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THE SMOKY HILL AND REPUBLIClN UNION.
"WE JOIN OURSELVES TO NO PARTY THAT DOES NOT CARRY THE FLAG, AND KEEP STEP TO THE MUSIC OF THE UNION," $ Volume III. JUNCTION CITY, KANSAS, SATUEDAY, JULY 23, 1S64. Number 35. Smofej gill anJrgtpn6fn nion, PUBLISHED ETEET SVTCRDAT MORNIXG AT JUNCTION, DAVIS Co., KANSAS. W. K. BARTLETT. S. M. STRICKLER, Proprietors. WM. S. BLAKELT, - - - GEO. W. MARTIN, Editor and Publishers. OFFICE IN LAND OFFICE BUILDING. TEBMS OF faUBSCRIPTIOX : One copy, ono year, - $2.00 Ten copies, one year, .... 15.00 Payment required in nil cases in advance. All papers discontinued at the expiration of the time for which payment is received. TERMS OF ADVERTISING '. One square, first insertion, - - $1.00 Each subsequentrinsertion, 50 Ten lines or less being a square. Yearly advertisements inserted on liberal terms. jcxb'woiik: done -with dispatch, and in the latest style of the art. O Payment required for all Job Work oh. delivery. JOSIAH QUINCY. Few men have stepped from the Btage of action to too unknown realities of eternity, whose departure will create so profound a sensation among the citizens of the United States as that of the subject of this sketch, who died in Quincy, Mass., on the evening of July 2d, at the ripe old age of ninety two years. Josiah Quincy was born at Boston, on tho 4th day of February, 1772. Edward Quincy, the emigrating ancestor of the family, came to Boston with the Bev. John Cotton in September, 1663. Josiah was fifth in descent from him. The father of Josiah was a lawyer and orator of consid erable fame of the years immediataly pre ceding the Bevolution. He died at sea, off Gloucester, Mass., April 26, 1775, leaving the subject of this notice at the ago of three years, to the care of his mother, who was the daughter of Wm. Phillips, an eminent merchant or isoston, whose iin inenso fortune i3 still in possession of the representatives of the family. She placed her son in Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., where he received an early educa tion, finally graduating at Harvard College, in 1790. From the tender age of six, till he graduated with the highest honors at the ago of eighteen, he was constantly engaged in his studies. He entered tho law office of Judge William Tudor, of Boston. As rjoon as he attained the age of twenty-one lie was admitted to tho bar, and began the practice of the law. At that time the people of the country had just began to organize themselves into parties, tho adoption of tha Constitution of the United States, aud the coutagion of the French Bevolution producing a fermenta tion in political circles which soon crystal ized into parties. The two great, and, we may add, natural divisions were Democrats (or Bepublicans) and Federalists. Mr. Quincy joined the latter party at its birth and was truo in his allegiance to it so long as it existed. At the age of 27 he was a candidato for Congress, but was defeated in that year and twice afterwards by tho dem ocratic candidate. In 1S05 he was elected aud served eight years. During all those years the federal party was in a hopeless minority. He was one of the most prom ising young men of his day, and was flat tered and courted by the Democrats, but he cast his lot with their opponents and re mained true to the end. During the ad ministrations of Jefferson, and Madison, no man gave them so much trouble and dis quiet as Josiah Quincy. He was very ready in debate, and in earnestness and fervor of speech, quickness of wit, keeness of satire, and the most thorough personal intrepedity, no man could match him, and all feared to court with him a parliamentary encounter. He denounced the war of 1812, fee embargo, and the erection of tho Or leans territory into a State. He was one of the first men in the North to denounce the slaveholding interest as a rising and dan gerous tyrranny. In 1813 he declined a re-election and returned to priyate life. He was soon chosen to the Senate of Mas sachusetts, where he distinguished himself by his opposition to the measures of the administration. He joined in tho protest of the Legislature against the war, and the admission of Louisiana, and reported the famous resolution, occassioned by a propos ed vote of thanks to Capt. Lawrence, to the effect that " in a war waged without justi fiable cause, and for conquest and ambition, it was not becoming a moral and religions people to express approbation of exploits cot immediately connected with the defence of the seacoast and harbor." Ho remained in the Senate till 1821 when he was dropped by the federal politi cians under the impression that bis uncom promising course had weakened his popu larity. As usual, the politicians were mis taken, for he was immediately elected to the office of representative, was elected epeaker, and held that position while in the house. Ho soon resigned to take the posi tion of Judge of the Municipal Court of &oston. Lawyers will remember him as the Judge who first laid down the law of libel, in the case of the pioneer publisher, John N. Maffitt, that the publication of the truth with a good intention and for a justi fiable end, is not libellous. This ruling excited great discussion and uraoh censure, but is now the acknowledged rule of law in this country and England. In 1823 he was the second Mayor of the city of Bos ton. In June, 1829, he was inaugurated President of Harvard University, which position he filled with honor and distinction till 1845. His resignation created uni versal regret among all the students and friends of the college. From that time he lived a strictly private life till the year 1856, when he took a very active part in the canvass for John C. Fre mont. Though in his eighty-fifth year he did much toward influencing public opinion against the slave power, as represented in the person of James Buchanan. He made several speeches in Congress and on public occasion, which have been published, and was tha author of seven or eight works of more than ordinary merit. Mr. Quincy is deseribed as a man of more than ordinary personal beauty, which did not forsake him in his pld age. In his Congressional days, he was a fluent, fiery orator, but in his old age he spoke with great deliberation and distinctness. When the slaveholder's war against the country began, he declared that he felt that now we should be a great and happy nation of which he had never felt sure before. He remained in- possession of his faculties almost to the close of his earthly career, and fell asleep as only good men die. Thus, one by one, are the old landmarks of the nation being called in. AN UNNATURAL MOTHER. The maintenance of military fidelity and discipline seemed to the late Emperor of Bussia an object for which all human ties should be sacrificed. In March, 1837, a woman named Maria Nikoforocona, the widow of a peasant, received a letter from her son Novik, a soldier in the stationary army of Tambow. In this letter the son stated that the barbarous treatment which he and others endured at the hands of regi mental officers had driven him to the reso lution of deserting from a sorvico into which he had been forced from the first, and that, in a few days from the date of his communication, ho hoped to sec and cm brace his mother. The first thing none by the woman, on receipt of this letter, was to carry it to the Governor of the province, who, astonished at the unnatural character of the action, sent the woman awaywithout taking any steps 'a consequence of her"' disclosure. Some days later, the deserter anived at the dwelling of his mother, who received him with open arms aud loaded him with car esses. But ahc took an opportunity imme diately afterward? to go to the police officers to whom she delivered up the child to whom she bad given birth. Compelled by duty, the governor ad dressed a detailed report of the case to the emperor. Nicholas viewed the case differ ently from the governor. The autocrat issued an ukase, decreeing a silver medal to Maria Nikoforocona, with the words, " De votion to the Throne," engraved upon it. This medal was to be suspended from her neck by the ribbon of the Order of St. Anne, and she was further secured for the rest of her life against the chances of want. It was, moreover, decreed that the circum stances of the case should be published in all the journals of the empire, that his sub jects might imitate this example of fidelity to the crown. The young soldier, in accordance with tho military regulations of Bussia, was subjected to the knout, and died under the blows! The unnatural parent wears the decoration assigned her with as much pride as if she had won it by the most virtuous action. B&, Cluscret, the Frenchman and ex General, who edits the New Nation, (Fre mont's organ in New York), says he left the army because " Disaster was inevitable. My warning and expostulations were disregarded. I was unwilling to accept any responsibility." This is a sad confession, but here is a sadder one. The New Nation is of the opinion that Lieutenant-General Grant is lamentably inferior to ex-General Cluserct, and says: "Grant should have avoided plans of campaign in which the assault of fortified positions plays the principal role" because such assault demand " the fury of the French or the rash of which Southern Hood alone is capable." No wonder that Mr. Cluseret found that " disaster was inevitable," and was there fore compelled to resign Northern soldiers hadn't " the fury of the French or the rush of the" rebels. Mr. Cluseret edits the organ of Mr. Fremont, the " Faultfinder." ; Jof Governor Connely, of New Mexico, recently requested the citizens of that Ter ritory to observe a day of thanksgiving in view of the termination of the war with the Yavjo Indians. Ho stated in his procla mation that, with but slight intermissions, the wars with that people have existed 180 years. Hon. James T. Bradv. a distin guished Democratic lawyer and politician of New York city, in a late speech said : " Much has been said, too, about usur pation of powers; but where in history will you find a war against rebellion conducted wish such moderation ?" This is rather different from the average " Democratic " outerv. INGRATITUDE TO PARENTS. There was once a father who gave up everything to his children his house, his fields, his goods and expected that for this his children would support him. But after he had been some time with his son, the latter grew tired of him, and said to him : Father, I have had a son born to me this night, and there, where your arm cUair stands, the cradle must come. Will you not, perhaps, go to my brother, who has a larger room ?" After he had been some time with his second son, he also grew tired of him and said: Father, you like- a warm room, and that hurts my head. Won't you go to my brother, the baker ?" The father went, and after ho had been some time with the third son, he also found him troublesome and said to bim : " Father, the people run in and out here all day, as if it were a pigeon-house, and you cannot have your noon-day sleep. Would you not be better off at my sister Kate's, near the town wall ?" The old man remarked now the wind blew, and said to himself: ,c Yes, I will do so ; I will go and try it with my daugh ter. Women have softer hearts." But after he bad spent some time with his daughter, she grwv weary of him, and said she was always so fearful when her father went to church, or anywhere else, and was obliged to descend the steep stairs, and at her sister Elizabeth's there were no stairs to descend, as she lived on the ground floor. For the sake of peace the old man went to his other daughter. But after some time she too was tired of him, and told him, by a third person, that her house near the water was too damp for a man who suffered from the gout, and her sister, the grave digger's wife, at St. John's, had much drier lodgings. The old man himself thought she was right, and went outside the gate to his youngest daughter, Helen. But after he had been three days with her, her little son said to his grandfather: " Mother said yesterday to cousin Eliza beth that there was no better chamber for you than such a one as father digs." These words broke the old man's heart, so he sank back in his chair, and died. A PEN-AND-INK SKETCH. Dr. Breckenridge disappointed me. Your ideal Kentuckian of one of the old families is of imposing presence tall, broad shoul ders, large headed, round faced a man of physical power as well as mental. But this Dr. Rrcckenridge, whose name has been in mens moulds torty years, whose tame is wide as the bounds of the church in which lie was such a champion, whose clear head and eloquent tongue have done so much in saving Kentucky from drifting into rebel lion, who ruled that great Baltimore Con vantion as if it bad been but a church meet ing, who swayed it with his strong words as reeds are swayed by the wind this Dr. Breckenridge is but a small man, say five feet nine in height, and of one hundred and Gfly-fivc pounds weight in his prime. Trim, compact, alive in every square inch, with small hands, narrow facs, low forehead pro jecting far over the eyes, hollow and hairy cheeks, iron-grey beard banging on bis breast and snowy white at the end, short and white and bristly moustache, long and bushy gray eyebrows, dark and sunken eyes, naming oat trora the sides ot his spectacles, resolute mouth, you guess from the line of bis lips, nose broad in the nostrils and slightly raised in the bridge and sharp ish in the end, with an abundance of semi gray hair, ramblingly parted a little to the left of the middle and falling irregularly on his forehead. Always ready, untiring, fer tile in expedience, loving a front to front encounter, too watchful to be flanked, quick to see an enemy's weakness, magnanimous to the last degree, vigilant, canny, having mnch tact, slow to comprehend a defeat, self-reliant; that is the picture of the man as he stood there yesterday. A Cure fob Scandal. Take of good nature one ounce ; of an herb called by the Indians " mind-your-own-business," one ounce; mix with a little charity-for-others, and two or three sprigs of " keep-your-tongue-between-your teeth ;" simmer them together in a vessel called circumspection, for a short time, and it will be fit for use. Application the symptom is a violent itching in the tongue and roof of the mouth which invariably takes place when you are in company with a species of animals called gossips. YV hen you feel a fit of the disor der coming on, take a teaspoon ful of. the mixture, bold it in your mouth, which you will keep closely shut till you get home, and you will find a complete cure. Should you apprehend a relapse, keep a small bottle foil about you, and repeat the dose on tho slightest symptom. Some time 6ince a man in Maine wanted to exhibit an Egyptian mummy, and went to the court house for a license. " What is it?" asked the judge. " An Eygptian munwny, may it please the court ; more than three thousand years old !" said the showman, " Three thousand years old 1" exclaimed the judge, jumping to his feet. " and is the critter alive ?" tt" A Frenoh writer savs : " Sorrow is fruit ; God does not let it grow on a branch too weak to bear it." EXTINCTION OF BRAZIL. SLAVERY IN At the late anniversary of the British and Foreign Anti-slavery Society, the Chev alier de Almeida Portugal mado some in teresting statements concerning the state of slavery in Jhe empire of Brazil. He said the Brazilians were anxious to see slavery extinguished from their shores, and would embrace every opportunity and use every means in their power to this end. The government had been sincerely desirous of putting an end to the slave trade, and its cruisers had effectually abolished it. He said that slavery in Brazil never separated man and wife, as is done in America. While the slaves were not exactly their own masters, yet they had great liberties, and their comforts were, to some extent, studied. They were allowed to work in their own time in order to raise capital which they could put to their own uses, and the master was quite willing to give them their freedom for a small trifle, and by so doing they brought to tho slave the wish of working and employment of time. And as to education and the like, there were no distinctions of color ; but if slaves became educated, they might rise. He knew a colored man in the naval de partment of Brazil, who rose himself up to the head of the medical department. This showed that freedom was one of the first elements of that constitution of Brazil, and, under such banners, no one could be lieve that they wish to keep on slavery, which was against the heart of any one who was at all actuated by the principles of religion. There are three million slaves in that country, and tho parliament is already occupied with the consideration of measures increasing the priviiiges of the slayes, look ing to emancipation as early as the inter ests of tbe country will, allow. N. Y. In dependent. NEVER TOO OLD TO LEARN. Socrates, at an extremo age, learned to play on musical instruments, for the pur pose of resisting tbe influences of old age. Cato, at eighty years of ago, began to learn the Greek language. Plutarch, when between seventy and eighty, commenced the study of Latin. Boccaccio was thirty years of age when be commenced his studies in polite litera ture, yet he becamo one of the three great masters of thotuscan dialect, Dante and Petrarch being the other two. Sir Henry Spelman neglected the sciences in his youth, but commeuced the study of them when he was between fifty and sixty years of age. After this time he became a most learned antiquarian and lawyer. Colbert, the famous trench minister, at sixty years of age returned to his Latin and law studies, Ludovico, at the great age of oue hun dred and fifteen, wrote the memoirs of his own times. A singular exertion, noticed by Voltaire, who was himself one of the most remarkable instances of the progress ago may make in new studies. Ogilby, the translator of Homer and Yirgil, was unacquainted with Latin and Greek till he was past fifty. Franklin did not fully commence his philosophical pursuits till he bad reached his fiftieth year. Acco'rso, a great lawyer, being asked why he began the study of law so late, answered that indeed he began it late, but he should therefore master it the sooner. Dry den, in his sixty-eighth year, com menced the translation of the " Iliad ;" and his most pleasing productions were written in his old age. YOUR BABIES NOT MY BABIES. About thirty years ago there resided in the town of Hebron a certain Dr. Thorton, who became very much enamored of a young lady, a resident of the same town. The Doctor was a strong decided Presby terian, and bis lady love was a strong and decided Baptist They were bitting to gether one evening, talking of their ap proaching nuptial, when the Doctor re marked: " I am thinking, my dear, of two events, which I shall number amongst tho happiest of my life." " And pray, what may they be, Doctor," remarked the lady. "One is the hour when I shall call you my wife for the first time.!' "And the other?" "It is when we shall present our first born for baptism." "What I sprinkled?" " Yes, my dear, sprinkled?' " Never shall a child of mine be sprink led. They shall be, hey !" " Yes, my love.'' "Well, sir, I can tell you, then, that your babies won't be my. babies. So good night, Doctor." The lady left the room and the doctor left the house: The sequel was that the doctor never married and tbe lady died an old maid. BQU The Louisville Journal, commea ting on the fact that a number of Cincinnati young ladies have been married and carried away to other places, says no city has a better claim to supply spare ribs fo; the immense West "Mother," said Ike Partington, "did you know that the "iron horse had but one ear?" "One car! merciful gra cious child, what do yon mean ?" " Why, the engine-eer, of cource." PROPOSED THE CHILDREN OF ARNOLD THE TRAITOR. Mrs. Arnold, the wife of Benedict Ar nold, died in London, in 1804, in her fort -fourth year. Qf her children, Mr. Sabine, in his new edition of "Tbe Ameri can Loyalists," which will' soon bo publish ed, has collected the following account : " Mrs. Arnold was the mother of four sons and one daughter, namely : Edwin Shippen, who was a lieutenant in the Ben gal cavalry and paymaster of Mattra, and who died in Iudia in 1818 ; James Bobort son, of whom presently; George, who was a lieutenant-colonel in the Bengal cavalry, and who died in India in 1828; William Fitcb, who, a magistrate in the county of Bucks, England, and late a captain in the Lancers, married tho only daughter of Cap tain Ruddach of the Iloyal Navy, and who, the father of six children, was living in 1855 ; and Sophia Matilda, tho wife of Colonel Pownal Phipps, of the East India Company service, who was also living etght years ago. and the mother of one son and two daughters. " A word in conclusion, of tho most dis tinguished son. James Bobertson Arnold entered the .corps of Boyal Engineers in 1708. ne served two years at Bermuda, and from 1818 to 1S2S commanded the Engineers in Nova Scotia and New Bruns wick. After tho accession of William IV. he was one of His Majesty's aid?. While in the provinces just named he visited his father's house King street, St. John and, as I have been told, threw himself into a chair and wept like a child. He express ed a wish to sec his mother's family in the United States; but added, 'I suppose I should be insulted on account of my fa ther,' &c. A gentleman who was in ser vice with bim, and an intimate acquaintance, speaks of him in terms of high commenda tion ; and relates that ho was a small man, with eyes of remarkable sharpness, and in features thought to resemble bis father. His wife was Virginia, daughter of Bartlett Goodrich, of the Isle of Wright. In 1S41 he was transferred from the Engineers, and appointed a Major General, and a Knight of the Hanoverian Guelphic Order. He died in London, December, 1852. A HEAVY WAGER. The San Francisco Alia Califomian gives the following account of a strangely constituted wager. About ten months since, two gentlemen of that city agreed to the followiug conditions : If the Fedoral forces did not capture Richmond within thirty days from that date, he was to give his opponent a single sound eatable apple; if Bichmond hold out sixty days he was to give him two apples, and doubling tho number for each month until Richmond was taken to the end of time if that event did not occur before. Nine months have passed since the first apple was handed over, and the list of apples delivered at the end of the successive months is as follows : 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256 total, 511. Thus far, it is all a good joke, and the loser has paid for feits regularly, with a good grace, but yes terday it ruined a ten dollar piefle to meet the demand (apples are fifteen to twenty cents per pounds, and it took a fifty pound box.) Should Bichmond be taken within the present month, he would got back all the apples he has Jost and one more, which, the price will then be at the highest notch, would make him more than even ; but should it bold out a year longer, and he continue to pay his losses, his last payment would cost him 10,960, and he would be $81,900 out; in three months more he would be out $686,340 ; and, should tho war last from this date as much longer as it has already lasted since its commencemelt no nation on earth could begin to meet the terms of the wager, even allowing it to be reduced to a cash' basis, and the payments to be made in greenbacks. i fiST Let it be passed around from hand to hand, until. every workingman in the lanp has committed it memory, that when Abraham Lincoln, our President, and Andrew Johnson, formerly Senator, and now Governor, two workingmen and cham pions of labor, were nominated for office, the organ of the Democracy sneered at them as " rail-splitting buffoon, and a boor ish tailor, both from the backwoods, both growing vp in uncouth ignorance." Thus we see that when laboring men by their own industry rise to honor, these new fledged Democrats have no name for them but words of contempt and scorn. Phila delphia Press. m m m Increase op Bats. The Farmer's Ga zette asserts and proves by figures that one pair of rats will have a progeny and de scendants amounting to no less than 651,050 in three years. Now, unless this immense family can be kept down, they would then consume more food than would sustain 65,000 human beings. It will be far wiser in tbe farmer to turn his attention to the destruction of rats than of small birds. Befued to Elope. Love-smitten mai dens imagine, if you can, the feelings of a young lady of Wheeling, Va., who, having Deen locKea up to keep her away from a soldier lover, managed in the night to let herself down from her third story window, elude the vigilance of her guardians, and join him for whoa sho was " pining away in aohtary confinement, but the great calf refused to elopa witc ber I WELL ANSWERED. The New York Independent, one of the oldest and most influential radical anti slavery papers in the Union, in replying to an article from Wendell Phillips, thus al ludes to the recent Fremont ratification meeting in Cooper Institute, at which John Cochrane said Fremont and MuClellan were "twin cherries on one stem;" and Orestes Brownson said ho would vote for Vallan digham for President in preference to Mr. Lincoln; and N. C Claiborne (a sweet chap, Claiborne, for loyal Missourjans to associate with politically,) grew eloquent over the wrongs Mr. Lincoln had inflicted upon tbe rebels of 31isouri. The Inde pendent says : " To our remark of last week, that he knew only half the intent of the Cleveland movement, aud that if he knew the other half he would withdraw his suppoit, he replies that we told him nothing new. Wo propose now to tell him something new. Ono of his best frieuds in this city a no ble and unspotted lawyer addressed to us a few days ago theso words: " The Fre mont meetings in my district are held in the same grog-shop out of which, last sum mer, issued the rioters who set firo to my house; the audiences are the same persons; and the speakers arc well-known Copper heads !" Is Mr. Phillip willing to stay joined to this gang? At the great Fre mont ratification meeting at Cooper Insti tute, on Monday night, where Mr. Phillips was advertised to speak, (and where conse quently wc were present to hear), the chief demonstrations were boisterous cheers for McClellan 1 Would Mr. Phillips, had ho been present, been pleased with tho sound ? Dr. Brownson, ono of the speakers, said that for President he would prefer Vallan digham, Horatio Seymour, or Fernando Wood to Mr. Lincoln ! Will Mr. Phillips say amen. Mr. Claiborne, of Missouri, an other speaker one of the delegates to Chicago ! said, " Give us a man who is not obnoxious to the &outh, so that we can form a bridge on which they can couaa back !" Will Mr. Phillips walk that road to a compromise 1 John Cochrane, candi date for the Vice Presidency, speaking at tho samo meeting, alluded with pleasure to the equal cheers for Fremont and McClel lan, and said that these men were " twin cherries on one stem !" Is Mr. Phillips content to hang in their company as a third on the same stem ? In the outsido meet ing, Mr. Bryce, a speaker, said, " I tako occasion to pay a dcseived tribute to George B. McClellan. rCheers.T I like to hear you cheer for him. If Fremont is elected, he will do McClellan justice. I know Fre mont from boyhood. Cheer for McClellan; it is your privilege ; cheer for any man except the 'imbecile who now fills the Pres idential chair." Tremendous groans for Lincoln. Mr, Phillips has promised that, if the Cleveland movement " committed folly, ha would rebuke and desert it." Was not Moudaj' night folly enough ? We were told at the meeting, by a sa gacious man who knew its secrets, that tho Democratic leaders were using the Cleve land movement simply ns n sharp-edged tool for wounding the Union party. We were told the same thing the next day by a Copperhead journalist. As for ourselves, we knew this before we were told. But Mr. Phillips refuses to know it after being told." A SCRAP OF HISTORY, Persons who respect and honor tho pat riotism of Abraham Lincoln arc often sur prised at the wicked attacks of tho opposi tion papers ; but the record of history shows that no honesty of purpose, or purity of character, no personal sacrifices or devotion, to the country, can screen the President from tbe calumny of unscrupulous politi cians. Ihe following extract from the Aurora newspaper, after the departure of Washington from Philadelphia, at the close of his term of office, is a specimen : "The man who is tbe source of all tho misfortunes of our country, is this day re duced to a level with his fellow-citizens, and is no longerposses3ed of power to mul tiply evils upoD the United States. If ever there was a period for rejoicing, this is the moment. Every heart in union with tbe freedom and happiness of the people, ought to beat high with exultation that the name of Washington, from Ibis day, ceases to give currency to political iniquity. and legalized corruption. " Public measures must now stand upon their own merits, and nefarious projects can no longer be supported by a name. It is a subject of the greatest astonishment that a single individual should have carried his designs against the public so far as to have put in jeopardy its very existence. Such, however, are tbe facts, and these staring us in the face, this day ought to be. a jubilee in the United States." American Statesman, p. 156. Pin Money. Before the invention of pins, in 1543, ladies used to fasten their dresses with skewers, madft of wood, bona, and ivory. At first pins were considered av great luxury, and not fit for common . The maker was not allowed to sell theM) in an open shop, except on two days in tha year, at the begiuning of January. At this time, husbands gave their wiveV Money to buy a few pint. Thus Money allowed to a wife for her own private axpeasei is still called pin-money. A..,T;.!Z ..-f.V.,.';r .roi.-.ir tttwft PHIWIIi II "TSB"!