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Chicago daily tribune. [volume] (Chicago, Ill.) 1872-1963, November 28, 1874, Image 2

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BALTIMORE.
Its Contracts ■with. Chicago.
Tho Manner in Which Business Is Done
in Iho Monanicntnl City.
How Its Ladies Dress—lts Hotels,
Newspapers, Etc.
Tho Mutual Gain to 110 Derived from
More Intimate notations Dctwcon
Baltimore and Chicago.
fiperfol C«m*pomtmce of The Chicago Tribune,
Raltimobs, Not. 2D, 1874,
Them is probably no city of equal size on tho
American Continent of which tho people of Chi
cago and tbo Northwest aro so ignorant as they
aro of Baltimore. Wo aro familiar with Balti
more oysters and Baltimore piauoo. aud aomo of
our grcceis have found it tho cheapest market iu
which to buy coffee, sugar, sirups, and canned
fruits; but tbo mas* of our people know little
more of Ic.
Tho oDening of Ibn Baltimore & Ohio Rail
road aoerao a fit occasion for
A UETTBR ACQUAINTANCE
and more Intlmoto relations, la this event tbo
Monumental Cilv extends to us both bands, ami
Invites us to “ shakoand, since pleasure and
proflt alike prompt tho cordial acceptance of tho
Invitation, by all moans lot us do so. Some data
ago 1 left Chicago to study Baltimore and its
prospective trado-Tclatlouevflth tho great North
west, and now hasten to report my impressions.
A glance at tho map shone Baltimore's
location at tho tread of tho Chesapeake
Day, an arm of the sea thrust Inland,
us If grasping for tbo trade of tho Continent.
Its site is diversified by a groat variety of emi
nences, lu tbo multiplicity of its bride struc
tures it resembles Philadelphia; bnt it has a
larger propoition of ornato marble or Iron
structures, which impart to it an air of greater
architectural elegance, and its monuments hare
made it famous. Tbo general impression made,
bulb by tho city and its people, is that uf stabil
ity united with refinement aud good taste.
IT CONTUASTS WITH CHICAGO
in being a hundred years older and about a hun
dred times as modest. It is Impossible for mo
to convoy to tho reader all that is implied iu this
contrast; but tbo following ore a fow of tho
ways in which it espressos itself:
With throc-fourllw of tho population of
Chicago, it has la Its banks, aud in
tho hands of individuals, twlco as much
loanable capital. The bank-rate of
interest is C per cent? tho street rate from C>£
to 10.—tbo whole avoiQßhig not over 8 pec cent.
Instead of hault-couuloi s that cost SIOO a lineal
tcot, vou see here such as cost $lO, porhops not
over $5. Tbo Chicago bank-parlor is fitted up
with elegant Buirscls or Axmlnetor carpels, and
other furniture to match. Tho Baltimore hank
parlor has a bare, common piuo floor, and choirs,
table, desk, and gas-lUtuvcs, that, in eomo in
stances, might sell at auction for SOO. One of
the richest wholesale groccry-bouoos in Balti
more, which docs ayoaily business of $2,500,000,
pays a storo-rent of $2,500 a year, $1,500 a year
far head-bookkeeper, and other help iu propor
tion. Such a firm iu Chicago would pay four
times as much for rent, and nearly four times as
much for clerk-lure.
Iho contrast is not so great iu tbo furnitnro of
private bouses;* but, iu Baltimore, elegance cx
preuaco iioolf iu durable testates, solid construc
tion, and an ulior absence of flashy colors,
in i*kiuv:s’ nuEßiits
this difference is still more pronounced. In
Chicago, tho typical street-dress architecture is
too often a gros-grain silk, with a foundation
of mud, thirteen stories of flounces, cornices of
potnUaco, surmounted by a gorgeous Slanaartl
roof, and streamers of the most stunning colors.
I cannot too highly commend tho good souse
hero displayed by ihu ladles in their alioet and
church costumes. With plain dresses of durable
texture, neat and trim, and an utter absence of
bright colors, except, pci hups, a timid bow at
tbo throat, tbo Baltimore ladies, long cele
brated for their beauty and high breeding,
present a tout ecsociblo quite enthralling
to the masculine heart. 1 have not aUoadcd an
opera or a full-dicas party, but ladies who can
(bus sensibly dress fur church and street can bo
trusted to make themselves charming any
.whore.
ix JioTcrfl,
if I may judge from tier on© where! stop, the
ooniiaat is decidedly in favor of Chicago. With
low rents, ami every facility for pood Jiving at
cheap rates, I am charged in Baltimore $1 a day
for accommodations that abound in Chicago at
s2.so,—in other words, first-class prices lor
third-rate accommodations. Within a few squares
of tho hotel-table where I cannot obtain the
simple luxury of a raw oyster, 600,000 cans of
thq ilueat bivalves in (ho world are daily packed
aud shipped to ail parts of tho globe. When will
hotels loam to furnish their guests with the
cheap luxuries of their respective localities ?
THE DAILY PATEIIS
of the city are a fair rufiox of tho people ibom
seivesk Signified, sedate, scorning sensational
ism and exaggeration, they lack tho vim, the en
thusiasm, aud the enterprise, of ilioir Chicago
couftoros. They are much too modest in speak
ing of their onn city. They do not seem to le
aJiao ita commeiuial advantages, aud do not com
prehend the vast wealth which tho great North
west, just tapped by the Baltimore & Ohio Rail
road, is read? to pour into her coffers. Quo of
the few leading motchants of BnUimoro who
havo visited Chicago and studied tho sources of
ita greatness, expressed to mo his admiration
and wonder at tho ability aud enter
prise displayed by its lending journals, ami
gave it ns his opinion that they wore among tho
niosi important causes of Chicago's growth and
power, 110 added, aa his deliberate conviction,
that what Baltimore most needed was » paper
like Tuts Chicago TniDu:t£. 1 entirely agreed
aith him.
In tho treatment of
ITS DEAL ESTATE,
Baltimore is peculiar.* Its stow and uniform
growth haa led to a very general ayntom of leas
ing bud for ‘‘ninety-nmo years, renewable for
ever, 11 at an annual ground-rout of 6‘ per cent, on
Us raaraat value at tuo date of tho lease. For
example, a common laborer, or mochauic, who
can command money enough to build a Uouao,
inuicadnf buying a lot upon which to ouild, leases
it. It tho lot bo worth SI,OOO, he pays annually
forever a groundrmitof SOO. II he builds a house
that cottb him SI,UCO, as mono? here Is 0 per
emit, this makes his house-rout practically ouly
$l2O a year. This ia, ju effect, to loan him for
ever the value of (he lot at 0 percent. If the
lot advances in value ho has tho benefit of it,
since, if ho wishes to aell, ho disposes of his
houfio at ita market value, and the ground-Icaao
at ita enhanced pneo. This encourages men of
amAll mpßiio to live in their own houses. Afl a
consequence, there are uo touemout-houaea, ac
tual route are comparatively unknown, mid
u larger proportion of tho people own
their houses than perhaps in any other
4i ,tv ip. ln tllo i V (? r,d ’ Hccuros a staid,
ihtKtr population, and, with a mild climate
cheap fuel, cheap food, and cheap clothing, elves
IkUimote a gicat advautage aa a manufacturing
Fiona tho contrasts Already noted it will bo
seen that Baltimore and Chicago have
much to gain*
from a more intimate uc<{UAiotance with each
otUcr. Each can supply tho other with what it
moat lacks. Wo might Infect hor with boiuo of
ourdteh, onlhusiHsm. and oulcrpriso, uocicot
lu return, more sensible and economical moiloe
of living ami doing husmoaa. But if, m this
mercenary ago, tins Kind of exchange ho not
sufficiently pmed. it remains to coumdo r eoaio
of tiie ways in which ouch may pub tangible
money Inhorpurao by oaiablishlug moio Ultimata
tjflde*r(datione, Chicago end too Northwest
havo annually over 62U0.U0U.000 north of pro
duce to soil the Eastern States, Europe, and
South America. That Baltimore can handle a
urgo proportion of thin, will bo evident when
vo look at the facilities for transportation, stor
age, and transshipment, afforded by the Balti
more £i Ohio JliiJroad, and the return cargoes
which may be commanded by and through Balti
moro, ju tho way of manufactures. coffee, sugar,
and importations from Europe. But. au my let
ter is already too Jong, 1 1 mint defer this section
of my investigations 10 another day. U. £).
Indelible Ink,
The French Stamp OAlce has just purchased
tho cooret of tho composition of cn ink abso
lutely indelible, aud which resists tho strength
of all known reagents. Owing to that discovery,
' -hi k-o aW* to -nt an end to the imme^ns
frauds vrbicb aro constantly commuted to the
prejudice of tho Treasury, and which consist in
restoring to stamned paper, already used, Us
original tmritv. The ammnl loss to tho revenue
on that head Is calculated at GOO,OOO francs In
tho Dopaitmont ol the homo alone. Tho cm*
ploymont of (ho Indelible ink is about to bo im
posed on all pnlho olllcprs charged with tho
drawing up of acts. It will bo sold with tho
stamps at nlltho shops, and Its neo will bo ren
dered obligatory by an Administrative regula
tion.
FISH-CDL.TXIBE.
Report of tbo United States Fish Com*
mission*
ITffifftfmibm CorrtMpotulenre of the jVtto York Tribune,
Tho United States Fish Coimnleaion, at tno
conclusion of ihoir summer's work, have re
turned to this city, and aro now engaged in
drawing up their animal report. Tho following
facts ate a summary of (heir year's labors:
At tbo head of tbo Commission is Prof. B. P.
Baird. of the Smithsonian Institute; its Secretary
is il. 13. Rockwell, of this city. Ac tho bead of
tbo iiaturnliHlH or tho Commission was Prof. A.
E. Vorrill, of Yale College, whose principal sub
ject of Investigation is tho marine invertebrates,
lie was assisted by Prof. 8.1. Smilh and four or
ilvo students from the Scientific tiohool
of Now Haven. 'Wesleyan University of
Middletown, Conn., was ropicsonted by
Profs. lUco and Q. Urown Goodo;
to tho Inttor was specially Jntrnstcd iho ichthy
ological department. Prof.' Hyatt, of Boston, as
sisted by Profs. Saltonstall au J Rachboao. repre
sented tho Boston .Society of Natural History.
From Yale, beside those already mentioned, came
Pi of. I). E. Eaton, with two or three assistants;
from Cambridge, D. W, B. Parlour; those two
gontlnmou gave special attention to collections
of algjo or seaweed. From Philadelphia, repre
senting tho Franklin Institute, came Dr. Jo
seph Lcitly, studying ratcroacoulo formations,
and Dr. Henry Chapman. Too party was, there
fore, composed of over twenty scientists, who
gave their best tlrao and thought all tho warm
months in pi©scenting “ investigations with ihe
view of ascertaining whether any and whatthmi
mitiou in tho number of foodllbhcaof the coasts
and lakes of (ho United States has taken place,
and, if so, to what Cannes the lame is duo;
and, also, whether any and what protective, pro
hibitory, or precautionary measures should bo
adopted in tho premises." To carry out this
programme evidently requires a complete zo
ological, botanical,(and physical survey of all tho
waters of tho United Stales.
It iu duo to these gentlemen to state that of
tho wholo twenty only two receive salaries
or any pay except their actual expenses. The
Secretary and tho artist aro paid by Gov
ernment out of tbo appropriation; all tbo
others give tbclr services to tho work ol the
Commission, amply repaid by thoir contributions
to science, and by tho collections of fauna, ol
gio, etc., that they collect for tholr several lu-
BUttltlOllQ.
The place selected for their headquarters tho
present year web tho pleasant little fishing vil
la tro of Noauk in Connecticut. Situated at tho
end of Long Island Sound, and looking out on
the Atlantic Ocean, midway between Now Lou
don and Stontußton, with a population princi
pally engaged iu Halting, it was well suited to
the purposes of tho Commission. To aid them
iu tuolr labors tho Secretary of tho Navysent the
small steamer the Blue Light, Capt, Boardsloo,
of tho Washington Navy-VarU,m command, with
a picked crow of eight or uino men. The
chief wotk of tho steamer was to carry
tho party to tho scone of their daily labors, and
to do the heavy work of dredging and trawl
ing. By this aid of steam, the amount of
work done iu tho season was at least quad
rupled. Including tho scioutitio gentlemen,
their families, their assistants, tho crow of tho
Bluo Light, and the numerous scientists who
were often visiting them, about seventy persons
were constantly assembled sc Koank, studying
flakes, their food, their habits, aud their habi
tat.
While investigating tho questions con
cerning tho food fishes of the Atlantic,
groat attention has boon paid to the food
Ashen of tho lakes and rivers. Under tho direc
tion of Prof. Baiid, Mr. Livingston Stone has
been employed on (ho Maclcod River, a branch
or the Sacramento, obtaining salmon eggs, of
which be secured some 6,000,000. Tho salmon of
theMaclood area very vigorous fish, growing
vapidly, and larger than our Eastern salmon,
weighing 20 and 00, and occasionally 50, pounds.
Tina species is especially adapted to tho WArmor
waters of the country, and tho eggs thus obtained
have been distributed in tbo headwaters of (ho
Susquehanna, Potomac, * James, Delaware, and
even tbo Mississippi. They come forward much
earlier than those from tho colder waters of Now
England am) Canaria, the ova being obtained in
August and September, and the young fishes,
fully batched, intrusted to Uxeir future homes iu
November and December.
Of tho 6.000,000 eggs obtained by Mr.
Stone, 1,000,000 wore restored to their native
river, iliac that sourco of supply might not
bo dried ap; tho other 5,000,0u0 were
distributed in the Middle aud Western States ;
700,000 were sent to Michigan, and 150,000 to
Utah. Half a million wore placed in tho hntch
iug-boueo of Mr. Alexander Kent, of Baltimore,
to bo distributed over Maryland and Vagina, and
another largo amount to a similar institution at 1
Bloomuburg, N, J. Besides these eaJaioo gath
ered from Oregon and scattered iu tho
warmer waters of iho country, Mr. Oharlcs
O. Adklna, of Buckonorl, Mo., on tho Pe
nobscot, ban obtained 2,500,000 eggs from
that river. These fished, adapted io tuo streams
of New England and Northern Hew York, are
slower iu coming to maturity than the Western
fish. They are secured in October and Novem
ber, aud placed iu the water in die following
February and March. Prom Malm and Orogou
therefore 7,500,000 salmon eggs im ro been this
year gathered and distributed m all tho mors of
the land that run to tho ocean.
But iu addition to this, Prof. Ba'rd has suc
ceeded in obtaining eggs of the lund-loclccd sal
mon of Lake Sober, iu Malno. This spooloe of
salmon, though now fresh water, Is supposed to
bavo run up thither from the ocoan, hut never to
have returned. They are a small fish, weighing
from Bto 8 pounds, but very fine eating; 150,-
OUU of these eggs have boon secured and dis
tributed among the rivers of Now Eugkmd and
Michigan that ruu into lakes.
The two principal sources of sunply i»f shad
ova are at Castlcton, N. It., on tho Hudson, and
Holyoke, Mass., on tho Connecticut :> aud at
those two places some 5,000,000 or 0,000,000 eggs
have beeu secured. Salmon eggs are sunt
the continent imbedded lumoss; but ahtul sro
so Lively, being hatched in live or six days
after they are impregnated, that they can
only be distributed aa living fishes.
Large cans arc, therefore, made, holding
10 or 12 gallons of water each, and in each
can are deposited 5,000 or 10,000 of tho little
fishes. These 5,000.000 or 6,000,000 shad have
boon distributed over New England, N«j\r York,
Pennsylvania, Illinois, end as’far West aa lowa.
Tho Southern Staten have also received tboir
quota, 60.000 having been for tho first time de
posited iu two streams iu Texan; ho that three
years from this time (it inquires three years to
bring tho Khad to full maturity! tho shad will bo
our national fish, and Will bo caught in
every stream in tho Union. Sumo of
theso shod eggs have been deposited in the
tributaries of tho Mississippi aud of Ibo great
lakes. But tho latter 1* an experiment, the blind
hitherto having always found his way to salt
water. But small shell-fish, of the sumo species
os tho shad feeds upon iu (ho bottom of tho
ocean, having boon found io tho depths of gioat
lakes, it has been determined to try tho experi
ment of both shad and salmon for lakes.
But it Is no experiment to fctock rivers running
to the sea with food fishes. In 1867 tho ova of
shad wore fust carried to Iho former batching
places in the head waters of tbo Connecticut.
During tho three years required for thofr growth,
tho Connecticut wan so empty of fish that the
fisheries of tho lower part of tho river were
wholly abandoned. But hi 1870 largo schools
began to pass up tho river, and they have
continued to grow iu numbers and in
weight till this year, whou in tho height of iho
season shad were sold on tho spot wlioro they
were caught at sfi per 100. .Streams iu Southern
Massachusetts havo been restocked with ale
wives, so thot 100 tous of fiuh-food aro now
token from streams that ftlx years ago wero
without & fish; aud tho supply of tide fish iu tho
streams has re&tookod the mouths of the rivers
and the shores with larger ami more nutritious
fish, attracted thitUor by the plontoousuosu of
tboir favorite bait.
It is au interesting fact, developed by these in
vestigations, that tho tlsh. vrhuu 100 young to
take caro of itself, is beat oarad for by man, init
that when instinct la once fully developed, na
ture in putter than man. Tho impregnation of
tho egg U much bettor scouted by artliicial
moans than when loft to the flahos themselves }
i»ut, whou hatched, nature takes bolter cava than
man. A, fow years ago tho young tlah was
carefully cooped up, fattened, and in
tiUßtcd to himself only when fully flsrtod
>u life. Tho couboquenoo wan that when onco
left free in ins native waters bo bocamo tho prey
of his nmnoreus enemies, agaiusl Which hu bad
no instinctive resources. But when tho voium
of any Huh, flrot loosened from tho yolicbar.
hurts itself alone in its native waters, it at once
tanks to the bottom, where ha color rondcrujl
undißlinguioUabio from tho cam] by which it iu
surrounded. Ah it grows up Ik learns self-pre
servation by flight, so that tho proportion of sur
vivors is found to bo larger under the let-alone
pvluoiple thau under man's most careful tuition.
THE CHICAGO DAILY TRIBUNE: SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 28, 1874-TWELVE PAGES.
ARKANSAS.
Tlio Question as to tbo New Consti-
tution of Ttiat Slate.
Was tho Action of the legislature
“Without Authority and Wholly
Irregular”?
Letter from Judge Jnmeson in Bcplj to
tho Views of Judge Poland.
To the Editor of The Chteaoo Tribune■
Bin: I have not so far kept pace with events
as to be familiar with the ground# of contro
versy between tbo factious now troubling Ar
kansas, and, through her, tbo Nation; but I
will assume iho following extract from your
losuo of Friday last to contain one of tho most
substantial of thoio grounds, and will ask your
indulgence for a few comments upon It.
It is from a dispatch of a correspondent at St.
Louis, in which ho cites tho rumors there cur
tout iu relation to Smith and Qailond ; and he
adds to them tho following:
Judge Poland aworU that, although both Baxter and
Brooks bitve ainapiieamt from tbo political arena, yot
•ho question now at iemte is: Wulcb of them was
clotted Governor in 18727 The new CoußiUutlon,
Judge Poland says, won conceived am! adopted In a
very Irregular manner. The old Ooneiitutlon provid
ed for amendments only, and prescribed tho method
for tholr adoption. No power wait delegated to (ho
General Atiscmldy of the State to submit tlio question
to the people whether or not they would hold u Oon
stitaUoutil Convention. Thus It appears that tho
notion of the Arkansas Legislature in tbo promiscu
was without authority and wholly irregular. A parallel
ease to this Mr. Roland finds In tho celebrated Dorr
Rebellion in Rhode Island a quarter of a ccntnry ago.
The hopes and ambition of Smith coat upon the Ille
gality of this CocsllluUon.
I understand from tbo tenor of this dispatch
that the theory attributed to Judge Poland rap*
resents the view of the Republicans; and that
tho opposite theory, that tho Convention in
question was a valid body, represents that of the
Democrats! Tho point at isauo is one of con
siderable importance. It is, indeed, far more
important that it should bo rightly decided tbau
that either party ohould succeed in holding the
Government of Arkansas. In truth, it would
bo hotter for tho country that the Republican
and Democratic parties both should bo wiped out
of existence than that any material question re
lating to tho powers of Constitutional Conven
tions should bo decided wrongly. By a some
what careful study of this question, I am con
vinced that tho theory announced by your corre
spondent as that of Judge Roland cud of tho Re
publican party, is wrong, and would load to tho
most fatal results.
The first point is, whether a Legislature has
power to call a Convention to amend tho Consti
tution, when tho power to do so hue not been
specifically given to it by that instrument, hut
when the power has been given to it to propose
specific amendments to tho Constitution, to bo
voted upon by tbo people; which last was. iu all
respects, tho case with tho Constitution of Ar
kansas existing at tho time its last Convention
was called.
The history of this power of making specific
amendments to Constitutions, at the suggestion of
our Legislatures, shows very clearly (hat it was
intended to bo exercised only when fdw and slight
amendments were desired, and never whom a
general revision of Constitutions was in
tended. It is a fact that no attempt to revise an
entire Constitution by tho action of the Legis
lature submitting amendments to tho people,
was over mado until tho late cases of Michigan
and Now York; aud that both of those attempts
were failures,—tho pcoploof Michigan rejecting
tbo whole, and those of New York a large part,
of the amendments proposed by their respect
ive Legislatures. This, to mo, ia not
a matter of surprise, since, although,
in both cases, tho new Constitutions were sever
ally framed, iu (be first instance by a Legisla
tive “ Commission, '* mado up of the beet meu of
both panics. Theywevo submitted to tho revis
ion of tho Legislature Itself, mods up—unless
better constituted than tho average of our Leg
ialaiures—of the worst men of both parties.
Whoa Huomittod by the Legislatures to tho peo
ple to he passed upon finally, tho chances wore
that they had been deprived by tho Legislature
of eomo of their roost valuable provisions, or
had bad injoctod into them others that wore die
tasteful to the people, as patt/san or unjust.
What could not be douo in Now
York and Michigan, with tho assistance of tho
able and pUriotio men constituting tho Commis
sions, wo could hardly expect to bo done iu other
States which should adhere strictly to kbolr Coo
fitiliuioos, omi attempt to do tbo work of fully
revising those Instruments, not by a Commission
chosen from the Stato at large, but by a Commit
tee of members of tho Legislature, generally ig
norant of coDktitutiunai law, aud always devoted
to rarty.
Judge Poland ia said to havo declared that the
action of tho Arkansak Legislature in calling a
Convention to revise the Constitution, under iho
circumstances stated, was “ wholly irregular.* 1
By this I suppose he infant that it was so far
unprecedented that the rule ho contends for is
substantially without exception. On tho con
trary, there are numerous and weighty excep
tions; so much ao that I think it established, in
the public law of tho United States, that
it ia always in the power of a Legisla
ture to call a Convention, whenever it
mar doom it noccesearyor expedient to do so,
with a view either to amend or remodel tho Con
stitution. Tho only exception would bo, where
the existing Constitution should. In express
terms, have prohibited tho exorcise of such a
power. If so unwise a prohibition wore to bo in
serted In a Constitution, it scorns very clear that
no Legislature organized under it could call a
Convention without being guilty of an act of
revolution.
Let us now look at tho precedents touching
tbi< point. There have been at least twenty-six
cases, including that ol Arkansas, in which
Legislative Bodies havo called
where tho Constitutions then in force contained
no provision authorizing such action. Tliooe
cases extended all tho way from 1769 to 1672.
Tho Conventions were those of Georgia, Jan. 7,
1789, May 7, 1789, ami 1688 ; Bourn Carolina.
1790 ; Now Hampshire, 1791; New York,
1601, 1821, and 1810; Connecticut 1818 ;
Massachusetts, 1620 end I860; Rhode
Island, 182-1, 1684, 1841, and 1842, held under the
Charter Government; Virginia, 1829, 1800, and
1801; N«rth Carolina, 1885; Pennsylvania, 1637;
Now jersey, 1844; Missouri, 1846, 1861, amt
1865; aud Indiana, 1860. Iu regard to tho last
Convention, it should bo observed that, although
thoro was contained in tho Indiana Constitution
of 161G power to tho Legislature to call a Con
vention evety twelfth year thereafter,—that ia,
iu 1826,1810, 1852, oto.,—tho power was not pur
sued, but ft Convention was called Independent
ly of it, by an act approved Jan. 18, 1860, which
mot on tho fid of Juno following.
It is true that, in three or four of those Con
ventions, —as in that of Virginia, 1829; of Peuu-
Hvlvanio, 1837 ; of Now York, IB4C j and of
Massachuaplts, 1853,—th0 same objection stated
by Judge Poland was raised and discussed. The
objection, however, was commonly urged by b
minority, whose party or other interests inclined
them to look with disfavor upon any change of
tho existing Constitution. In a largo proportion
of these cases, the samu objection was made as
in the Arkansas case t that there existed Consti
tutional provisions for effecting amendments to
tho organic law in a moro summary manner, by
a vote of the people upon propositions made bv
the General Assembly. There having boon pro
vided, it wns said, a mode in which amendments
to tho Constitution might bo effected, it was
a violation of legal analogy to infer a power to
do substantially the same thing in another way,
not authorized especially by tho Constitution.—
tho woll-oatabliehed ruto being, it was said, that
«pr«Mto uniut eat excluslo alltriua. But, to this
reasoning, two answers may bo made:
i'Vri—Thst tho revision of tho whalo, or of a
large part, of a Constitution is suVetnutially a
different thing from tho proposal of slight and
wot numerous amendments to it; and that (hero
is no violation of legal analogy when tho Con
stitution provides for doing ouo thing in a cer
tain way, to infer from that lUAtrmneut a power
to do a different thing in a different way, al
though not specifically authorized by tbo Con
stitution, especially if the power inferred bo In
harmony with tbo spirit of our institutions,
and in conformity with tho geneial practice of
those States in similar cases.
Secondly— It has been denied by good legal au
thonty—and, as 1 think, not without sound
reason—that tho mailm above cited, i.\cprcs»io
imiua, uto., is applicable to tho construction of
fundamental laws. Barlo vs, Hlmrod, 1 Bolden's
It., 4d3 (403), per Willard, J. 800 also Broom'u
Loijal Maxima, pp. 640, Ml; also, Jameson's
CtotttUutional Contention, 800. 210, 800-307.
It may bo utotod, further, upon this point, that,
in nearly all of tho twenty-sis coses obovo men
tioned, including that of Arkansas, tho Constitu
tions framod by the Conventions thus called
wars cither adopted by a vote ot the people, or,
«hea not submitted to the people, were ratified
by tholr acquiescence In them, notwithstanding
tho motto lu which tho Conventions wore called.
Another point upon which I whit to touch m,
that Judge Roland finds iu tbs celebrated Doit
rebellion, a quaitov of a century ntro, a parallel
onsn to this in Arkansas. It In difficult to con
ceive that so eminent a Judgo should have so far
forgotten the facts in tho Rhode Island case,
which ate fully and clearly forth In tho case of
Luther vs. Martin, reported in 7 Howard’s U. 8.
IL, pago 1, an to make such an a portion. That
coho, lu Bhoit, was one lu which snob of lbs mole
citizens of Rhode Island, of 21 vonra of ago and
upwards, as, by tbo tbou existing charter of tho
Plato, had no right to vote, conceiving
themselves to bo a majority at all tbn male citi
zens iu (ho State of (net ago, called a Conven
tion without any legal authority whatever,
which framed and submitted to tho whole peo
ple of Khodo Island, botog males, 21 roars of
ago, n now Constitution. It was adopted by a
majority of all tho people to whom It was sub
mitted, {Deluding a majority, as was claimed, of
tbo legal voters ; and an attempt was inndo by
force to cntabUsh a State Government
under it, with Thomas W. Dorr as Govern
or. The Charter Government resisted, called
upon President Tyler for assistance. and,
aems’nnco being promised, tho so-called rebellion
subsided. Fmallv (ho whole question was
earned to the Supreme Court of tho United
Plates, by appeal from tlio Circuit Court of
Rhode Island, and the Court decided that such a
mode of amending - a State Constitution, by tbo
action of poisons who wero not voters, was
illegal. From this recital it hi evident that Judge
Poland no longer recollected, if bo over know,
tho facts of tbo Rhode Island case. when bo
pronounced it parallel to that in Arkansas.
1 have predicted fatal results to follow tho
establishment of tho theory of Judge Poland.
By that 1 mean tuat tho construction given by
him to tho Arkansas Constitution, if applied to
that and other Constitutions containing the
somo provision, of which tlioro aro many in tho
United States, would prevent thorn from making
any amendment whatever to their Constitutions,
except by tho net of their Legislatures sub
mitting propositions to tho people. In nearly
every ono of these provisions, it is required,
that an amendment shall become valid only aftor
It shall have been acted upon favorably by
two “ncccsslve Legislatures, and then bo
adopted by a veto of tho rooplo,—
a process which could novor do con
summntrd in loss than two years,
and might extend to four or 11 ro years, unless
special sossiono, or special elections, or both,
woro hold. Thus, oh no Convention could bo
called until the Constitution should have bcou
amended, it would follow that, in important cri
ses. as of lobelh’on or foreign war, tho poopto of
ouch States would bo utterly powerless to mako
such constitutional changes, within tbo time re
quired, as woro necessary to save thorn from
groat loss or nttor ruin. By a Convention, on
tbo other band, such changes could bo brought
about in a few weeks. John A. Jameson.
Chicago, Nov. 24.1674.
PROF, SEYMOUR'S CASE.
better of William Welsh* Esq,, to
12i«liop Steven*.
from the Philadelphia Teteqravh,
William Welsh has addressed a loiter to Bishop
Stevens on the Seymour case, of which the fol
lowing are tho most-Important passages:
I have received and carefully examined (lie Her. Dr,
Boymour’e pamphlet entitled •* Thu luue of Fact.”
1 quote from it these statements r "It in not true
that Bishop Coxe obtained bia version of the matter
when bo wai In the Seminary os a visitor of tho Mina
ia thu spring of 1473, for at that visitation, tho momout
the fact of Father Grafton’* lecture* was mentioned, 1
stated to him, in tertua too strong and 010:11- to permit
(ho possibility of mistake. that those letters were
delivered ivithoutmy knowledge or consent, and (hat,
if I had known of them In lime, I should certainly
havo prohibited them.” UUhop Coze, in his letter to
me, dated Oct. 81,1874, laid : “ When I expressed my
surpnso to Dr. Seymour that a volunteer Professor had
been introduced by him within the walln of tho Sotnl
uaiy, he defended himself on tho genorat ground that
1 the person was a presbyter of the Church. n>
1 havo UlO deltleratcly-wntteu ttatcmenls of two
Professors of the General Theologiccl Seminary, made
over their own signatures, and dated NewYorlq Nov.
2,1474. One of them baa given a full and minute de
scription of Prof. Seymour’s conduct In relation to
Mr. Gruf.ou’* visit, uud I make tho following extracts
from hie letter In my posßeeslon:
’* X do remember that Bishop Coxe, on (bat occasion,
denying the propriety of admitting any clergyman
without due authorization to instruct tho students,
said. * Why oven 1, a DUhou of tho Church,
would deem that I should bo violating the proprie
ties of the ease if X should meet and Instruct stu
dents m the a.minaty without such duo
ization,’ or words to that effect:” ogaln, **l took
occasion, shortly after receiving tho Information, to
sty to the Kev. George F. Seymour. D. D., acting Dean
of the Seminary, that 1 hud been informed that Mr.
Grafton hud so visited'and Instructed the students.”
“Ue then replied by maintaining Ills right and bis
purpose, when occasions wore given, to admit any or
dained and recognized clergyman who might wish to
visit the students, end whom fao'etnJcntu might wish
to sec.” •' He alto said that they should hare free ac
cess in the Seminary building without regard to the
theological position or view* of the clergymen In
qnesUou.” “From tho whole tenor of the conversa
tion it was apparent that the acting Doan had known
of Mr. Oration’# pretence at the Seminary and of Uls
visiting tho students, and he expressly stated that Mr.
Grafton, while hero, htul called ut his bourn m the
Seminary building, nuu that ho had seen him and con
versed .with him them.”
Prof. Soymoar’rt assertion, If ha can verify It, that
he did not give Ida sanction, or ovou hie silent aaaout,
to tbo iuen-uctiou given by tho Hoy. Mr. Grafton, will
place him, la my judgment, In a far wore* position
lUnu it ha hud tsnciioned it, Mon rarefy, au in Prof.
Soymour’a cast 1 , attempt to Juatlfy themselves for what
(boy neither did uor allowed to be done. After Prof.
Seymour loomed that a noted leader in a movement
Ihstuhould be termed retrograding Cburchmaußbip
imd lectured to Btndonlß in tbo Seminary on two ©rou
bles, on subject* that did not appertain to Uia own
chair, and did belong to other Professors, it was iiii
duty to make diligent inquiry into the full score
of tho lectures and instructions, end to
bring tbo students before tbo I'acuity for reproof or
expulsion, guarding tho Scmhmry against a lepotltlou
of thla gross abuse of privilege, and of wrong to the
other I‘tofeaborß, who ace ilouu authorized to lecture
on some of the important subjects treated of by Mr.
Grafton. Incult waa added to thla Injury, for oue of
the Professor* tried in vom to induce Prof. fcjeymnur
to realize the injustice done to hi* department. The
Profemor prepared a cautionary lecture for the Senior
dies, showing tho wrong done to the institution and
the students oy encouraging and listening to voluu
tcer ledums, especially when, os in u»a case, the
teacher hold* extravagant views of Important doo-
Itlnca and umtgcs not eumtioned bv this Church, The
X'rofeeaor prepared bis address with cere, submitting
it to another Professor, and It wot read in the House
of .Deputies at my request.
It will be scon that J'rof. Seymour never inquired
into the particulars of Mr. Grafton's touchings until
after hi* “cotittrmailou was defeated.'* Yet he made a
positive denial of a fact known to bishop Core, from
notes taken by one or more of hia students. Prof.
Seymour now confesses, after reading tho notes taken
by other students, that Mr. Grafton did teach Just
wlut bishop Cose asserted, but ho fulled to state that
Mr. Grafton reported the cy.'o of a woman cured of
lockjaw by receiving thu Uoly Eucharist.
Qcorgo Henry' Higgins. a presbyter of tho Diocese of
Illinois, thus swears: “ 1 was invited by the said Mr.
if, If. Toi bert to meet in his room the Kov. O. C.
Grafion, of boston, who was temporarily in (ho City
of Now York, on his way to or from bouton;
that I accepted tho invitation, and met, bcnidcs the
Got. Mr. Grafton, throa or four of my foUow-Blu
deulo, whom I know os tho intimate friends of Mr.
Torhort, The evening wu;i passed in pleasant general
conversation, ml, towards its close, a sucgeutiuii who
made, either by ray»elf or by ouo of tuo students
I ivccut, that, If llr. Grafton’s stay In N«.-w York was
prolonged over uno nigbt, wo might bo allowed to
meet him rgain the noxi evening, and that ho Would
lell us saimuhlDg of lbs work carried on by swearing
that an event known to every student in the Seminary
was unknown to the man whose bmdnctu it was to
know It. shows a low condition, both of intelligence
md morals. Tho lluv. Mr. Oration does not seam to
consider Huch an oath improper, for ho thus wrote to
me under date of Nor. (I. sud scut a copy of the letter
for publication in tho noxt issue of the Churchman:
“ X have tuktn my outU Una Dr. Hoymunr did not give
me access to tbo students, or know anything about uy
having any cour’otonco wuh them."
My loollng* were ever thoroughly bind towards Uio
Uor, Dr. fln/niour, but duty to the General Theologic
al Bcmluary and thin Ohur.h sliuaJd lift ua above tt>«
restndning Inflnoura of eymputhy.
Ou hturhiu that I'ruf. Sjymaur, or tils frlontl, was
ludmilug or allowing Seminarians and recent Rradu
stcatu testify under osth,witn a view to the publica
tion of a pamphlet, aud bolltviuu that it would lead to a
pu(>Uc sckiida/, and evi ntiiAto in tho forcible sopur&thm
of I'l'cLSoymour from tho Seminary, I made iho follow
ing uirangemout with tbs jlov. Dr. HongUtou: Prof.
Heyiuour sml onw or nruro lay rnondfl, to be
bulealod by Dr. Houghton, were to moot mo at bib real*
ilouco on Wcdnwday eveulnq, the 4th of November, to
cumins tbo testimony lu m j posdcsitou. witli (Us view
of briuglug out all the facU Iwurhig ou Mr, Qrartou*ti
visit (a tho Seminary. About a quarter of au hour
heforo the time appointed, I received e note from tho
lluv. Dr. UuuQhtuu, stating that Dr. Seymour declined
the interview.
You rrtil tUuo aoo, my dear Illibop, dial I tried bard
to prevent tuta pUufui exjioaurc ut lb« result of mal
administration In Uia Seminary, If I could Jure a
cottfureuce with illiUoii Coxs, the expoauro would be
more thorough, but I have not bad any touimuulca-
Uoa with him nines I left New York, and 1 do not know
whom bo now in. It In duo to him, however, to atato
that bo has said, from the first, “ that ho had nothing
to explain, nothing to corroborate; be bud very un
willingly given a simple uud brief stateaiout of wbat
bo boiTeved to be Urn fact, and be doubted not every
attempt to refute It would brink out much more than
ought to is known." 1 have addressed this letter to
you an my diocesan, in the expectation that your. 11l
confer with some of your follow»lbsbops, and, It pos
sible, Induce Pr. Seymour to resign bis Proftworshlp,
Yours, vevy aiucaruly, Wintout Wensn.
—lt has been decided that tho Grand Trunk
Company are to build their now passenger bu
tton in Montreal at Bouavcnturo utvoot, and
their freight depot at Paint tit. Charles. This
noocssltuioa tho building of a tunnel under tbo
Lachlno Canal, at Wellington Kliaet. ho as to
Hhorton the rtlutauco. This tbo city nil! proba
bly do, at a cost of. (IdU.OQU, boaido giving tbo
Company considerable land. Tho Company pro
pose spending neatly $1,000,000 iu the Imptoto
monte In that city*
STATE EDUCATION.
Herbert Spencer’s Position on
State Education.
President Eliot’s Report on a Na
tional University.
Aro They Right or Wrong?
Miorioah UwtvEnsrry, Nov. 25,1874.
To the Editor of The Chicano Tribune!
Sm: Lavt July, President. Eliot, of Harvard,
mode a report on a National Univerolty. Tbi»
report was made to tbo National Education As
sociation, thou bolding Its mooting at Elmira,
N. V. Wo confess to somewhat of a surprise at
vortain positions therein taken, in roforenco to
State education. Wo aro thoroughly convinced
that somo of tbo oplnlone which Dr. Eliot saw
fit to express ato unsound, and in diroot opposi
tion to Amotican thought on this important sub
ject.
But. before roforlng further to this report, wo
doniro to oxamlno first Spencer’s position on this
very question.
spencer's position on state education.
Herbert Spencer, in Social Statics, taken the
vo*-v advanced ground that tbo State has no
rij hi to educate. He arrives at this conclusion
in a manner probably very satisfactory to him
self. though wo doubt whether it wUI bo equally
satisfactory to Uio people.
He says, “ Inasmuch as tbo taking iffiir, hy
Government, of more of a mau’a property thaw
In needful for maintaining bis rights, is an in
fringement of hi* rights, and therefore a re
versal of the Government’s function toward him;
aud Inasmuch as the talcing oway of bio property
to educate bio own or other uooplo’s children, la
not needful for the maintaining of bis rights,—
the taking away of bia property for such a pn>
post) is wrong," and therefore (he State has no
right to educate.
Now, to Mr. Herbert Spencer's vansftfvcly
pbllosophtcal mind. Ibis may bn very flno and
very conclusive. But, with kll deference to him,
we doubt whether the American pooplo, who
have eo long reaped the ocnoflts of the Public-
School system, will be readr to surrender tbolr
preepneoivod opinions, fall into lino, ami obey
bis dictum in rospoefc to tbia question of whether
(ho State should otlucato or not.
Mr. Sponcor may bo right, and the American
people too intensely practical to be influenced,
by a mere technical “rißht”s.nd “wrong."
They may not have reached as yet that high
moral elevation from which the English philoso
pher and economist take* in his view of Nature
and of Qovommcrtt. For our part, wo hope
they biro not reached 1c and may novor reach
it. Wo have no desire to look over into that
promised land where Ida flno-npun theories and
so-called logical deductions aa to the nature and
rights of Government, shall have a prandctl ap
plication. Wo nrizo 100 highly lifo, liberty, and
tho pursuit of IxtppincßS. to throw ourselves
lato tho arms of an ignorant rabbis, under the
protection of a chaotic State. For wo are in
clined to believe that
TUB AMI2RIQ.W vsortx lUTS TUOttT,
and he wrong, and that bin ideas of the nature
of Government are radically defective.
We differ with him when ho but* that educa
tion Is not necoesnry to tho citizen for the main
tenance of his rip.bta. Wo are sufficiently con
servative to bcliove that education is nocopgary
to a community In order that they may bo able to
understand fully what tboir real ripnts a~o, and
thus be prepared to maintain them. For wo
confess that we do not sea how tho fact is to bo
avoided, that It is tint necessary to know what
your real rights aro in order to maintain them,
and that tho teachings of history show you moat
clearly what safeguards must bo throon around
them for their proper-maintenance and promo
tion. That it is not safe, or proper, to leave the
question of determining what are the right l * of
citizens, with tho Government ffe furc. ia shown
by tho history of all nations, and tho very nature
of Government itself. It must bo loft with the
citizens as the Government do facto.
The ignorance of tiia negro, of tho American
Indian, of tbo laitv during the Middle Ages, and
of many of (bo Oriental peoples, show eooclu
blvolv (hat the ignorance of a pooplo not only
Invites, butmaVo necessary, the most abject
slavery Imaginable. This is endured to tho point
of desperation, and then comes revolution.* and
llieir last state is generally worse than their first.
Liko Spartacaa and the (radiators, they “ take
arms asainst a sea of trouble, and, by opposing,
ond " themselves.
Mr. Spencer baa only to lookacroea tbo English
Channel to discover* with what admirable effect
on ignorant, priest-ridden, and superstitions peo
ple enjoy their rights when thoy are allowed to
oxerciso them, ami how soon their ability to
maintain them parses away. If that is not
enough, let him study tha history of Spain dur
lur the hwt2QQ years,
SpooccrV argument,
CALIULU TO ITfl FULL. LOGICAL CONCLUSION,
prevents the erection of poor-housco and houses
of refuge, the adoption of uauitarv regulations,
ami the paving of public streets. If enforced In
practice, i. would have prevented tho diguing of
tho Evio Canal, and the building tho .Pacific
Xload.
is It too much to nay that wo doubt if the
people are prepared to admit tiro validity of tbo
argument ?
“Wo hold, n says Macaulay, “that whoever
has tho right to hang has tho right to educate,"
and so hold the great majority of tho people of
this country. Ami tho public schools end State
institutions of learning will probably continue
to exist. aociai static* to tho cururary notwith
standing I
Ab boob as tho question, whether education Is
ncco&Hary to tho citizen for tho maintenance of
his rights, is nettled, iho other question, of
whether the State should educate, ought also to
bo considered as settled. Michigan university,
now a leading Institution lu the country, baa, In
its successful career, demonstrated the fact thot
the State can educate, aud successfully.
How far this education should bo carried, Is
another question. It of course remainn with the
people to doteruiino whether education by Uor
oimncntehall stop with the Public School*, or
bo carried forward by State and National institu
tions. If they shall think that tho safety of tbs
citizen and the interests of good government are
proportionately increased by an advance in edu
cation. It ia (heir duiv to bqo that tho neccf sury
opportunities for such an education are within
tiro roach of all.
rnKsmcNT eliot's neroiiT
deals with the question, ami wo wish to refer to
it, convinced os we arc that it i« iiicoualstout
and unsound. If ho had merely taken iho posi
tion that a National University, to bo conducted
under supervision of Government, was linprac
ticablo, wo should havo ugroeJ with him. Lot
that bo loft with tbo Sutu Governments. But
he was not satisfied with this, and tie goes on to
show that tho Government should not educate,
because it is contrary to tho nature of Govern
ment, or, ns bo expressed it, contrary to the
“conception of Government," and because
“ Government in not tho guardian of tho Na
tion’s morale, aud dooo not necessarily represent
tbo best virtue of tbo Republic, and is not ro-
KpouslUe for tho National characterarid, fur
ther, because tbo “arguments tending to per
suade ua that Government should direct auy
part of sconlar education" apply “with much
greater force to the conduct by Qovorumeut of
the religious education of tbo pooplo."
If this Is true, why does it not apply with
equal force to the conduct by Government oi
Public Schools and Academies r Vet, m (hie very
report, be goes out of bis way to support them,
and eulogize Massachusetts. He says: “Lotus
cling fast to the genuine American method—the
old MaBBAoUtiHoUa method—in tho matter of
publto instruction. Tbo essential features.of
that system are: local taxon for nnlvcrual ele
mentary education, voicd by tuo citizens thorn-
Reives; local Elective Boards lospend the money
raised by taxation and control the schoolsj and,
for the higher grades of Instruction, permanent
endowments administered by incorporated bodies
of Trustees,"
Now, wo submit that ho Is Inoonaletent in all
thla. Tbo principle involved Id Public-School
education to the same that is involved in State
education.
Moreover, President Eliot is very much mis
taken whoa ho says that tho arguments in favor
of sooular education by Government apply with
much greater force to icllgtous education by
Government. In the ono case, Government
t&koa charge of a man’s conucioueo, and, in tho
oUior, it aucs not; and wo submit whether tills
iu not a great difference, making null at ouco tho
argument in favor of religious education by the
tituto, Ami, bcuutou, It U not necessary for a
man to become lollgiuuu iu order to be a good
cill2oUt knowing fully tho nature of bis own
tights, and bow to maintain them. Qtye him a
liberal education, aud take away entirely the
Bible and revealed religion, and, then, Hite■ Plftto
atid Arlntot’o, bo can still reason out for hlniDolf
a high morality, and, lllto Socratofl. comprehend
tvhai makes the good citizen as well M tho good
man. David Tlamo was no worse a
citiron because bo doubted end dis
believed, and It may bo questioned
whether Robespierre, “that sentimental mur
derer, who. as a judge, was too conscientious to
bang a criminal, but euillclcntiy iinscrupuloua to
destroy a King,” was any hotter citizen for hav
ing been educated under tbo supervision of the
Bishop of Arran; while Catherine do Mcdials
could not poauibly have bom more unprincipled,
duel, and licentious, had she boon completely
ignorant of alt the teachings of Catholicism.
And, if it is objected that education does not
n«ccßsarilv make a good citizen, nnvmoie than
religion does, wo do not donv it. Tor we claim
that this is all foreign to the subject,—the su
premo aim of education, conducted bv a Free
Government, being to furnish tbo people with
the moans of
riN’DIKO OUT TTTSttt TRUK EIOBTS.
and how to maintain them.
But President Eliot would have us baltovs
that it is not safe lo leave Ibis to Qovcrmnont,
and cites (he condition of tho people of China,
whoso education is under tho supervision of Uov
ornmonl. To onr mind, no raoro absurd argu
ment could bo adduced agauict education In this
country than the one referred to. Tbo poailion
of tho two countries is not mnro directly antip
odal, tho ono lo the other, than tho interests of
their two Governments in rosnocli to education.
The Government of China la n despotic moo
archv, am! tho Emperor possesses unlimited
power. Tho intoropls of his Government do
not connist in Iho hlcbcst education of the peo
ple. Education is therefore reshictod, and ear
lied on In (ho Interest of (he Emperor. Such is
tho caso in all tho despotisms stretching across
Asia, from tho Euxlno to tho Pacific. As a
consequence of this ignorance, tho hfo. rights,
and property of Iho subjects nro conlinuallv sac
rlficod to Iho caprice of tho ruler. But, in
this country, tho case is different. In all
Governments like outs, their lutovoats are
served bv tbo highest and best eduealion of the
people, and ono free from all restrictions of
Government by the people has failed in tho pnat,
and if 1 it shall fail in tho future, it rill fail be
cause tho people were no: prepared bv education
for its proper administration. Tho republics of
Spain and Franco havo alreadvmalnteluod them
selves longer thou wo dared to expect; and the
onunc of om* fears was tho ignorance and super
stition of ihoir peoples.
That Self-Government is the best form of
Government, as well as tho ono naturally fol
lowing from tho fact that all mon nro created
freo and equal, to our mind admits of not a sin
gle doubt. That such a Government must do
pond for Us maintenance upon tho highest in
telligence of tho masses. fa equally dear from
the nature of things and tho tcachlorii of hhfcnrv.
Edward Everett, in an address before the Lit
erary Societies of Amborat College, in 1835. said .•
•* Tbo degreo of force required to hold a popula
tion in subjection, other tbinga being equal, la
in direct ratio to fte fotolheeneo and skill; its
acquaintance whb the arts of llfo ; Us nouno cf
Iho worth of existence.” And that far. flighted and
c'fiar-hoxdod oßOuomlHt of Franco. Da Tocquo
ville, in hlu “ Democracy in America,” save that
“It cannot bo doubted that, In the TJnit-d
States, tho instruction of tho people powerfully
contributes to tbo support of a Democratic Re
public.”
Theno are some of the facts which irresistibly
load to tho conclusion tbnt the Buto
SHOULD OUAnP THE EOUOATIOtf
of its people. \Vo ciunot think that Socncor, op
ovoo President Eliot, la right. Education la tbo
corner-atono of free inatltutiouß, and upon it
only can thov stand. Tha storms of revolution
may swoop against Ic. hut it win not fall. Its
foundations wore laid In the principle of Intel
ligence. which mean* tbo principle of equality:
au equality of intorcnls. an equahtv of rights,
it waßonco tboproud boaatof Ensland’ahatightv
Bonn that the sun never set upon their posscs-
Ktotis. and their drum-boat encircled the world.
Prouder still nbould he the boast of “EnrlaruVs
sons” that thov founded hero, ia t. Not? World,
a Republic bnead upon Intelligence and equalitv.
whose Influence bad diffußed Itself through oil
tho nations of tho earth. The principle of into!-
Itßvnco la superior to the principle of force •, it
aurvives the “wreck of matter and entail of
worlds.” Let not, then, tho American system of
education bo abandoned. Rather lot It over bo
choriabcd and fostered. Let it bo kept free from
all ueota sud creeds. Tho line cannot bo drawn
too sharply between Church end State. Lot the
State diffuse intelligence, and intelligence will
preserve the Church. Of Christianity Carlyle
eaya, ''lt fa a height to which tho tinman apooica
wore fated to attain, and from which, having
once attained it, they con never retrograde.”
R.
REPRESENTATION OF MINORITIES.
Lomdaud, 111., Nor. 28,1871*
To Ott JMftor of The Chirttffo Tribune :
Sm; In your rory timely Article of Nor. 24, on
“Minority Representation," I think you con
ceded moro than was necessary to the opponents
of the eyetatn in your figures on tho Fourteenth
District. You admit that, in this caao, there
were tiro Democratic members chosen under the
“Minority Plan" whore throe Republicans
would bovo boon elected under the “Old
Plan;” wUUo the reverts is the caao. In the
Fourteenth, w in seventeen other districts in the
State, wo owe the only llepublican Representa
tive we have to the system of “ Cumulative
Voting. 1 * Dot as look at tho official returns for
Assemblymen: There were throe tickets is tho
hold, each with two candidates 5 the Democratic
Republican, and Independents, or Grangers.
For, though Herrington and Frodonhagon wore
nominated by different Conventions, —the one to
draw the German vote, and the other the rail*
road interest, —yet they wore recognized by ail
parties no dividing tho same class of voles be
tween them. And the returns show that the
vote of the district stands aa follows, viz.:
Vote*.
Two Democratic candidates, cumulated.......lM'J?#
Two llepublican candidate?, cumulated........ a,CIO
Tvro Independent candidates, cumulated...... 4,105
Total.
Under tho bid system, each party would have
nominated three candidates, ami tho above vote,
divided by throe, shows the vote that would
have been cast for each of tho candidates, no
deduction being made for scratching, viz.:
Volet.
Democratic candidates, each ...&.52C
Uoimlllcon candidate*, each .3,020
Independent candidates, each ..1.U35
Total
and no should havo three instead of tico Demo
cratic Representatives from this “ Republican n
district. Thus your second column should road
51 Republicans and lOd Democrat:} aud Inde
pendents—Opposition—aa tho result of our re
cent election if conducted uudor tho former law.
Btrimgo things happened in the old days, aa wed
its in those now times, and It will not do to baa*
ttlv attribute unexpected rcsullß to the "Minori
ty" system in such a whirlwind as that
of Nov. B, 1874. There is . a disposition
among somo of tho legislators elect to load our
reverses on to tho *• Cumulative ■Voting," aud
moves aro already made towards scouring a "re
peal "of tho to them obnoxious sections of tho
Constitution; but tho system is altogether too
new to fully show uhufc its tiuo effect on our
elections will bo. In tho olouiioim of 1872 but a.
portion of the electors uudcrs.ood its working,
and too many other elements entered into that
of 1874 to htwo the results a satisfactory tost of
“ University Representation.” Only tbuo much
is ostablished by tlio elections thus far, viz.;
that it will introduce many now features into our
political canvasses which itaauthuia may or may
not have anticipated.
Let tho system stand until we bare thoroughly
tested it. and not hastily condemn a principle
frem which its authors hoped so much.
lUls.
An Awkward PlUtafce*
J'rom the Adrian (Mic/i.) }'ru9,
Tho following very singular oecutrenceß took
place at Flint and Mount Motrin simultaueouslv
on a recent date, tho truth of which is well
vouched fur: Two persons, one a white man,
tho othor a negro, (lied at points distant from
thoir homes; the bodies were forwarded to their
friends, and tlio coUlus in tho comise of their
transit came aboard tho same tram, whence they
wore delivered at tho respective stations. Tho
funerals at each place were in waiting i tho col
otod people received the body of thoir fallen
btothor, and tuo mourners sadly followed it to
the church, whore they listened to a pathetic
cJincourtjo. When the speaker had concluded
his sermon, (ho ooUlnuas opened, and, horror
of horvoial tho sable African was found to
be blenched out perfectly white. The abort
crisp hair had given place (o tho long
straight looku of the Anglo-Saxon, the features
were European aud tho general semblance was
that of a full-blooded white man. The coa
sts] nation, horror, and BnporoUUon of the dis
tressed mouruorn and friends of the departed
colored man were boundless, as they gazed with
amazed coautenaucoa upou the faco of tho dead.
oj suddenly and unaccountably motamorphnacd
into that of a white man. That was at I'Uui.
As soon as reason could assert its away, it be
came evident that there must ho a mistake name*
where, add that the ritfhi mitt hid gob
SHLwni* 7 ron *«*«HoD, and the corpse ns tm-
O «,1 I? r ' )0X0 " up a K° ln carried htjlc to
tho depot, ffnoro it wan OBcortatucd that nt the
n dcJ,vor y V* u»e ooillu to tbo Colored
I 1?n 11 /f..°t ro l vo,e *7° c °dlus on board, and
£,M?En5 ad merely boon exchanged, At
Mount Morris a soono was enacting similar to
that doaci ibod at Flint: at the close of the services
»i ,<s V i «i , n l f r8 K tvitii agonized features upon
« °i«.? rr , l e n BUt, f (RC 0 i )oforo them. In the oof
-o fnkl n kl, ° ,f>Vocl friend wJIOUO
funeral sorvices baa Urns far boon performed,
f l ? H nrt Un * r ,° l Tp o feelings of
the afflicted relations aud friends can bo hotter
imagined than described. Mailers, however,
soon became undoi stood, and a tolocWuc dis
patch naa iccelved from the mananim» niiimp of
the Flint & Fore Maiquet* lUilSy fflffini
things. Tho corpses wore exchange, g U j v 0.,.
mpnlatlvos of both nationalities finally bad the
satisfaction of receiving Iholr own deed for in
iormout. Tbo apparent foajful dlscolorafton of
tho white, and the unaccountable blcachim-out
of tho colored mao, was now no lunger a myste
ry. ami tbo friends were relieved of any super
stitiouß anxiety that might have attended the
cirounwtn/ico. 'lho baggngfl-maa, whon groog
blunder in tho delivery occasioned tho difficulty,
was promptly discbargciL
THE ELECTIONS AND THE KEGRO.
A Colored .Han’s Opinion of (he Cutises
&iui the UowuKm of tho JMoleat of Uio
Republican l*ar(y#
Mr. George T. Downing has written in a news
paper locently established m Richmond, Yn., in
iho interest of tbo colored people, alolUr which
is of especial interest from tho fact that I: con
tains the views of a loading colored man as to
tbo rocoub political change* in ibis country, It
is as follows:
To (hi t'Jtfar of tht lUfTmnnri Rttlnot
\U as u class* ore peculiarly Htutted. We are a ml
noruy. Wo arc poor uiid uneducated; wo uro noL
however, void of nil lutebigeucu and menus. As a con
sequence of our doFOudcnec, wo aio subjects of out
rage. Uut, with tho political powers we cr.u wield:
wish Ibostt wa can Uopcml on lu an ivsua Involviuc »
prluclplo; witn GolilUan at our dojra to becan-.o
WBiJthy and educated j with othore divided Into purlieu
on variom Jesuca to ua aubonUiuto (lot that w# muat
bo claunlab on the croumi of race), if wo will aeo fj«»
lof«ic»un »u opprvt.-.od wilnontveUonld.aud bo vrtlUug
to aid whoever will do m».:t In securing our rigbla,
caallug uur billola so that ihoy may u« moil ettcctltcly
'lb* wbl'e Southerner It no mors liottito to tha
colored Southerner than U tho Korlbemor. la fact
Uk* former fcola closer 10 you. Tboro la more frit til
relation. Plantation anil other lutlmacica bava becu
closer and more fooling. Win Ute eiueem of yo«r
neighbors, prove yourscif emltled to rcapeot, denuud
Jl, and It will bo accorded to you. An for mishioun
aud honors, time will net Ibom right. Old onucritta
and luriilioua diHcrlmioutiug lines will fail* out. Vitxm
you bUsII have your WUce and your Muhonca—aa vou
any—your color will bo a mbordinatecouildcndiim.
lam templed to refer to tho Uto e'ecUoa. I bellorn
(bat under Ood nil tiling* will work togotlur for good.
Of course I recogulao lUj uncossity of bmaau imilru
uu'iitalUr?.
TUe fundamental principled or rule* eQ'eiting tho
right of tbo citizen, the colored nmn luciiuloJ, ura
settled. It ia tbo universal practical reevsniliou of
tbn aatnn we luro to struggle for.
Tbo recent defeat of tbu Republican part? li to bn
accounted fur (u a nunutr that takes from it he sting,
nt least mb far as tbo colored man is couccnicd. If
Ulus’) who voted are intaltlgeut reading persons, they
kuowthat the buna and cries put forth in the can
vass should bn laid, properly, no tnornal the door of
the Republican tbau at tbo door of ony other parly;
that individuals of each party supported the eo-oallca
objectUmablo policies,—l refer to back pay, Credit
MoOKJor, cxpaunlon, contraction, aud tbo like. ' lloru
tors of beta parties are recorded as favoring each of
these projocta. It is true an attempt Lae Ucn made
to make much of what was called an undue interfer
ence with Stales. Dot whatever wrong may be re
ferred to lu this direction is chargeable upon indi
viduals rather than upon the Republican p,ity. It is
not upon tbu policy cr tbo party that any ouch objec
tion may lay. It is constitutional and Jiutto protect
tbo civil rights of a citizen.
Tbo principal cause of tbo unexpected defeat in tbo
late election was this. The poor, tbo laboring cla.««,
lUe mass, who have been idle, who have 1-eeu hoping
for something, who have under disappointment been
desperate, obtained (be impression that Congress crnild
rcilovo them and did not, 1 do not think It could. Tula
Impression was need by tbo “autr.” Hnjs t iumy
Judgment, unfortunate that Congress dabbled lu tbo
matter. It will bare to to regulated mainly ouUltle of
CougroM. Wo must arrive at a natural bore as ooun oa
practicable. Our present financial difficulties would
have to bo endured somo day. Tbeyaro the sequences
of (bo war end attending circumstances,
Tbo late success must not be regarded ss denuncia
tory of the Republican .party for defending the
colored man as a citizen, Massachusetts did not
elect a Democratic Governor for any aucb purpose.
The Democratic party bad to some extent the Md of
the colored vole; it will dealre to retain those who
voted with It amt win more. It will not be politic to
repel; it will not outrage. It will have tho coutrol of
the uoxt House of Representatives, but will bnvo la
mind that there la a Presidential eanvaas before it,
Should It heed tbo Bourbon spirit exhibiting itself in
the South, U would arouse In the land a political hur
ricane that would' make, comparatively, the gushing
winds of tbo anti-slavery norm to It but gentle
zephyrs. It has not the Interest to outrage us that im
pelled it when slavery was king. Q»o. X. DowxHQ.
Nuwroar, B. 1., Bov. 17, 181*.
PLEASANT ITEMS.
The "honor" of a student at Bonn was satis
fied the other day when a part of his ample ear
foil under tho blade, of a young American ha
had challenged.
—A vigorous use of tho lest-board saved aa
Indiana family from the f«,iiga of aa hitherto un
known wild animal that wanted to ride in th«
same wagon with them.
—The moat Unpopular official in Canada Is a
Sheriff who advertised that a banging would teles
Elace at 13 o’clock, and disappointed the crowd
y beginning the choking at 8.
—An excursion party from Texas, every man
of whom carries sealed orders to bring back aa
emigrant or perish. Ie now scouring tho country
between Louisville and Atlanta.
—The janitor of an Indianapolis medical col
lege waa deeply affooted on recognizing Ids
brother-in-law on tho diooooting-table. His grief
was tho moro poignant from the faot that ho had
himself carried thejtoion corpse op three flights
cf stairs.
—The wife of a certain notorious showman of
New York, who was once a poor girl, now wears,
«o are told, six diamond rings on one Laud. A
woman of pure taste never fills her Augers with
rings. She is content for the world to know that
iibe has tho moans for suoh vulgar display, but
not the tasto.
—Tho Binghamton (N. Y.l Tinm prints a
copy of an original letter of Trepidant Lincoln,
now in the possession of tho lion. Henry 11.
Mygfttt, of Oxford, to whom it was given by tho
confidential cloik of tho Socrotait of War, noon
after it won written. In roads as follows :
ExpcoTivn Mansion, Washington, Nov. 11,1S81.
jVnr Hun, iftertiaru aj ll'ur ;
Mi Dkah Sin: 1 personally wish JjcoH Tt. Trctr,ot
New Jersey, to Le appointed a Colonel for a octoiod
rvglrncut, and thin regardless oC whether Ua can tril
ih« exact ahada of Julius Caitiff's hair. Yours, truly,
A. LINCOLN.
—British cant and respectability aro always
m entioned In British buuoombo aa much above
tho roughness and drunkenness of American
politicians. This delightful theory must bs»vu
v i’oeivod a groat hhook amidst tho gentry of the
Dominion last Thursday night. No loss a per
sonage than tho Minister of Justice of the Do
minion was tho principal ami horo of a disgi uce
ful drunkon row iu a lower town saloon at
Ottawa. This worthy was accompanied by aM.
Frechette, a member of Parliament. The land
lord received a cut on tbo side of tho bead with
a bottle, aud was rescued with groat trouble by
iho citizens, who were called into the place ny
the erica of "Murder! Holpl" All thm be
cause tho drunken Minister refused to pay the
bill.—AVlo York Commercial Advertiser,
—The approaching publication of tho memoirs
of I'fincn Talleyrand Has announced tho othei
day, but U appears that tho reading public la not
to ho gratified with a tight of thorn for twenty
two years yot to como, owing to a compact made
with hia Isle Majesty Napoleon 111. Tbits a<tuls
sovereign, desiring aomo eight years ago to
know what these memoirs contained, requested
that a portion of tho manuscript should ha scu:
tn him for perusal. This was occoidlngly done,
and tho Emperor discovered that the memoirs
were in flagrant disaccord with tho Memorial ol
Bt. Helena, a fact which was exceedingly annoy
iug to him. Ho sent, taeieforo, for tUe
IDron Charles do Tullavrtnd, giaodaon of tho
Ihlnco, and requested him to iutemro with the
Viileucay family, who ware Prince Talleyrand’!
heirs, in order to obtain a further delay in tht
publication. It waa tlioieforo accided upon that,
in accordance with tho wishes of the Emperor
tho memoirs should not appear till after aucthoi
poslpouoiuoDt of thirty voara. Ao this tookplaca
m 1&00. wo have of course twenty-two moreyeun
to wait boforo wo can get a glimpse of tbesa in*
terobllng revelations. It was In return for (bit
concession on the part of the Valonooy faoul)
that Napoleon HI. caused tho tUlo of Duke dt
Montmorency to he revived m favor of the soc*
oud son ol that house.—i*Wtodelj>/t(o iTwi*
A LOVE'SONQ.
ZAfti (i never brighter
Thau When Love appem—
Love Id the Kelt, Llf* in a feast
Biuead fur Joyous ysua
life grows ever twetltt
Belli as Luvo Mceudu—
■While our hearts loir, 0 may Love nrw*
gafue ou us, my (viands.
life Is never sadder
Titan wheu Love departs—
Down la lhs West, Ufa’s glory and UM
Utuh from hwt*

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