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THE SMOKY HILL AND REPUBMMN UNION.
C- l4t. "WE JOIN orftSELVJES Xtf' kdARTY THAT DOES NOT, CARRY THE FLAG, AND KEEP STEP TO THE MUSIJmMTTHE UNION!' "VolTome III". JTJNGrtlOlSr CITY, JCA3STSAS. ,SATUEDAY, DECEMBER 19, 1863. '. IN"ixmber 6. Wasiiiaqton, Dec. 9, 1863. JToIIow Citizens of-Jhe resentatlves : Senate and House of Hep. Another year of health and of sufficiently nbuu'dant liarvrsts has passed, for these, and especially for the improved condition of 'onr national affairs, our renewed and profound gratitude to God is due. We remain in peace and friendship with foreign powers. The efforts of disloyal citizens of the Uuitcd States to involve us in foreign wars to aid inexcusable insur rection, have been unavailing. Her Bri tanic Majesty's Government, as was justly expected, hae exercised their authority to present the departuro of new hostile expe ditions from British ports. The Emperor of Frnuce has, by a like proceeding, prompt ly indicated the neutrality which he pro claimed at the beginning of the contest. " Questions of great intricacy and impor tance have arisen, out of the blockade and cother belligerent operations, between the Government and several of the maritime powers, but they have been discussed and, Ho far as" lias been possible, accommodated ill a spirit of frankness, justice and mutual Oo"od will. It is especially gratifying that our Prize Courts, by the impartiality of iueir aujuuicauons, nave commanded tne "rdspect aud confidence of maritime power5. The supplementary treaty between the United States and Great Britain for tbe suppression of the African Slavo Trade, made of the 17th day of February last, has been duly ratified and carried into cxecu--tiou. It is believed that, so far as Ameri can ports and American citizens arc con cerned, that inhuman and barbarous traffic has been brought to an end. I thall hubmit, for the consideration of the Stuatc, a convention for the adjustment of possessory claims in Washington Terri tory, arising out of the treaty of the 15th of June, 1810, between the United States find Great Brituin, aud which have been the soutce of some disquiet among the citizens of that now rapidly improving part Of the count ly. A novel and important question, involv ing the extent of the maratime jurisdiction ot Spun in the waters which surround the Island of Cuba, has been debated without reaching an agreement, and it is proposed, in an amicable spirit, to refer it to the ar bitrament of an amicible power. A con vention for that purpose will be submitted to the Senate. I have thought it proper, subject to the approval of the Senate, to concur with the interested commercial powers in an ar rangement for the liquidation of the Scheldt Duespont, the principles of which have been heretofore adopted in legard to the imprfrts upon navigation in the waters of Denmark. The long pending controversy between this Government and that of Chili, touching the seizure at Silana, in Peru, by Chilian officers, of a luige amount in treasure, be longing to citizens of the United States, has been brought to a close by the award of his majesty, the King of the Belgians, to whose arbitration the question was refer red by the parties. The subject was thor ou'ly and patiently examined by that justly respected magistrate, and although the sum awarded to the claimants may not have been as large as they expected, there is no reason to distrust the wisdom of his Majes ty 't decision. That decision was promptly complied with by Chili when intelligence in regard to it reached that country. The Joint Commission, undor the act of the last session, for carrying into effect the convention with Peru on the subject of claims, has been organized at Lima, and is engaged in the business entrusted to it. " 'J he difficulties concerning inter-oceanic transit throught Nicarauga are in course of amicable adjustment, in conformity with the principles set forth in my last annual message. I have received representations iom the United States of Columbia, and have credited a minister to that Republic. Incidents occurring in the progress cf our chil war have forced upon my attirrion the uncertain state of international questions touching the rights of foreigners in this country" and of United States citizens abroad, In regard to some governments, these rights are at length partially defiued by treaties. In some instances is it ex .pfessly stipulated that on the instant of civil war a foreigner residing in this coun try, within the lines of the insurgents, is to be exempted from the rule which classes him ns a belligerent, in whose behalf tbe government of his country cannftt express any privileges or immunities from that character. I regret to say, however, that such claims have been put forward, and in some instances in behalf of foreigners who have lived in the United States the greater part of their lives. There is reason to believe that many persons born in foreign countries, who have declared their intention to become citizens, or who bae been fully naturalized, hnve evaded the military duty required of them by denying the fact, and thereby throwing upon government the burdeu of proof. It has been found diffi- ult or impracticable to obtain this proof, from the want of guides to the proper sources of information. These might be supplied by requiring the clerks of courts, where declarations of intentions may be made, or naturalization effected, to send, periodically; lists of the names pf persons naturalized W'declaring their1 in ted lion"' to become, citizens,, to the Secretary ;of the Interior, in whose department these names must be arranged arid -printed for general information. There is also reason to be lieve that foreigners frequently become citizens of the UnifedStates .for the sole purpose of evading the duties imposed by tbe laws of their native' 'country, by which, in' becoming naturalized here) they "kt once repair, and though never returning" to the Uni ed states, they claim tne interposition of the government, as citizens, ' 'Many altercations and great prejudices have here tofore arisen out of this abuse. Is is, there fore, submitted to your serious considera tion, if it might be advisable to fix a limit beyond which no citizen of the United States residing abroad, may -claim the interposition of the government. The right of suffrage has often been assumed and exercised by aliens, under pretense of nat uralization, which they have disavowed when drafted in the military service. I submit the expediency of such an amend ment to the law that will make the fact of voting an estopple against any plea of exemption from military1 service or other civil allegations on grounds of allegiance. In common" with other' Western powers, our relations with Japan have been brought in serious jeopardy through the perverse opposition of tbe hereditary aristocracy of the Empire to the enlightening, liberal policy of the Tycoon, designed to bring the country into the society cf nations. It is to be hoped, though hot with entire confi dence, that these difficulties may be peace fully overcome. I ask your attention to tbe minister residing there for the damages he bai sustained in the destruction by fire of the residence of the Legation, at Yeddo. 'Satisfactory, arrangements have been made with the Emperor of Russia, which it i3rbelieved will result in effecting a con tinuous line' of telegraph through that Empire from our Pacific coast I recommend to your favorable consider ation tbe subject of an international tele graph between the Capital and tbe national forts along the Atlantic seaboard and the Gulf of Mexico. Such connections, estab lished with any reasonable 'outlay, would be economical as well as; effective, aids to the diplomatic, military and naval service. Tbe consular systems of the United Sta'tos, under the enactments of the last Congress, begin to be self-sustaining ; there is reasou to hope that it may become en tirely so, with the renewal of trade which will ensue when' "peace is .restored. Our Ministers abroad have been faithful in de fending our rights and promoting our com tnerc'nl interests. Our Consuls have neces sarily had to encounter increased labor and responsibilities, growing out of the war. These they have for the most part met and discharged with zeal and efficiency. This acknowledgement is'justly due those Con suls who reside' in China and other central countries, and charged with complications and extraordinary powers. The condition. of the several organized 1 em tones is generally satisfactory; altbo the Indian disturbances in New -Mexico have not been entirely suppressed. The mineral resources of 'Colorado, Nevada, Idaho, New Mexico and Arizona' are prov ing far richer than heretofore understood. I lay before you1 communications on this subject from tbe Governor of New Mexico. I again submit to your consideration -the expediency of establishing a systenTfor the encouragement of emigration. Although this source of national wealth is again flow ing with greater freedom than for several years before the insurrection occurred, there is still a great deficiency ' in every field of industry, especially in agriculture, and in our mines, as well of iron and coal as of the precious metals. While demand for labor is thus increased here, tens of thous ands of persons destitute of remunerative occupations are thronging to our foreign consulates, and offering to emigrate to the United States if essential, bat very cheap assistance can be-afforded them. It is easy to see that under the sharp discipline of civil war tbe nation is beginning a new life This noble effort demands the aid and ought to receive the attention and' support of tbe Government. ' ' Iujuries unforseen by tbe Government, and unintended, may 'in some case's" bare been inflicted upon the subjects' or eitizens of foreign countries, both at sea and land, by persons in the service of the United States. As this Government expects re dress from other-powers when similar inju ries are inflicted by persons iff their service upon citizens of tbe United States,-we must be prepared to do justice to foreigners. If the existing judicial tribunals are inade quate to this purpose, a special eourt may bo authorized, with the power to hear and decide such claims of the character referred to, as may have arisen under treaties and public law. Conventions for adjusting claims by your commission have been 'pro posed to some Governments, bnt no defini tive answer to these propositions baa yet been received by any. In course of the session I shall probably have occasion to request you to provide indemnification to claimants. Decrees of restitution have been rendered and damages awarded by the Admiralty Court, and in other eases when Government may be acknowledged to be liable ii principle and when the amount of that liability has been ascertained by an in formal arbitration. ' The proper officers of the Treasury have deemed themselves required by the j law, of Ue-United States upon .the subject,,) de and a Uv upon the incomes 'of foreign Consuls in .this country. While suebia demand may sot beau indication of public lav, or periapt of anyj existing treaty be tween the United States and a foreign coun try, the. expediency of so far modifying the act as to exempt from tax the'.incoues of aach Consuls as are not citizens of the United States, derived from the emoluments of their offices or from property, not situa ted jil the United States, u submitted to yonr serious consideration. I make' this suggestion upon, the ground that a courtesy which, ought to be. reciprocated, exempts our Consuls in all other countries from tax ation to the extent thus .indicated. The United States, I think, ought not to be exceptionally illiberal to international treaty and courtesy. The operations of the Treasury during the last year have been successfully con ducted. . The enactment, by Congress, of a National Banking Law has proved a valua ble support' of the public credit, and the general legislation in relation to loans has fully answered the .expectations' of its.fra mers. Some amendments may be urged to perfect existing laws, but no change in their principles or general scopo is believed to be needed. : Since, these measures .have been in operation, all demands on the Treasury, including tbe pay -of tbe army and navy, have been promptly met and fully satisfied. No considerable body of troops, it is be lieved, were ever more amply provided or more liberally and punctually paid, and it may be added that by .no people' were the burdens incident to a great war more cheer fully borne. The receipts during the year, from all sources, including loans t and the balance in the Treasury at the commence ment, were j&yu 1,120,07 80; tbe aggre gate disbursements, $895,606,630 65, leav ing a balance on the 7th of July, 1863, of a&2yU4,4Zl. Of the receipts,- there were derived, from' Customs, $69,059,642 ; from Internal Revenue', $37,640,767' 95: from District. Taxes, $148,510,361; from hinds,- $167,617 116; from miscellaneous sources.. $304,661,535, and from loans. $776,582,361, making the aggregate of $901,112,674 86. '. Of the disbursements there .were $232,539 22 ; for Pensions. &o.j $421,652,050; foe Interest on .Public Debt, $24,729,846 51 ; for .War Depart ment, $599,598,600 83 ; for the Navy De partment, $632,410,629 ; for the payment of the funded and temporarydebt, $181, 086,635 07; making an aggregates of $806,166,630 55, and leaving a balance of $532,904,421; but the payment of the funded and temporary debt having been made from money borrowed during the year,-must be regarded as merely nominal payments,' and the monies borrowed to make them as merely nominal receipts, and this amount, $181,095;635 07, should, there fore, be deducted both from tbe receipts and the disbursements. This being 1 done, there remains as actual receipts, $714,909, 995, leaving the balance as' already stated. The actual receipts' and disbursements for the first quarter, and the estimated receipts and disbursements for the remaining three fourths of the current fiscal year of 1864, will be shown in detail by the reports of the Secretary of the Treasury, to which I invite your attention. . It is sufficient to say here that it is not believed that the actual results will exhibit a state of the fi nances less formidable to the country than the estimates of that officer heretofore made, while it is confidently expected that at the close of the year both .disbursements, and debts will be found very considerably less than has bees anticipated. The report of the Secretary of War is a document of great interest. It consists of, first, the military operations of the year, detailed in tbe report of the General-in-Chief ; second, of the organization of color ed persons into the war service ; third, the exchange of prisoners, as fully set forth in the letter of General Hitchcock ; fourth, operations under the act for enrolling and calling out tbe national forces, detailed in the report of the Provost Marshal General ; fifth, tbe organization of the Invalid Corps; sixth, the operations of the several depart ments of the Quartermaster General, tbe Commissary General, tbe Paymaster Gen eral, the Chief of Engineers, the Chief of Ordinance, and the Surgeon General It has appeared impossible to make a reliable summary of this report, except aueh as would' be too extended in this place, and hsnoe I content myself in referring your attention to the report itself. The duties devolving on the naval branch of the service daring the year, and through out the whole of this unhappy contest, have been discharged with fidelity and eminent success. The extensive blockade has been constantly increasing in efficiency as the navy has expanded ; yet, in so long a line, it has so far been impossible to entirely suppress illicit trade. From the returns received at the Navy Department, it appears that more than one thousand vessels have been captured since the blockade was insti tuted, and that the value of the prises already seat m for adjudication amount to over thirteen millions of dollars. The naval fores of the United States consists atvthis time of five hundred and eighty-eight ves aels completed and in course of construction an of these seventy-five are iron-alad ar mored steamers. The events of the war given. re of increased interest and imp? sea to the navy, which will probably extend beyond tbe war itself. The armored vessels in our-navy, completed and ia:the service, or jwhich are under contract and approaching,' completion, are believed to exceed in number those of1 any other power; but while these may be relied upon for harbor defeases and sea coast service, others of greater strength and capacity will be necessary for cruising purposes, and 'to matntain-our rightful position on the ocean, The change that has taken place in naval vessels and naval warfare since the intro duction of steam as a motive power for ships of war, demands corresponding changes in some of our existing navy yards, or the establishment of new ones, for-tbe construction and necessary repair of modern war vessels. Mo inconsiderable embarrass ment, delay, or public injury ban been ex perienced from the want pf such government establishment. The necessity of such a navy yard, so furnished, at somek suitable place on the Atlantic seaboard has, on re peated occasions, been brought to the atten tion of Congress by tbe Navy Department, and is again presented in tbe report of the Secretary, which accompanies this commu nication. I think it my duty to invite your special attention to this subject, and also. of estab lisbing a yard and depot for naval purposes upon one of the Western rivers. A naval force has been created on these interior waters, and under many disadvantages, within a little more than two years, exceed ing the number of the whole naval force of the country at the commencement of tbe present Administration. Satisfactory and important as has been the performances of the beroio men of the navy, at this .period they are scarcely more wonderful than the services of our mechan ics and artisans, in the production of war vessels which has created a new form of naval power. Our country has advantages superior to any other nation- In our re sources of iron and timber, with inexhaust ible quantities, equalling tbe immediate necessity of both and all, are accessible and in close proximity to navigable waters. Without the advance of public risks, the resources of the natidnhave been developed and its power displayed in the construction of a navy of such magnitude, which has, at the very period of its creation, rendered signal service to the Union. The increase of the number of seamen in the public ser vice, from 7000 men in the spring of 1861 to about 124,000 at the present time, has been accomplished without special legiala tion or extraordinary bounties to effect that increase. It has been found, however, that the operations of the draft, with high boun ties paid for army recruits, is beginning to effect, injuriously, the naval service, and will, if not corrected, be likely to impair its efficiency by detaching seamen from their proper avocation, and inducing them to enter the army. 1 therefore respectfully suggest that Congress might aid both the army and navy service by adequate provis ion on this subject, which would at the same time be equitable to tbe communities more especially interested. I commend to your consideration the suggestions of tbe the Secretary of the Navy in regard to the policy of fostering and training seamen for naval service. The naval academy is ren dering signal service in preparing midship men for highly ressponsible duties, which in after life they will be required to per form, in order that the country should not be deprived of the proper quota of educated officers,for which legal provisions have been at naval schools. The vacancies caused by the neglect or omission to make nominations from the States in insurrections have been filled by the Secretary of tbe Navy. Tbe school is now more full and crmplete than at any previous period, and in every respect entitled to the favorable consideration of Congress. . During the past fiscal yesr the financial condition of the Postoffice Department has been one of increased prosperity, and I am gratified in being able to state that the ac counts of postal revenue has nearly equaled tbe expenditures, the latter amounting to eleven millions three hundred and fourteen thousand dollars and eighty-four cents, and the former to eleven millions one hundred and sixty-three thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine dollars and fifty-nine, leav ing a deficiency of but one hundred and fifty thousand four hundred and seventeen dollars and twenty-five cents. In 1860, the year immediately preceding tbe rebel lion, the deficiency amounted to five mil lions six hundred and fifty-six thousand seven hundred and five dollars and nine cents. The postal receipts of that year were two million six hundred and forty-five thousand eight hundred snd twenty-two dollars and nineteen cents less tbsn those of 1863. The decrease since 1860 in tbe annual rraount of transportation has been only about 2o per cent., but tbe annual ex penditures on account of the same has been reduced 25 per cent. It is manifest, there fore, that the Postomce Department msy become self sustaining in a few years, even with a restoration of the whole service. The international conference of postal del agates, from the principal countries of Eu rope and America, wnich was cauea at uie saiwestio of the Postmaster General met at Paris an the. 11th otMayJast, and can- eluded its deliberations on the 8th of June, The principles established by lbs aonferenae sa'bestadowtsd to facilitate ratal ialer- amusa between, nations, aadas the basis of future connection?, to inaugurate a general system ofuniform international charges, at reduced rates of postage, cannot fail to pro duce beaeaciaT results.' T-T .Liefer you to the, report of the Secretary of-the Interior, which is herewith laid be fore yon; for the-useful and varied informa tion in relation to the public lands, Indian affairs, patents, pensions and other matters of public concern, pertaining to this depart ment. The quantity of lands disposed of during the last and the first quarter of the present fiscal year, was three million eight hundred and forty-one thousand and five hundred and fifty-nine acres, of which one hundred and sixty-nine thousand nine hun dred and eleven acres were Jsold for cash, one million four hundred and fifty-six thousand five hundred and fourteen acres were taken up under tbe homestead law, and the residue disposed of under laws granting lands for military bounties, for railroads and other purposes. It also ap pears that the salo of lands is largely on tbe increase. It has long been a cherished opinion of 6ome of our widest aiateemen that the people of tbe United States bad a higher and more enduring interest in the early settlement and substantial cultivation of the public lands, than those in the amount of direct revenue to be derived from tbe salo of them. This opinion has bad a controling influence iu shaping legislation upon the subject of our national domain. I may cite as instance of this tbe liberal measures adopted in reference to actual set tlers, and tbe grants to the States of the overflowed lands within their limits, in or der io their being reclaimed and rendered fit for cultivation. Tbe grant to railroad companies of alternate sections of land up on the contemplated line of their roads wheu completed, will largely multiply tbe facili ties for reaching our distant possessions. This policy has reached its most signal and practical illustration in recent enactments, granting homesteads to actual settlers since the first day of January last. The before mentioned quantity of one million four hundred and fifty-six thousand five hundred and fourteen acres of land has been taken up under its provisions. This fact and the amount of sales furnish gratifying evidence of the increasing settlement upon the pub lic lands, notwithstanding tbe great strug gle in which the energies of the nation have been engaged, and which has required so large a withdrawal of our citizens from their accustomed pursuits. I cordially con cur in the recommendation of tbe secretary of the Interior suggesting a modification of the act in favor of those engaged in the military and naval service of tbe United States. I doubt not that Congress will cheerfully adopt such means as will, with out essentially changing the general fea tures of the system, secure to tbe greatest practicable extent its benefits to those who have left their homes in defence of the country in this arduous crisis. I invite your attention to tbe views of the Secretary of War as to the propriety of raising by appropriate legislation a revenue from tne miueral lands of the United States. The measures provided at y our last ses sion for the removal of certain Indian tribes have been carried into effect. Sundry treaties have been negotiated, which will in due time be submitted for the constitutional action of the Senate. They contain stipu lations for extinguishing the possession rights of the Indians to large and valuable tracts of land. It is probable that the effect of these treaties will result in the establish ment of permanent friendly relations with such of those tribes as have been brought into frequent and bloody collision with our outlying settlements and emigrants. Tbe sound policy of and imperative duty to these wards of Government demand our anxious and constants-attention to their mutual well-being, to their progress in the arts of civilization, and above all to that moral training which, under the blessings of Divine Providence, will confer upon tbem tbe elevated and sanctifying influence of tbe hopes and consolations of the christian faith. I suggested in my last annual message tbe propriety ot remedying our Indian system. Subsequent events have satisfied me of its necessity. The details set forth in the report of the 'Secretary will evince the urgent need for immediate legislative action. I commend the benevolence of tbe institu tions established or patrouized by tbe Gov ernment in this district, to your generous and fostering care. The attention of Congress, during the last session, was engaged to some extent with a preposition for enlarging the river commu nication between tbe Mississippi river and the Northeast seaboard, which proposition, however, failed for the time. Since then, upon a call of the greatest respectability, a convention has been called at Chicago, upon the same subject, a summary of whose views is contained-in a-memorial addressed to the President and Congress, and which I now have the honor to lay before you, and that this interest is one which ere long will force its own way, I do not entertain a doubt, while it is submitted entirely to your wisdom as to what can be done. Now, augmented interest is given to this subject hy tbe actual commencement of work upon the Pacific Railroad, under auspices favor able for its rapid progress and completion, enlarged navigation becomes a palpable need to this great road. I transmit the second annual report of the Commissioners of the Department of Agriculture, asking your attention to the developments in that vital interest of the nation. 1 When Conrvss- assembled a year ago, tbe war had already lasted nearly twenty months, and there had been many conflicts on both land and-sea, with varying results. The rebellion' had been pressed back into reducedJimitsyet the tone of publid feel ing and opinion, at home and abroad, was not satisfactory. With other signs, the popular elections, tbeu just past, indicated uneasiness among ourselves ; while, amid much that was cold and menacing, the kindest words coming from England were uttered in accent of pity, that we were too blind to surrender. Our commerce was suffering greatly by a few armed vessels, built upon and furnished from foreign shores, and we were threatened with such additions from the same quarter as would sweep our trade from the sea and raise our blockade. We had failed to elicit from European Governments anything hopeful upon this subject. The Emancipation Proclamation, which was issued in September, was running its assigned period to the beginning of the new year. A month, and the final proclamation came, including the announcement that col ored men of suitable condition would be received into the war service. The policy of etnaueipatioa, and of the employment of black soldiers, gave to the fataro a new aspect, about which hopes, fears, and doubts contended in uncertain conflict. Alluding to our political system, as a matter of civil administration, the General Government has no lawful power to effect emancipation in any State ; and for a long time it had been hoped that the rebellion oouhl be suppress ed without resorting to it as a military measure. It was all the while deemed possible that a necessity for it might come, and if it should, tbe crisis of tbe contest would then be presented. It came, aud as indicated, it was followed by dark and doubtful days. Eleven mouths having been passed, we are permitted to take another review. The rebel borders arc pressed further back, and by the complete opening of the Mississippi river, the country domi nated over by the rebellion is divided into distant parts. Practical communication between them and Tennc&seo and Arkansas has been so completely cleared of insur gents' influence aud control, and tbe citi zens, in fact, and owners of slaves and advo cates of slavery at the begiuning of the rebellion, now declare openly for emanci pation in their respective Slates. Of those States not included in tbe emancipation proclamation, Maryland and Missouri, neither of which, years ago, would tolerate any restraint upon tbe extension of slavery into tbeir territory, only dispute now as to the best mode of removing it from within their own limits. Of those who were slaves at the beginning of tbe rebellion, fully'one hundred thousand are now in the United States military service, about one half of which number actually bear arms in the ranks, thus giving tbe double advan tage of taking so much labor from the in surgent cause, and supplying the places which otherwise must be filled with so many white men. So far as tested it is difficult to say that they are not as good soldiers as any. No servile insurrections or tendency to violenoe or oruelty has marked the measure of emancipation arising through the blacks. These measures have been much discussed in foreign countries, and cotemporary with such discussions the. tono of the public sen timent there much improved, where the same measure has been truly discussed, supported, criticised and denounced. The annual elections are highly gratifying to those whose duty it is to bear the country through this great trial Thus we have the rising. Tbe crisis which threatened to di vide the friends of tbe Union is past. Looking now to a resumption cf the na tional authority within tbe States wherever that authority has been suspended, I have thought right to issue a Proclamation, a copy of which is herewith transmitted. On examination of the Proclamation it will appear, as is believed, amply justified by the Constitution. True, tbe form of an oath is given, but no man is coerced to take it. A man is only promised a pardon in case he reluctantly takes the oath. The constitution authorizes tbe executive to grant it in terms, as fully established by judicial and other authority, It is also proffered, that if any of tbe States named set up a government, it shall be recognized and guaranteed by the United States, and under it the State shall, on subscribing to tbe Constitutional conditions, be protected against invasion and domestic violence. The constitutional obligation of tbe United States to guarantee to every State in tbe Union a republican form of government, and to protect tbe State in the case as stat ed, is explicit and full But why tender tbe benefits of this provision only to a State Government set up in this particular way 7 This section of tbe Constitution contem plates n case wherein the element within a Stats favorable to republican government in the Union msy be too feeble for an op pa site and hostile element, external to and ever within the State. Such are precisely the cases with which we are bow dealing. An attempt to govern and protest a revised state of government, constituted in whale ar in preponderating part from the veryele ment against whose hostilities and violence it is to be protected, is simply abeatsV) There must be a test by whush;ijwprate opposing elements so as to anikl ontyfresa the ground sad thst is a tikkwfrmi.