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Chicago daily tribune. [volume] (Chicago, Ill.) 1872-1963, April 04, 1874, Image 10

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Speech of the Hon. Alex.
In tho Illinois Senate, IMnrcli 3#,
The rCßolntlon which tho ITon. A. Btnrno
offered, to amend tho Revenue article of tho
Stato Constitution, being under consideration,
Mr. Storno said : .
Sin. President: 3ly object in introducing
iho resolution now before tho Sonata was to
place beyond doubt
of tho General Assembly to tax (ho interests nam
ed without llrst assessing the real and personal
property of the State. The resolution also gives
tho General Assembly the power to tax the rail
roads upon the basis of their gross receipts, in
stead of upon their real and personal property,
capital stock, and franchise, as now. And it
also gives tho power of taxing incomes and tho
distilled epirlls manufactured in thoStato.
At present tho Ilovonuo article of tho Cons!
Itntion ifl mandatory nnd pormlssory—inandatory
!ns to tho tux on real nnd personal property:
I “Tho General Assembly snail provide such
'revenue as may bo needful by levying a tax by
•'valuation, so Hint every person and corporation
shall pay a tax in proportion to his, her, or its
' property ; ” find pormiaaory ns to taxing special
'interests: “Bnt the General Assembly shall
I have power to tax peddlers, auctioneers,” etc.
i Bnch is the language of Sec. 1, Art. Oof tho Con
stitution ns it now stands, while See. 2 of tho
same article roads: “Tho specification of tho
objects and subjects of taxation shall not do
; privo tho General Assembly of the power to ro
: quiro other objects or subjects to bo taxed in
: each manner ns may bo consistent with tho
.principles of taxation fixed in tho Constitution.”
1 reads ae follows
1 Itesolved, by the Senate, the Haute of Itepresentativea
j eoneurrinp herein, Thnt there shall bo Hiibniltted (o
; tho voters of this Stale, at tho next general election, a
proposition to emend Hoc. 1, Art. 0 of tho Constitution
‘Of this State, entitled “ Revenue,'• as follows:
“ Tho General Assembly shall have power to tax
.peddlers, auctioneers, brokers, hawkers, merchants,
'commiMion-mcrchnnls, showmen, Jugglers, .luukecp
iers, liquor-dealers, toll-bridges, ferries, Insur
ance, telegraph and express interests or busl
i ness, venders of patents, persons on their
(incomes, distillers of spirits, and per
’ sous or corporations owning or using franchises and
'.privileges, in such manner as it shall, from time to
1 time, direct by general law, uniform as to tho class
.upon which it operates. And tho General Assembly
1 shall also have power to provide such further revenue
Us may bo needful, levying a tax by valuation, so that
j every person uml corporation shall pay a iax in pro
■ portion to tho value of his, her, or its property,—such
Rvalue to bo ascertained by some persons to bo elected
for appointed in such manner us tho General Assembly
I shall direct, and not otherwise pormlßsory.”
| Now tho resolution which proposes to change
tho Constitution is liko tho Bovenuo article now,
[mandatory and pormiaeory; but it is mandatory
1 ns to tho tax on tho special interests named, and
J pormiesory as to tho tax on real and personal
; property, aud thus, under tho power given in
I floe. 2 of Art. 0, It requires to bo taxed other ob
'jocts or subjects, viz.: personal incomes and
I tho manufacture of distilled spirits. That is in
'•brief tho whole of this resolution; it
! in which real and personal property and tho spo
'cial interests now stand as subjects of the tax
iing power of tho State, and it adds incomes and
,t .spirits to tho list of special interests to ho taxed.
; lam aware that it is claimed that tho Const!-
[tution now gives tho General Assembly the
\powor to frame a Bovouuo law exactly as it
j would bo framed if this resolution should be
[comoapart of the Constitution; but, on ’the
r tthor hand, this claim is disputed, and was re
jected by tho Inst General Assembly, which
[lramod our present Bovenuo law; ami, if wo
i should attempt to cxorciso this doubtful power,
'wo should find tho Stato, ns now, involved in
/litigation with tbo taxpayer's.
It is hardly necessary to say that tho proposi
. tion of tho resolution has nothing in common
. with what is called tax-dodging aud tax-lighting.
; That is an effort to defeat tho operation of the
law, by showing its defects; this is an effort to
amend the Bovenuo system of tho State by
amending tho organic lo»y
I Tho constitutionality Jr tho present law is in
Hogal dispute, and has not yet been settled by
i tho Supremo Court, but, for alt purposes of this
f debate, it may be assumed to bo perfectly iu
‘ accordance with tho Constitution, The law is
’intended to tax all tho property in iho State,
;Teal, personal, and mixed. Its operation should
1 ho such as to tax tho buttons on a shirt and tho
I thread with which they are sewed on, as well as
tho engines and cars on every railroad in tho
State, aud tho elevators aud warehouses whore
j-tbey discharge their freight. In theory it is
■ perfect; in practice it is unequal, and
I need not enlarge on this point, it is tho con
viction of tho people and tho proas, of tho tax
payers, and of tho officers and members of this
Senate, and of another body moro numerous
than this, that a largo part of tho Stato escapes
taxation, while other liko property is heavily
Tho proposition is to change all this, and to
levy Slato taxes on certain interests which rop-
Jesent the wealth, industry, and enterprise of
ho State,—on certain objects always in sight,
ond always well defined; to tax railroads, for
instance, on tbeir gross receipts, instead of on
real and personal property, and capital stock,
and franchise, as now. And it appears to me
that this method will bo moro just and equitable
than now.
Tho evils of tho present system being so well
known and so widely recognized, I desire to
change it. It is not known, I believe, exactly,
what amount of revenue could bo raised by those
special taxes; hut figures, which may bo had.
will give us somo guidance, and experience will
bo found to supply all the rest. But whatever
deficiency may bo found will bo made up by a
tax on real ami personal property. Let the spe
cial taxes specified
and then lot tho present subjects bo drawn upon.
The taxation of personal property under tho
present law is, as I have said, a failure; and, if
tho present session of tho General Assembly had
directed its attention to tho Bovonuo law, in
etoad of spending tho wholo winter on tho re
vision of the statutes, it would, in my opinion,
liavo hotter served tho interests of the Stato.
But tho revision will bo complete at this ses
sion, and tho next General Assembly, tho
Twenty-ninth, can devote its whole time to tho
work of altering, revising, or amending tho Bov
omzo law. And’with this view I dosiro this
to pass, in order that tho people,
when they are colled upon again to elect mem
bers of the General Assembly, can have this
llovouuc-roform movement before them. Tho
resolutions will bo discussed hero, and I hope
to boo*it discussed before the people, to try
end discover whether a bettor and more just
system of raising necessary revenue for the sup
port of the State Government cannot bo devised;
for, if not, thousands of farmers who havo thoir
homes .in tins Stato, which they lovo so well, will
bo compelled to seek homes elsewhere for them
selves and families, —homos which, if nob moro
congenial to their tastes, habits, and associa
tions, will at least ho
No good citizen desires to ovode the payment
of any juat and equitable tax levied for tbo sup
port of the Stato or National Government, but
it is certain that tbo tax now loviod bv the State
on personal property and real estate ia both un
just and oppressive. '
Take personal property ns it appears in tbo
Auditor’s report for 1873. Tho amount of por
nonal property Hated by tbo Assessors, excluding
railroad property, is 5)280,000,000. In this
amount aro the following items:
Blulcs and usscs,
Agricultural Implements,
Household furniture.
Total $102,000,000
These articles mostly belong to tbo fanners,
whoso property ia always in sight and cannot es
cape assessment, and this amount loaves $157,-
000,000 as representing tbo total amount at
which tho personal property of all other per
sons, classes, and interests in tho Btato is as
sessed. Thus
of tbo personal property of tho Stato is paid by
tbo farmers. Wiojo tbo balance is to bo found,
and how the assessment of it is distributed, I
propose to sbpw by some figures taken from the
report of the, Btato Hoard of Equalization.
These ore some of tbo figures:
wore assessed in tho following counties as stated:
Knox... ,
jtaugaxnon..... 1,785,337
C00k.... I 466,685
i-altyn 1,010,488
Sangamon **\
S“* * mww
Value .
_ , iVo. Each A verage.
Cook • ..3,470 $37.8:1
Kbuo 2,400 y4.c:i
LaSalle 0,573 03.80
Snnaatmm ..3,034 34.03
I might go on with tho whole Hot of items lu
the list of personal property, but I have shown
items enough to make the point, that intangible
personal property is
and that other personal property off the farms
is not assessed fully as to the number of articles,
and not at anything lilco one-tenth their value.
So thattho farmer, whoso personality consists of
liorsos. cows, hogs, corn, and wheat, which is in
sight, is assessed fully, not only as regards tho
number of tho articles, but up to their full
value, whilo tho valuo of tho bonds, stocks,
notes, etc., on which annual interest and divi
donds are drawn, are untaxod, and tho owners
are never discovered by the Tax-Assessor or Col
Furthermore, those figures show that, whllo
tho groat burden of personal-property tax comes
on the farmers, to the exemption of other class
es aud interests, it is not fairly divided ns regards
those classes and interests. Who believes that
Cook County had, on May 1, 1873. less moneys
and credits than Fulton, and only about one-half
as much as Sangamon ? Who thinks taxation
is equal when all tho pawnbrokers in LaSalle
County paid tax on 953,C0S worth of property,
while tho same interest in Cook County paid
only on 99,575 ? Who believes Cook County had
ou that day loss melodious and organs than
Winnebago, Bureau, or LaSalle, oud loss than
little Kendall ?
Tho State Board of Equalization made an
effort to correct those obvious inequalities by
adding G8 per cent to tho assessment of personal
property in Cook, but, after alt, this only
for the Board could not correct tbo enumeration
of tho articles, so that tho result was that tho
assessed persons in Cook paid higher tarfba,
while tho exempt persons continued to bo ex
All tho assessments wore made May 1, 1873,
under our famous Bovouuo law, and with tho in
structions of tho Auditor, under his duty, to tho
effect that all property, everywhere, should bo
assessed at its true cash value. I cannot refrain
from quoting one more notable instance of tho
effect of this low. You will boo by referring to
tho proper table in tho Auditor’s report, thnt in
Cook County clocks and watohos'aro assessed at
tho average value of $12.37 each, wiiilo in Bu
reau they aro assessed at $2.03, and both under
the operation of tho same law and same instruc
Now, I ask, in view of all thoao figures, official
and public as they are, docs not tho farmer pay
tax on all hie personality, and does ho not also
have to pay taxes to
caused bjr tho merchants, hankers, brokers,
and other gentlemen of leisure, in failing
to givo a trao list of their personal possessions.
About 80 per cent of tho outiro tax paid to tho
Stato comes from lauds.
Tho whole equalized assessment of all prop
erty is $1,259,105,312, in this amount aro tho
following items:
£anda •’ $582,410,607
Town lots 317,1911,233
Examine tho report of tho State Board of
Equalization, nndaeo if there is anymore justice
in tho assessment of real property, as between
cities aud counties, than there is in personal.
Here are some of tho figures, showing how im
proved lands are assessed on the average:
„ , „ . Per acre.
Cook County. $25.32
DuPngo County J 40*03
Bureau County h.RO
Qrcono County g*43
Jasper County o*so
Adams County 32ii5Q
Sangamon County 3M3
Tho assessments of improved city lots shows
the same
of which I give a few instances:
Cook County .$1,200.09
Stephenson County coo 40
Will County C 04.00
Peoria County 1,205.74
Morgan County 1,021.51
Sangamon County 083.07
Thus you boo that when tho real property was
in sight of tho Assessor, who is commanded by
tho law to assess it at its full cash value, ho as
sessed improved lauds in Cook County at $25.32
per acre, and in Bureau, ono of tho best counties
of tho State,'at $8.50 per aero.
Tho lots in the groat City of Chicago, which
havo improvements on thorn ranging in value
from SI,OOO to $500,000, are assessed, with tho
buildings, at tho enormous average sum of
$1,260.29 each, but a trifle moro than tho samo
class of lots are assessed at in Peoria.
Taking those figures, ovory fair-minded man
must admit tho assessment of both personal and
real property, under our present law, to be
Bass this resolution, lot it pass tho other
House, submit it to Che votes of tho people, put
beyond question and doubt tho constitutionality
of taxes on tho special interests named, and you
have taken a long step on the road to Bovonuo
Boform, Tax tho special interests without first
assessing tho realty and personalty of tho State
put it in tho power of the General Assembly to
tax incomes, authorize a tax on the gross re
ceipts of railroads in lieu of all other taxes, and,
in ray opinion, you can raise all needed revenue
without doing injustice to anv citizen, class, in
terest, county, city, or section; and then tho
railroad companies and other corporations will
cease to ho ta n-Jlghievs, and become satisfied tax
payers. .
If tho real and personal property of tho State
is exempt from Stato taxes, then tho counties,
towns, and cities can levy thoir local taxes on
this very class of property, and thus pay tho lo
cal debts. If any inequality exists in the assess
ment, it will not extend beyond tho locality in
which it occurs. That those inequalities exist,
it is only necessary to cite tho fact that tho as
sessment of property in Cook County, for Stato
purposes, for 1873, was $114,000,000, white tho
assessment of property in Chicago alouo, for
city purposes, was $311,000,000.
On tho amount of revenue to ho derived
from a
florae idea may bolmcl from tbo following figures:
In tbo months of December. January, ami Fob
runry laat, tbo production of spirits in tbia dis
trict, tbo Eighth, was 073,554 gallons, as appears
from tbo records of tbo Internal Revenue Oflico
boro. This would give 3,804,232 gallons as tbo
total production in tins district for ouo year. It
is bolloved that 25 por cent of tbo spirits of tbo
State aro produced In this district, and, if this is
correct, tbo whole production of tbo State is
15,570,028 gallons. A tax of 5 cents por gallon
on tbla would give to tbo State 9778,840,40 of
...$ 48,(100,000
... 30,000,000
... 5,000,000
... 11,000,000
~. 8,000,000
... 1,000,000
... 6,000,000
... 12,000,000
The Illinois Central Railroad pays now into
tho State Treasury nearly $500,000 per year
Other roads in tbo State collect gross receipts to
tbo amount of about $30,000,000 annually, on
wbicli a 2-nor-cont tux cun bo laid. The gross
receipts of tbo insurance companies aro over
$0,000,000, and those will boar tho samo rate;
and all those give us 1
Illinois Central $ 600,000.00
Ollier roads In the State, according to re
port of Railroad Conimlßaionors, $30,000,-
000, at 2 pur cent 600,000.00
On $0,0(10,(ICO of Insurance, at 2 per cent.. 120,000.00
15,570,028 gallons of wbJalty and distilled
spirits, ut 6 cents 778,840.40
Now, tbo ordinary and extraordinary expenses
of tho Btato for two years aro about $54,(1U0,000,
and tbo school tax for ttio samo time is $2,000.-
000. As soon obovo, tbo articles mentioned will
furnish nearly $2,000,000, and tbo balance can
easily bo collected from tho other objects men
tioned, without levying one coat on tbo roal and
personal property lu tbo State.
I have thus shown you my idea of tbo defects
of our present Revenue system, and what I
consider tbo best way to remedy tbo evils, and
to raise tbo rovonuo uccosaary to support our
Btato Government, Rut thoro Is another bmnob
of tho question of Rovonuo Reform no loss im
portant. Tim resolution contemplates a radical
change in tho method of raising tho revenue,
.$ 020,212
, 037,533
. 1,1148,022
.$ 70,405
. 140.583
. 313,550
. 533.0C0
FAWNOnOKKns* rnei'KllTT,
I Vb, Each A vtrage,
Eo, Each Average,
but tlioro In tv no loss radical change demanded
m the method of
It would bo well for un to connldor how wo can
reduce the expense of administering the affairs
of the Slate. b
In the first place, the revenue should bo col
lected at a oost not exceeding 2 per cent ou the
gross amount, but it now costs nearly ton times
that, or about 20 per cent. It costs to collect
the State revenue alone nearly SOOO,OOO nor
year. Think of It; over ono-balf a million
of dollars to got out of tho tax-pavers the
money to run the State Government. This groat
leak can and should bo stopped, and tho readiest
and most certain moans of doing If Is to levy and
collect tho taxes with tho smallest possible
amount of machinery, as Is contemplated by this
Our Slate Institutions are coaling for current
expenses a groat deal more than, In my Jndg
mont, is necessary. According to tho re-
Part of tlie Board of Public Obarltlos, our chnr
itnblo institutions have one oftlcor or employe
for every fourpatiouts, which shows that thoro
about Homo of those buildings.
If we are obliged to erect any more public
bullumgß, they should bo cheaper and plainer
tlmn those which have boon built heretofore,
i vl. 11 ?, that ,0 construction Recount of the
Institutions, asylums, and hospitals amounts to
about SI,OOO for each inmate now enjoying
the charity of the State.- Yes, alrl Any one of
the blind, mute, and insane has cost for house
room alone SI,OOO, —a sum abundant to build a
bouse as good ns the average tax-paver occupies
with bis family. I have hoard that the most ex
pensive part of these buildings was*devoted to
the use and pleasure of the ofllcors; but, whether
this is true or not, Ido not know, but I do know
that wo have paid too much for architectural
fancies to bo put into brick and mortar, into cut
otono, cast iron, carving, paint, putty, and stuc
°o. at the expense of the tax-pavers.
wo must also reduce the expenses of our State
Government by
political veterans, and caucus cripples, whom tho
tax-payors have to support in Idleness.
Compare tho expenses of tho Legislative Do
'v^Gn Illinois had a population
of 800,000, with tho oxpouaos In 1871, when tho
population was 3,000,000, Then wo spent $15,-
243.04; In 1871 wo spout 6537,805.50; and thou
consider whether tho laws aro hotter enforced,
whether tho people aro more happy and content
ed, in 1871 or thirty years before.
I shall bring rayromarks to a close. Tho sub
jects by no moans exhausted; on tho contrary,
t will furnish material to occupy tho thoughts of
the Senators for months. I hope tho resolution
will pass, I hope it will bo debated hero and in
tho other House, and by tho people through tho
pr0B8; for it involves tho Important, tho vital
question which occupies the attention of all of
ns onco a year, ami of somo of us all tho yoar:
llow shall MS pay our taxes t I havo been aot
-111(5 with tho Democratic party in tills Slate for
tho past thirty years. I havo boon tho recipient
of many favors at tho bunds of that party, for
which I am, and shall contino to bo, truly grate
ful. But I intend boroaflor to act with that par
ty, I care not by what namo it is called,
which will inscribe on its banners a reform not
only for cheap transportation, but for equal as
sessment of taxes, and cheap collection of tax
es, cheap execution of tho law, and economical
administration of tho General and Slate Govern
ments. and reform in the management of our
State institutions,
from Victor Huyo'a “A’inelihthrce,"
[The war corvette Claymore, sailing from Jersey for
the French const In tho service of the French novel
ists, carried a mysterious passenger, whoso nnmo was
known only io tho Captain and his chief ofllccr, but
who afterward appears ns tho Marquis do Lantenac,
the Royalist lender in La Vendee. Tho breaking loose
of a carronado in tho gun-dock interrupts a conversa
tion between those three men, and tho description of
tho scone of destruction that followed forms ono of
the most powerful episodes of tho novel.]
Ono of tho carronados of tho battery, a twen
ty-four poundor, had got loose.
This is perhaps tho most formidable of ocean
accidents. Nothing more terrible can happen to
a vessel in open sea and under full sail.
A gun that breaks Us moorings becomes sud
denly some indescribable supernatural boast. It
is a machine which transforms itself into
This mass turns upon its wheels, Ins tho rapid
movements of a billiard-ball; rolls with tho
rolling, pitches with tho pitching; goes, comes,
pauses, seems to meditate; resumes its course,
rushes along the ship from end to end like an
arrow, circles about, springs aside, evades,
roars, breaks, kills, exterminates. It is a bat
tering-ram which assaults a wall at its own ca
price. Moreover, tuo battering-ram is metal,
the wall wood. It is the entrance of matter
into liberty. One might say that this eternal
slave avenges itself. .It seems as if the power
of evil hidden in what wo call inanimate objects
finds a vent and bursts suddenly out. It has an
air of having lost patience, of Booking somo
fierce; ohscuro retribution; nothing moro inex
orable than this rage of tho inanimate. The
mad mass has tho bounds of a panther, tho
weight of an elephant, tho agility of a mouse,
(ho obstinacy of tho ax, the unexpectedness of
tho surge, tho rapidity of lightning, tho doafness
of tho tomb. It weighs 10,000 pounds, and it re
bounds like a child’s ball. Its ilight is a wild
whirl abruptly cut at right angles. What is
to bo done? Howto end this? A tempest censes,
a cyclone a wind falls, a broken mast is
replaced, a leak is stopped, a fire dies out; but
how to control this
In what way can one attack it ?
You can make a mastiff hear reason, astound
a bull, fascinate a bob, frighten a tiger, soften a
lion; but there is no resource with that monster
a cannon lot loose. You cannot klllit—itiadoad:
at tho same time it lives. It lives with a sinister
life bestowed on it by Infinity.
Tho planks beneath it give it play. It is moved
by tho ship, which is moved by tho sea, which is
moved by tho wind. This dostrovor is a play
thing. Tho ship, tho waves, tho ‘blasts, all aid
it: hence its frightful vitality. How to assail
this fury of complication ? itow to fetter this
monstrous mechanism for wrecking a ship? How
foresee its comings and goings, its returns, its
stops, its shocks ? Any one of these blows upon
the sides may stave out the vessel. How divine
its awful gyrations I One has todcal pith a pro
jectile which thinks, scums to possess ideas, and
which changes its direction at each instant. How
stopthocourao of something which must bo avoid
ed t Tho horrible cannon llings itself about, ad
vances, recoils, strikes to tho right, strikes to tho
loft, iloos, passes, disconcerts ambushes, breaks
down obstacles, crushes men liko Hies. Tho
great danger of tho situation is in tho mobility
of its How combat an inclined plane which
has caprices ? Tho ship, so to speak, has light
ning imprisoned In its womb, which seeks to es
cape ; it is liko thunder rolling above nu earth
In an instant tho wholo crow wore on foot.
bo bad uoglootod to llx homo tbo scrow-nut of
tbo mooriug-ebain, and bud bo badly shackled
tbo four wheels of tbo carrouado that
tbo play given to tbo holo and frame
bad separated tbo {platform, and end
ed by breaking tbo breeching. Tbo cordage bad
broken, so that tbo gun was no longer secure on
tbo carriage, Tbo stationary breeching which
prevents recoil was not in use at that period.
As a heavy wave struck tbo port, tbo carrouado,
weakly attached, recoiled, burst its chain, and
began to rush wildly about. Conceive, m order
to nave au idea of this strange sliding, a drop of
water riiuuitig down a pane of glass.
) At the moment when the lashings gave way
tbo gunners wore in the battery, some in groups,
others standing alone, occupied with snob duties
ao sailors porfonn inoxpeutution of the command
to clear for action. Tbo carrouado, burled for
ward by tbo pitching, dashed into this knot of
men, and crushed four at tbo first blow : then,
bung buck and abet out anew by tbo rolling, it
cut in two a fifth poor fellow, glanced oil’ to tbo
larboard side, and struck a piece of tbo battery
with such force as to unship It. Then rose tbo
cry of distress which bad been hoard. Tbo men
♦l™! 1 ?. n ow / w i l fn° toddor—tbo gun-dock emp
tied in tbo twinkling of an eye, The enormous
cannon was loft alone. Bbo was given up to her
self. Bbo was hor own mistress, and 1
f „. ~ mistress of the vessel.
bbo could do what sho willed with both. Tbo
whole crow, accustomed to laugh in battle, trom
blod now. lo describe tbo universal terror
would bo impossible.
Capt, Iloisbortbolot and Idem. VlouvillA ni
Uioimh both lutropia mpi', Bl°|ip°d ot tho h'oad
of tbo Blairs, mid romiduod muto, polo, hcsltat
biß, looltltift, down on tho ciooli. Homo ouo
puuhod them aside with Ilia olbow mid descended.
It woo thoir pmißooßOi-, tho peasant, tho man
ot whom they hud boon speaking o momont bo
When ho touched tho foot ot tho laddor'ho
Btood Btill,
Tho cannon onino and wont alone tho dooli
Ouo might havo fancied it tho living chariot of
the Apocalypse. Tho matins lantern oscillating
from ibo coiling added a dizzying whirl of lights
nnd shadows to this vision. Tho shape of tho
cannon was umllstlnguisliftblo frbm tho rapidity
of its conrso s now it looked black in tho light,
now It cast wolrd roflootions through tho gloom.
It kept on its work of destruction. It Lad al
ready chattered four other pieces, and dug two
crevices in tho side, fortunately above tho water
line. though they would leak In caso a squall
should como on. It dashed 'itself frantically
against tho frame-work; tho solid tie-beams
resisted, their curved form giving them groat
strength, but they croaked ominously under the
assaults of this terrible club, which scorned en
dowed with a sort of
striking on every sido at once. The strokes of a
bullet shaken in a bottle would not bo madder or
more rapid. Tho four wheels passed ami ro
pasaod above iho dead men, cut, carved, slashed
them, till tho live conisos woro a score of stumps
rolling about tho dock; Iho heads seemed to cry
• out; streams of blood twisted in nnd out of tho
planks with ovory pitch of tho vessel, Tho coil
ing damaged lu several places, began to gnpo.
Tho whole ship was filled with tho awful tumult.
Iho Captain promptly recovered his compos
ure, and at his order tho sailors throw down into
the dock ovory thing which could deaden ond
chock tho mad rush of tho gun—mattrossoo,
hammocks, spare sails, coils of ropo, extra equip
ments, auatho halos of false asfiiguats, of which
■thocorvette carried a wholo cargo; au infamous
deception, which tho English considered a fair
trick in war.
But what could those rags avail? No ono
dorod to descend to arrange them in any useful
fashion, and iuafow instants thoy woro moro
heaps of lint.
There was just soa enough to romlor an acci
dent as complete as possible. A tempest would
hnvo boon desirable; it might hnvo thrown tho
gun upside down, and tho four wheels oaco in
tho air, tho monster could have boon mastered.
Thoro wore gashes and even fractures in tho
masts, which, imbedded in tho wood-work of tho
kool, pierce tho docks of ships like groat round
pillars. Tho mlzzou-mast was cracked, and tho
malumastilsolf was injured under tho convul
sive blows of the gun. Tho battery was being
destroyed. Ton pieces out of tho thirty woro
disabled; iho broaches multiplied in the side,
and tho corvotto began to tako in wator.
Tho old passenger, who had descended to tho
gun-dock, looked like a form of stono stationed
nt tho foot of tho stairs. Ho stood motionless,
gazing sternly about upon tho devastation. In
deed, it seemed impossiblo to tako a single step
Eaoh bound -of tho liberated carronado men
aced tho destruction of tho vessel. A fow min
utes moro aud shipwreck would be inevitable.
Thoy must parish or put a summary ond to tho
disaster—a decision must bo made—hut how ?
What a combataut—this enunou 1 Thoy must
chock this mad monster. Thoy must seize this
flash of lightning. Thoy must overthrow this
Bolsberthelot said to La YloaviUo, “ Do you
boliovo In God, Chevalier?”
La Yiouvilio replied, “Yea. No. Bomb
* “In a tempest ?”
“Yes; ami In moments liko this.” .
“Only God can aid us hero,” said Bolsber
All wore silent—tlio cannon kept up its horri
ble fracas.
The waves boat against tho ship ; tholr blows
from without responded to tho strokes of tho
It was liko two hammers alternating.
Suddenly, into tho midst of this sort of inac
cessible circus, whoro tho escaped cannon leaped
and bounded,
with an iron bar iu his hand. It was tho author
of this catastrophe, tho gunnor whoso culpable
nogligouco had caused tho accident,—tho captain
of tho gun. Haviug boon tho means of bring
ing about tho misfortune, ho dosirod to repair it.'
lie had caught up a handspike in one hat, a
tiller-rope with a slipping nooso in tho other,
and jumped down into tho gun-dock. Then a
slraugo combat began: a Titanic strife—tho
struggle of tho gun against tho gunnor, a hattlo
between matter and intelligence, a duel between
tbo inanimate and tho human.
Tho man was posted in an angle, tho bar and
rono in his two lists? backed against ouo of tuo
riders, settled firmly on his logs as on two pillars
of stool, livid, calm, tragic, rooted as it wero iu
the planks, ho waited,
lie waited for tho cannon to pass near him.
Tho gunner know his pioco/and it Boomed to
him that aho must recognize her master. Ho
had lived a long time with her. How many
times ho had thrust his hand between her jaws I
It was his tamo monster. Ho began to address
it as bo.might have done his dog.
said ho. Perhaps ho loved it.
Ho seemed to wish that it would turn toward
But to como toward him would bo to spring
npou him. Thou ho would bo lost. How to
avoid its crush ? Thoro was tho question. All
stared iu terrified silence.
Not a breast respired freely, except, perchance,
that of tho old man who alouo stood in tho dock
with tho two combatauts, a stern second.
Ho might himself bo crushed by tho pioco.
He did not stir.
Beneath them, tho blind sea directed tho bat-
At tho instant, when accepting this awful
hand-to-hand contest, tho gunner approached to
challenge tho cannon, some chanco fluctuation
of tho waves kept it for a moment immovable,
as if suddenly stupoflod.
“ Como on I n tho man said to it. It seemed to
Suddenly it darted upon him. Tho gunner
avoided tho shock.
r lho struggle began—struggle unheard of.
Tho fragile matching itself against tho invulner
able. The thing of flesh attacking the brazen
brute. On tho one sido blind force, on tho other
a soul.
Tho whole passed in a half-light. It was liko
tho indistinct vision of a miracle.
A soul—strange thing; but you would have
said that the cannon had ono also—a soul Ailed
with rage and hatred. This blindness.
Tho monster had the air of watching' the man.
Thoro was—ono might have fancied so at least—
cunning in this muss. It also chose its moments.
It became some gigantic insect of metal, having,
or seeming to have, tho will of a demon. Some
times this colossal grass-hoppor would strike the
low coiling of tho gun-deck, thon foil back on its
four wheels like a tiger upon its four claws, and
dart anew on tho man. Ho—supple, agile,
adroit—would glide away liko a snnko from tho’
roach of those lightniug-liko movements. Ho
avoided tho encounters ; but tho blows which ho
escaped fell upon tho vessel and continued tho
An end of broken chain remained attached to
tho carronado. This chain had twisted itself,
one could not toll how, about tho screw of the
brccch-button. Ono extremity of tho chain was
fastened to tho carriage. Tho other, hanging
loose, whirled rapidly about tho gun, and ‘added
to the danger of its blows.
Tho screw hold it like a clinched hand, and tho
chain, multiplying tho strokes of tho battering
ram by its strokes of a thong, made u fearful
whirlwind about tho camion,—a whip of iron in
a flat of brass. This chain complicated tho bat
Nevertheless, tbo man fought. Sometimes,
oven, it was the man who attacked the cannon.
Ho crept along tho aide, bar and ropo in hand,
and the cannon had the air of understanding,
and Hod as if it perceived a snare. Tho man
pursued it,
Such a duel could nut lust long. Tho gun
.seemed suddenly to say to itself, "Como, wo
must muko an end!" and it paused. Quo felt
tho approach of tho crisis. Tho cannon, as if in
suspense, appeared to have, or hud—because It
seemed to all a sentient being—a furious pro
meditation. It sprang unexpectedly upon tho
guuuor. Ho jumped aside, lot it puss, and oriod
out, with a laugh, " Try again 1" Tuo gun, as if
in a fury, broko a ourronado to larboard; then,
seized anew by tho invisible sling which hold it,
was Hung to starboard toward tho man, who es
Throo oftiTonados gavo way under tbo blows of
tbo gun; then, us if blind, and no longor'con
scions of wlrnt it was doing, it turned its back
on.tbo man, rolled from the storn to tbo bow,
bruising tho stem and making a broach in tbo
plankings of tho prow. Tho gunner had taken
refuge ut tho foot of tho stairs, a few stops from
tbo old man, who was watching.
Tho gunner hold his handspike in rest. Tho
cannon soomod to porcoivo him, and, without
taking tho trouble to turn itsolf, bucked upon
him with tho quickness of an ax-stroke. Tho
gunner, if driven back against tho side, was lost.
Tbo crow uttered a simultaneous cry.
But tbo old passenger, until now immovable,
made a spring inure rapid than all those wild
whirls. Ho seized a halo of the false assignats,
and, ut the risk of being crushed, succeeded |n
Hinging it between tbo wheels of the carronudo.
This muuouvro, decisive and dangerous, could
not have boon executed with more adroitness
and precision by a man trained to all tho exer
cises set down in “Durosol’s Manual of Boa-
Qunnory. 1 ’
Tbo halo had tbo effect of a plug. A pebble
may stop a log, a tree-branch turn an avulaubho.
Tbo ourronado stumbled.' Tho .gunner, in bis
turn, , scUlugf •this I MufUo .thtfiKiu, plunged bis
Uou bar betffolU t'l9 iywM of one of tho hind*
wheels, Tho oannou was stopped. It staggered.
Iho man, using tho bar as a lover, rocked It too
tt i ,9; Tho heavy mass turned over with a
dang liko a falling boll, and tho gunner, dripping
i. 1 rushed forward headlong, and passed
tho fllipplng-nooso of tho tlllor-ropo about tho
hronzo uoolc of
It was ended. The man had conquered. Tho
ant had subdued tho mastodon: tho pigmy had
taken tho thunderbolt prisoner,
hands mar * Uoß nm * ho Ba^ora clapped their
The whole crow hurried down with cables and
chains, and in an instant tho cannon was secure
ly lashed.
TJia gunuor saluted tho passenger,
lif * ”* r,M
Tho old man had resumed his imnasslble atti
tude, and did not reply.
The man hud conquered, but ono might say
that tho cannon had conquered also. Immediate
shipwreck had been avoided, hut tho corvette
was by no menus saved. Tho dilapidation of tho
vossol soomod irromodinblo. Tho sides had live
broaches, ono of which, very largo, was in tho
how. Out of tho thirty carronodos, twenty lav
useless in thulr frames.
Iho enrroundo which had been captured and
rcolminod was itself disabled; tho screw of tho
brooch-button was forced, and tho leveling of
tho piece impossible in consequence, Tho bat
tery was reduced to nine pieces. Tho hold had
sprung a leak. It was necessary at once to re
pair tho damages nnd sot tho pumps to work.
Iho .gun-dock, now that ono had time to look
about it, offered a terrible spectacle. Tho Inte
rior of a mad elephant’s cage could not have
boon moro completely dismantled.
However groat tho necessity that tho corvette
should escape observation, a still moro imperi
ous necessity presented itself—
It had boon necessary to light up tho deck by
lanternsplapod hero and thoro along tho sides..
But during tho wholo timo this tragic diver
sion had lasted tho crow woro so absorbed by tho
pno question of life or death that thoy noticed
little what was passing outside tho scene of tho
duel. Tho fog bad thTokonod ; tho weather had
changed; tho wind had drivou tho vessel at will;
it had got out of its route, in plain sight of Jer
sey ond Guernsey, farther to tho south thou it
.ought to have gone, and was surrounded by n
troubled soa. Tho groat waves kissed tho gaping
wounds of tho corvette—kisses full of porn.
Tho soa rooked her menacingly. Tho hroozo be
came a gale. A squall, a tempest perhaps,
threatened. It was impossiblo to see before one
four oars’ length.
While tho crow woro repairing summarily and
in haste tho ravages of tho gun-deck, stopping
the leaks, and putting back into position tho guns
which hud escaped tho disastor,tho old passenger
had gone on deck.
Ho stood with his back against tho mainmast.
Ho had paid no attention to a proceeding which
had taken place on tho vossol. The' Chevalier La
Yiouvilio had drawn up the marines in Hue on
cither sido of tho mainmast, and at tho whistle
of tho sailors busy in tho rigging stood upright
on tho yards.
Count du Bolsberthelot advanced toward tho
passenger. Behind tho Captain marched a man
haggard, breathless, his dress In disorder, yet
wearing a satistlcd look under it all. It was tho
guuuor who had just now so opportunely shown
hinmolf a tamer of monsters, and who had gob
tho bettor of tho cannon.
Tho Count tnado a military saluto to tho un
known iu peasant garb, and said to him, “ Gen
Tho gunner hold himself erect, bis eyes down
cast, standing iu a soldierly attitude.
Count du Boisbortholot coiitiutod: “ General,
taking into consideration what this man has
done, do you not think there is something for
his commanders to do ?”
“I think there is,” said tho old mao.
“Bo good enough to give tho orders," return
ed Boisbortholot.
“It is for you to glvo them. You aro tho Cap
“But you are tho General,” answered Bois
The old man looked at tho gunnor. “Ap
proach,” said he.
Tho gunner moved forward a stop. Tho old
man turned toward Count du Boisbortholot, de
tached tho cross of Saint Louis from tho Can
tain’s uniform, oud fastened It on the jacket of
the gunner.
“ Hurrah I" cried the sailors.
Iho marines presented arms. Tho old passen
ger, pointing with his finger toward tho bewild
ered gunner, added, “ Now
Stupor succeeded the applause.
Thou, in tho midst of a silonco lilco that of tho
tomb,-the old man raisdd bis voice. Ho said:
“ A negligence has oudaugoiod this ship. At
this moment aho is perhaps lost. To bo at eoa
is to faco tho enemy, A vessel at open sea is an
army which gives battle. Tho tempest conceals,
but does not absent itself. Tho whole sea is an
ambuscade. Heath is tho penalty of any fault
committed iu tho face of tho enemy. No fault
is reparable. Courage ought to bo rewarded,
and nogligouco punished.” *
These words fell one after tho other slowly,
solemnly, with a sort of inexorable measure,
like tho blows of an ax upon au oak.
And tho old man, turning to tho soldiers, add
ed, “Do your duty.”
Tho mau upon whoso breast shone tho cross of
Saint Louis bowed his head.
At a sign from Count du Boisborthelot two
sailors descended between decks, then relumed,
bringing tho hammock winding-shoot. Tho
ship's chaplain, who since the time of sailing
had boon ut prayer iu tho officers’ quarters, ac
companied tho two stylors; a Sergeant detached
from tho lino twelve marines, whom ho arranged
in two ranks, six by sixj tho gunnor, without
uttering a word, placed himself between the two
files. Tho chaplain crucifix in hand, advanced
and stood near him,
“March 1 ” said tho Sergeant.
The platoon moved with slow stops toward tho
how. Tho two sailors who carried tho shroud
A gloomy sllonco fell upon tho corvotto. A
hurricauo moaned in tho distance.
A few instants later thoro was a flash; a re
port followed, echoing among tho shadows:
thon all was silent; thou camo tho thud of
Thoold passenger still loaned back against tho
mainmast with folded anus, thinking silently.
Boisbortholot pointed toward him with tho
forefinger of his loft hand, and said iu a low
voice to LaYlouvillo,
“ Tho Youdoo has found a head!”
Corn-Culture at llio Crist—Corn-Cul
luro on ttie Prairie—Plan of ill.
Kiillivuut—Uud JUifcct of blowing
wlien Wut-'ahc A(lvnu(n<r« of Mou
clow and Pastil forTliis Crop—
Trench-Plowing of ftlcmtow-Lnnd—
Tho Double Michigan Plow—Plant
ing ami Cultivating— W«w Plums—
Tho Miner Plum for Sale—Arhor-
From Our Afirlcultural Correspondent,
Ohamimiun, 111., April ‘J, 1874,
In passing through New York iu summer-time,
tho Western farmer is surprised to see how little
is known and practiced of tho economy of labor
in tho
tho plowing, cross-plowing,harrowing, manuring,
hooing, cultivating, and hilling,—a detail of la
bor that is perfectly appalling. And yet out of
this comes a fair avorngo crop In bushels, but
out of aU proportion to tho cost of labor.
Thou bo looks ac tho narrow cribs, with capacity
for tbo storago of 200 or 800 bushels, and, turn
ing his oyos towards tho West, mentally exclaims:
“ Surely, Cores dedicated tho prairies of tho
West and tbo broad river-bottoms to corn. No
stony ndgo or hUI-sIUo, no sight of a boinlook
forost, no stiff, cold clay-soil, no wldo-sproad
sandy plain or marsh, though undordralnod, can
compote in tho corn-market with onr favored
land, that tho groat drift-period gavo to tho
Climate baa much to do in making tho corn
crop, but it is tbo adaptation of soil that aids in
tbo economy of labor. If wo look at tbo corn
statistics of tbo State wo will Hud a bolt of 20
degrees of latitude that stands pro-omiuont for
this crop ; and, as wo go west from tbo Wabash
Itlvor, tbo bolt widens, fan-shaped, and is broad
at tbo base, nbou it ends at tho lino of tbo
mountalu-roglou of drought,—the trans-Mis
souri country, • •
This is the groat corn-zono,—tbo land whonco
tbo world’s commerce will draw its supplies of
corn,—corn for tho food of domestic animals, for
man, and probably, for all tlpio, for whisky.—
aims wmo, brandy, gin, oto.
It may bo possible that tho present manage
ment of tho corn-cron hi Now York and Now
Nnglaml is tbo best for that location, ond that
no further progress can or wood bo oxpootod iu
tho economy of tho crop ; that iho hiu'sldo. the
broad river-bottom, tho gravelly ridges, and tho
drained swamp, shall havo tho samo formula of
culture ; but tho prairio must have a system of
its own.—a idttn of mumiaoniont pooulisv to it
limit iuwrd >mi* iqUuus of thi
tl°on aW * M 0 lßbor 0n on found*-
. , _ M. L. BULIiIVANT <•
naa demonstrated that ho could prepare the
ground, plant and cultivate an aero of corn, on
an average of about one day and one-tenth t but
{?*'V° wade no allowance for lost time when
the land woe not in condition for working, nor
for superintendence. Mr. B. had very good, and
ro | nflr bablo cropa, considering tho
many thousand acres that ho planted annually,
*”4"“ a E ho depended on hired labor to do tho
‘ i iful urged him for many years to adopt
l ! ant “? y i tom » fio M t0 Blvo each man a dl-
} ut ? rcßt } n working tho crop 5 and this ays-
Umo.'’ " ml ia I,m,y ln arran S l,, 8
not a porfoot system for tho
JJJJ* °°°“ on ? y ?* Ial)or In tlio management of tho
corn-crop, hut wo are slowly approaching it. It
Ib well known that, when old land, If of a cloggy
nature, is plowed when wot,
mUOt undergo the dlsln
»n^ni n £t»7ut lB ° r S’ oab to bring »t back to ita
normal condition. Now, this is a serious draw
back of time in many seasons. waiting for tho
land to come into suitable condition for nlowintr s
and, in some seasons, not lobb than half the
time for work ia lost in Idloncsa of tho men and
teams. This makes tho area planted of very un
equal amounts, and at best makes a part of it
late planting, in which tbo crop is endangered,—
lirst hy drought in germ, when tbo blades are
too small to boar up against adverse weather;
and, secondly, by early autumn frosts. Very
few farmers know of a way out of this diniculty.
and suppose they must submit to it, lot tbo
weather come as it will. Thus, for this spring,
teams have boon idle for more than two weeks,
waiting for the gonial weather that shall put the
land in good tilth for plowing, and it may l>o two
or throe weeks more before work can begin,
■those who have moadowor pasture-laud to plant
aro busy, it is true 5 but those persons are but
few In number, and tbo area of such land is
limited; for wo have boon in tho habit of plant
ing corn on the same laud year after year, as
though that was tho very best system to be
If wo cannot plow old land when wot without
damaging it, why is it that we oan plow
when In tbo same condition? The eolation is
easy enough { for tho wot clay land is packed
lilco a brick, and dries cloddy; while, in tho
sword-laud, tbo immouao number of roots pro
youts this action of tbo clay, and tbo soil is loft
in flno condition for tho crops. lUrstsawtbis
verified in tho breaking up of a fow acres of
prairie in tbo month of February, and bavo prac
ticed it annually for tho past dozen years.
All farmers concede that meadow and pas
ture-land produces largo crops of corn, and that
the culture is less than on old land, tbo land
being comparatively froo of weeds, lloro, then,
oro two points that aro not to bo overlooked in
tbo culture of tho corn-crop. As soon as tbo
frost is out. in Warcb, tbo meadow and pasture
land is ready for the plow. There is no waiting
f, or tl £, ffro i l!ld t0 Bottlo - or lUo land to got into
fino tilth; for tho work is ready. Tbo pkrtvruua
easily through tho soft turf that presents its
black, rich surface to tho sun: tbo water settles
away; and, in a fow weeks, it is ready for tbo
harrow, that will pulverize its furrows into fine
ly-comminuted soil, ready for tho planting. All
this work is going on long boforo tbo team
can bo put on tho old land, oven if it did not
ruin it to bo plowed whon sodden with the sprim:
rains. 1 b
Wo Will suppose that the farmer, with a sin
gle team, baa to put In sixty acres of corn, and
that ono*half of this is meadow or pasture-land,
iio will bo ablo to plow all of this meadow-laud
at times when bo cannot prudently go on the
phi land to plow. When the old land is dry, and
in condition for plowing, tbo sod-laud may bo
abandoned for tbo time being, and tbo old land
taken in baud; but, a heavy rain falling at any
time, the sod-laud is again ready until the other
is again in order. In this way, there are no idle
teams or idle men waiting for tho water to 'set
tle away so that plowing may bo resumed.
There is groat complaint that tho old land
by long-continued planting and oalturo without
hooiug; and it is often Hooded to grass for tho
purpose of exterminating; them. But there is
another and bettor reason given to flood the land
often to grass, and that is for the purpose of
comminuting it. Land under long culture be
comes lumpy, and is not in the fiuoly-commi
nuted condition of that which has recently boon
in grass; and then the decaying grass and clover
roots give the soil a more porous or draiuablo
condition to admit of tho vapor of water, which
is just tho condition for tho growth of plants.
Water must pass down through the soil hi order
that it may part with its plant-food, and tho in
numerable small roots servo to make up this de
sirable condition.
Talcing this view of tho subject, we must next
consider tho propriety of so arranging our crops
that corn and tho small grains may alternate
with grass. Tho British farmer prides himself
with a rotation, say of live or seven years, in
which wheat, oats, barley, turnips, and grass
talco tholr turns, and in which tho grass plays
tho most importaut part. Horo wo have the
com in -place of turnips, aud which ma» bo
considered tho loading-staple. The farmorwill
find it to his advantage to so arrange his fields
that ouo-hatf of bis corn-land, or an area equal
to it, may bo seeded to grass annually, and a like
quantity bo broken up each spring to be planted
m corn. This is I
in tho management of tlio corn cron in this groal
Wo may plant tho corn on the award-land, and
follow with winter-wheat, by sowing among tho
standing com and drilling it in,—a practice that
has boon somewhat followed, but probably, not
tho beat. Or, what is more common at tho
southern part of tho Btato, cut tho com in Sep
tember, place tho shocks in rows, and sow tho
wintor-wlroat directly on tho coru-atubblo : and,
after tho ground is frozen, tho crop thus har
vested is uaulcd from tho Hold. Tho only ob
jection to this plan is tho bare spots whore tho
corn-stalks stood in tho shocks; but, as tho
wheat-crop is to bo sown to grass and clover,
that is no groat drawback. The gross may re
main for two years, making a four years’ course.
It may bo cropped to com two or three years,
and, at tho last cropping, the corn bo cut, and
shocked, and hauled olf; or tho stalks may bo
broken down in winter, rottod and burned in
March, and tho land sown to spring-wheat, bar
ley, or oafs, and seeded to grass.
As tho farms grow smaller, and farm-barns
como into more general use, wo shall soo loss
and Ices of Hold-husking, as farmers will cut tho
corn for tho value of tho fodder that may bo
thus obtained. Ah wo change stock-fading for
tho dairy, wo change to a more mixed system of
farming, and one hotter adapted to small farms.
If wo cannot have ouc-half of our corn-land in
sward, wo ought to have a part of it at least,
provided that wo wish to keep tho team at tho
plow during tho entire spring. One thing is
certain, no farmer can estimate beforehand how
many acres ho can prepare for planting, as thoro
uro so very many contingencies to ho taken into
tho account. The weather is tho most promi
nent of these, but this is to some extent modi
fied in tho case of meadow-land. In this connec
tion, it would bo well to have a certain number
of acres of old land for corn, and meadow and
pasture-land indollultoly to occupy tbo remainder
of tbo time, lot that bo more or loss; and this
might bo tho measure of tho corn-orop.
In tho next place, wo may soo how tho plow
ing of tho sward-land is to bo accomplished.
Shall tho furrow bo a singloouo, deeper shallow,
or will wo *
.the land ; and, if so, how (loop shall be the two
furrows ? A clover ami timothy sward of two or
three yours’ standing may ho plowed with a
single furrow, not to exceed 4 inches in depth.
This will harrow up pretty loose, and may bo
cultivated in tho usual manner. If there is con
siderable hluo grass, or tho turf is old and
tough, it is almost indispensable to tronoh-plow
it. Tho top furrow should bo out 2or 2>£ inches
deep. This will contain tho crowns of tho grass
plants, and separate tho lower parts of tho plant,
and allow of an easy pulverization of tho soil!
The bottom or second furrow should bo gauged
to cut not moro than 2 inches, and this will bo
thrown on tho top of tho turf-furrow,—making
tho two furrows of tho samo depth, as near
as possible, of tho one first mentioned. It may
ho asked, why tho uso of tho two furrows, as
they must cost moro horso-powor than tho ono ?
The reply is, that tho crowns of tho roots are
separated from tho lowor parts of the plant:
and chat tho lowor pare of tho furrow has noth
ing loft to hold it together, and is pulverized
without difficulty; ana decay at onco sots in on
tho lowor part of tho plant thus cut oif, while
tho fine earth servos to smother out (ho crowns
of tho plants, and prevents their growing. And
moro especially in tho caso of blue grass, whole
roots, unless cut loose from tho crown of tho
plant, will rosumo growth if kept moist: but
this separation prevents. For this reason, I
have mado it a rule for many years to trouoh
ptow all of my sward-land, os tho oxtra cost is
moro than repaid by tho bettor condition of tho •
soil and the increased crop. I have produced
largo crops of com ou common prairlo-faud that
had not been pastured. X find this prairie-sward
is easily broken by two horses, using a 12-iuoh
breaking-plow for this purpose, if taken in hand
when too wot for tho plowing of old laud; but,
if loft until tho soil becomes dry, threo horses
will bo required to do tho samo work.
Tho doublo Michigan plow wos invented for
bl7u, 8 «t i h ss
flovoro on tho lonm. A L J «™»cut is too
would tuu too hard in a heavy clay “ y ‘ bt
of com In Uio next thing to ho q„„.
fnrmoro harrow the land before planting ir thS
anrfaoo in not smooth; hut, if in’fairorSor the
planter may bo not to work without thlsprolim
inary, oven if tho land liaa been plowed™™
weeks and tho woods aro starting. After tho
planting in such case, say not more than throo
Siit w'l M^ 8 ' lb ? •'l'rrow should follow. This
will level tho surface, and kill all tho young
woods, and prepare tho surface for 5
admission of host and air to tho seed
to quicken Us growth. If tho soil Is a olay or i
clay-loom, tho roller should follow, to pnlvorizo
any ainoli clods that may remain after tho liar
row, and to put tho surface in hotter tilth. In a
few days tho young blades will appear: for tins
modo of planting admits of a shallow covering
to tho sood, and tho compacting of tho soil keeps
SaJSih*!J , “ d ’ , ’° inß , 'ho , surface, tho
warmth brings tho plant forward. The great
complaint in regard to poor sood-com comes
from tho habit of too deep planting. If tho
weather follows warm and moist, tho com comes
up it deeply planted; but, if tho weather turns
SUy °. r . a «®!i* rein follows, tho seed is sum to
. , l l, ' Q hlnmo is laid to tho seed,
°/ to «io had planting. Onr largo oorn-
Su re .w ‘J 1 ’ 1 * P" rt ot 1110 Stale begin to fully
against ft’ 8 im P ortaut end carefully guard
I should have stated that a single furrow, 4 or
or n.,it°» .i dOOp ’ ln ° lrt ’“ud, is of nearly
, OS to trench-
U sod thus divide it into two separate
™"-» i sod yot fow people appear to
?!2" a , oosfoot Idea of tho object or
i n ,?]j,° n n° f 1 tro " ch ;P lo 'ving. It is no ohioot to
hring tho lower strata of tho soil to tho top, for
AtUr?' 1 ? not , bo °" sroatod, and what potash or
other elements of plant-food that it may contain
»hA t i?ii t i 10 pto P?u o ° ntU t«m for plant-food,
or the soli in condition to hold that which tho
rains, and tho dpwa, and tho air, may present to
onl3 T oPJoot end office of trench-plowing
tor tho growing crop Is to destroy tho crop of
°,5 Pctonnial or bioimlai weeds, that oro
codod tho cultivated crop. Wo out tho plant
at tho crown, and disconnect It from tho moss
onii bbroUi! foots, sud those no longer hold tho
Boil compactly together. In hoeing wo do tho
same thing, cutting tho plant off just below tho
surface l of tho ground, when moat plants aro at
onoo killed. Grasses like qnook, that aro pro
dH.°ni?o b ? fyooors underground, aro not so easily
disposed of; but tho trench-plowing is tho beat
aU ri l ?nS t -,m CB ato , nt mtK, ° ot extirpating them.
1q tho culture of com wo too oftou
Sn , wo cannot atop to oiilll
-1.5*2. 11 U i“ la , Bt “f 0 i 8 P l " ulo ' ] i wlion it would
tl?n Wn,v dV «“ ai! ° to .? tol> tho p |a ’ v ““>1 to start
In? nn^iiA - 1 ? a P l>oa 2 t' 1 " 1 ' TQ commence plant
‘“O Ist day of May. On tho 4th or 6th
d communes tho oultnro by giving it a
most thorough harrowing and rolling. This, as I
, th \? on - “d, at tho samo
™»n l M V 1 a 9f° woedß that havo mado a start
°? m a ? d wiu b0 "P ahead of
It, but this borrowing destroys thorn, and, at
tho samo time, puts the land in hotter order for
corn ?s ready for tWUivatSf: “huXomSu?
SLvf 0 p . lant , in s aoMon is reached, the first
baa batl P alf of itH culture completed,
? an , nor » * number of acres of plant
ing can bo done, but more bushels of com mar
bo grown. To people who aro ambitious of
growing tho moat bushels, tbia is tho boat plan •
put there wo others who aro equally proud of
S?nf nU ? b ?M 0f acro l tl,at th °y ra fty bo able to
plant. Hut tho man who can grow 2,000 bushels
on 40 acres ia mpro to bo commended than the
??® who occupies GO acres for tho samo result,
iho farmer who aims to put in a given num
ber of acrca, with little regard to how it is done,
will never make much profit in tho tilling of
his soil. Wo must study how to grow tho best
crops with tho least labor ; and, to do that, wa
muat apply tho labor just iu tho nick of time.
Last wool! I received sixteen plum-trees from
Kentucky, containing ton now varieties of Ken
tucky and Tonnoaaoo native plume, that lima far,
m thoao States, appear to defy tho onroulio.
Inoao aro not intended to bo propagated for
for . tljo , l?J lr P°s° of (eating tboir veins
in this park of the State. They ofo grafted
on stocks of tho wild plum, and some of thorn
•n° ,w Ui^t-buda ; and it ia probable that thoy
will all fruit during tho next throe or four years.
Those varieties have boon gathered together by
Gen. Adair, a farmer near Uawesvillo, Ky„ who
is taking an interest in this fruit. I shall hone
to bo able to send out scions to other parts ol
the S ate as soon as thoy fruit,—the oulv charge
for which will bo tho postage. Thoy will not bo
sold to nurserymen for tho purpose of prana*
gating, but for such readers of Tub Tribune as
take an interest in tbo testing of new
fruits. It is possible that not ono ol
those may have any value for our State
but I see no other direction to look for tbo com
ing plum, save among our native plums. In
I Tennessee I know tbo wild plums are good, but
how good they may prove hero ia yet tolie {ost
has proved valuable in
V jisconsin, Minnesota, and in our State a« far
souuicast as Genova, in Kano County. Capt.
l<. JJ. Boobo. of that place, who has given this
““«V». 1- a loconuelter?
owv arm Gordon ’ is correct in looking
among the native plums for tho coming plum.
in d hn faimol no - ar G-Uona writes that the Aimer
/ fro i w, t «» th t at P art of the Stale for 25
cents a bushel; bat ho is no doubt a little too
sanguine, drawing his conclusion from two or
throe trees in a yard, whore thoy have boon well
cared for ; and it is not probable that orchard-
will produce tho same result.
Mr. George I. Hasson, of Woodstock, MolTon
ry County, 111., writes mo that ho has a small
stock of very fine trees of tbo Minx plum for
sale at 50 cents each,—no charge for packing.
.. „ _ Tbiaow Orkkk, 111.. March 24,1874.
iiJskk.« I } unAL “ s v i: ctmuot tho people of
this btalo have an Arbor-Day,—a day set apart for the
planting of trees along tho road-side, on tho lawn,
and other parte of the farm? There might also bo a
day for Floriculture,which women might devote to tho
‘planting of Flowers, Will you not give It your sane
Uou, and thus have tho good work established 7
Mas. M. T. B,
• Nature has given us many Arbor-Days. Sho
begins at Cairo tho last of February, mukos tho
air gonial and swells tho buds, to remind us of
troo-plantiug. Then sho begins her march, 10
or 12 miles a day, starting tbo dormant buds as
sho marches, bringing flocks of robins, blue
birds, and a hundred other kinds with her; and
these begin to build tboir neats in all manner of
places, and of many forms. Tho prairies aro
reached at tho south sido of tho groat basin that
was once tho shore of a vast frosh-wator lake.
Then tho cold winds aro sont from tho north,
and tho garden and tho orchards no longer lio
under tho shutter of tho Grand Chain,” but
oro this sido, and tho Arbor-Days aro filled with
chilliness, with, howovor, a reinforcement of
zephyrs, bom of tho tropics, tho march is re
sumed ; but sho Is more Chau a mouth in reach
ing tho northern limits of our State. Wo can,
therefore, sot no ouo Arbor-Day, for now tho
loaves begin to put forth at tho southern
part of tho State, while at tho north
Jt m too cool for all to engage
m this desirable business. Every town or vil
lago, every farmer and gardener, every land or
lot-owner, should have ono or moro Arbor-Days,
that shall best suit tho progress of tho seasons,
and ho tho most suitable for him to do tho work.
Bettor impress all with a dosiro for judicious
planting a greater or loss number of trees each
spring, than to sot apart a holiday for tho pur
pose. Hero tho planting season sometimes
closes April 20,—dho day' sot apart fortroo-plaut
ing in lowa, in Wisconsin*a later day may bo
sot. Special Arbor-Day may bo a good thing for
tho planting of streets and road-sides; but give
mo tho wholo range of spring, so that 1 may sob
willows,‘larches, cherries, service-berries, lillacs,
and sydoulus, at tho beginning; and roses,
snowballs, evergreens, sbado and orchard trees,
later,—closing up with tho Osago-orango, tho
catalpa,! and tho grapo. This is tho rango of my
Arbor-Day; but lot each ono select for himself
tho days that should bo devoted to tho good
‘ . Bubal.
A Illy In my garden grow,
Amid tho thyme and clover;
No fairer lily over blew,
Search all tho wide world over.
Its beauty passed Into my heart—
I know ’twas very silly—
But I was then u foolish maid.
And it—a perfect Ujy,
One day a learned man came by.
With years of knowledge laden.
And him I questioned with a aluh.
Like any foolish maiden:
* w i ß ? 8lr * Plfi Mo toll ine wherein lies—
I know tflb question's silly—
Tho something that my art defies.
Aud makes a perfect Illy, l '
“iCi 1 rl " ckc,i ‘bo flow,
Then loro It, leaf and petal, *
And talked to mo for full an hour.
.. Ami thought tho point to settle:
* Heroin it lies,” at length ho cries:
But I—l kuow ’twas silly v
M 0 )7; fs* **»•
-VjM Stmt i» mriim’i fat faff,

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