough of the mystic ash tue tree of life and be tween his eyes a hawk, was the symbol of Providence life, power, watchfulness. The Roman sceptre was surmounted with the head of an eagle. This was adopted by Tarquin, on whose entrance to Rome an eagle took off his cap, circled twice around his chariot, and then put it on again. It has been supected, however, that this eagle bad pecn trained to perform the feat. But if so, tbe seeming prodigy had its valuo in the popular belief. Tbe selection of Con stantinople, tbe ancient Byzantium, as the seat of the Eastern Empire, is said to have been directed by an eagle. ConBtantine had fixed upon the seat of ancient Tyre, and tho engineers were laying out the city, when -an eagle came) seized upon the meas uring line, flew off with it, and dropped it in Byzantium. Such, at least, was the story to tbe soldiers and marines to recon cile them to tbe change of plan, which they might otherwise have thought a- bad omen. Pliny relates a story of an eagle, which has been gravely doubted ; but we do not see that it is more improbable than the rest. A young maiden of Sestos reared up a yonng eagle, which became so much attach ed to her that, when she died, and was laid upon the funeral pile, he flew to her, alighted on her body, and perished in tbe flames. There is nothing more probable than that a tame eagle should thus alight upon the body of his mistress; and if the flames Tose quick and fleice, as they prob ably would, he may very well have been unable to escape. An eagle 'saved the life of a famous woman. Helen, the beauty of Greece, was about to be sacrificed, in her girlhood, to induce the iods to turn aside a pestilence. She stood upon the altar, crowned with sacrificial flowers, and the priest, was about to consulate the sacrifice, when an eagle swooped down, seized the knife, and laid it upon the bead of a heifer, which was sacrificed in her stead. Eagles have also figared in rather a different way, ia the history of Ireland, and the following story is believed to be aatheatic : " la the reign of Queen Elizabeth, the 0Sullivans were the chiefs of Bear and Bantry, districts ia the County Cork ; and Phillip O'Sulli vaa joined with the confederacy of O'Neil and O'JJonnel, allied with the,, Spaniards, who had landed in the south of Ireland to aid the Irish in shaking off the yoke of England. The surrender of Kinsaie, in 1601. rained their hopes, and O'Snllivan's castle, of Daoboy, was besieged ; hut, after an heroic defence, was obliged to surrender. Sir Walter Raleigh was eseoag tbe beseig era. Sir George Carew, the Qaeea's sen President of Muaster ia aecordaaee, no doabt, with instructions froas tbe Queea, ordered all persons found in the Cattle, after the surrender, to be put to death. The lands of the O'Sullivans were laid waste,and the chief was obliged to retreat to Ulster, leaving his wife and children to the care of his foster-brother, Gorrane Mo Swiney, who built a hut of sods to shelter his liege mistress, at the bottom of an enormous rock, called the Eagle's Precipice, in the Valley of Glengariff, County Cork. In those days, as in many other days before and since, the English, in Ireland, carried death before them and left famine behind. One day, when the refugees were at their utmost need, with no hopes or supplies, Gorrane saw an eagle flying to its eyrie, with a bare in its talons for its young ones. Twisting a rope of tbe fibres of the fir-tree found in the bogs, he climbed with his son to tbe top of the reck, and watched until the eaglo flew away for food. Then he let down the boy by tbe rope, instructing him to tic strings around the necks of the eaglets just tight enough to hinder them from swallowing. The boy was then drawn up, and they waited until they saw the two eagles return, one with a rabbit, tbe other with a grouse, which they laid down before their young, and then flew away on another expedition. The boy was now let down ; he unloosed the eaglets, opened the rabbit and grouse, and fed them with tbeir offals, and father and son returned home in tri umph with their o:rn game. They did the same, day afternVy, until the country was quiet, and the lady able to find other quar ters." The Romans used the eagle on the banners of their legions. The French, under the Empire, adopted it frdm the Romans. The double eagle of Austria is tbe Union of the Eastern and Western Empires; and the Emperors of Austria consider themselves the head of the Holy Roman Eninire. Russia has her black eagle, Poland had ber white eagle. Prus sia, also, bas ber eagle. England cnose a beast instead of a bird for ber emblom ; bat America, her daughter, went back to the imperial and triumphant eagle. A FLBASAHT CITY. Richmond, C. S. A must be a pleasant place to dwell in. Under date of October 14th, John R. Thompson thus describes tbe condition of municipal affairs in a letter to tbe Grenada Appeal: " Riohmond is now worse than Naples, worse than Baltimore was when Winter Davis was the Wilkes of the Plug Ugly swell mob of that lawless city. No one thinks of going into the Cimmerian streets after nightfall without arms. A large and well-organized band of cut-throats has ' taken the town.' lhey lie in wait at almost every corner, well provided with slung shots, billies, brass knuckles-, and all other devilibh implements of mischief which the city highwayman uses to disable hie victims, ana they attack everybody that walks along; oftentimes gentlemen when attended by ladies. That they are not found out is a matter of grave reproach to the city police. But this corps is so small that they can do littlo for the protection of a city spread over an immense surface of ground, and without a light from one end of it to the other. That so numerous a gang can infest Richmond, all walking the streets in daytime, without ostensible means of support, and doing nothing whatever, ia a proof of the palpable inefficiency of the conscript law. Why these men are not enrolled bv the nroner officers (for they cannot possibly be exempt) passes all com prehension. iJut a promenade down wain street any day will show yoa hundreds of idlers, fashionably dressed, with overssuok tawdry jewelry, sporting watcb chains that tmVht and should hantr them, for beyond all doubt, in these croups at the corners one ' sees tbe very scoundrels that rob honest citizens after dark. A few nights ago the nolieo made a descent noon one of the dsas or clubs of the gang, and captured sixteen, who were taken to Castle Thunder. There are nrobablv more than twenty times that number in the oity, and unless something IS aone to put a wop to iueir uuiragc uuu, there will be a private patrol and some hanging done at the lamp post quite im promptu." nrciiAii of thx EoetiAH mrotr In the time of John III. that is to say. in the second half of the 15th century, it only occupied a surface or iv,v)V square miles. Iatbe reiga of Alexis Mikeaalo vick, ia 1650, its exteat had already reached 237,000; under that of Peter the Great, 280,000; under Catherine 11, 33D,UUU; and nnder the nresent reizn. 342.000 miles. Tbe result is that the most considerable increase took nlace under Peter tbe Great and Catharine. The former conquered a part of Finland, the Dsghestan, and some otner Caucasian provinces, ana we cosauj of the Kirghises, and also aaaexed to the empire Kamtschatka and some islands ia me racinc ucean. aae wcner j"-, Courtland. tbe rest of Finland, tbe Criawe, a part of Beeserabis; and some other Caa casian provinces, and Georgia, were subject ed to the sceptre of the Czarina. Tbe ooantry of tbe Amoor, aa exteat of 9,200 square miles, has been annexed aader tbe present reign. The surrender of Sehaayl pacified some provinces, which auy eoni qently be considered as bavag been added to the Russian territory. Tbe population has increased ia an equal proportion. Ia 1722 it was 14 millions ; in 1803, 36 stir lions; in 1820, 50 sailions; aad at present it amounts to 65 million3.