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TERMS OF THE TRIBUNE. vzttMfl op mnißcmmoN (pataulb ik AnvAiron). Dally, by wall Sl-MIBI Sunday,,, ©2.80 Tri-Wookly U.UOlWookly 2.00 Paris o) n year At tho Bruno rate. To prevent delay nnd mistakes, ho anro and giro Pont Office Rddrosß in full, Including State and County, Ronfitlancea may ho tundo either by draft. express, Post Office order, or in registered Jollois, nt our risk. TERMS TO 01TV BVIIRRIIIIIKIIS. Dally, ricllmod, Hunrtay oxcoptod. 26 coulr per week. Dally, (lollmod, Sunday Included, 30 o3uta per week. Address THE TRIBUNE COMPANY. Comer Mndlton aud Donrborn-Bla., Chicago, 111. TO-MORROWS AMUSEMENTS. HOOLRY’B THEATRE—Randolph street, between Clark and LaSalle; “Leah, tho Forsaken." ACADEMY OF MUSIO-Halitod alroot,hatwnen Mad laon and Monroe. Engagement of tho Lydia Thompion Troupe. “ Blue Board," GLOBE THEATRE—Doaplatncaatroot, between Mad* !hoq and Washington. Engagement of Harry Lluden. “LUUoKm'ly." MYERS* OPERA-HOUSE-Monroo street, between Dearborn and Slato. Uurloifpio of “Tho Arrival of Lucca." Uinatroliy and ooniiealiUoa. UNION - PARK CONGREGATIONAL OHUROH- Looturo by Dr. J, Q. Holland. Subject: “Tho mo menta of Personal Power." THIRD UNITARIAN OHUROH-Lootoro by Robert CoUyor. Subject: * 1 ilurna." BUSINESS NOTICES, HEADQUARTERS FOR BOYS’ OLOTUINO. 0.0. OOLLIN8; 181 and 186 Olark-at. Wkt tebimc. Sunday Morning* November 28, 1873. THE VXRQINIUS AND TEE ALABAMA. Thoro ia a wild fury in certain quarters bb to tbo Virginiua affair, and a bowling for war without reference to provocation or international law. Alexander 11. Stephens, old and feeble, goes to Washington from Georgia to raise his voice for war, because bethinks it will bo a bond of reunion between the North and the South. 8. S. Cox, young and vigorous, goes back to Congress from Now York with a sot of eloquent resolutions in his pocket, calculated to tiro the heart of tbo Democracy. Newspaper editors from Maine to Florida havo put on their war-paint, and are oagor for tho fray. To-day wo hoar that the Spaniards at Madrid are roused to resent ment at tho warlike front that America presents, and so our wrath Is heightened and intensified. Tbo next day comes tbo nows that tbo Virginias was duly cleared ns au American vessel, and that her papers wore “ regular," and it is immediate ly concluded that this was tbo only point In dis pute, and that wo now have tho right to go ahead. Tho fact is that wo are getting tho cap ture of tho Virginiua and tho execution of Oapt. Pry and his crow and sovoral other things all mixed up. It is now believed at tho Stato Deportment that the registry papers of tho Virginiua woro regular, and that she was captured on the high seas while sailing as an American vessel. If this turns out to bo true, wo do not soo that it affects tho present status of tho case. Tho papers of tho Alabama woro equally regular. Suppose a United Slates man-of-war had cap tured tho Alabama somewhere on tho high seas between Liverpool and Madeira, on hor first voyage, does any ono suppose that Groat Britain would bavo demanded reparation ? Or, if Groat Britain had so far stultified herself as to m&ko such a demand, does any one suppose that tho people of tbo Uuitcd States would have regarded It as worth tbo paper it was written on ? This is tho only way in which tho people of tho United Skates can put themselves in tho place of tho Spanish people. It ia tho only way in which tho sentiment of the Spanish people can bo properly judged. TboAlabama was a British ship, cleared in British waters, sailed under a British flag, and carried a British registry, so long as it suited hor purpose. Had wo captured her in this con dition, wo would bare scouted any domaud of tbo British Government for her surrender. It is true that wo would not have executed all on board,' oar rules of humanity being of a differ ent and higher typo thau thoso of Spain ; but this does not altor tho caso, and doos not onior into tho present question. Tho Virginiua occu pied toward the Oubau Rebels precisely tho same position whioh [tho Alabama, on her first voyage, occupied toward tho American Rebels. Though cleared under American papers, she was fitted out to cany contraband of war to tbo Oub&n insurgents,— arms, ammunition, and Spanish subjects in re bellion against tbo Government. Tho character of (ho Virginias was well understood in Now' York, and equally well understood in Cuba, wbero she was awaited alike by tho Spanish authorities aud tho insurgents. For thodoprodatioua of tho Alabama, similarly fitted out in a British port, wo claimed damages, and received $15,000,000, after an arbitration agreed upon by bothuations, because Great Britain did not use duo diligence in stopping ber when notified of hor character. It is possible that Spain may bavo a claim against us forallowingtbo Virginiua to sail fromNowYork, but wo can hardly insist upon a concession from her for capturing the Virginias, when wo used our utmost endeavors to intercept tho Alabama boforo she reached tho Island of Madeira, whoro she threw off bor.diaguisos. ( Tbo only porcoptiblo difference between thp Alabama ease and tbo Virginiua affair is tbat]tbo belligerency of tbo American Rebels bad boon acknowledged, while that of tbo Cuban Rebels has not boon aokowledgod. Failure to aooord belligerent rights to tbo Cubans is our own fault, if it bo a fault, and cannot now bo pleaded to enhance tho enormity of tho offense committed ' by Spain. If it bo tho law that filibustering vessels carry ing aid to rebels not recognized as belligerents cannot bo molested on tbohigh sons, then a neu tral Power may always reserve to itself tho right of fitting out hostile ships by refusing to rocog mzorobolsas belligerents, andtho friends of Cuba Libra havo boon guilty of a serious error in clamoring forrccognitlon. Tho question of bel ligerency evidently cuts no figure in this cauo, if tno Virginias was in fact a Rebel ship, sailing under the American flag, and with American papers merely as a cover and a fraud. ! Our casus held thus becomes reduced, as ox- Prosldont Woolsoy says, to ono of common hu manity, in which England, Franco, and Ger many ought to tako tho same interest as tho Unllod States. Capt. Fry, In his eloquent pro test on behalf of somo of his orow, mado a fow hours before his death, dwelt on the hardship of capital punishment as applied to blookadc-run nors, representing that no ozooutiou had over taken place for this offense, and claiming that ho and his comrades wore Ignorantthat thoßpan- Ish law authorized it, But, If this is tho Spanish law, and tho prisoners wore captured on a Bohol ship, what right have wo as anatlon to undertake to annul it, except on tho broad ground of hu manity ? Tho execution of Copt. Fry and bio crow is nob tho first, nor ovon an Isolated, instance of Iho brutality barbarity of Spanish warfare. nations have boon equally sav age at other times. It is not worse thau tho execution of tho Archbishop of Paris and a number of priests under tho French Gommuno. America did not intorforo then, nor did England, nor Germany, Capt. Pry aud his follow-Amorl cans forfeited thoir rights as Anjorienu citizens when they joined tho Cuban rebels, and they became amenable to Spanish law If apprehended. If the barbarities practiced ou both sides m Cuba call for tho active interference of civilized nations, then lot us, as the nearest neighbor, organize the project, and call upon other civil ized nations to join in such action. But lot ns not stultify ourselves as a nation by sotting up demands which wo should not allow a foreign nation to mako upon us undor similar circum stances. ' THE PALL OF TWEED. Tho fato which has at last overtaken “Bobr;’i Tweed Is not ouly tho legitimate sequel to tho lifo which ho has led, but it will sorvo to “ re store confidence ” among many persons who had begun to doubt whothor thoro was any superior ity In virtue ovor vico, and whothor pinchbeck might not ho hotter than gold after all. Fate has moved slowly but very surely, and nearly all thoso who shared thoir ill-gotton gains with Twood havo paid tho penalty, ono way or anoth er. Eisk wont to his own place at tho hands of tho assassin, and his memory ovon has almost dropped into obscurity. Stokes, his murderer, is in tho Penitentiary. Mansfield is a wan dering harlot, whom each year brings nearer to tho gutter. Barnard was impeached, ruined, and driven from tho Bonoh. Oardozo resigned to savo himself from impoaohmont. McOunh died of romorso for what he had done, and in terror of tho consequences. Xngoraoll Is nndor arrest, and must soon tako his trial. Oakoy Hall has dropped from his high position into uttor obscurity. Sweony has fled from Now York, and is living in retirement, Tho places which know thorn onco shall know thorn no more forovor. Of all tho members of this onco powerful Ring, tho fall of Tweed has been tho most im pressive. Tbo others wore but satellites which revolved about him. Ho was intrenched behind a fortune and power, which not only ho, bub every ono else, supposed to bo impregnable. His retainers woro In every public office] in Now York City; and so groat was his strength that, oven after tho proofs of his vast knavery woro piled up mountain high, still boat down tho moral ele ments of tho community and all othor elements which woro antagonistic to him, and got himself elected to tho State Senate by a largo majority. Ho deemed himself so unassailable and sure in bis position, with bis control of politics and bis wonderful: grasp on Wall street, that bo novor took tbo trouble -to deny tbo accusations made against him, but uniform ly asked bis accusers : “ What are you going to do about it ? ” With his paid army of 10,000 retainers and bis captains in power, bo was tho master of tbohallot-box by force whoro it would succeed, and by fraud whore it would not. Tbo city and county officers alike had to pay tribute to him, and no coutroctorcould obtain a job who did nob provide for Tweed. In tho financial world, his power was equally groat. In Wa?j street, on Fisk’s Black Friday, everything was in confusion and uproar. Injunctions flow this way and that, like a bunch of rockets accident ally ignited. Tho whole street was demoralized, and operators woro seized with a sudden paraly sis, because ,J Boss " Tweed happened to bo ab sent from tho city that day. With his clutches upon tho ballot-box, upon tho courts, upon tho Brio Railway, upon tho city and county offices, which paid him au annual tithe, and upon tho contractors, who had to pay him for thoir contracts, and with tho aid of his thousands of followers who stood roady to do hio bidding, whatever it might ho, bo accumu lated au immense fortune. In his elegant Fifth avenue mansion, ho lived in royal stato upon tho money stolon from tho tax-payors j but "what woro they to do about it ?" He flaunted his gold and his diamonds in thoir faces, and redo through the streets of Now York lu his dash ing equipage, monarch of all ho surveyed, Emperor of Embezzlement and Prince of Plunder. When bis daughter was married, bo gave an entertainment such as tho Bhah of Porsia might bavo given. Bride and bridegroom woro showered with flowers, and pearls, and dia monds. His retinue of followers and others who wished to preserve bis good will added to tbo barbaric display with gold and silver, purple and fino linen. Although the respectable society of Now York woro not there, tho respectable society woro paying for the dazzling display. And what woro they going to do about it? Qo to tho courts ? Tho courts woro Tweed’s. To tho polls ? Tbo ballot-boxes woro Tweed’s. To.Wall street? That was Tweed’s. Appeal to tho Oity Government ? That was filled with Tweed’s creatures. To ovary charge, every ap peal, every protest, came tho mocking answer: "What are you going to do about it ?’’ At last, tbo outraged community found what they woro going to do about it, and did it. They commenced upon tho creatures of Tweed, not upon Tweed himself, and, as ono after tho othor was overthrown, tbo power of Tweed grow weaker and weaker. Stripped of bis paid re tainers, bis speculators, his corrupt Judges, his ballot-box-staffers, and bis dishonest contract ors, it was, at last, possible to reach the Head- Centre, and at last bo too has boon hurled head long. Convicted on some 200 counts, in au indictment any ono of which demands imprisonment in tbo Penitentiary, it is no wonder tb&t bis brazen countenance blanched when the verdict was announced to him. It la possible yet that Tweed’s money may save him from tbo Penitentiary. But oven should that gross outrage bo perpetrated, it still remains a fact of record that Tweed is a convict ed felon. What is ho going to do about it- This groat Ring is at last completely broken. Thoso who are not in thoir groves are in tho Penitentiary. Thoso who aro not In tho Peni tentiary aro in obscurity. What aro they going to do about It? The rocent death of Mrs. Orlo, In Boston, whilo under tho influence of anioslhetlcs during dental treatment, is now undergoing medical In vestigation, tho result of which will bo awaited with groat interest. At present it is impossible to state just how far tho anaesthetics employed caused her death, as tho doutlst who was treat ing Mrs. Crio used a mixture of other and chlo roform. Tho general opinion of tho profession for a long time has boon unfavorable to tho uso of chloroform, from tho foot that it has many times caused death, where a fatal result could not in any way havo boon anticipated, and even when it was administered THE CHICAGO DAILY TRIBUNE: SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 23. 1«73. with great caution. On tho othor hand, It is claimed that tho surgical uso of othor cannot bo fatal under any circumstances. Tho mixture of tho two, hi this instance, complicates tho case, but stilt the two auisothetios havo boon In uso long enough, aud suiliuiont statistics havo boon collected, to sallsfactorlly determine thoir oirocts. As this case Is in tho hands of somo of tho host surgeons and medical men in tho country, thoir deoisiou ought to satisfactorily solvo tho prob lem. TEE MAYOR’S DILL AND THE SPRINGFIELD RING. Tho Springfiold papers are now threatening that thoro shall bo no legislation for Ohioago unless Chicago pays tho taxes levied on her to liquidate tho local debts of othor municipalities in tho State. Tho Register says that tho Mayor’s bill, which expires in March, 1874, is a proper bill in itself, and seems “to givo no moro power (to tho Mayor) than ho needs, if ho is to ho hold to tho responsibility which should proporly at tach to tho Ohiof Executive of so largo and important a olty as Chicago.” It thinks that tho hill might proporly ho ro-onaotod, hut that Ohioago can got no legislation so long as sho refuses to submit to whatever taxes tho Auditor and Board of Equalization may impose on hor. In othor words, tho knifo is to bo hold to tho throat of Ohioago to enforce tho demand for payment. What is it that is demanded, aud to which this county objects ? . Certain towns, villages, and counties in this State, somo years ago, permitted themselves to bo soduood, or oompollod by fraud, to iesuo municipal bonds to bo paid over to certain rail rood companies. Thoso bonds in tho aggre gate amount to ovor $13,000,000, Of this dobt, ovor olovon millions of dollars aro recorded in tho Auditor's ofllco at Springfiold. Thoso bonds, whether honestly or fraudulently obtained, woro given in oxohango for capital stock in tho railroads; hut tho railroads having boon mort gaged away, or perpetually leased, tho stock is rendered valueless. Tho annualiutorost on thoso bonds oxcoods a million of dollars, and tho pooplo of tho sovorol towns havo generally assumed a tono of hostility, and somo havo absolutely re fused to pay any moro interest on tho bonds. Tho bonds havo, thoroforo, bocomo dis credited, and, as might bo oxpoctod, tho holders had littlo expectation that a pooplo who would rofuso to pay tho interest would ovon tako pains io pay the principal, and, thoroforo, rightfully argued that, unless tho Stato assumed tho doht, tho bonds would coaso to havo any voluo. They, thoroforo, combined (holding $11,000,000 of bonds bearing an average rato of 9 per cent interest) to obtain indirectly what tho Constitution .directly prohibits. They in voked tho Grab law of 1860 ; tho Auditor order ed an iuoroasod assessment, aud tho Board of Equalization transferred $160,000,000 of taxable values from tho Stato at largo to Chicago. Tho law of the; Stato authorized the Auditor to lovy such a rato of tax ou tho total valuation of property in tho Stato as would produce $1,000,000 for school purposes, and $3,600,000 for Stato purposes. All that ho was authorized to colloot was tho aggregate of thoso two sums, or $3,600,000. In addition to thoso sums, however, ho has loviod a rato of tax to produce $4,820,806. Omitting tho special lovy for schools, ho has presented a rato of tax for rov onuo purposes which will produce $3,022,863, instead of tho $2,600,000 authorized by law, leaving an oxcoss of lovy of $1,122,863. The purpose of this excessive lovy of olovou hundred thousand dollars for rovonuq is frankly stated, and declared to ho to pay tho intorcst on tho moro than oloyon millions of dollars of oouuty and town bonds is sued in aid of railways. Of this $1,100,000 extra lax loviod to pay tho intorcst on thoso rail road-aid bonds, Chicago has to pay not only hor proportion upon tho real valuation of hor taxable property, hut also upon tho $160,000,000 of oxtra values transferred to hor tax-list. Chicago objects to paying ibis tax on several grounds: 1. That it ia illegal to levy a tax for State purposes and apply tbo money to any other purpose.’ 2. That it is unjust, illegal, and unfair to tax Chicago to pay the interest on the municipal debts of Springfield, Bloomington, and Quincy. 3, That the illegal, arbitrary, and unjust in crease of tbo assessment of property in this county, by which 100 per cent was added to the tax, is snch a deliberate discrimination against Chicago that submission to it now ia bnt to in vito still further aggressions in tho future. For these reasons, Chicago proposes to pay no part of tho tax levied for this ille gal end until tho Courts shall say wo must. Because wo will not submit to bo taxed to pay tho interest and principal on $11,000,000 of swindling bonds issued by other municipalities, and owned by a ring of speculators at Springfield, wo are now threat ened, through tho bondholders' organ, with prac tical exclusion from tbo legislation of the - State. Lot us see how wo oomo out 1 Perhaps the peo ple of Illinois, who are in like manner, though not equally, swindled, will tamely submit to tho in solence of tho bondholding ring. Wo shall boo in duo time. CHICAGO TRADE. A few years ago, Cincinnati won tho proud title of 11 Poi'kopolio,” and the residents of that quiot and pleasant city grunted with supremo satisfaction over the distinction. Thou St. Louis grow ambitious and envious, and made herculean efforts to clean out tho Augean hog pens of Cincinnati and set thorn up on tho banks of the Mississippi. Then Kansas City put forth her youthful energies, organized gigan tic stockyards and slaughter-houses, and proposed to try conclusions with both Cincinnati and St. Louie. In tho meantime, Chicago pursued tho even tenor of Us progressive way, and ono bright day, Kansas ' City, St. Louis, and Cincinnati woke np to tho startling realization that Chi cago, in somo mysterious and surreptitious manner, had captured nearly all the hogs in tho West and Northwest, and was rapidly converting them into pork with which to terrify tho lows of Hamburg and Bremen, iuto ba con' to dolight tho hearts of tho Liver pool draymen, and into hams to food tho gratoful people of tho world from Bettor dam to Venezuela. This was tho condition of things before tbo panic, and tho panto made it worso than over, as far as St. Louis and Cincin nati aro concerned. The hogs of tho country mado a perfect stampede for Chicago. This city beoamo tho Mecca of all porcino pilgrimages. Big hogs and little pigs, fat porkers and loan, whole families of conservative swine, deserted their moal-lronghs, raised iholr voices, curl od their tails, and migrated to Ohl cogo. The Thidunb of yesterday gavo somo statistics of this unparalleled march of tho pork tribe. For tho week ending .yesterday moro than double tho number of hogs came In to Ohioago that camo in tho corresponding week of last year. In tho procoding four tracks, moro than 40 per cont; lu tho last throe months, twice as many as in tho same three months of 1871, aud moro than a third moro than in iho same throe months of 1872. Tho total number of hogs that camo io Chicago in tho year 1872 was 0,483,628;, tho receipts of this year will probably roach half a million moro; and it Is intimated that Chicago handles as many hogs now as Bt. Louis and Cincinnati put together. Tho now and forcible impetus given to tho hog-irado of Chicago in tho very midst of tho panto was duo to tho faot that this city alono was nblo to furnish the necessary funds to handle tho stook. Chicago did not go into tho loan-oortifioeto business, for ono thing, as did Cincinnati and Bt. Louis, aud tho hanks woro always in a condition to advance money to thoir legitimate patrons. Tho Chicago pork packers, for another thing, hod confidence in thoir ability to handlo tho trodo, and wont on to soil ovon whon things looked bluest, thus mak ing profits that onablod thorn .to socuro money wherever it was to ho obtained. Moro than this, tho pork-paokors of Chicago mako a business of it, and do not allow funds io ho diverted into speculative ohannols at suoh times of tho year whon they are not actively engaged in packing. Last yoor, ihoy had a capital of about $3,000,000 in iho business, and to this thoy added last yoar’s profits, which amounted to not loss than $1,260,000. Tho result was that they started In this year with a hona fido capital of moro than $4,000,000, with tho additional ad vantage that it was available, whilo tho capital of other cities was not. Thoso aro some of tho roosons why iho hog-trado of Chicago increased so amazingly during tho panic, whilo business of every kind was falling off elsewhere. ■ Tho increase in Chicago’s hog-trado is not owing to any increase In hog-ralsing, but to tho diversion of tho trado from othor cities. This is attoitod by tho faot that, notwithstanding tho sloady increase of stook, tho prices havo rison with equal uniformity. If tho in crease of Chicago’s trado woro dao to a general increase, tho. rovorso would occur, and prices would fall. Thoro is no danger but that Chicago will ho able to retain all tho surplus of trado that has como to us since tho panic sot in. Aside from our central advantages, and tho amplo facilities for handling and killing, tho hog-roisors of tho country now understand that tho money awaits thorn in Chicago ovon whon thoy can got it nowhoro oleo; and that Is tho sort of city with which thoy prefer to do business. Whatever olso may be said about Capt. Fry, tho commanding ofiloor of tho ill-fatod Vir ginias, it must bo admitted that ho mot his fnto at tho hands of tho Spanish butchers like a bravo-hoartod gentleman. His demeanor undor tho circumstances shows that tho days of knight ly gallantry aro not yot entirely passed away. In his last statements ho has no regrets for Ida own fnto, and wastes no timo in appealing for mercy for blmsolf. Upon this point ho only says: Tbo Consul knows well that I am not pleading for my own lifo, 1 havo not prayed to Qod for It, nor ovon to tho Bloaacd Mother. I havo neither homo nor country,—-a victim of war nnd persecution, tho ave nues to tho securing of proporly being closed to mo to ouch a point that 1 havo not been able to provide bread for my wife and seven children, who know what it is to ouffor for tho necessaries of life. My life is ono of suffering, and 1 look upon what has happened (o mo as a benefit of Qod, and it is not for mo, therefore, to usk favors of any ono. Utterly ignoring himself, bis only solicitude is for hia crow, who have boon guilty of no offouao except of working for him in navigating his ves sel, and bogs that his blood may bo sufficient for those who had no Knowledge of the crime charg ed upon them. With any others loss brutal than the Spanish butchers, his appeal would hove had influence. lu his owu words, they would atloast hayo identified tho victims whom they wore about to sacrifice. But they wore shot, and ho also. Whether ho wore guilty of a crime or not, 'ho at loast died liko a bravo man and a gentleman, without a single murmur, pleading with his last words for tho lives of others, and commending his soul to God. Such Instances of ohivalrio bravery and disinterestedness are too raro nowadays to pass unnoticed. Cincinnati is in trouble over her Public Library. Tho Librarian, Mr, Poole, having ac cepted tho office tendered him in Chicago, tbo question of appointing his successor became of importance. The Library Board nominated tho Bov. Thomas Vickers. This nomination was communicated to tho Board of Education to bo confirmed, but was not acted on. In tho mean time, there is a lively discussion going on con cerning Mr. Vickers,—tho Gazette and En quirer both opposing and tho Commer cial supporting his nomination. Mr. Vick ers is conceded to ho a man of great ability, is a linguist, and is intellectually com petent. Ho is, however, an extreme man in polemics. Ho is a Unitarian minister, and a little farther removed from Evangelical notions than tho majority oven of his own sect. Ho led vigorously in tho war for the exclusion of the Biblo from tho public schools, and in tho com plete secularization of tho schools. . Ho is de nounced by his opponents, and especially by tho religious press, os little bettor than on atheist. Ho is supported by all those of liberal thoughts audfoollngs who do not understand what a Libra rian bos to do, officially, with religion, nor how his own opinions on that matter can affoct tho proper discharge of his duty in receiving, pre serving, and delivering tho books of a public library. Thoro is, however, a general regret in Cincinnati at tho retirement of Mr. I?oolo. Prom the northwestern part of lowa comos a cry of suffering which ought to bo hooded. A largo settlement of persons, from various causes, find themselves, oven thus early in the season', in absolute destitution. These people settled upon homesteads, and aro suffering for want of broad, fuel, and clothing. It-la difficult for ua to take in at once tbo picture of a community of people perishing by starvation. In the rich abundance of all kinds of food in tho Northwest, U does scorn strange that any body of people should dio from want of broad. Yet such is tho ease, No man will refuse a dollar or a pound of meal to food those polishing families in lowa. Tito Baltimore American states that tho Low- Olmroh people of that city regret exceedingly tho comae adopted by Bishop Cummins, while the lligh-Olmroh party rejoice at the retirement of one who never seemed to regard tho ministry of their Ohurch no any higher authority than that of non-Eplecopal bodloo, Tho same paper states that tho resignation of tiro Bishop is but part of a sohorao devised Just prior to tho Qonoral Con vention of the Ohuroh in 1871. This scheme had for its object thoalteratlou of tho prayer-book to ,sult the extreme views of Jho Lovr Ohuroh i it further contemplated iv secession from the Olmroh as soon ns ouo or moro Bishops would take part iltorolii, so ns to secure tho 11 Episco pal Succession," which is doomed, even by tho Low-Churchmen, os of groat importance. It is further stated,that Bishop Cummins, ns long ago as 1871, approached Bishop Mollvaino, of Ohio, with tho proposition that tho Evangelicals ehould withdraw from the Olmroh'and sot up a now ecclesiastical organization. Though Bishop Hollvnino sympathized with tho Evangelicals, and was considered their loader, ho refused to give any countenance to tho uchomo. Another Tichborno case has developed itself in Paris, which, in its general outlines, has a very close resemblance to tho English case. Tho facts aro ns follows j A wealthy widow of that city hod a son, who, after a long career of dissi pation, ontorod tho army. Ho disappeared in 1670, and wan not hoard of again until 1872, whon his mother received a lottor from on army officer informing her that a private soldier, who, from papors in his possession, must ho her son, hod bcon wounded in tho head, taken prisoner, and sent to Prussia. Tho overjoyed mother sent for hor son, who returned fearfully disfigured and partially insane. His condition was so hor rible that she failed to recognize him,androfusod to receive him. In this refusal she was en couraged by hor nophoyrs, who were tho next heirs to her immense wealth, and who wont so far as to have tho son arrested for forgery and false pretenses. Not being completely restored to health, ho was sent to an insane asylum, whore ho recovered completely, both in body and mind. Ho then wrote to his mother, who camo to soo him. During tho interview ho made known matters concerning his childhood which no ono else could havo known, and which resulted in his mother’s openly acknowledging him as hor son. Tho nephews, however, re fused to believe it, and have continued tho suit, which is now ponding in Paris. < Tlio rulo of B&u Francisco is, When yon soo ft Chinaman, hit him, and it seems likely to bo adopted elsewhere as tlio poacofal and imperturbable Asiatic makes bis way eastward. When the census of 1870 was taken, there were only two Chinamen found in Illinois; now Chicago can point to enough of them to ran twontly laundries, and report an occasional in stance ot San Francisco “bouncing. 1 * Yester day, a Chinaman had the tomority to present a bill to a coffee-house keeper, and received a bloody nose in consequence. A policeman was called upon, but disdained to make an arrest of a white man for simply pummoling a China man. Wo object to the spread of Sau Francisco ruffianism in the treatment of those people. So far as Chicago is concerned, Chinamen have shown themselves to bo as inoffensive and peaceable as any race on the globe, and there is no law or custom which guarantees immunity for abusing them. There is no reason why rag amitnins should howl after thorn, or why the gamins should polk them, or why competitors in business should try to run them out, or why a creditor should puuoh their heads if they dare to present a bill. The police must understand that it is thoir duty to protect law-abiding Chinamen as well as other people. At last, Andy Johnson has discovered a mis sion in life. Ho has obtained a patent for a com bination piano. The details of tho patent havo not yet boon stated, hut, as tho piano is a com bination one, it is not altogether impossible that ho may bo able to swing round a circle with it. FOOLS. DY PROP. WILttAU MATUEWd, OP TUB UNIVERSITY OP CHICAGO. Bo tolerant to fools.— Marctia Aureliut, Why is it that fools aro laughed at, oven by kind-hoartod men ? Is not tbo lack of brains a misfortune to bo pitied rather than sneered at by those who aro bottor endowed ? Is intellect ual deficiency or deformity loss entitled to our commiseration than physical? Pascal has au wored those questions in his usual acuto way. “ Whonco is it,” ho asks, 11 that a lamo man docs not offend ns, whilo tho crippled in mind docs offend ns? It is because tho lame man acknowl edges that wo walk straight; whereas tho crip pled in mind maintain that it is wo who go lame.- But for this, wo should fool moro compassion for them than rosontmont.” Tho samo profound thinker tolls us, however, in another place, that man is necessarily so much of a fool, that it would bo a species of folly not to bo a fool,—a comforting theory to tho stupid, for if wisdom is attainable only through foolishness, who is moro to ho con gratulated than ho who has scaled the dizziest peaks of folly, tho fool par excellence? Whatever may b.o tho reason, wo confess wo have a kindly fooling for fools, Liko Oharlos Lamb, wo love to discover a streak of folly in a man; wo vouoxato an honest obliquity of under-, standing. Tho moro laughable blunders a man commits in your company, tbo moro tosts ho gives you thot ho is not sly, snaky, ami hypo critical—that ho is not, whilo whispering honeyed words in your oar, playing some subtle, treacher ous game to overreach you. That fools aro happy beings, all will admit. It is tbo empty vessel that baa a merry ring; tho open oyo that weeps. It is tho groat fault of tho present ago that It is ovonviso,—that it is too traua condontally sapient for its own comfort. Wo ana lyze our food, hunting for Adulterations, till wo almost dread to eat for fear of boiug pois oned. Wo put microscopes to our oyos, and can not drink for fear of animalcules. Wo investi gate and pry into tho foundations of our beliefs till wo become universal skeptics, and are posi tive only that wo are positive of nothing. In stead of enjoying the sweet of lifo as it comes up, and finding a heart to laugh at tho bitter, wo aro continually racking our brains to provide for come future dreaded contingency, lotting tho flower and quintessence of lifo escape ore wo aro. ready to enjoy it. Wo aro always preparing for a “ rainy day,” or some calamity that may break upon us liko a thunderbolt. It Is oven raro to hoar any man laugh now-a-clayo, at least with tho careless, tinging laugh of folly; nobody gives care to tho winds long enough for snob an out burst of merriment; everywhere wo find that tho happy, simplo-hoartod fool of olden times is extinct, and that tho race of calculators and economists have succeeded. Tho schoolmaster is now abroad, and there aro few persons in those intensely intellectual days who sympathise with gentle Bib's affection for tho fool. “ I love a fool,” says ho, “ as naturally as if I wore kith and kin to him. When a child, with chlldliko apprehensions, that dived not bolow tho surface of tho matter, I road those Pnrn&tes,—notguoss- Ing at tho involved wisdom—l had moro yearn ings towards that simple architect that built his house upon tho sand, than I entertained for his moro cautious neighbor, I grudged at tho hard ooiisuro pronounced at the quiet soul that kept his talent. ... I never have made an ac quaintance since that lasted, or a friendship that answered, with any that had not some tincture of tho absurd in their characters. And take my word for this, roador, and say a fool told it you, If yon please, that ho who had not a dram of folly in his mixture, had pounds of muohworso mnttorln his composition.” It may seem paradoxical to maintain that fools are & blessing to society; but a little reflection will teach us a largo charity for them—will show that they are essential to Its very existence. They aro tbo cyphers of tho community, without which tho social problem could not bo worked out. 1 What, for example, would ho tho result, if, whenever a now doctrine is propounded In sol onco, wo woro all profound thinkers, capable of tracing out all its logical consequences? Tho world would bo in an uproar, and harmouy would ho nu Impossibility. Why nro man of sol onco often so exceedingly sensitive to somo ap parcnlly-nniuiportant attack upon ono of tboir minor conclusions ? Is it not because they aro accustomed to logical methods, and know that If you touch tho romotost outwork of tholr doctrlno you sond a shook to tho Tory con* tro of tboir systems ? “Bo heretical lu tho most trilling inference from mathematical Investi gation, and it la at onoo evident,” says a writer, 11 that you must oomo into conflict with tho fun damental axioms on which tho whole science re poses. Wo are tolerant only because wo are stupid. Wo allow tho enemy to open somo very remote baok door, booauso It is so very small, and wo do not soo that wo haro admitted him as effectually as If wo hod flung tho main gatos wide open. If wo had only known in tlmo bow much trouble early physical inquirers wore bringing into the world, bow many controversies they woro intro ducing, what a biting add tboy woro pouring upon tho consolidated doctrines of ages, wo should have sprung upon them and strangled them at their birtli. Wo aro amazed that Ga lileo should have been persecuted for assorting the motion of tho earth; but if Ida judges had caught somo dim glimpso of tho harvest that was to spring from that littlo seed of heresy, of tho tremendous explosion that wouldfollowwhontho spark had fairly sot flro to tho train, tboy would havo trampled it out moro carefully than wo should try to ohook tho spoed of thomostdoadly contagion.” Is it not evident, then, that wo Uvo In poaco with each othor only because wo aro stupid,—that, but for this lucky fact, wo should bo burning everybody who disagreed with us ? Again, fools make tho boat reformers. What would bo tho condition of tbo world, if it bad no men of ono idea,—men who tlow ovory subject from a single stand-point, and aro dominated by ono singlo purpose, regarding all others as trivial,—it is easy to soo. Gould wo lift tbo Toil, and discom all tho consequences*of a single change in tho world’s constitution, wo should all bo conservatives. It is not tho men of broad and comprehensive vision, whoso norizon of thought embraces many objects and objections, that project and push through groat plans of re form. It is tho mole-eyed man, who has brooded over a singlo truth till it overshadows his wholo mental horizon, that makes tho host reformer. Such a person is tormented by none of tho doubts that distract and oripplo tho profound thinker. Wastingno timo in deliberation, ho cuts tho knots which ho cannot untio, and, ovorlcnping all logic al preliminaries, comes at onco to a conclusion* Having got hold of an idea, ho novor bothers his braiua with objections, but goos at ouco to making proselytes, satisfied that to procure its adoption is tho ono thing essential to insure tho millennium. For example, his panacea may bo ventilation; and, viewing all othor conooivablo things in its relations to ventilation, ho may bo content to apond hla life Uko a minor, in con tinual working at one narrow subterranean gal lery; but lie generally, by his persistence, gains his end, and the world la benefited by his toils. Again, fools aro absolutely necessary to make society endurable. Thoro is a disposition lu our day to worship groat men. Hero-worship, is, in deed, tho mania of tho age. Wo aro in danger of being tyrannized ovor by olovor men. A man of erratic talents is called a genius, and a hun dred follies and ovon vices are excused in him, while his honest neighbor who startles society by no freaks or extravagances, and can boost only of good sense, is sneered at as “slow,” Yet in the vast majority of oases tho man of brilliant talents is infinitely loss useful than tho man of common sense. All tho groat depart ments of practical life aro filled with “ slow and sure,'’ rather than with smart* mou. Our host merchants, statesmen, Ocnoralo, Judges, aro plain mon, not mou of genius. God novor in tended that clovormon should monopolize every thing; Ho did not mako tho worldforclovormon only. Doubtless a certain number of mon of genius aro uocossary to ovory ago and country. Tboy aro tbo very guano of tbo exhausted State. But no sensible farmer thinks of smothering his ' field with guano. Mako tho au* all oxygen, and who could breathe it ? Brilliant mou aro well enough occasionally,but who wants to bo always staring at pyrotechnics ? Mediocrity is, after all, tho best thing lu life. Tho tasteless com monplaces aro tho standards,—broad and water, and good, dull, steady pooplo. To mako social iutorcourso'profitablo, thoro must ho an oportu nity for perfect relaxation. Tho groat charm of tho host society is tho absence of all effort to sparkle and astonish. Tho most wearisome poo plo aro tho Do Staols and “ convorsatiou sharps,”. who aro always saying brilliant things —whofeolliko Titus, “I havo lost a moment!” if thoy suffer a fraction of timo to pass unen rlchcd by & fine saying. Nothing tiros so soon as unvaried sprlghtlluoss, unshaded mirth, and hrillianoy unroliovod. It is Uko dining otomally off capsicum, popporcoms, and jams. Ono wearies, as did tho Frouch abbo, of tonjonvs per drix. Wo would as soon lodge ovor a powdor roagazlno as Uvo with. a man of genius. Wo would rathor have water than nectar for a steady drink,—bread and batter than ambrosia for our daily food. In nature tho most useful things aro tho most common. Water, air, bread, aro choap and plentiful. Leaves and grass are neither of orimson nor of gold color, but plain, sober green. “ When a boy,” says a writer, “ I often mado fireworks. Onco, in compounding a sot of squibs, I forgot to mix up with tho posi tives of saltpetre and gunpowder tho uogativo of poundod charcoal; and, in firing thorn off, onoh consisted of but ono explosion, bright, no doubt, but transient also, and dangerous withal; whilo tho squibs which woro rightly mixed up wore both bright and sparkling, too, and much moro lasting; besides, thoy did not scorch mo. Dull men aro to society what charcoal is to squibs,” ' THE NATIONAL BANKRUPT LAW. Tbo Bankrupt law of England has existed since tho days of Henry VIII.; and tboro a crude and imperfect statute at tho first has boon perfected and adapted to tbo wants of tbo pooplo by suc cessive amendments. Franco and Holland Imvo laws very similar in tbolr -general provisions to tbo law of England. Almost ovory country—wo boliovo, ovory ono in Europe—has its Bankrupt law, the provisions boing as different as are tbo other laws, manners, and customs of tbo differ ent countries. Tho Bankrupt law now in operation in the United States was approved by tho President March 2, 1807, and wont into operation, accord ing to Us provisions, on tho Ist day of Juno, 1807..Ithas consequently boon m operation longer tliau any previous law of a similar nature in this country,—aud perhaps it has now reached that period when it may bo said to bo fairly, on its trial. The adjudications of tho oourlo having settled many doubtful questions, aud its loading principles being pretty generally understood by tho commercial community, wo may, therefore, examine tho law in tho light of BIX YEARS OP EXPERIENCE and judiclol construction. Prior to 1809, dis charges woro issued to debtors iu overy ease, regardless of tho amount of assets,—tho only bar to a discharge being fraud, actual or legal. Tho voluntary proceedings during this period had but little influence ou tho laws or commer cial customs of (he country. A largo number of unfortunate debtors wore discharged from their liabilities. Many of thoso woro men of largo busiuosH capacity and experience. This capacity aud experience woro, by their discharges, made available in business channels, and tno country probably received more benefit from this source than loss from tho cancelation of indobteduosH, as probably not tho ouo-huudroth part of tho entire canceled debt would ever have boon collectable ; and It is safe to assume that moro than this proportion will yqt bo paid by tho dis charged debtors voluntarily, as they boaomo olio—many of thorn otlll considering thomsolvoa morally bound to pay. But tho provlaloua of tho law under which thoao proceedings wore hnd aro praotlcolly obsolete. Debtors may uliU bo disohorgod from tholr debts oontraotod prior to Jan. 1, 1809. But most debts of this class have boon long ulttco oaucolod. A debtor cuimot now bo discharged without surrendering to tho Ah* eiguoo assets at leant equal to FIFTY FEU CENTUM of tho debts proved againet his oslato, or se curing tho written assent to his disohargo of tho majority in value and number of his creditors. As a matter of fact, most honest debtors do se cure tho necessary assent. Tho conditions now Imposed upon a dobtor Booking a discharge aro fair and reasonable; and thoy aro doubtless modeled after tho provisions of tho Bankrupt laws of England and Holland, oaoh of which, wo hoUovo, contains tho 60 per centum provision, and requires tho assent of a certain part la num ber and amount of creditors. Bo much for tho provisions of tho act relating to debtors. Since 1860, TUB CREDITOR CLASS has boon most intorosiod In tho workings of tho law, and it is tho offoct upon tho interests of this class which wo will now consider. If tho operation of tho present law, with Its imperfections, has boon beneficial, wo must con clude that a permanent Bankrupt law, amended from timo to timo as experience may suggest, is necessary to our highest commercial prosperity. Tho principal objection to tho present law is ita oxponslvonoss—an objection for which thoro Ift some foundation. Bui ovon now this objection is not always well taken. Toko thtf oaso of a trader in Chicago who fails to-day and is put Into bankruptcy.' Tho cost of tho bankruptcy proceedings only are' paid out of his estate, and tho balance is equally divided among his creditors. Tako tbo samo caao WITHOUT A BANKRUPT LAW, and supposing tbo trader to have lldrty or forty croditora—a number by no moans uncommon ©yon in case of email failures. Aa soon as tbo mercantile agencies report a single suit against tbo debtor, every other creditor begins “the race of diligence” to secure bis claim; tbo re sult is a groat multiplicity of legal proceedings, emanating probably from several different courts. A few creditors incur largo expenses and secure tboir claims in full; many others incur largo ex penses and secure nothing whatever; and wo be hove that tbo " settlement ” of tbtft debtor's affairs without tbo Bankrupt law must bo very considerably moro expensive to his creditors,— that Is, tbo aggregate of costs must bo greater than with the settlement under the Bankrupt act, and that the result must give far loss gen eral satisfaction. But wo cannot estimate the value of the Bank rupt law to tbo commercial interests of tbo country from tbo actual proceedings in courl alone. Tbo numbor of oases la tbo Bankruptcy Courts of tbo country has boon comparatively few, os compared with tbo numbor of failures, since 1869. Tbo power of its influence has boon shown in FACILITATING SETTLEMENTS outside of any court, and without expense. Creditors, knowing that they could secure no ad vantage over each other, have, in tbo largo ma jority of Canos, been willing to accept from tbo honest debtor such sum as bo could afford to pay. Tho utility of a Bankrupt law baa also been most oloarly shown during times of grout excitement and financial disturbances resulting from tbo great Area in Chi cago and Boston, and from the recent panic. Wo bohovo that tbo oxistonco of tbo present law has boon of incalculable importance to tho citi zens of Chicago; that without such a law our merchants would have boon unable to settle with tboir creditors, as in many instances some cred itor or croditora would have boon found who would have begun “the race of diligence ” to secure their claims, in which race they would, of course, have boon followed by other croditora. And somo of our unfortuuato citizens, bolding to tho principle of commercial honesty which prevailed before tho enactment of tbo Bankrupt law, and being unablo to pay all tboir creditors, would have paid those in full to whom tboy wore moro especially bound by ties of blood or friend ship. This course would bavo resulted in dis satisfaction among other croditora. Another advantage which oar citizens derived from tbo present law was found in tbo settle ment of tbo affairs of INSOLVENT INSURANCE COMPANIES, both iboso of Chicago and of other cities. Through tbo iufliioncoof tbo Bankrupt law, an equal distribution of tho assets of many com panies in other cities was socurod without cost or oxponso of legal proceedings. Whore frauds wore attempted the companies wore thrown into bankruptcy, and a proper distribution compelled. In tbo case of our' homo companies, wo boliovo that, with possibly two or three exceptions, no general dividend would over have boon paid to tbo creditors of tboso companies bad no Bank rupt law been in force. With no law prohibiting preferences, what would aa insurance company probably have paid whoso officers woro bolding all tbo available assets, while at tbo same tirao tboy woro largo creditors, and bad tbo disposition to pay ibomsolves, regardless ot tho interests of every other creditor? The same observations, to a loss extent, may bo applied to tbo caso of tbo Boston flro. DURING TItZ RECENT PANIC, tbo law most frequently mentioned, and most confidently relied upon for security by tho creditors of suspended banka, was tho Bank rupt law. Its influence was most salutary,— creditors everywhere knowing that an equal dis tribution of tbo assets of tbo suspended banks in caso of actual insolvonoymust bo made. Had it not boon for tbo oiistouco of such a law, tho excitement everywhere would have greatly in creased, and what with preferential payments, assignments, mortgages, pledges, confessions of judgment, attachments, and tbo' many other modes of procedure open to tho willing debtor or “ diligent creditor,” the condition of tbo country must bavo been most unfortunate. As it was, in most cases, creditors took no action, knowing that any preferences they might gain would bo iakon from them, and debt ors, from Jay Cooke down, DARED NOT PREFER ANYBODY, out of fear of bankruptcy. Upon tho whole, wo boliovo tho general Bontimonfc of tho country favors a Bankrupt law similar to tho ouo now in operation. A law embodying its loading princi ples is necessary as a protection toboth tho credi tor and debtor class, ns Ims boon shown by our own experience. lu tho details of Its operation It can bo amended and simplified. Tho National Board of Trado did well in giving tho subject its careful consideration, audsuggosUngtho amend ments necessary in the opinion of tho Board. Lot Congress lake tho matter in hand, consult with same of the loading Judges of Courts of Bankruptcy, and with prominent merchants and bankers, and make such amendments as seem necessary. If Uio period of susponaion wore lengthened, and tho debtor wore allowed to resume payment, say, within thirty days, all honest complaints about the law be ing injurious to tho commercial interests, would cease. Tho difference between proceed ings in bankruptcy and proceedings at law, iu their effect; upon tho credit of tho debtor, la not vorynpprcolablc. If a creditor bo SUI'FICIUNTLY HOSTILE to throw his debtor into bankruptcy, ho would certainly bo outUclcutly hostile to t&Uo legal proceedings to collect his debt If thoro woro no Bankrupt law. As a matter of course, other creditors would do tho samo; and if a debtor, bo bo “ infant manufacturer ” or other person, suspend payment of his commercial obligations, aud his creditors begin lu suo, ho has ordinarily but ouo escape—cither ho must make an assign ment or dood of composition, or ho must allow Ida creditors to holp themselves iu tho boat way they can. If ho desire to make an honest aud fair settlement, tho Bankrupt law will assist him, If, however, hsdoslro to prefer Ids friends, or to porpotrnto a fraud, the Bankrupt law is an laeur* mountable logoi obstacle.