Newspaper Page Text
TERMS OF THE TRIBUNE. iutss or BOTBcmrrroH (patahl* w advamo?.). Partsol a year at ihe *atnn into. _ . To pro* ewt delay sml mistake*, Ho sure Mid giro rest OS ce address In full, luoludlng Stato and County. Remittances may bo tnndo either bydratt, npross, Po«t OiUco os dor, ni' in n’uliforeil letters. at onr rl*k. tniMß to out BDiiHcnniEnn. Pallf, delivered, bunds* excepted Sfi cents per wonk. Pa)|j. oolUoroil, Buudav Inoluriod, 80 conU per week. AddsoM Tim TRIBUNE COMPANY. Corner Msdtsnn and Doarbnm.sts., Chicago, IN. TO-DAV’S AMUSEMENTS. HOOLKY’R THEATRE— Randolph street, iiolwoon Clark ami LaSalle. Tho Great Adelphl Company- Mia* ■trolsy, Faroe, and Variety. ACADEMY OF MUSIC- iklslodstreet.bßlween Mad ison and Monroe. Engagement of John Dillon. Lancashire La**." EXPOSITION IHlll.DlNO—Lakoshnro, footof Adams ■treat. •• Paris by Moonlight." Afternoon and evening. TWKNTY-TlllUn ST. BASE BALL OBOUNDS- Oamo between the While Stockings and Franklins for tho bouolUof tho Homo of tho I-tiondioss. SOCIETY MEETINGS. ATTENTION RIRKNIOUTS.-A special conclave of Apollo Ootninandory, No. 1, Knight* Templar, will ho hold this Tuesday evening, at » o'oluc l *, at Asylum, forworkon the order of tho K. T. A isillug Sir Knlghta courtouusl, Invited, 1), ItoMrdnr. ASHLAR LODGE, No. 80S, A. P. * A. M.-Regular Communication this (Tuosdnylovonlng. In their hall, No. 79 Aionroo-st., for business and work. Tbo fraternity cot -11.11, invllol to oeot »IIU u.. 0 „ BUSINESS NOTICES. THE COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER IS UNRIVAL. •<1 as an advertising medium. It* Purchasers Directory alone commend* It to all business raon. lioro m.om inVksteu in stocks and ooi.p pars CW per cent a month, bond for particular*.. TUM UIIIDUK A OU., Ranker*. 9 Wall-st.. Now York. Uht ©tikmc. Tuesday Morning, July 28, 1871. Tbo companies that insured Staadon and An* demon, tbo alleged Incendiaries, will probably join now in a gonoral effort to stop oaroloss un derwriting. No moro of tho Walker will case until Sept. 21. Lovers of strong moat will miss tho dally re ports of tho proceedings In court. A file of Chicago papers of rocout dale would bo amino to tho excellent Charles Bcado. Ilia 'admirers should boo to it that he is placed In possession of tho facts. Judge Williams rendered a decision yesterday In a suit instituted by tho heirs of tho lato Stephen A. Douglas for tho recovery of certain property said to havo illegally alienated from them. The ground of action was that-the ex ecutor of tho estate had an interest in a solo which was made by him. Tbo Court awarded tho property sold to Bobort and Stephen Doug las, debarring tbo widow from participation be cause she bad boon guilty of iHohos. Tho Pcnco Conference at Brussels opened yesterday, and sat for an hour. Tbo sessions are to bo held with closed doors. Bccont files of tho English papers aio noticeable for tho unanimity of opinion which they express concerning tho wisdom of Lord Derby’s policy in regard to this Conference. It seems to bo generally created as a menace to the naval pow oio, and much satisfaction is expressed that tho representative sout by England will exorcise merely the functions of an intelligent reporter. In The Tribune of Sunday there was pub lished a series of interviews with persons con cerned in tbo promotion of the Citizens’ Associ ation. lu ouo of those there wore some remarks derogatory to the character of Mr. Emery A. Btorrs, tho Sceiotary of tho Association, which furnish us occasion to say that wo havo good reason to believe that this brilliant young lawyer has, since ho joined tho Good Templars, some months since, made a most commendable aud thus far successful effort to reform those per sonal habits which alone have prevented him from taking an exalted position in society and in the Slate. News from tho Custer expedition to the Black llills was received at tho Army Headquarters in this city yesterday. At tho timo of writing, tho expedition was 170 miles in a direct lino from Lincoln, and within about 12 miles oi tbo Mon tana boundary. It hud suffered no molestation from Indians. Tho country traversed is said to be most beautiful, excellent for grazing and general farming. Some sections are described iu terms that are really enthusiastic. Little is said of tho scientific results thus far reached, but this could hardly have boon expected in a military report sent by telegraph. There is every reason to oxooot that those will bo en tirely satisfactory. Messrs. Egan and Karls have boon chosen by tho Common Couucil to superintend the con struction of tho now Court-Houso and City-Hall. The County Commissioners have already elected Egan, and will doubtless agree to Kails without a murmur. This is a fair divide, as far as It goes, between tho Irish and Gorman voters. It might go further. A ochool-counus, or some thing of tho kind less ironical in its relation to tho principles involved, might ho taken; and it would then ho an easy thing for Gormans and Irishmen to do tho whole work in exact propor tion to tho “ claims” of the two nationalities. These claims, of course, are derived from tho power of wielding tho brute vote. Mrs. Elizabeth Cady Stanton has given to a newspaper reporter something now in regard to tiro charges against Mr. Beecher. Sue says that Mr. Tilton made to her and Mrs. Bullard, about a year before tho Wood hull’s publication, tho same statement in substance as Ire has given to tho public • that on the same night Mrs. Tilton coufesacd to Miss Susan B. Anthony her criminal relations to Mr. Beecher; that Mr. Sam Wtlkeson, whoa few days ago charged Tilton with attempting black mail, know of tho truth several years ago, and assisted in securing concealment. Sirs. Stanton dealt roughly by Mr. Wilkoson, saying that bis reasons for wishing to hush up the scaudal wore that ho was a stockholder m Plymouth Church, tiro Christum Union , and tho “Life of Christ." Persons to whom Mis. Stanton is known need not bo ur-suml that her character for voracity Is above reproach. Tlit* Chicago produce markets were rather slow yesterday, except in oorn, Moss pork was In moderate demand, and SI.OO higher, closing at $2X23 cosh, and $23.50 sailor Sep tember. Lard was quiet and steady, closing at cash or seller August. Meats wero moderately active and Arm, at for Hhoulcioro, oJ£o for short ribs, 10@10)£o for short clear, and 12@12Jtfo for swoot-plcklcd hams. Hlghwinos wero quiet turd stronger, at 000 per gallon, Lake freights wore dull and weak, u. for corn to Buffalo, Floor was very quiot, and unchanged. Wheat was quiet and a shado easier, cloning at $1.08)1 cash, Holler tho month, and sl.lO for No. 2 Minnesota. Corn was lens active, and lower, cloning firm at cash, nml CI)I<SHJISeO Holler August. Oats wore quiet and %(n)\o lower, eloping nt 170 for old, 430 for now, and seller August. Rye wan quiet and Ob higher, at 000. Barley was qulotand Armor, closing at sl,oscash ornollor September. Hogs In scant supply, and sold at Co advance. Bales at SG.GO@7.OC. Cattlo worb quiot and steady. Sheep dull and unchanged. Tho resolutions adopted by the National Board of Underwriters at their recent mooting in Now York have come to band, and aro pub lisbod elsewhere. They aro a recommendation to tho Insurance companies belonging to tho Board to withdraw their Chicago agencies on Oct. 1, unless certain specified reforms aro mado by tbo city authorities. Those reform measures are tbo extending of tho fire-limits to tho city limits ; tbo passage of a stringent building law ? tho complete reorganization of tho Fiio Depart ment ; tho increase of water facilities; tho establishment of a Tiro-Marshal's Bu reau, ■ charged with' investigation into tho origin *of fires, and power to punish incendia ries ; the passage of a law which shall socuro tho gradual removal of tho lumber-yards and special hazards to isolated localities. Every ouo of thoso demands is reasonable. They aro pressed respectfully and yet with an earnestness of language that loaves no room for doubt ns to tbo sincerity of tho Board. Tho city cannot afford to treat them disdainfully, or to assume that tbo lusurauco business has any di rect connection with general philanthropy. Tho insurance business is based on that cardinal motive In all political economy, an enlightened selfishness. Tho samo kind of a mentor should bo consulted by tbo city in Us dealings with tho companies. THE PITTSBURG FLOOD. Tbo brief, tologrnpblo aonouncomont in Tire Tribune of yesterday of heavy rains in and about Pittsburg gavo no intimation of tbo fright ful disaster which is reported in detail this morn ing. Pittsburg is situated at tbo conflaouco of the Monoogahola and Allegheny Bivora, with stoop bills-all about it. Allegheny City Ison the opposite shore of tbo Allegheny Bivor, to the northwest of the city. The hill-sides aro intersected at irregular intervals with runs .or gnlchca, which form notnral channels for . any largo waterfall from 'above. The heavy rains of Sunday night filled those gulches, and tho’ water.swept, down the hills with resistless impetuosity, carrying death and desolation in its course. Tho area over which this flood is said to have extended is de scribed as from 20 to 25 miles in diameter, and astonishment is expressed that the torrents did not swoop down over tho entire city. As it was, tho damage done was confined mainly to tho loss attractive, suburbs; of Pitts burg and Allegheny City, - including Tem porancovillo and one or ' two other neighboring boroughs. Tho devastated district - was filled up with slaughter-houses, small manu facturing establishments, and tho homos of tho working classes. Tho value of tho properly destroyed is not, therefore, so groat as if tho flood hod reached othor and richer sections of tho city. But this is insignificant as compared to tho loss of hfo. More than 100 bodies have already boon recovered} it is known that nearly 150 lives have boon lost ? and it is behoved with good reason that 200 men, women, and children have perished. Verily, this is an age of flood, fire, and fury. Tho Pittsburg horror Is ouo of a class over which wo can only mourn. It seems to belong to tho category of catastrophes which are called unavoidable. When such a storm comes sud denly upon a city, as did this, and Nature pro vides tho channels for a free passage on its way of destruction, there is nothing to bo said that will atone for tho suffer ings it brought with it, nob oven in tho way of pointing out protection for the futuro, Tho flood carried everything before it. Its force was as groat, sudden, and impetuous as that of tho Mill Bivor Bcsorvoir when it broke away from its barriers. There was no running away from it. It gashed away Iron bridges, picked up houses and sot them down in now places, tore up stones in tho street to assist in the work of destruction, and oven over turned stone walls which vainly endeavored to impede its angry progress. Strong men wore helpless os children, and women died from fright. People who had gone to church returned to find their homos swept away, and might have gone back to church to thank God they had loft those homes in timo to savo their lives. Tbo scenes and incidents related of this great trial have all tho varied and terrible inter est of great struggles for life, and, in reading tho accounts that como to us wo can only rejoice that tho Oity of Pittsburg escaped. Tho theory of a water-spout or cloud-burst is advanced, not without plausibility, as tho expla nation of tho flood; of this wo speak io another ; article. But, whatever tho final explanation may ho, tho disaster scorns to havo boon a kind that cannot ho averted by human skill or forethought. INCENDIARISM, Tho fire on North Clark street yesterday morning scams to havo boon a clear case of incendiarism. Tho house was one of those small frame buildings permitted to ho erected within tho old fire-limits after tho fire of 1871, and belongs to tho class subject to bo taken down under the notice given by tho Board of Public Works. Nicholas Staadon occupies tho building, No. 210 Nortli Clark street, as a retail hardware store. Ho was insured in various companies in tho sum of SII,OOO on his stock of goods, fixtures, and building. Tno fire was discovered hi time to extinguish it. The police and firemen who entered tho building discovered also the preparations for its destruction, and those wore so extraordinary and so complete that wo have thought them worthy of a particular description, and to explain them wo give a diagram of tho promises as found by the police. On one side of tho store was a box of rugs saturated with kero sene, and near it a box of rosin, from which was a lino of korosono-soakod racs to a pile of kind ling-wood in tho roar part of tho store, tho wood also prepared with kerosene. On the other side of the store was a stove loaded with kerosene rags and a charge of powder, and inside In the stove was found a lighted cundlo ; a box of rosin was placed near by, and from the stove was laid u fuso to throe kegs of powiler. ‘Prom tho stove was also laid a lino of soaked with kero sene, extending back to tho pile of kindling wood. Tho preparations wero sufficient to blow up a five-story warehouse, iiod it succeeded, no ouo would over have beou able to toll what caused the Are. It is evident that whoever made those preparations intended that there should pe TIIE CHICAGO DAILY TRIBUNE: TUESDAY, JULY 28, 1874. no failure. In case the lighted candle failed to communicate with the rags and powder in tho stove, and thus load to a general explosion, tho lire started In tho box on tho other aide of tho room wan expected to communicate at first, by moans of tho lino of oiled rags, to tho kindling worn!, and hack by tho other line of rags to tho kegs of powder. Fortunately, tho flro was dla covered an . soon as it blazed up, and before it had limo to coromunicato with tho moans of destruction. Staoden has boon arrested* and, among tho many circumstances alleged against -Lira, It is claimed that the amount of his in 'snranco far exceeded tho value of tho stock in store, and that he sent his family away from tho city, last week. His namo la also commoted with the firing of other premises occupied by him. Wo do not propose to discuss the guilt of Staadon now. , 110 min tho hands of Iholaw. What wo wish to call attention to Is tho unquestionable evidence of incendiarism furnished by tho ma terials and their arrangement in this store. It would have required but a few minutes longer time to have placed the causes of this flro beyond, all discovery. Tho building would havo boon torn to pieces, and tho wreck would have been ablaze. If anything raoro than the Btaadon case wore necessary to awoken tho city authorities to the dangers of tho times, and to convict tho insur ance companies of caroloss underwriting, It was furnished a fow hours later by the discovery of another attempt at arson. This occurred in tho South Division. Tho foots aro irresistible. A flro broke out In a frame boueo on Portland ave nue, but It was almost immediately subdued without tho aid of tho Department. An in spection of tho promises showed that a largo wax tapor bad been placed on a pile of kindling-wood and paper, and loft to burn. Tho occupant of tho apart ments woe a man named Anderson. Ho had given tbo keys of bis rooms to a family overhead about an boor before tbo discovery of tho flames, with tho explanation that his own wife and chil dren'wore away and bo was about.to begin his day’s work at a distance. Tho presumption Is that tho person who lit tho tall wax candto had reason to know there would bo nobody in tbio Anderson part of tbo bouso when tbo kindling wood was reached. It is hardly necessary to add that Anderson was well insured, and tho family overhead was not. Thus havo two attempts at arson boon discov ered in a single morning. They tend to show, tbat.undor tbo mystery which surrounds tbo origin' of fires occurring seemingly without cause, thoro is often incendiarism, and incendiarism of that deliberate kind which provides for tbo destruc tion of all ordinary' evidences by which it may bo establinhcd. ‘Whilo it docs not follow that every unexplainable case of flro is duo to'arson, wo havo tho evidence that arson is a not uncom mon crime, and that U furnishes a sufficient ex planation of fires which on any other hypothesis aro unaccountable. In this case, whoever may bo found guilty of this deliberate preparation for tho firing and destruction of tho building, should moot such condign punishment as will at least deter others who may bo contemplating a like ciirno. SOUTHERN POLITICS, Tho newspapers which ore still busy in sup pressing tbo Rebellion and abolishing slavery ore in oootosioaovcrthoWhltoLoagaoa of the South. They use it as tho old gentleman with a story about a gun used bis foot. Ho would stamp on tbo floor, start up, and say: “Eh, oh, what’s that?—a gun ? Well, speaking of guns reminds mo,” oto. So tho truly loyal editor writes “White League,” looks at it, and shrieks In print: “ White League I Ah, traitors. Hero, help! Savo tho Bopubhol Stuff tho ballot boxes again, back up tbo carpet-baggers, help tbo rogues,—help them, or that dreadful, dis loyal League will destroy tho glorious Union, tho blood-sealed greenback, and tho ransomed col ored brother, by actually establishing honest government in tho South!” It is a frightful prospect. Tho shrieking journalists sketch it again aud agalu. Tho raw-hoad-and-bloody bonoa story has a fearful fascination to them. They aro half-porauadod that they believe what they write. Wo have already condemned tho idea of the "While League. Race should bo tho lost consid eration in politics. Moreover, tho Philos are not strong enough, in tho worst-governed States, to right their wrongs alone. But we protest against tho doctrine so industriously taught that those Leagues hare been formed with malice prepense, without provocation, for tho sake of maltreating tho negroes, and of doing by bullets wbat ballots cannot accomplish. Tho fact is that tho white Southerners have borne insult and outrage Jong and patiently. Mulatto mutan dis, Chicago would have lung since been in revolt bad aho bad New Orleans’ fate. Tho whites have soon unuttorablo corruption among their rulers, and have boon bowled down when they feebly protested. They have soon sworn election-returns changed, from hour to hour, to meet tho nows of Opposition gains in outlying parts of tho State. They have soon a drunken Judge, hooked by bayonets, put Into power a .Governor whom all America knows was never elected. Negro insolence has grown with white subjection. The defeat of tho Civil-Rights bill at Washington was followed by a storm of vitu peration by Southern blacks and tbolr allies against Southern whites. Davenport, the col ored Chancery Clerk of Vicksburg County, made a speech to a negro audience which loudly cheered his passionate declaration that the white race roust yield to tho coming man, tho negro, lie named tho daughters of tho first white fami lies of tho city, and coarsely predicted their future marriage with men of his race. Similar speeches have boon made in tho Mississippi Leg islature. T. W. Oardozo, Mississippi Slate Superintendent of Education, a colored carpet bagger from South Carolina, publishes in Fred Douglass’ Era the statement that it is 4< bettor that tho whole Stale of Tennessee should bo reduced to ashes" than that tho Civil-Rights bill should fall. Such violent language has bpou tho rule. It is but natural that tho whites, thus attacked by the blacks, should accept tho issue forced upon them. Tho whole trouble In Vicksburg, on ac count of which Gov. Davis has asked for a garri son of United States troops, was tho work of tho colored population. At least, It seems so. After duo allowance has boon made for tho exaggera tions of both sides, tho true story is apparently about as follows: Tho olty, with a valuation of $0,000,000, owes $1,000,000. Taxation Is en ormous, aud business is crushed uudor it. Last mouth, tho negroes nominated a city ticket. Ten of the thirteen nominees are black. The white man proposed for Mayor is under indictment for perjury and blackmailing. A ticket of white men was at once proponed. Then Davenport made tho speech already referred to. Tho city was in commotion over it, hut thero was no rioting. The negro tbs streets and ar- rostbd all tho whites. they could entail Then, and|not till then, did the whiten organize. Their patrols are acting with tbo police. It 1b predict ed that the election of Aug. 4 will bo quiet, and that not twenty white men will vote the negro ticket. When such conditions oxlnt, a " While Longue ” or something like it in the almost in evitable result. Yet it would have boon wiser for the whites to have nominated a ticket composed of men of both races. They cannot crush dis honesty alone. They have not enough votes. Lot thorn make common oauso with the colored men who have wit onoagh to soo tbo abyss into which the nogro-rlddon States are plunging. Rut if such men are not to bo found, if tbo hon est negroes prefer to ollng to their race rather than io their characters, then the whole South maybe forced into tbo attitadoof the Mobile Register, when it says t , TUo people of Alabama hate boon roslnling this issue for years, and now they havo to decide between thrash ing tbo negro party at the polls and seising the roliis of Government, or sinking Into the domestic hell of South Carolina and Louisiana. Mutatis mutandis, wo apprehend that How York and Massachusetts would cot stop a hundredth part of a mlnuto to dobato the question. CLOUD-BURSTS. Within the last few years the breaking of water-spouts,—if that Is a proper name for tbo phenomenon,—like that which desolated a town in Nevada last week, has boon frequently no ticed; Nor is it confined to mountainons dis tricts. A few years ago a water-spout, or tho bursting of a cloud, caused very serious damage near the bridge of tho Chicago & Northwestern Railway across the Rock River, three miles west of Dixon; and a similar disaster also befell the same, road a fow miles oast of Dixon. There is an abandonee of ovidonco in most parts of tho country that they have occurred in all of its past history. Especially is this truo. along tbo lino of tho Pacific Rail way. Brood beds of streams perfectly dry aro common in tbo Black Hills and Rooky Mountain districts, which show plainly tho action of terrible torrents not many yoara previous. Experienced railway-men havo given it as their opinion that sufficient allowance is not made in tho construction of our roads to lot off. the water in such coses. A similar disaster occurred 'ln Southern Minnesota recently, whoro very considerable damage was-done, and a few years since tho President of the Michigan South ern Railway and many passengers came near losing their lives, not far from Mishawaka, from tho same, cause. Several persons in tho car next io them wore drowned. . Borne years earlier, a portion of tho City of Denver, 001., was submerged in tho night-time by a flood coming down the valley of Cherry Crook, of which tbo Inhabitants had bad no previous warning. A cloud hod burst on tho sldo.of tho mountain so far distant that no sign of Us existence could bo discerned, and spUlod Us contents into the upper valley of Cherry Crock. This crock- had boon dry for many years—so dry that its bed bod been sur veyed and laid off in town lots and built upon, constituting, indeed, one of. tho moat tUiokly sottlcd parts of Donvor. Tho flood struck tho town shortly after midnight, and in an instant of time swept off every vestige of human habita tion and handicraft in the old bed of tho crook and adjacent thereto,-destroying many lives and ■ a largo amount of property, which was hnrlod into tho South Platte, which latter stream was raised several foot in a fow minutes. Probably nothing can bo dono to ward off tbo calamities that often result from “cloud-burs la” 'or wator-sponts, but they certainly aro worthy of careful study. Bomo rules may possi bly bo drawn from the appearance of the clouds, by which people whoso homos may bo located in valleys liable to inundation may bo warned in time to roaph a place of safety. Tho phenomenon of a cloud-burst consists of tho sudden, perhaps instantaneous, condensation of a vast quantity of warm moisture In the atmosphere by coming in contact with tho cold sldo of a mountain, or with a current of cold air.. It is not improbable that tho awful disaster at Pittsburg on Sun day was identical in its naturo with tho cloud bursts of Colorado, Arizona, and Nevada. THE FBEEDMEN OF RUSSIA. A committee of Inquiry has been Investigating tho condition of the emancipated serfs of Rus sia.' Its conclusions are somewhat gloomy. Tho morality and the comfort of tho peasants in tho Northwest havo sensibly increased, hut this holds true of no other port of tho country. Nay, there is an exception in tho Northwest. Tho inhabitants of tho marshy lowlands show no signs of improvement. Buckle, who was tho first Englishman to formulate tho influence of thophysical aspects of a country upon its in habitants, would rojoico’m this as a proof of his theories. Elsewhere in Russia, a slight gain in comfort has not boon accompanied by auy in creased thoroughness of work or bettor method of living. In tho North, tboEast, and tho Centro, no material advance can bo detected, whilo the standard of morality has oithor stood still or suuk. There is an enormous consumption of fiery liquors, except in tho South. All gather ings, political, social, judicial, oven religious, servo as pretexts for intoxication. 60 far is this carried that a criminal is apt to ho sentenced, in 'atonement for his fault, to treat his Judges to drinks I This lack of advance under freedom has boon largely seized upon by the whilom foes of emancipation. Tho attribute every evil to the decree that struck the fetters from tho serfs. They aro partially right. No law can change children into men in a day. When a man has boon dwarfed by serfdom for many years, lie will bo very likely to fail to comprehend tho bless ings of freedom and to abuso them. There are, however, other reasons. Climatic causes produce intomporaoco. Tho lack of edu cation degrades tho whole race of peasants. Tho standard of comfort has boon lowered by cen turies of want. Tho ox-serfs ore content with little. No desire spurs them on. Again, tbo land laws practically prevent individuals from becom ing land-owners. Russia is organized Into com munes. Tho land has boon transferred from tho nobility to tho communes. Many evils result from this. Tho peasant bad one tyrant over him. Ho now has hundreds of potty tyrants. Ho can acquire no laud In his own name, no matter what price ho may offer for it, unless two-thirds tho residents in his commune agree to tho solo. Tho result is that scarcely uuysalou have boon made. No peasant can leave his com mune unless ho pays up his full share of tho in demnity which the commune pays In yearly in stallments to tho ox-owners of Us lands. When ho cannot do this ho is still bound to tho soil. Tho communal ofiloos aro largely sought. Thoir occupants grow mysteriously rich. Tho “serv ants of tho people ” aro said to steal more than tho servants of tho seigneur ouco did. The peasant's burdens are certainly heavier than before. Tho national taxes aro nearly all ground out of him. Of one impost, which yields the Government 208,000,000 roubles (about SIOO,- 000,000), ono-slxteonth falls upon the noble land-owners. The peasants pay 105,000,000. In many places the revenue of the communal lands will not pay the taxes on them. In some cases,. the tax Is four or five times as groat as tbo revenue. Ah the commune is responsible, as a whole, for tbo payment of taxes, tho moio wealthy peasants decline to use their money productively, lost their goods should bo soizod to tnako up for tbo deficits of their poorer neighbors. They ' hide their wealth. Tho climate has changed for tho worao in many localities, because tho forests havo boon recklessly cat down. Bur rounded by such a complication of now evils, it Is not strange that tho peasant seeks forgetfulness In drink. It is evident that tho work of eman cipation has boon bungllngly dono. In foot, a French critic, writing in tho Journal des Econo misto, says: “What remains to bo dono is neither loss important nor loss difficult ihan what has boon done." MAOMAHON AND FRANCE. MaoMahou has at lost soon that tho French people cannot agreo upon a form of government. Neither 'Republicans, Monarchists, nor Bonor partists are in a majority sufficiently strong to carry tbo country. But they ■ are numerous enough io quarrel incessantly, much to tho In jury of unfortunate Franco. French politicians ore all by tlmoars. It has seemed tbo whole timo as if tho President of tbo Republic would bo the happiest of men If somebody could bo found to replace him. Ho would willingly for sake tho court for tho camp. In the court he is a fish oak of water. In tho comp bo is at homo. But the man to savo Franco and give her a gov ernment Is not forthcoming, ' MaoMahon la tired of waiting. 1 Ho is beginning to lot Frenchman fool that they have tried long enough to And a succes sor. French politicians, Orloanlats, Bourbon ists, Bonspartists, Republicans, are aware that tho old soldier has observed their failure and their inoompotonoy. Ho is satisfied now, since facts have opened UU eyes to the real state of affairs, that his own is the only government Franco is ready to receive. Ho has boon named the ruler of France for tho space of seven years, and ho has made np bis mind, it would seem, that ho shall continue to rule till. tbo time pre scribed by tbo law establishing the Soptcnnato has elapsed. Ho Is therefore putting a quietus onSMonarchists, Bonapartisls, and .Republicans alike. The Marshal has boon very friendly to Count de Ohambord} bat oven tho Count, .by his late manifesto claiming to be by birth tho rightful King of Franco,■ has incurred his displeasure. Indeed, tho letter of Do Ohambord came well-nigh producing a political crisis, and. making a worse moss of French politics than they are at the present time. Were it not for tbo belief now prevalent, that MaoMahon has tbo ability to hold all parties and factions in tbo country in check, and that ho is fully determined to oxorclao hia ability in that direction, the letter of Henry V. would have boon attended by some very serious consequen ces. Tho Assembly and MaoMahon are. not very friendly, and (herd ■ aro not wanting those who think that a coup iV elat is contemplated by tho Marshal-President. The coup d'etat would consist in tho violent dissolu tion of tbo Assembly. Bach a dissolution would bo illegal, but it is tbo general impression that the country would support tho President in it. Tbo Union , which published Do Obambord's manifesto, was. suspended for fifteen days, for, as it expresses it, obeying tho orders of. tbo King,—that is, of tbo man who colls himself Henry V. If MacMahon should dissolve tho French As sembly, and claim tho right to rule Franco for seven years, ho 'would probably ho doing oho of the Jew acts that can bring peace and prosperity to Franco. Ho seems to bo tho only 1 power which a majority of tho nation will oboy or acknowledge as thoir loader. Under each cir cumstances, ho has at least one undoubted titlo to govern. BOMB AND GERMANY. The German Catholics havo hold a meeting la Mayonco, and issued a prouunoiamonto not in all things favorable to the Gorman Empire. Bismarck has road it, and bis fears that his French onomios have found an ally in Ger many nro confirmed, if they needed confirma tion. Tho Catholics assembled at Mayonco havo raised tho standard of rebellion against tho principles of tho Gorman Constitution. While this demonstration was going on at May ouco, tho Fopo was exhibiting himself at Bomo from a window of his palaoo to tho crowd who demanded his blessing, tolling tbom ho was a prisoner, and expressing tho hope that ho would yot bo freo. At tho sarao time or thereabouts,-tho Catholicism of tho Bavarian Chambers was breaking out in speeches foreboding dissolution to tho Em pire. It is not probable that tho utterances of a few Catholics assembled at Mayonco, of an aged priest at Bomo, and of a few Bavarian rep resentatives, can shako tho Gorman Empire or add vory much to tho discomfort of Bismarck. Germany has undertaken to nationalize tho Cathoilo Church within its boundaries. It Is not likely that it will succeed, since oven Gor man Catholics do not oaro for a peculiarly Gor man religion. But whether It succeeds or not in its efforts in this direction, it should bo pre pared to accept tho consequences of its attempt, It should not oxpoct that when Catholics meet at Mayonco or tho Gorman Bishops at Fulda, they should break forth into acclamations over tho ecclesiastical legislation of tho'Boiohstag, or, after tho example of Lord Bussell, soud a message of sympathy to the Emperor in his contest with Bomo. Catholic clergymen and Cutholio laymen will not bo likely to pass reso lutions approving of tho imprisonment of Arch bishop Lodoohowskl or the expatriation of tho Jesuits. And yot this is, it seems,' precisely what the Gorman press anticipates. Tho throe facts ahovo referred to are inter preted by some as tho foreboding of another Thirty Years* War. Already tho old battlo-flnge are soon woviog. By the ominous light of recent events may bo observed tho contending armies of 250 years ago that desolated Germany and made her one of tho poorest nations in tho world. From Baris aud Borne, tho headquar ters of Germany's enemy, orders, wo are told, aro issued. BlohoUou and Father Joseph aro replaced now hr Fallonx, Dupauloup, amlßockx. How far tho lines of the enemy extend into Germany is not known} but there are those who claim to bo convinced that tho first battles are to bo fought in South Germany, Tho work of Franco is being done by Gorman Catholics. It is done in a manner all the more injurious to Germany, as the; onomios are those of her own household. Germany is growing un easy. She knows that France Is 'preparing for tho uoxt groat conflict. She knows, too, that the enthusiasm for tho Empire is, if anything, on the wane. She must pick tho bone with Bomo and XVance at tho samo time. It looks as if she would soon find a obAnco to do bo. Should Oath* olio Bavaria dcsorl hot In her hour of need—a not probable contingency—Bhe need not.be sur prised. She baa sown persecution; eho will reap disaffection, porbaps disloyalty. ■WHAT THE COMET IS MADE OF. .Oogglft's comet ( has loft us, and Is now eorao 80 degrees south from tbo sun. Us tail la now visible to dwellers In tbo Southern Hemisphere, and In another day or two tbo nucleus will dash Into tho view of observers In Australia and South America, Wo find tho following In a late Issue of tbo London Times, written by Qoorgo U. Soabrolto, tho Astronomer at Ilugby, England. It will bo observed that his deduc tions are almost exactly in accord with those al roody.publlshod in Tub Tribune, made by our “ homo talent ”t ; • Tbo nucleus, or bright 1 point of tho comet, gave a continuous spectrum, or light of all colon. Tbo fnn ihapcd nart preceding tho nucleus gave alao o faint continuous spectrum crossed by throe bright bands, showing tho presence of light of three different colors only. . From the faint port preceding tho fan there ■was a spectrum of three hands only; and in thaspeo trura of (be tali, now somo fire millions of miles long, the same bands appeared, together With a faint con* tinuous spectrum. Tho interpretation of thcao results la briefly this: A continuous spectrum shows the presence of either a solid, liquid, or gas at high press ure, so tho uuolous consists of one of these three, most probably, of a solid—whether a solid ball or a thick cluster of small bodice does not appear, but tho latter Is more probable. Tho. faint continuous spec trum of tbo fan shows a constitution similar to that of tbo nucleus, and it'is probably a more diffused cluster of small bodies, but tbo bright bands from It show the presence of a gas, and they at« similar to tho bands found in the spectrum of an In candescent goa consisting of carbon and hydrogen; such os tho bluo base of a gas flame; so there la evi dence hero of a hydro-carbon in a gaseous state mixed with these small bodies forming tbo fan, Tho bands only from the port preceding the fan show tho pres ence of this gas extending beyond tho solid particles. Tho spectrum of the tall Is evidence of Us gaseous na ture, hut it also contains a certain quantity of solid particles sufllclent to give the faint continuous spec trum. Of late years It has boon shown that certain comets and clusters of meteorites, such ns glvo us those showers of August and November, travel on tbo same paths through space, and It is highly probable that some of tho largo comets mentioned by the an dents are now represented by flocks of meteorites; and now wo hnvo another duo to tho constitution of comc|s,—namely, that they ore dusters of meteorites surrounded by a hydro-carbon gas. now (hls'gas ob tains 1U luminosity it la difficult to say, but it seems possible that a gas need not always bo heated, in our ordinary sense, In order to render It luminous. THE CROPS. Uoports from Various Quartern. Special Dispatch to Tho Chicago Tribune, Jaoksomvillb, 111., July 27.—'The very heavy thunder-storm last night ended tho long-con tinued drought, and'insured the safety of the com crop. Tho chinch-bugs had done some damage, hat tho rain has drowned thorn out, and corn prospects ’ ore excellent. Tho crop 1 will probably yield 50 to 60 bushels to tho acre. Special Dispatch to The: Chicago Tribune. LaSalle, HI., July 27.—An intelligent farmer of the southern part of LaSalle Township says that unless copious rains visit tho southern part of LaSalle County this week corn in that region will hot amount to moro than half a crop, and that potatoes will prove an almost total failure. No prospect of rain has yet appealed. OhAUA, Nob., July 27. —Additional reports from all sections of tho State relative to the grasshoppers are yory discouraging. In Dawson County cuoro will not bo enough corn raised for seed. Tho corn, bean, and potato crons of tho Pawnee Indians were totally destroyed. Without additional aid from tho Government they cannot but suffer most severely. The grasshoppers will roach tho river by Thursday, cloartngovorything, ; Soeciat \Diamkh to The Chicago Tribune. Kankakee, 111,, July 27. —Kankakee County is In a doplorable condition. No rain has visited us for weeks, and vegetation is literally burning up. Tho fields are as brown as in Indian summer. Corn is rolling and turning yellow. Already one half. of tho crop has boon hopelessly ruined,'and nut a few days are loft in which to insure the re mainder. Within tho past throe days two fires have-been started in fields adjoining the rail roads by sparks from passing locomotives. On Saturday lost, tho thermometer stood at 103 de grees in tho shade; a hot wind swept over tho country, wUboring.vegotation like a blast from a furnace. Truly, our prospects, so fair six weeks ago, : are how disheartening. The Colton Crop tn South Carolina* Chahlestok, 8. 0., July 27.—The cotton cater pillars have made their appearance iu force in Orangeburg County, iu the interior of this State, as well as on tho coast. Unfavorable weather and tho lateness of the crop make planters ap prehensive that the worm will do serious harm. OBITUARY, The Sion* CSoorgo W. Morris. Special DUpatth to The Chfeaao Tribune. Qidman, Ill.j July 27.—Tbo Hon. George W. Morris, ;of Onarga, formerly of Cook County, and ono of the wealthiest men in Ibis section, died suddenly at Seneca, Eau„ to-day. Commodore Thompson Darngh Shaw. Philadelphia, July 27.— Commodore Thomp son DaragU Shaw, a retired ollicor of tho navy, died yesterday at Germantown, aged 75 years. Anselm Rothschild, Vienna, July 27.—Anselm Rothschild died to day. AMUSEMENTS. hooley’s theatre. The audience at Hooloy’a Theatre last evening reminded ono of tho palmier days of tho legiti mate oomody In this charming house, or of tho not loss notable success of tho Adclphl during the past season. Inasmuch ns every night of the now variety combination under 3lr. Grover’s management is a ladies’ night, tho sight of so many of tho other sox was not a surprise. Mr. Grover, while ho has boon driven to orgaulze a company In haste, has displayed that fertility in expedients which renders him so formid able .on opponent among managers. Tho same ingenuity whioh drove tho cham pions of tho East from Chicago routed and despondent has collected tho mate rials of different phases of tho drama, and ju diciously blended them into ono entertainment of a very enjoyable description. It is not sur prising that his name as a manager should guarantee an overflowing house on an opening night, but it is surprising that tho performance, with such little time for organization, should bo so agreeable. As stated Sunday, Mr. Grover has combined for one evening’s entertainment tho most attractive features of negro-minstrelsy and variety business, and bus added to them a strong clement in a farce by a comedian of groat popularity—Mr. 0. B. Bishop. Tho minstrel feature of the entertainment consists of tho ordinary first part, with (Jiutor. Surridgo, Courtwright. Wilson, and Kayna in comic and pathetic ditties. Then come Wayne aud Lovely in their inimitable songs and dunces. The va riety feature commences with a Swedish canta trice of no vary great merit. Nicolo Norton, tho juggler, Is an excellent feature, and deserves a good mention. Suulord and Moulton, tho musical mokes, are well known, and whore kuown must bo admired. TJio operatic sketch, "A Terrible Fix,” is at once legitimate and bur lesque, and gives Miss Wren and James Collins an exoollont opportunity Billy Courtwright has boon a favorite in tliis city over since ho ar rived, and deserves tho position ho holds in tho public favor. Ills sketch of '* My Only Friend ” we have taken occasion to notice before, and briefly refer to it ns nn excellent, pnthotlo piece of negro-minstrelsy. Miss Jennie Morgan completes tbo variety performance. The performance concludes with Bishop’s rol licking farce of 41 Wanted—l,ooo Young Milli ners, which will over bo associated with Bish op's plump figure and rather well-developed limbs. The bill Is a good ono, but will bo changed Thursday to make room for moro nov elties. A STOCK RAID IN WYOMING. Special Oiavaten (a The Clneaaa Tribune. Omaha. Nob., July 37.—Qou. Ord .baa stole- Gram that tho Indiana yesterday run olt aovonty or«ou from tho range a short diatauco west of Mcdioluo Low, ■Wyoming. War partioa of Obey qiiuoh and Arranabooa havo boon soon now Haw lina. Nothing nan boon hoard of Capt. Wobuqli*, who wont after tho Indiana iliat attacked tho minora at Bomiuolo. THE COUNCIL Egan and Karla Elected Oourt-House Arohiteota. The Matter Forced Thronsh In the . Face of All Opposition, Miscellaneous Business Transacted. Tbo Council mot In regular session yesterday evening, President Dixon in tbo obair. Aftor tbo receipt of a communication from tbo Mayor relative to tbo demands of tho Na tional Board of Underwriters, given elsewhere, tho regular routine was taken up. STREET-EXTENSIONS, ETC. Orders woro passed for an ordinance for open ing Park avenue from Stanton avonuo to Cali fornia avonuo; also to (111 and paw Madiaon stroot from Webster avonuo to Onlfornla av enue. - ■ An ordinance granting tho right to lay a stroot railway on North avonuo, from Milwaukee avo nuo to tho city limits, was referred to tho Com mittee on Railroads. Tho Board of Public Works reported that, be fore a sower can bo laid on Ashland avenue, fill ing will bavo to done at a cost of $27,000. UKALINO INJURIES. Tho Finance Committoo reported, recommend ing tbo payment of $2,000 to Gustav Schnlt, foi damages received by him In falling from an un guarded sidewalk on Dearborn street. The re port was concurred in. RAILROAD MATTERS. Tho Committee on Railroads reported, recom mending that tho Corporation Counsel assist property-owners along tho lino of tbo Chicago, Danville & Vincennes Railroad In obtainiugdam apos sustained by tho right of way. Con curred in. Tho same Committeo reported recommending that permission bo granted to run a tireless en gine from tho Great Eastern Hallway track to tho Gorman burying-grouud, Laid over. Tho B&mo Oommictoo reported that tho Coun cil has no power to compel street-railway compa nies to pay liconso for oars. Concurred In. STREET NUMBERS. An ordinance was passed authorizing the Board of Public Works to change stroot numbers when in their judgement it becomes necessary. TUE INDIANA STREET RAILROAD. Majority and minority reports from tho Com mittee on Streets and Alleys, West Division, woro received, on tho subject of tho street-rail way track on West Indiana street, tho majority recommending that permission bo granted, and tho minority adversely thereto. Doth reports were laid over. ' COURTMIOUBE architects. Aid. Hildreth moved that tho Council proceed to elect two Court-House architects. Aid. Lynch moved that three bo elected. • Aid. Sldwoll moved to Indefinitely poutpdno action in tho matter. Tho motion was lost, tho only. affirmative votes being those of Aid. Sldwoll, Stone, Clork, Schaffucr, Corcoran, and Jonas. Aid. ScbalTnor moved that five architects bo elected. Aid. dullorton Insisted that tho proper course was to vote on concurrence in the report of tho Committeo on Public Buildings, which recom mends tho eloclion of two architects. Aid. Stout moved that tho report bo placed on file. Aid. Cullorton movod to concur in tho report. Aid. Fitzgerald moved to amend by electing throe architects. This was ruled out of order. Aid.’ Sohaffnor hoped tho report would bo E laced on file, and that tho subject matter would o postponed. Nobody had any money to pay ordinary taxes. No interest would suffer by postponement, excepting that of a few architects, and the property immediately surrounding tho Court-House Square. Give tho people a chanco to recover from thoir prostration. Aid. Biohardson said tho same speech was made last Monday night, and it would bo a pity to liavo It mado twice fornolliing. Aid. Hildreth said, for Aid. Scbnffnor’s com* fort, that it would bo throo or four years boforo the rebuilding of tho Court-House would draw away any trade from tho Pacific Hotel. The people demanded that tho $600,000 of Court- House money should bo expended. Aid. Campbell inquired if tho chief of the Peo ple's party was not getting i per cent on that money. Aid. Hildreth hoped bo was, and moved the previous question. Tho motion to place tho report on file was lost by a vote of 11 to 21, as follows : 3'eaa—'Warren, Sldwoll, Slone, T. F. Bnlloy, Clark. White, Quirk, Stout, Schaffner, Cannon, Alurnhy, Lynch, Corcoran, Joann—ll. 2fayo— Richardson, Foloy, Oooy, Fitzgerald, Schmitz, Roldy, McOlory, Oiillcrton, M. 1). Dalle;, llildroth, O’Brien, Woodman. Kohoc, Miner, Heath, CatnpbolL Clovelnnd, Eekbarut, Mahr, Lcugaonur, Air. Prcaldont —2l. The report of the Committee was concurred In. . Tho Chair appointed Aid. Hildreth, Cannon, and Schmitz os tellers. Nominations wore made os follows: Bv Aid. 31. B. Bailey, P. J. Egan; by Aid. Fitzgerald, 11. L. Gay; by Aid. Stone, W. H. Wilcox; by Aid. Hildreth, Thomas Tilley; by Aid. Schaff nor, Theodore Karls; by Aid. Heath, W. W. Boyincton; by Aid. Woodman, 0. L. Wheclock; by Ala. Jonas, Mr. York. Aid. Campbell called attention to the fact tha no Scandinavian had boon nominated. It was moved and carried that the first ballot bo an informal one. It resulted as follows: Whole number of votes cast, Egan Karla, Boyiugtou. Tilley. Wilcox... Wbeelock. York. Clark, Tbo lirst formal ballot resulted as follows: Whole number of Alderman voting. Necessary to a choice Egan, Karls, Boyiuuton. Tilley Wilcox. The Chairman announced that Sir. Egan was elected. Aid. Oullorton, Woodman, and Campbell vehemently protested that this ruling was incor rect, as both architects must bo chosen by tho eanio ballot. Attention was called to tbo fact that iu several cases single ballots woro cast. They insisted that those single ballots woro not legal. Aid. Campbell moved to declare tbo ballot void, aud require two separata names on each ballot. Aid. Schaffnor insisted that tbo single ballots must bo thrown out as idogul. Tho Chair ruled that single ballots woro legal. Aid. Campbell denounced snob a ruling as a fraud and an outrage, and showed how tho single ballot could work in this way. Aid. Woodman hoped that Egan’s friends would accept an honorable plan, and declare tbo vote just taken informal. Tho motion to declare tho ballot void was car ried. Tho question then arose as to whether single ballots could ho received. Aid. Woodman moved that no ballot bo re ceived unless it contained two different names, Tho motion prevailed. Tho first legal ballot was then taken, as fol lows : Whole number of votes cast .70 Necessary to a choice, Karl*. Uayington, Tilley Cochrane, The Chair announced that Messrs. Karls aud Etrau woro duly elected. * Aid. Behalf uor moved that tho Council proceed to tho election of a third architect, and nominat ed W. W. Boyiugtou. Aid, Hildreth moved to lay this motion on tho table. The motion prevailed, with tho following vote :• Teas—Warren, lleldy, EcOlnry, Hildreth, O’Brien, T. l‘\ Bidloy, Kchou, While, lloalh, Quirk, Cleveland, Udtharat, M dir,Stout, Lomfaohor, O.muaa, Murphy, Mr. President—lß, Anya—Richardson, Foley, Cooy, Fitzgerald, Sldwell, Stone, Schmitz, Oullerlou, M. 1). Dailey, Clark, Wood man, Miner, Campbell, Schuil’uer, Lynch, Corcoran, Jonas—l7. The Council then adjourned. LIBEL AND RETRACTION. St. Johbph, Mo., July 27.—Tho Onzcfte, of this city, puhllahod an article yoatorday groaaly libeling C. 11. WilkUißou, Oullootor of Internal Hovoimo of this district. Wilkinson immediate* ly called on Airs. Amanda Corby, proprietress of tlio paper, informed her that tho article was falao in every par tluular, and demanded an un qualified retraction, or ho would bring an action for libel. A complete retraction in to-morrow's. Gazette is promised.