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Chicago daily tribune. [volume] (Chicago, Ill.) 1872-1963, July 12, 1874, Image 10

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DRUGS.
Is There Any Adulteration
in Those Unpleasant
Articles ?
Tiio VFholcsale Dealers Deny flic
Correctness of the Popular
Impression.
There is Jfotv a General Yearning for. a
First-Class Article.
A Eetail Dealer Gives Some In
stances of Eeductions.
How the Purity of Cur Rhubarb is
Tampered With. ,
Ipecac is Uncertain, and Seidlitz-
Powders Untrustworthy.
Xhe Physicians Compelled to Al
low for the Weakness of
Drills.
4. Exporter Tates a Prescription to a
Number of Dru<j-Stores,
rhe Prices Vary From 00 Cents to
$2.30.
And This Tells the Whole Story,
The Tribune last Saturday week devoted a por
'tiou of its space to the adulteration of tea. coffee,
ate. It continues tho subject to-day, investi
gating the still more important question of the
alleged adulteration of drugs.
An examination into the subject of drugs
aauscs one to look on the dark eido of life, for,
with few exceptions, the articles that page from
the drug store to tbo coznmnnity at largo go
forth to relieve pain and suffering, and to avcit
the dread destroyer. Each druggist’s estabiish-
ment is, therefore, an epitome of the “ ills of
life.” Hanged around on the shelves, and hid
den away in the drawers, and filling the glitter
ing bottles, are the preparations that all will
turn to in their hour of extremity as their best
friends, as their only source of hope; and,
therefore, when we stand and look at these
things, wear® viewing, not insensate atoms, but
the forces of comfort, hope, charity, and love,
as real as we may see them embodied in form,
and wo also come into the range of the horo
scope that presages the dismal future and the
great mass of suffering around us.
But, while these solemn things are enforced
upon us, there aro other suggestions that arise
that are more agreeable. Humanity is happily
constructed to look always away from sorrow,
else there would bo little but a lachrymose wail
continually rising fiom the earth. Even in
suffering, in the aggregate, and when it is not
racking our own selfish frames, there is some
thing that is interesting as a study and experi
ence, and sometimes almost and, as
thene drugs are looked at, oue la almost tempted
to laugh at tho suggestion that oue bottle holds
empire over a thousand attacks of lumbago; a
atnall bale of plasters represents IX4 lame backs,
vmd that small vial of creosote calls up a dozen
Unhappy creatures with thoir aching jaws tied
up ai{d their visages doleful with a pain that is
fun for others, but death to them. * '
Tho sens© of tho comic thus continually tri
umphs over the gloomy surroundings of life.
But, while this is the case, wo arc all agreed that
the mitigation of pain is a truly humanitarian
work, and ono demanding conscientious labor,
we look upon ono who dispenses drugs as hold
ing a position that calls for tho most exacting
care and incurs tho largest responsibility. There
is not—and justly so—a grain of sympathy nor
an iota of forgivenness for tho man who makes
a mistake. Dealers in drugs occupy a position
towards humanity thau which none is moro seri
ous or responsible. A patient should have not
only the right drug, but tho best quality
of the right kind of . drug, and anv
adulteration, even if tho article im
posed into the mixture is not dangerous
in itself, may yet, by being administered at that
critical moment when life hangs in the balance,
and the disease can only be affected favorably by
the medicine robed upon, prove to bo the indi
rect cause of death. A druggist who mixes hia
compounds with substances that render them
useless, or puts into them anything that is dan
gerous to life, is little better than a wholesale
murderer, armed with weapons unseen by others,
but all-powerful in their destructive forces.
But the real danger to the public from drug
gists is from ignorance, rather than from cupid
ity or vice. Fortunately, the profession is mak
ing groat advancement in intelligence, and
tho respectable element is enforcing such
rigid rules as to ability and education
for tho work, that hucksters in drugs must seek
tho hack streets, and respectable physicians re
fuse to countenance them. Many of these
smaller stores manufacture various nostrums
which sell to an ignorant class of customers.
Among the Gormans there is also a great de
mand for roots and herbs, which are made up
Into favorite drinks for the health’s sake, or
others are made into dyes for dyeing clothing.
But there are very few retail drug-stores, that
are not striving for what is known as the re
spectable trade, in which happily lies the most
profit. In order to pet into this line it is essen
tial that pure drugs should be sold. Tho adepts,
before whom the remedies compounded go for
inspection, see in tho results just what thov are
made of, and whether they aro fresh and good.
Their own reputations are staked on the results,
and they cannot afford in anv sense to foster
ignorance, or crime, in the compounder. On tho
contrary, it is directly to their iutoieet to sup
press traffic in adulterated compounds, and io
point out to public scorn and infamy tho indi
vidual who sacrifices life, either from iguoranco
or cupidity, while practicing in his capacity as
druggist.
Thus it will bo seen that tho morale ot tho pro
fession of dispensing drugs is every day ad
vancing, Druggists, physicians, and chemists
are becoming watchful of each other, and have
found that tho highest reputation, moat honor,
and profit lie in tho direction of executing their
duty conscientiously. The fact that it is a crime
of tho most heinous nature to trifle with human
life, stands continually before them as an iu
canlive to do ncht, and tho fear of discovery and
its results impels them in the same direction.
There is one attitude in which there is danger
and that is when tho physician himself is inter
ested in tho drug-store to which ho sends his
preeciiptions. There is .no doubt that many
druggists pay doctors a commission to trade
vritil *hem, and many others own their own
«y;tabushmcnts. The rules of tho American
pharmaceutical Society, which is becoming a
popular institution, protective in its purposes,
precludes any one from membersluD who owns a
amg-Htore or accepts a rebate •or gift in any
“JvV 1 ® with, whom his custom
•l*l ® a l* Of course, it may not be discovered
im> ft 0 * btlt fosT docent physicians
• j. c ft* lU V^ emse * voa lIUO tk® power of
Lie m.iTv ° r tubjcct “■ameelveb w Ida posai-
DR, POWELL.
The first person called upon was Dr, Edwin
Powe.l, a leading physician in this city with
whom the following conversation took \i[J& ;
Reporter—l called, Doctor, to have a talk with
you about the adulteration of drugs.
Dr. Powell—Well, my opinion is that drugs
are generally adulterated.
Reporter—By all druggists?
Dr. Powell—No.
Reponcr—What class, then, particularly *
Dr. Powell—Drugs lose strength by being kept
in the shops for a long time, and such druggists
M Rato only a small trade do cot keep as reli
able medicines as those who replenish their
stocks often.
Reporter—Do the majority of the Looses
renew their stocks frequently ?
Dr. Powell—No; there are only three or four
intho city who have fresh drugs on hand.
' DRUGS ADULTERATED,
Reporter—What drues are adulterated ?
Dr. Powell—Well, pulverized opium and pul
verized rhubarb.
Reporter—How are they fixed up ?
Dr. Powell —With scorched Hour, which looks
verv much like the drug.
Importer—What effect docs it have ?
Dr. Powell—lt renders the drug loss efficient,
and It docs not produce the effect desired, and
larger doses have to be prescribed.
Reporter—What about other drugs ?
Dr. Powell—All expensive drugs are not up to
the standard required by tho United States
Pharmacopoeia. ~
Reporter—Do you know how they are made
lower?
Dr. Powell—Yes, —with inferior articles. For
instance, in making tho tincture of opium, gum
or crude opium is used, because it costa leas.
Reporter—Arc its effects injurious ?
Dr. Powell—No, but the strength is impaired,
so that now, instead of prescribing a certain dose
expecting to get an effect, tho drug is adminis
tered nntil tho effect is produced.
Reporter—That is, you increase tho quantity ?
Dr. Powell—Yes.
Reporter—lt being uncertain when you give a
prescription for » certain quantity of a' drug that
it will ho put up?
Dr. Powell—The amount called for will bo put
up, but it 'will bo deficient in strength. ,
RESULTS.
Reporter—Have you over known any serious
results to ensue from adulterations ?
Dr. Powell—No fatal' results—poisonous; but
I have frequently known tho drugs uot to pro
duce the effects desired.
Reporter—Do you know of any other adulterat
ed drugs ?
Dr. Powell—Well, nearly all the elixirs made
in the Fast, and sold heie, do not contain what
they purport to. I do uot know that they are
adulterated, but I do know that they are defect
ive. For instance, the Elixir of Calisaya should
bo. made from pulverized Cinchona hark, with
the ordinary aromatics in it; but, instead of that,
quinine, which is much cheaper and gives leas
trouble, is used. Several articles supposed
to contain pepsin, sold in this market,
were recently subjected to a chemical
analysis, and found to contain no pepsiu at all,
with one exception. hardly bo called
an adulteration, the drug being entirely absent.
Reporter—X speak of adulterated drugs.
Dr. Powell—Well, It is very difficult to get at
it. Personally, I have no knowledge of the
adulteration of any drugs other thau those I
have mentioned. I have soon them myself, and
I know that other drugs are defective.
Reporter—Does the knowledge that drugs
lack strength govern physicians m having their
prescriptions put up at certain drug-stores ?
Dr. Powell—Yes; since they know they will bo
put up properly by such druggists.
Reporter—ls there any way of finding out Low
much drugs are adulterated ?
Dr. Povvull—Only by chemical analysis.
COURSE OF PUVSICIANS.
lieporter—Aro physicians generally aware of
the fact that drugs aro adulterated?
Dr. Powell—l think so.
lieporter—And do they prescribe larger quan
tities thau they otherwise would to produce an
>effect ?
Dr. Powell—Yes. it is often done. The dose
at tho present day is one-third larger thau what
would be termed the standard dose ; that is. tho
one laid down m the United States Phar
macopoeia ; and it arises from the fact that wo do
not get the effect desired by the standard dose,
or an entire absence of the medicine called for
in the prescription.
Reporter—Then if all the drugs were pure
much smaller quantities would be given to pa
tients ?
Dr. Powell—Yes.
lieporter—Medicino would he doled out in tho
homeopathic way ?
Dr. Powell—Homeopathists have no dose.
Thera is no comparison between homeopatUyand
allopathy in that respect, since tho homeop
athists go on tho principle that the greater the
dilution the greater the effect.
lieporter—Can you think of anything else
with reference to tho subject ?
THE MODERN SYSTEJf.
Dr. Powell—Well, I do not believe mvself that
drugs are as much adulterated as is generally
supposed; hut that they are rather inert—nega
tive in thoir character. The principle nowa
days is to give medicine until the effect is pro
duced, irrespective of the dose.
lieporter—That arises from tho weakness of
the drugs ?
Dr. Powell—Tho variable strength of tho
medicine sold in tho shops. The Phunnocopcela
lays down tho dose of tincture of opium as from
ten to fifteen drops. If it were so prepared it
would produce a certain effect. But* wo no
longer expect it from that dose, and order it re
peated until the effect is evident,
lieporter—How often is it repeated ?
Dr. Powell—As the medicine varies oxceed
ingly, it may be repeated once or twice, or even
three limes.
the UEiiEnr.
Reporter—ls there any remedy for this adul
toraiive disease ?
Dr. Pow ell —None, except for the physicians to
combine, and patronize only such stores os are
known to keep reliable medicines. But that
could hardly be done, as it would subject patients
or tbeir friends to great inconvenience.
Reporter—Tho fact that physicians do recom
mend certain drug-stores has engendered tho
belief that they receive commissions on their
prescriptions. Is that true ?
Dr. Powell—lt is my firm belief that verv few
physicians receive commissions. I know of only
two or throe wbo do. They generally send their
prescriptions to designated druggists because
there is more likelihood of tho mixtures being
properly prepared, aud tho dings colled for put
into them.
THE WHOLESALE DEALERS* STORY.
Van Sclmack, Stevenson & Reid.
The articles in greatest demand at this season
of tho year aro quinine .and morphine. Any
adulteration of these drugs is so dangerous to
life and health, and is so easily detected, that
few have the temerity to Attempt to palm off a
counterfeit resemblance to tho original. A
celebrated firm in New York furnishes tho bulk
of these articles that aro dispensed from the
retail stores in this city, and bo high is their
reputation that the brand "P. & W.’Ms univer
sally received as a guarantee of tho purity of tho
drug. Morphine is sold at wholesale at $0.75
per ounce, and is retailed from the stores in onc
eighth-ounco vials at $1.25 apiece, showing a
profit of $3.25 per ounce. Quinine coats at
wholesale $3.75 per ounce and retails at 50 cents
a drachm.
A small pile of boxes containing this valuable
compound, in size about 4 feet wide and 3 feet
high, was shown the reporter in the wholesale
establishment of Van Schaack, Stevenson Reid.
Tho bill for this little monument of boluses
was $1,500. In a conversation had with tho
senior partner of this drug house, he said that,
owing to the fact that they employed no travel
ers, they had to rely more upon tho purity of
tho articles sold to establish their reputation
than upon anything else, aud therefore they
sold nothing but what was absolutely as repre
sented. In reference to morphine and quinine,
they dealt only in that which was put up by the
New York firm alluded to. Ho knew of nothing
in his store that was other than what it pur
ported to be, unless it was tho patent medicines,
and these were sold without recommendation,
and with entire ignorance as to their mako-up.
PATENT JtEDICINES.
Reporter—Do you not believe that, for the
most part, tho patent medicines are a swindling
contrivance, gotten up by irresponsible men,
with no regard to anything but making monov?
ilr. Van Schaack—No, Ido not. Tho demand
for them is made by advertising their healing
properties, and, as this is too expensive to be
kept up, tho time must come wheu they must
rely on their merits to secure a salo.
11.—Who is the largest advertiser of patent
medicines at the present time ?
Mr. \. S.—Dr. It. V. Pierce, of Buffalo, enjoys
that distinction since Ilelmbold left the held,
Tlie Morse Manufacturing Company also do
heavy advertising. Tuis is an incorporated com
pany, with a largo capital.
HERBS AND ROOTS.
It.—now about herbs and roots ; are they not
adulterated ?
Mr. V..Si—l think not. They aro generally so
cheap that it is no object to mix up anything
else with them. They sell at irom 10 to 75 cents
a pound for indigenous barks and roots. They
are pretty near as cheap as cordwood, you see.
R.—Where do you gel the bulk of your herbs,
roots, and barks from ?
Mr. V. S.—’ihey are ground and put up by the
Shakers at Now Lebanon. They aro remarkably
ckih end pure, just as tho Shakers are them
selves. Benjamin Gates, a broad-brimmed old
Snaker, is their agent. We rely on anything ko
ears.
Xh—Then you consider, altogether, that the
THE CHICAGO DAILY TRIBUNE; SUNDAY, JULY 12, 1«74.
drugs chat are sold at wholesale are pretty much
what they protend to be ?
ilr, V. S.—Yea, I do, most assuredly.
Tnl in an Sc King.
The reporter also called on Tolman & King,
doing a largo business in the drug line on Lake
street. Mr. King said, also, that there were
very few articles nowadays in the drug line that
ara’mixed with inferior compounds.
Reporter—l am surprised to hear it, becaqpo a
genera! impression prevails that drugs are
greatly adulterated.
Mr, King—Well, that is a great mistake. Tho
fact is, it does not pay ; and, while lam a man
who might be bought if tho consideration wore
high enough. I would not kill a man for 25
cents. I really would not.
ll.—Well, I must say, sir, that I like to see a
man fix a high value on life. But, joking aside,
are there really not a great many things that are
impure and dangerous, when they are repre
sented otherwise ?
REFORM IK THE TRADE,
Mr. K.—l seriously believe not. The drug
trade is not what it used to bo. There is a very
high standard' maintained; and necessarily so,
because tho results of drugs are ro easily trace
able. A physician gives a patient a dose of
medicine with the expectation of accomplishing
certain results ; if ho docs uot, ho examines the
medicine, and, finding it wrong, falls back unon
the retailor, who, in turn, comes back to tho
jobber with his. complaint, and thus we find it
necessary to deal only with the grinders or man
ufacturers who put up a pure and reliable ar
ticle. Now, in tnese,strong drugs, like morphine
and quinine, the least morsel is a dose. It is
absurd to think that a druggist' can imposo a
counterfeit on any intelligent doctor. A taste of
it would couvict him of dwindling, and his repu
tation would he gone.
CREAM OF TARTAR.
R.—But, for instance, take rite article of cream
of tartar (the reporter suddenly remembers the
complaint of his landlady relative to this mix
ture), how alrtmt that ?
Mr. K.—Well, that is not a medicine. Cream
of. tartar sells at 23 cents a pound ut retail, I aip
told, and wc sell it in the crystal at wholesale at
42 cents; of course, there must bo a largo adul
teration somewhere. There are two grades, by
the way. What we call commercial sells at 23
cents.
R.—This is' warranted to be adulterated, (I
suppose ?
Mr. K. (laughing)—l guess so.
R.—Do you tell patent medicines ?
Mr. K.—Of com to, but do not recommend
them. I guess the most of them are bad. They
guarantee to bring a dead man to life almost,
mid people believe it. Ido not know what they
arc made of. I have no doubt that some of them
would destroy an iron kettle, but then there are
others that are standard medicines. Jayne's
AyerV, Kennedy’s Discovery, and many others
are reliable medicines used by physicians every
where.
NO ADULTERATION 1 .
R.—Then it is a mistake to suppose that drugs
arc adulterated to auy extent ?
Mr. K.—Drugs in’the bulk can bo easily
analyzed, and become familiar to the eye of
those who handle them, so that deception is
next to impossible. Compounded drugs are
more susceptible to adulteration, but, as X have
gaud, they aro detected, aud sent back. If there
is anything adulterated.to.auy great extent, it is
the comparatively harmless articles that go into
the preparation of food.
A SPECIAL INSTANCE.
It.—Do you know of auv instances where
wholesale druggists have sent out a counter
feit?
Mr. K.—l have heard some stories about a
house that sent out several hundred pounds of
something they called quinine, but it, was not.
I cannot toll you the whole story. It happened
a few weeks ago.
The reporter, after leaving tho store of Tol
man A King, stepped into another establishment
and asked the clerk if ho knew tho facts iu the
story alluded to. He said that he did, and that
they wore generally known among druggists. Tho
firm had used the“P. & W.” original bottles
labelled quinine, and had pat into them some
kind of a harmless white powder nearly resem
bling the drug it pretended to be. Of course tho
substitution was detected, aud tho stuff seat
back. Tho .New York firm whoso brand had been
used had them put under bonds of £2O,QUO for
damages, aud the other wholesale druggists in
that city united In an agreement not to deal with
tho firm that was guilty of the fiauJ.
Fuller & Fuller.
The reporter next called upon Fuller A Fuller,
to ascertain their views coucoiuiug the adulter
ation of drugs. He was courteously received by
Mr. Fuller, aud shown through the largo estal>-
lislimont. In reply to tho direct question, Mr.
Puller said that lie knew the impression existed
in the public mind that drugs were greatly adul
terated, but
IT WAS A THING OF TRADITION,
and not of fact. People were demanding the
beat articles of all kinds now. Tho dry goods
store must have the best in its lino. So mu&t the
tailor, and tho bootmaker, and tho artist, and it
all arose from the fact that people were becoming
educated to know those tilings. They could
not sell counterfeit uticles; it was no use to try.
They used to sell lower grades of drugs, and
some that were adulterated without doubt, bat
they had no demand but for the best aud purest
now. Take for instance
WfiiTE lead;
they formerly sold largo quantities of a cheap
grade, but the demand fell off, and they do not
now keep it in stock at all, and so it was in all
other tilings.
Reporter—Your business has a very wide
range, I believe?
Mr, Fuller—Ye?. We sell to almost ©very
branch of manufacture.
R. —Can you give mo some idea of this ?
Mr. F.—Certainly. Wo. sell, to the iron manu
facturers, borax, muriate of ammonia, aud salt
petre; to tho tanners, oil of japomca and alum;
to tho paper-makers, soda audbicaching-powdor,
and colorings of all kinds; to the stonecutters,
pumice-stone; to tho brewers, isinglass; to the
soapmakers, soda; to tho metal-workers, potash ;
to tho wool-mills, lard oil and dyes; to the con
fectioner, tartaric and citric acids, essential oils
and colorings, and so on.
B.—You omitted the druggists.
Mr. F.—Yes, wo sell them pure drugs, and I
believe every wholesale drug-house in this city
does the same to tbeir customers. Tho impres
sion is altogether wrong that wo as a class deal
in adulterated mixtures. The houses that fur
nish us our chemicals and compounds stake their
reputations on thoabsolutopurity of their goods,
which you will see by the labels as warranted.
Finding that there was a striking unanimity of
opinion, to say tho least, among the wholesale
dealers, the reporter withdrew from this branch
of the drug business and gave some attention to
the retail stores.
WHAT A DRUGGIST SAYS.
Dr. James B. Raynor, of the well-known drug
firm of Buck A Rayner, was also subjected to a
reportorial cross-examination.
Reporter—Dr. Raynor, will you bo kind
onougu to tell mo wbat class of drugs are most
liable to adulteration or substitution ?
Dr. Rayner—That is a question that requires
some little consideration. Thcro is such an im
mense variety of drugs that X cannot think of
them all in a moment.
Reporter—Well, then, toll mo of those that
now occur to you.
onmr.
Dr. Rayner—Thera is opium, for example. It
is very high-priced, and, for that reason, the
temptation to adulterate or substitute it is much
greater than in most other cases. Therefore, wo
often find it of very inferior quality, much of its
medical value having boon percolated from it.
It is sometimes dosed with stone and load to
give it false weight,
Reporter—That is done whero it is shipped, is
it not ?
Dr. Rayner—lt must bo so. Tho English have
so rogulated’tho trade that all bad opium is re
jected when it reaches their porta, Boaides,
they have their own agents in China to look
after their Interests, while *o deal direct wiih
tho producers, and have to take good and bad
alike. The trade-mark.of a first-class English
firm is generally a guarantee of the genuineness
of tho drug. Sonic of our own wholesale firms
also keep a first-class stock, bat, from thecausos
I have stated, too opium shipped herefrom
England Is tho best.
A HINT TO PHYSICIANS,
Reporter—Physicians complain that prepara
tion* »rom opium, prescribed by them, are often
found insufficient in strength.
Dr. Raynor—That is because thev neglect to
write “English opium.” Then the druggist
knows exactly what is wanted. Otherwiee* tho
clerk is very apt to use the first case of opium
that may be at hand. French opium is also
a good quality, because tho French look after
their trade so as to prevent cheating.
RHUBARB.
Reporter—What other drugs can yon now re
member in this connection ?
Dr. Rayaer—Rhubarb, which is also very cost
ly; that is, the best, or Chinese, variety. * It is
often very much depreciated by mixture with
common varieties, iu which case it is simply
inert. Rhubarb powders, manufactured whole
sale, aro most frequently deficient. The drug,
bought in its raw state, can hardly be adulter
ated* and in that way all first-closa druggists
buy it. The same may bo said of ipecac, which
is a powenul emetic when perfectly pure.
SEIDLITZ POWDERS.
Reporter—People complain a good deal of the
valuelcssnesa of Seidlitz powders. They are
oftcu found to be of no use at all.
Dr. llayner—There is very small profit on
Seidlitz powders, and they are often sold at light
weight, not half a • dose being placed
in some of them. First-class houses
always prepare the papers themselves,
putting a full half-ounce of'powder into each
dose. In that way tho powders, if of proper
quality, cannot fail to be of service. This thing
of improperly compounding is a very frequent
vice. Take, for example, oil of sandal-wood.
It is commonly -reduced with castor oil,
which weakens its effect. It should bo
drawn pure from the wood. This oil has
become very valuable, owing to its high
medicinal qualities, and is so much sought after
by doctors that tho price is quite a figure.
CITE ATE OF ITAOHESIA
is very frequently substituted by something
else. It Is a combination of magnesia with
citric acid. Some druggists use common Epsom
salts and Rochelle salts, especially tho latter,
which is afterward sweetened aud mixed with
the requisite acid. This is how the effects of
citrate of magnesia are often tho reverse of
those intended,
cream: of tartar.
Perhaps it may astonish most people, who use
cream of tartar, to know that it is not uufre
quontly compounded of plaster of paria and tar
tartic acid, imagine your stomach tilled with
cement. Yet. nothing is more common than this.
As to solid extracts. I have to say
that henbane, belladonna, and common
dandelion, of tho American typo, aro
next to valueless. The English brands aro, on
the other hand, absolutely perfect, and when a
doctor writes his proscription, ho knows exactly
what is going into it, aud what its effect will be.
Henbane, belladonna, etc., aro used as anodynes
to prevent griping where strong purgatives have
to be used. They are deadly poisons, as every
body knows, when taken in almost any quantity
alone.
IN THE MATTER OF CHEMICALS,
allshould have tho brand of some reliable firm.
It is in tho power of every druggist to prove his
stock in detail, and he should do it. Tne differ
ence in price is not a sufiicient object to induce
druggists to buy an inferior quality. It is more
through carelessness or ignorance than anything
else that they use bad stuff.
PILLS.
In tha wholesale manufacture of sugar-coated
pills, especially those containing quinine, there
is a chance to make large profits without detec
tion. Each quinine pill is supposed to contain
two grains of that expensive drug. How can
anybody tell how much the made-up “ wholesale ”
pill, coated with sugar, contains ? The only way
to secure the public against being cheated is to
have every first-class dnig store make .up its
own pills, and then people will know what they
are taking. Calomel, carelessly made, becomes
a kind of corrosive sublimate, and
is very dangerous. No medicine should
ho _ more carefully handled than this.
Spirits of nitre, a very useful medicine, is often
badly adulterated. It should bo very carefully
distilled, which, by the way, is frequently not the
case. Nitrous other is generally a mixture of
nitric acid, sulphuric ether, etc., in various prop
erties. It is safe to assart that any expensive
chemical is, aa a rule, liable to reduction.
TEE RETAILERS.
The halcyon days of retail/lmggists have evi
dently passed away. Competition has become so
great in this city, and success is based so largely
upon reputation, that the bull: of tho trade is
finding its way into the hands of a few who have
skill as chemists, end are above reproach as
honorable dealers. Owing to the fact generally
alluded to-, that a better class of drugs are in
demand, the profit on them has been materially
lessened, and the establishments have now to be
conducted in a better way. In the first place
the '
rCRXITCHE HURT EE ELEOAXT.
Then skillful compounders must be procured as
assistants. Those drugs that lose their power
with age must also be frequently thrown away.
The large demand for patent medicines requires
the purchase of stocks that go out of fashion and
count in the cost, but net m the sale,
and aside from all this tho retail
druggist is tho slave of tho public, always ready
at command, at all hours of tho day and night,
Sundays and holidays included. ’lie is fre
quently called up iu the night to mix a prescrip
tion for which ho gets 25 cents or 50
cents, while the doctor who sends it gets 64
for his visit to the patient. Not to go into tho
estimate of the care and responsibility that are
tho druggists’ portion.
TUE FiIIGIUTUL DBEAMS
ho sometimes has of bavin" mistaken arsenic
for soda, -or strychnine for Epsom salts, or
In the hurry of the moment given a bottle of
acid to tho bald-headed gentleman who called
for hair-dye, it ia plain enough that his bed ia
not one of rosea unaccompanied by thorns. Far
different, for on tho contrary he very likely
sleeps in a dark back room, in ah
atmosphere df drugs, with hla head
on a carboy of sulphuric acid,
a corkscrew ia the small of his back, one Land
in a keg of axle-gieaso, and his list gently melt
ing away in a tub of concentrated lye. But
aside from these discomforts
Ms profits
arc not nearly eo great as ia generally supposed,
nor as much as they used to fio. Manufacturers
got reputation for specific things, and almost
every branch of tbo trade is thus taken up. A
customer wants such a man’s mixture or com
pound, just as bo asks for a certain brand of
lloor, and bo will have no other; consequently
the drug trade within a few years baa passed
from the hands of tho retailers, who used to mix
all doses asked for, into the hands of those who
have made a study of a special branch, and have
secured the reputation of being “standard” in
that particular thing. Tho opportunity for the
druggist to adulterate, or charge an exorbitant
price, is thus in a great measure cut off.
Til HUE ABE SOME FEW THINGS.
however, that are still greatly mixed, or at least
bear that construction on their face. Tbo in
stance alluded to of cream of tartar being sold
at 23 cents a pound, when tho wholesale price
list is 42 cents, is ono of these. Another thing is
rams obeen.
Since tho potato-bug became ono of tho posts of
tho farmer, a great demand has sprung up for
this article, which, being sprinkled on the plant, is
eaten by the artless creature without investiga
tion. It being a poison, it lulls them. A pure
article of this drag is worth 75 cents a pound,
but so remarkable is the generosity of the retail
ors. that it is commonly sold at 25 cents.
This is made profitable by substituting tho
sulphate of barytes, which costs only 4 cents a
pound, or common powdered arsenic,which costs
C cents, thus leaving a profit of about 20 cents a
pound. The potato-bug not being an adopt in
drugs, does not recognize that a counterfeit arti
cle ts imposed upon it, but the result is not as
satisfactory to the farmer. Pepper, cinnamon,
and mustard are also adulterated, but can bo
bought in tho berry and ground at homo. There
is no need to bo cheated in these things.
ESSENTIAL OILS
are very much adulterated, the retailers say by
tho jobbers, and vice versa. These are very
high in price, and admit the mixture of delete
rious compounds with little chauco of detection.
Tbo oil of bitter almonds ia sold at wholesale at
35 cents an ounce, camomile brings $3 an
ounce, cinnamon $2.25, rose $4.50. and
others in proportion. The different oils
are adulterated with alcohol, turpentine,
castor oil, cottou-soed oil, and other baser com
pounds. They are not in popular demand, how
ever, but are used to give body to other prepa
rations. Cologne is made of all qualities, and
sold at any price. It is simply deodorized alco
hol, and the price represents the quality of the
oil which gives it its perfume.
POWDERED OPIU3C
is another articlo which is compounded with
other substances, and sold for the para quill. A
pure articlo from abroad ia almost unknown,
and moat of the first-class druggists, being awara
of this, drug the gum themselves and pulver
ize it.
MINERAL-WATERS
are generally not * hat they pretend to be, though
the notion prevails to some extent that
they are brought from tho springs. Kis
singen, Vichy, and other foreign waters
are manufactured in tho basement of tho
retail stores. The salts aro imported from En
gland from firms that have a world-wide reputa
tion for distilling them. 'When it is desired to
make up a stock—and this is done everv day by
tho larger retail stores—the analysis of "the dif
ferent salts in the original spring is made, and
the druggist mixes them as near this formula as
he con. Ho then ad.ls water, and tho Kiaaingcn
or Vichy is ready for those who have tho courage
to drink.
SODA.
This ia the only country that enjoys the dis
tinction of drinking soda-water, or, in other
words, ice-water into which is forced from gen
erators, carbonic acid gas. There was an effort
made some time ago by an enterprising Yankee to
introduce it to the Parisians, bnt thoi'renchmen
disliked its sharp taste and the gaseous results,
and it did not find much favor. In fact, there
seem to be no people who are willing to under
take the experiments with tho stomachs that the
Americans do with theirs, and, besides tins, in a
country where wines are cheap *nd para there is
no room for an artificial rival. Soda-water
would not be doomed agreeable if it were not for
the introduction of tho sirups of fruits. With
this addition it is beyond' doubt tho
national summer-drink, and is used to
a greater ertent than any other.
There is nothing harmful in soda-water, provid
ed it is not. made up of deleterious compounds ;
hut in thirst-quenching qualities it does not com
pare with our pure lake water, Tho prime item of
expense about tho stuff is the sirup. Genuine
fruit sirups are very expensive, and are used in a
pure state in very few establishments. Straw
berry, raspberry, cherry, quince, and other es
sences are sold at wholesale as high as $1.50 per
bottle, which holds a pint and a half. These are
not altogether pure, but ore not reduced with
anything that is harmful to health. Such soda
water os is sold in the first-class retail stores at
10 cents a glass is generally pure. One can feel
morally certain of getting an extract the base
of wnicb is fusil oil, made from acetic, sulphuric,
or other ethers, at tho little concerns which re
tail soda-waior at 5 cents per glass or less.
Some of tho druggists make their own sirups
from such fruits as are indigenous to this cli
mate, but in such cases tho fine fruity flavor is
lacTdnjj. It is a weak compound. Such fruits
as we navo aro mild to the taste, and do not give
tho tone that is desired. When one gets tho
water strongly impregnated with tho flavor ho
may rest assured that ho has taken that
within him which, while it may bo temporarily
will ultimately disturb tho happi
ness of bis inwards.
LIQUORS
of all kinds aro adulterated and “ stretched **
by the druggists. Brandy or wine of a fine old
age is made to accept a new relation by tho im
position of the same article of a later vin
tage. It is almost impossible to detect
the difference in this case, and tho bottler thus
makes a nice profit without adding to any one’s
misery. The common mode of stretching
whisky is by the addition of proof spirits or
dilute alcohol. In Ibis manner tho bouquet of
the fine old Irish article is retained, while tho
per cent of proof is not lessoned in tho least.
No one but a man right from the stills of Bour
bon County can tell tho article thus foisted upon
a suffering community from tho genuine juice
of corn.
A.PRACTICAL TEST.
For tba purpose of learning tho variations in
the price for a proscription, calling, among
others, for an expensive drug, a reporter was
directed to obtain such an one as would insure a
fair test, and was handed tho following by a
prominent physician:"
Qalnhe sulphatis
Acid Hulpb. arom
Syr. aumatil cout
In this prescription quinine is the principal in
gredient, and a drug which coats much money.
It is worth $1 an ounce, but an •• ounce ” rarely
contains more than from 100 to 420 grains, being
put up “short.” The prescription price is
cents a graiir, though some druggists charge 2
cents. The reporter called at first, second, and
third class drug stores, and asked what would
be charged for the prescription. At one shop
the clerk said 00 cents and the employer 61;
at another, was demanded; at another,
$1.50; another, $1.75; at three, $2; and,
at one, $2.30, The druggist who gave the latter
price said ho could put up the prescription for
$1.50, but the figure he had mentioned was the
“ regular proscription price.” He could not see
how tho mixture could do prepared for 61, since
the “P, AW.” quinine alone cost nearly that
much. Ouo of two things was proven by tho
inquires: either some druggists make a cut
throat profit on their medicines, or many in the
trade sell stuff which is injurious rather than
helpful Co sick people.
• SAMUEL
Young Sara was the cream of a joU> good fellow;
Him heart was correctly located and warm;
llirt eye It was clear, ami his voice full and mellow;
His cheek it was ruddy, and manly his form.
His friends being true, and well nigh without num
ber,
Uo drank late at night, liko all cheerful young men ;
And, when ht went home, calm and sweet was hia
(•lumber.
And seldom he roso from his coach until ten.
Now. had Sam been allowed to go on with hia pleasure,
And sing with hla friends, ua a gentleman - should,
To retire when he pleased, and get up at his leisure,
Tho end would, uo doubt, have been all well
good.
But one day they got him to church, where the
preacher
Exclaimed for an hour at the soul-killing crime
Of riajicg out late, ami of feasting the creature
And lying iu bed the best part of one’s titmt
He vowed that the only sure way into Heaven
Was ever by uiua to lo snoring iu bed;
To get up at live, and then walk until seven;
And ho quoted ;o prove what ho r*M.
Unto Sam there came visions of spiritual art«on,—
H u brimstone he seemed in the future to smell;
And he swore he would hoi-d the advice of the puxbon,—
Deplorably weak in our friend Soia-u-cl 1
He placed himself under a bard course of training,
Behring each evening soon after dark;
Whibt morn after mom, whether shining or raining,
round poor, snoozing Samuel up with too lark.
Ills appetite crow simply fearful. At dinner.
His landlady vowed, he would gobble for two ;
And yet day by day be grew thinnsr and thinner,—
Hia oyo became sunken, his nose became blue.
At Last he fell ill, and they called a physician.
Who, after inspecting his tongue, in grave term*
Pronounced him to be in a wofol condition :
•*la fact,” said ho, shaking his head, “he’s got
Worms I”
They dosed him with physic cf ne’er-doubted merits
Bat Jj.im was, ala*! far beyond human skill;
He died, and the worms did uis body inherit.
And sadly tho kind doctor sent in his bill.
MORAL.
Young men and young women, give heed to my warn-
lug:
Of direful disease do not scatter the germ*;
Retire late at night, and rise late in ihu morning,—
Remember, “ The early bird catcheth tho worms I”
Collin lUuok.
Leicester .Square,
Fror.i the SL Loutft Itejmblxcan.
This small Loudon enclosure, the reopening
of which, in us improved condition, has been
deemed of sufiicieut importance to announce by
cable, hao been long famous in a small wav.
Leicester Square probably contains an area sus
ceptible of ornamental cultivation, within the
houses, of about five acres. It is in the heart of
Loudon’s life, lying between the Haymarket
and Piccadilly on’ tho west, Long Acte and Co
vent Garden on tho east. Trafalgar Square and
Charing Cross on the south, and that labyrinth
of streets which lead to tho grand artery of
Oxford street on tbo north. It is not within
2 miles of the present centre of fashion,
but it is tho centre of a densely populated
quarter that once was tho home of the
giaud dames and beaux, when tho Mulberry
Garden and RnnelagU were tho resorts of the ec
centric Lady Mary Wortlov Montague, Horace
Walpole, tho beautiful Gunnings, and that com
pany that set the inferior world to staring as
they compounded punches in the gardens at 2
in the morning. Leicester Square was original
ly laid out as an inclosure of green-sward within
an iron railing, some time in the first George’s
reign, and until within a few years an equestrian
statue of one of that famous quartette—proba
bly the second-stood in tho centre, the derision
of tho artists of Punch, and a regular “ cock
shy ” for tho gamins, who liked nothing eo well
as hurling atones at the brouzo Guelph and his
long-tailed Flemish charger.
About twenty years ago Leicester Square be
gan visibly to sbab and grow awfully seedy. Tho
periodical revolutions of Franco caused thou
sands of Frenchmen to lly to England for sanc
tuary. Leicester Square became the centre of
tho French colony. It was within a few yards
of one of the main avenues of London, and yet
as is strangely characteristic of that immense
city, the square wfts in a measure isolated and
quiet and dismal. The enclosure or square prop
er—for there was a broad paved carriage-way
around it—gradually became neglected ; tho
iron fence fell awav, was broken, stolon, carried
off; tbo unwashed million rushed in. took pos
session, killed the grass, the trees; broke off tho
Flemish charger’s tall; took unwarrantable lib
erties with the divine right of Kings by breaking
the Guelph’s nose, and in short, by every possi
ble known and unknown means, converting tbo
old-fashioned square into a very scab and eye
sore of tho metropolis. Still nobody could do
anything with it. The parish would ’do nothing
to keep it in order, and so it went on from bad
to a barely possible worse, the French still
clinging to it, however, with fidelity until a pri
vate individual came to tho rescue, got the right
people interested, and now Leicester Square is
said to he ‘ an ornamental feature of
Loudon. George ami hia old charger
are gone, and in their places a
pleasant fountain with shrubs, flowers, and
scats, order, and decorum. Now, Hogarth
and Sir Joshua Remolds, and the
wits and gallants of Savillo house, all of
whom lived m Leicester Square, may revisit the
glimpses of the moon if they wish ; and they can
bring with them the .spirits of old Sam Johnson,
Bozzy, tho Thralca, little Davy Gamck, Burke,
dear old Nol from under his slab in tho Temple,
Sir George Beaumont, and men of that set,
which led the world of letters and arc by tho
nose a hundred years ago. Leicester Square
from being a howling aiid disreputable wiidc**-
ness, has become a spot of green, where tho sun
may smdo upon tho poor and give them a hope
in Ufe.
Tie Varioas Kinds tliat Find Their
Way to This Market.
Haunts of Trout and Whitefisli—
How They are Caught.
Varieties of Salt-Water Fish Brought
Tbo Prices and Quality.
The business of fishing is carried on Tery ex
tensively fa the Upper Lakes and In the imme
diate vicinity of Chicago. For & fresh-water
lake of the dimensions of Lake Michigan, it
yields very few kinds of fish, but such as aro
caught are of excellent quality, perhaps not as
fine of fiavor as tho most delicate of the salt
water fishes, bnt nearly so, tho difference being
on 6 which the epicure alone will notice.
TUE PBZXCIFAIi FISU CAUGHT—
and they are caught in great numbers—are the
akb trout and tho whitofish. Those are
caught altogether with seines, tho prin
cipal fishing grounds being located at
Mackinaw and Escanaba; but tho fresh fish that
come into this market for sale aro nearly all
caught at Saugatuck, Grand* Haven, Bacine,
Kenosha, Muskegon, and off the Calnmct. The
fish that ore caught at the first-named places go
to Eastern ports, or are salted aud packed for
tho gonorol trade.
THE TEOCT AXD WmXZFISU
arc both so woli known that a description of
thoir appearance is needless. Their habits are
exceedingly migratory. They seem to roam
about from ono portion of tho lake to the other,
but choosing tbo upper regions, where the water
is cooler during tho summer season. Tbo
whitefish seldom swim alone, but go in schools.
The trout also run with them, and in like
manner, but ore often scon and caught alone.
They can be caught in deep and cool water, in
front of tho city and elsewhere, at almost any
time, with a trolling lino, but, for some reason,
the white-fish never Lucs at the hook.
.2 dr.
. H
,3# oz.
There are very few of either kind, however,
that arc caught by hand, as they arc both ex
ceedingly timid and alert fish. They are mostly
caught with
CELL NETS,
which is a peculiar device for snaring them.
They ore made of the ordinary netting, with
meshes of a size to let the small fish through.
The larger fish usually run their heads through
the spaces, and then, perceiving their danger,
attempt to back out, and, their gills being
open, they ore fastened - securely, with
out power to move in either direction,
their struggles only serving to fasten them
tighter, and they soou die. This is the great
objection to gili-caught fish, for they frequently
he dead for twenty-four hours before being re
moved by the fisherman, who only takes up his
nets once a day. or even seldomor.
The gill net is from ito 6 feet in width, with
heavy sinkers attached to the lower side to keep
it well down to the bottom, and iloats about to
hold it in an upright position. Their usual
length is from A to 6 miles, though there
ore some used that extend into the lake from
the shore as much as 20 miles. The shore
end is usually marked by a pole or stake, upon
which the colors of the fisherman owning the
nets are set. Another kind of net used is
THE FOUND NET,
which is similar, except that the meshes are
hner, and do not allow the fish to outer into
them. A peculiar thing about the fish is,
that u hen it strikes this obstruction, instead of
turning tack or attempting to under or
over ir, it feels its way with its nose outwardly,
bobbing along until it comas to the outward
edge of the netting. At this point the not is
made like a large basin, with a funnel-shaped
entrance, into which the fish finds its way and is
caged. These basins are from 10 to 20 foet
in diameter, and tho fisherman frequently finds
as many as five or six barrels of fish wailing to
be released.
GATHERING THE CROP.
Tho writer at oue time went out with the fish
ermen at Carp liiver, which is near Mackinaw,
to see them collect the fish which had been
caught in their pound net the night previous,
Tho start was made at about i o’clock one morn
ing m July, just as the gray dawn was streaking
the eastern sky. The cool vapor which spread
over the surface of the water had not yet lifted,
but as tho party sailed out the sun rose
in brilliant splendor, and soon dis
pelled the mists, leaving the lake flitter
ing under its rays like burmsheci gold.
'lhe air, which in this latitude seldom heats
above tho eighties, was balmy and invigorating,
aud tho islands that lay oh tho mainland on tho
opposite side of tho straits showed dark green
against the crimson sky. Altogether, the scene
was one which would inspire a poet or romaucist
to glowing thoughts of the beauties and delights
of Nature,
The Pound was reached after an hour’s steady
rowing, and much to iho delight of the fisher
man, it was found to bo full to overflowing with
a moss of trout and whitofish, varying in length
from 1 to 3 feet. In getting these out
the fisherman* used a large wiro dipper,
about the size of a wooden pail,
attached to which was & long handle. With this
instrument they rapidly scooped out three bar
rels of the fish “ail alive, 1 ’ throwing away the
little ones for luck. The net fishing is mostly done
in April and May, and September and October,
have lately introduced steamings as Grand
Haven and Milwaukee to take up the fish from
the nets. Of those two kinds of fish, the white
fish is considered the best eating. It is rather
richer m flavor than the trout, though the dif
ference is very slight. They both sell in this
market at retail, all the year round, for from
G to 9 cents & pound. "They are not only cheap,
but are firm in flesh, with few bones and sweet
and wholesome meat.
SAIiT-WATEH FISH,
During the past few years a great demand
boa sprung up for salt-water fish. .Eastern
people who have moved to this city have brought
with them all their remembrances of the
luscious shad, fresh mackerel, and blue fish,
upon which their young molars first found use.
Tneir appetites have only become sharpened by
long deprivation, and they have hungered after
their native delicacies with a power of appetite
that would not be denied. Out of this feeling
grew the demand that now exists for the salt
water fish. They are yet comparatively unknown
in the country, and the only saio for them is to
city folks, who know the difference in flavor
between a sucker and a sardine.
If there is any one thing that Is calculated
to make a man forget the rude c-irea of this
wicked world, it is to find & nice slice of broiled
shad done to a turn, with a flake of lemon rest
ing gently upon it, lying wrapped in delicious
odors upon his breaafast-plato. If he does not
then realize that the fine appetites are near akin
to the spiritual feelings, he should tell his pastor,
and let him pray for him. Otherwise be is lost.
The flavor of the fish brought from the salt
waters is too indefinite and delicate to admit of
analysis except when they are stale, but those
who are accustomed to them easily rccognizo
their difference from fresh water fish.
THE VARIOUS KINDS BOLD HERE.
A classification of tho various kinds for sale in
season at die bout fish markets in Chicago will,
no doubt, prove of interest. Probably, taking:
the year through, there is more halibut sold
than any other fresh fish brought here from the
seaboard. This is a largo, Hat fish, white on
one side, and slatc-colorod on the reverse. They
weigh all the way from 20 to 500 pounds. There
are no bones in the halibut, except the back
bone. It is usually cut up and sold in steaks at
from 15 to 30 cents a pound. Chunks are also
sold for boiling. Tne meat is very nice and fine
grained for so large a fish, but tho flavor is not
really fine compared with some of the smaller
fish. It can be had in the markets at any time
during the year, or can bo bought smoked and
cured.
iTACKntEL.
There are two grades of mackerel, the ordinary
and tho Spanish mackerel. Tho latter is larger
and handsomer than the ordinary, and is caught
iu a particular bay in the Gmf Scream. It sells
at from 15 to 30 cents a pound in this market,
while the so-called ordinary brings tho samo
price for a fish of 2or 3 pounds weight. Tho
teason tor these fish is from April to August,
when they run to deep water, and become scarce.
They are caught in schools by book and
net, the fishing for them sometimes last
ing only an hour or two. They do not
run into tho freah-water streams at all,
but deposit their spawn in the salt-water bays.
They are very sweet and delicious eating, hut
are mostly used in tho West in a salted condi
tion, which deprives thorn of their fine flavor.
COD. I
Contrary to tbs belief that possesses some
FISH.
Here.
Porgies and striped bass can also be bought at
tbis particular season. They are great favorites
with some. Smelts aro'a very popular edible,
especially with the Goimaus. They are a very
small, boneless fish, something like an elon-r
gated minnow, but still more uko a miniature
cel. They are caught in shoals in the bay near
Boston, and at other points on the At
lantic. They do not appear in the
market until after frost, when they sell
well at from 20 to 30 cents a pound. Soft-ahoi 1
orabe are now young and sweet, and can be
bought in tho market at from $1,50 to $2.50 poj
dozen. They are considered a rare delicacy, W
have an unhappy faculty of coming to life agaii
when mixed with milk,‘and some other thing!
that people take regularly without thinking,
They do a great deal of thinking after an expo*
nonce of this kind, and supplement it frequently
with forcible talking. Lobsters, clams, aud
oysters can also be bought, but are not favorites
at this season of the year.
Salt-water eels can now be had, and are much
liked by people familiar with them from child*
hood. Others consider their appearance against
them. They are boneless and ugly, and weigh
from one-fourth of a pound to 5 pounds.
They are very delicate eating, however, and ara
highly esteemed by good judges of what is nice.
They aro brought to this market with their headi
cut off, and already skinned, and will sell at Iron
15 to SO cents a pound. There Lave been a few
eels caught at this harbor, probably a dozes
within as many years. A senseless superstitioo
connects them with the snake tribe, but this ir
entirely without foundation.
is only in its infancy in this State. When tb(
population becomes denser, and the finny tribel
become scarce, there will undoubtedly be sys
tematic plans introduced for the propagation ol
li.-h. The experiments at Rockford and el&Or
where have proved that brook tront can ba
raised In great quantities, and make a remunera
tive and agreeable branch of business to those
who undeitako it. The salmon would undoubt
edly thrive in the waters of Lake Michigan, afl
would many other fish native to this dunate,
Luc which have, for some cause or other, oarer
found their way into the lake.
With the merits of salt-water fish the pubuu
at large ore very little acquainted. It is a com;
mon thing for a fish-dealer to be asked how a
certain fish is to be cooked. There is lutlo or no
demand in this market from outside towns fot
fresh salt-water fish. The lake trout and white
fish, however, have a largo sale, especially on
Thursdays, in anticipation of the demand of Fri
day. This is the groat day in the fish business,
and, though it does not rival Billingsgate, the
Chicago fish market is a very active place cm
that day.
ftirths nncl Deaths in Liondon*
For the week ending Saturday, Jnne2o, iff
London, there wore 2,214 births and 1,242 deaths
registered,—the former having been 13, and thff
latter 115, below the average. One person died
from Btnall-pox, 23 from measles, 33 from scarlet
fever, diphtheria, 23 from whooping-cough*
27 from dillerent forms of fever, and 68 front
diarrhea. Tho mean temperature was only 53 ,
arfU was 5° below the av: r o o fur
ing period in fifty years.
minds, codfish are not canjht in halls K3 ,
in restaurants. They are caujht on the a”
however. There has been very little
for the freah fish, and it is not kept cicantM
short season. It is a large, flat fish, coaij
grained, bnt nutntioua and palatable
grocers keep it in a cured condition in tl /•'
cellars, dr back rooms,' which accounts
strangers thinking that there must be a nm t 101
somewhere near. It is only the odoronsra-is?
gently falling to decay. There is verv Irtle s
maud for the fresh article ; but. as 'it
hotter knonhi, it will increase. ecoaiea
TUE Slt .IT>
is a great favorite in the Eastern States but •
not known so much out here., There is onlv y
difficulty about tue shad, and that is that h°° a
full of bones. Tbo meat, however ’is ueriW'i 3
delicious, flue, juicy, and rich in flavor s -
haps ono reason of its excellence is ’ acconn.Sr
for by the fact that it is only caught for a
season. It commences to run up the fr?
water streams early in tho spring, aod ate
Juno it disappears, having spawned m n
higher waters to go back to the sea. Of cnnS!
there are none of the lish now in market bnt •
the season they command a high price. * uac m
FLOUXDEES
are sold in this market to a considerable i
but like tho other salt-water fiafc ouj- f * .
consumption. They are a very p'ecaUar wSSS
fish, being black on ono side, aid white 7TS 6
other. As their name indicates, they ,n J5 #
and round in shape. On the lower’ ride that
have no eye, and they swim obliauelv *w“ e ?
, the water with the black side turned’ubiSS o **
an angle of 45 degrees. They run into the iSJZ
water bays and streams from the ocean. and»T
to bo caught at any time dqring the open w,
Xhev aro usually fried. The price for
is 10 to 20 cents a pound. WBnda »
Among the fish that have gained tha *M oe i
popularity is the * weE *
CALIFQBXIA BAL2TOX,
a beautiful game fish which is caught in tb.
Sacramento Kiver. Since the opening or tS
Pacific Eoad, a fish-dealer of this city has oaISJ
lished a wide market for this deiicate fish S
over the East, and in the principal cities West
It is a species of the ordinary salmon, but with
a finer flavor and grain to tho meat, which iaof
a beautiful reddish color. It is dot to be camtht
with the book, as it tears itself from it before
being drawn to the surface. Careful fisher
men sometimes secure it by following it %
long way, until it tires out; but ordinarOr
it is caught with tho seine. The Eastern sahnoi
which nearly resembles it, is now caught info!
Atlantic, and is sold in this market. The saloon
contains very few bones, and is excellent oatic*.
The California salmon retails in thin market
from 411 to 50 cents a pound.
THE BLUE FISH,
which is similiar in size and oi eomethio" of the
same appearance as our lake trout, except that
its scales have a dark, blueiah tinge, is caught ia
New York Bay and other bays on the Atkntid
Coast. It is considered very fine eating by those
who know, and is a great favorite in the East. U
is sold here more than any other fresh fish, except
halibut, and our own lake fish. At the present tune
it is plentiful in the market, and can be bought
as low as 12 cents a pound. The price vanei
from this to 30 cents, according to the quantity
on hand and its scarcity in the Eastern markets*
THE BLACK SEA-BASS
,is also an excellent fish, game to the last, and,
like mest game fish, a delicious article of food.
It is of the same shape as out river Lass, bn I
longer and larger, with a jaw of great strength,
and a look of stubbornness about it that tells its
characteristics plainly. The flavor of the meat is
nnliko fresh-water bass. It is in moderate de
mand, and sells in the spring and fall, when it is
seasonable, at from 20 to 30 cents a pound.
BBOOE TBOUT
are now, and have been for two month* past,
coining into this market. They are caught in
Minnesota, and at Marquette, Escanaba, and
Grand Traverse. There is excellent fishing for
brook trout inland from the latter place, which
can be reached in a day or two by the packet that
leaves semi-weekly from Hannah, Lay k Co.'(
dock. They aro brought here packed in ki
from those various points, and find a ready mi>
ket at frm 50 to 75 cents a pound. Brook trout
are too well known to need description. They
are justly classed among the highest of the fine
flavored fishes, and are the peculiar delight oi
the epicure.
THE WEAK FISH
is a long, sinnous fish of tße herring tribe. It is
not much known here, bat can be procured at
the best markets at tho present time. It 1b fan
in quality, bat is not esteemed a great delicacy.
It brings fiom 15 to 20 cents a pound.
MISCELLANEOUS.
THE FISH BUSINESS
“HE IS NOT DEAD, BUT 3LEEPETH."
Ah, God! to feel theo ouee more olla#
To lips and breast, a-motboruitf!
Iluflh I step softly lest his sleep
Be disturbed. -Say, do not weep I
Sobbing forth, with anguish vain.
That no eartniy noise or pain
Xow can make tho dropt lids rise.
Or trouble blue, untroubled eyes.
TTliat wns that 7 What word was sold t
That “ The little one is dead ”?
Ah! they cannot make my heart
There is do each tiling as death {
True, the milky baby-breath
Left Its prison, flying far
par*t the Ligbeat crowning sta,r—
Plying swift, ’til caught and pressed
Ou the dear God’s loving breast;
Th**.re, within that happy home.
Little .feet may freely roam.
Oh, my darling! tbongb I mlas
Labytonch and baby-kiss,—
Tnough the aching mother’s heart
Louse itself with sob and start,—
Ib-’acuing through all space, all soundf-*
Clinging to one little mound,—
Yet I bear the low, sweet Voice;
** Mother, for his sake rejoice!
H ;d he staid, there must have boe&
Tears of anguian, taints of sin;
Mow, whatever Time may do,
lit is safe the ages through.”
Little face, so pare, so white,
Earth may hide you from my sight *
Y«t 1 know that, some glad day.
You will greet me, far away.
Go*! will keep you sweet and fair;
So I lea to yoa in Uhs arc.
Umiaat KxsTUuna

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