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Chicago daily tribune. [volume] (Chicago, Ill.) 1872-1963, December 04, 1875, Image 3

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death on the rail.
jj, B 9 of (lie I’carftil Rallwaj-.Disas
ters of the Last Tircnly
Years.
Thrillingly-Interesting Pa
per by Charles Fran
cis Adams, Jr.
pi« Abergele, Hew-nambnrg, Clayliriilge
-1300, Korwalft. Dcs-Jardinss-Canal,
Port Jervis, CarVßock,
and llclraslicrc Ca
tastrophes.
tbo Causes of Their Occurrence De
fects in Management and
Mechanics.
Semite They Have Produced in a Per
manently-Increased Safety
of Travel.
ftartttFrond* Adami.Jr., mtht Atlantic Monthly
/or lictrmbtr.
The record of railroad horrors In tho most
iggmatod form began at Versailles on tho 6th
of ilsfi 1013; and doubtless ills destined to
io iDtlciluito continuance. Binco then it has
(OTiottaoa seemed ax though locomotives had
nin mad or woro Indulging tu a very carnival of
so rapidly has uuoontastrophs troddou
upon tho honls of another. At loaab twice in
Eoglaud tholr frequent occurrence has acca
lioncdso much public uneasiness as to load to
circulars addressed to tho corporations, In one
(ieo by tbo Queen herself, and In the other hy
lio Government through tho President of (ho
Board of Trade. As a rale, these accidents woro
of a strikingly similar description, and a dry
chronological enumeration of them would bo
ccltber profitable nor instructive. There are,
bosevor, tho of them which are very momora
blajeomo because of dramatic features iu their
oecorronco, others because of the results which
they produced in a permanently-increased safety
of travel. Those are not without a lasting in
terest, although It U almost startling to see how
toon and how completely they are forgotten,
fer instance, wbo now remembers oven tho
Dime of tho Abergele disaster ? And yet it oc
carred bat seven years biuco, and it would not
bs eiey to conceive anything more striking and
terribly dramatic than thoso incidents connected
with it which caneod all England for a space to
think and speak of nothing else.
THE AEEUQELE ACCIDENT.
The Irish mail is a famous train in England,
teariog London at shortly after 7 a. m., it waa
timed in 1803 to make the distanco to Chester,
169 miles, in four hours and eighteen minutes;
from Chester to Holyhead la 80 miles, for run
ning which tho apace of 125 minutes was allowed.
Abergele is a point on tho sca-uoa>diu tbe north of
Wales, nearly midway between those two places,
Oatbc 20th of August, 1808, tbo Irish mail left
Chester os usual. It was made up of thirteen
carriages iu all, which were occupied, as the car
riages of that train usuallv vroto, by a large num
ber of persons whoso names at least were widely
kcown. Among these, on this particular occa
tioo, were the Duchess of Abercorn, wife of the
lUo Lord-Lieutenant of Irelaud, with five
children. Under the running arrange
ments of tho London A Northwestern
Eotd, or, as it is there called, a
goode-train, loft Chester half-an-hour
before the mall, and was placed upon tho siding
ULlinddulas, a station about amiloanda half
bejond Abergele, to allow the moil
to pass. From Abergele to Llouddu
lu the track ascended by a gradient
cl some 60 feet to tbo mile. On tho day of the
accident, it ouanced that certain wagons between
tia engine aud tbo rear end of tho goods-train
bdto bo taken out to ho loft at Liauddalas,
aud, in doing tnis, it became necessary to sep
tette tbo train and to leave five or eix of tho lant
con ia it elanding on tbo tracks of tho main lino,
while tboao which woro to bo left were backed
ca to a elding. Tlio employe whoso duty it was
to have dune bo neglected to set tliu brakes on
its wagons thus left standing, and consequent
ly, wbou tho engine ami tho rest of the train re
tained for them, tho moment they wore touched,
tad before a coupling could bo olfooled, iho Jar
k( them in motion down tbe incline towards
Abergele. They Btaitcd no slowly that a brake
bid of tins train ran after (hem, fully expecting to
ctlch aud atop them ; but, as they went down
the grade, they soon oulstripned him, and it
tcctmo clear that there was nothing to check
them until they should meet tho Irinh
MU. then almost duo. It also chanced that tbo
ms thus looHouod woro oil-cars.
—... IUVQUUUU tIVIUVM’WWQI
Tbs track of tbo Northwestern Rond between
Rwbclo aud Llanddulaa tuns along tbo sides of
tMjjiciur«qao Welsh hilts, which rise up to
tei soaib, while to the north there stretches out
V i 8 ® x l ,Mj bo of eca. Tbo mall-tram waa
uibiug the bills aud laboring up the grade at a
*f**u of some 80 miles an hour, when its on-
Iwcer suddenly perceived the loose wagons
wain* down upon it around tbo curve, and
Itm but a few yards off. Booing that they wore
{dean, ho almost instinctively sprang from his
jxomotlvo, and was thrown down by 100 impe
rilled rolled to the side of the road bed. Pick
riflmnielf up, bruised but not seriously hurt,
7 i&w that lbs collision bad already taken
rwc, (hat tho louder had ridden dirnctlvovor
# ** D Kinoi Uut (ho cxilhdlng cats woro demol
uacd, and that iho foremost uarriogea of tbo
Jinnwero alrctdv ou lire. Running quickly to
“•war of tbo train, ho succeeded in uucoup
“gwscairlague and a van, which were diavn
my from the real, before tho Homos exloucled
w them, by an engine which most fortunately
■m following the train. All tho other carriages
Rriked*I'* 1 '* llcßtro y°d» «yory poison in them
!*{*• Abergele was probably a solitary instance,
« ine recuui of railroad-accidents, in whicU but
•a*le a itvivor sustained any injury. There
li* ® aiu| ing. It was death or entire escape.
coi h«iou was not a parllcularly-severe one,
engineer of Iho mail-train especially
*« mat, at (ho moment it occurred, the loose
wb weto etill moving so aloivlv that ho would
th.i M oßtruDK flom 4118 bod he not soon
iii M.l y 7 0ro loaded with oil. Tho very In-
J?' took place, however, the fiuid
lithi,?!. igu ‘ la a,H I t 0 train like
fcQimug, bo that it was impoßsiWa to approach
whim once it’caught fire. The
IS U«»t the oil iu vast quantities
bv ti upou ,l ‘ ttutl ignited
tK, ~® bre of the locomotive, and then
a* ii?P* lUB °* the mail-train forced all of
»mnl« ln s carrl *Kcs into tho dense mass of
h*nio. s All thnaa who were present
torVl redm I’oaiUvoly slating that not a cry,
betni f Ul ’ !I . or a nound of any description, was
ou* <!>,, 111 ‘ ho burning carriages, uordidaav
tope. iUem B l )pweul ly niako an effort to os-
B«pb)c description of this extraor
by «»‘»«iroj)he was that given
las a 5 l l?! a °f Hamilton, tho eldest son of
lortDPM 0 ‘ Abercom, whore wife and family,
l&oeaA.i!, * or tbenmolvos, occupied one of
Ured “ c « r i*gts which wmo unshackled and
uid. M*,.. 18 wcounl the ilsrqms of Hamilton
diockwh! i # ?. fcr ® “twtlfid hv a collision and a
taeut lLou^u uot very sovoto, were auf-
Wabboi- i°7 over / on * ®B»iual his opposite
wlin T? 0 f . o,y , Jmu,,ed outof lbo
fi»dy K th* l iV* tr, ‘ liw K l| t met my view. Al
in » lbo tbrco PMssogors’
tod the i„ I ,rout of ««». Ihs vans,
iheeta’or fl engiDo ». enveloped in dense
kgL a Sd *si!l 0 s l ud 6uloke * riß ‘ u « fnUy 20 toti
3 r^ din S out »n every direction. It
Hj the au instant. No words can con
tod w n S^ neou f W n ot tb ® «P«owon
**•l bsforSVi 4 0 V 1 Mtuaily got out aU
*fci °* H 1 * collision was over,
baud iueff l iV |1 ‘ ,clicl ? wUicU ttile4 dy pro
“niffcie a Butlll d, not a scream, not a
* u tpParauK?!?’ a movement of any sort,
Uthou R r.niu? d doomed carnages. U wti
lad stricken**,!!!'' 1 ” 0 bad 4 b *d at once paralyzed
to ®PleteV*a ftV t? ry °?° ot tbeir occupants. Ho
,r ‘baeuco of auy presence of
Hike naskencilS^V** 0 « that * »oou
f *ia warn .« nbew ? wa * other parts of the
b *tshock*aiil? n ** degree rcyoverod from their
Ut tbe\i ®!. u ® 11 on • it »M imsgiuad
carriages were dosiuuie of
hope soon changed Into feelings,
of horror, when itiolr contents of charred ami
mutilated remains woro diflcovernd an hour
Rftonvacd. From the extent, how
°r° r ' of 11,0 (lames, tiio muUennuftn
of the conllagraliuu, and Uio ahaimco of
•ay power to extricate llisnuolvcs, no human
ait! would have boon of any assistance lo tho nuf
fororn, wbo, In all probability, wore hialantane
oualy suffocated bv tho black and fetid smoke
peculiar to parahtne, which rose la volumes
ttiounU Uio spreading flames."
Ihouith tho collision took placo boforo 1
° clock, hi spite of tbo efforts of a largo gang of
jnon who woro kbpt throwing water on tbo
traclfH. iho perfect nea of llama which covered
tho lino for adistance of Borao 4(lorfiO vards
could not bo extinguished until nearly * o’clock
m tho evening; for the petroleum had ilowml
Uoau Into tho ballasting of tbo road, and the
railo themselves woro red-hot. It was, there
fore, small occasion for eurpriee that whoti tho
Iho wan at last gotten under, tho remains of
those who lust their lives were in somo cases
wholly undisllnKuisbablo, at.d iu otlicrH almost
m>. Among tbo Ihiity-lbron victims of tho dis
aster tho body of no single ono retained
any tracCH of Individuality ; the faces of all
woro wholly destroyed, and In no caao were
there found feet or lops. or anything nt all ap
proaching to a perfect head. Ton corpses were
dually identified as those of males, and thirteen
as those of females, while tho rex of ton others
could not bo determined. Tho body of one pan
aongor, Lord I’arnham. wo* identified bv tho
crest ou his watch; and, indeed, no hotter evi
dence of the wealth and social position of the
victims of thin accident could have boon naked
for than the collection of articles t found on its
alto. It included diamonds of great size and
olngular brilliancy, rubies, opala, unmalds, gold
tops of smelling-bottles, twenty-four watches,
of which but two or three were not gold, chaiiu,
clqhph of bags, and very many tmndlcm of keva.
Of these, tbo diamonds aluno had Huccoasfully
resisted tho intenso heat of thoilame; the set
turns wero nearly all destroyed.
Of the causes of this accident httlo need or can
bo said. No human appliances, no more mgo
ihous brakes or inci caned strength of construc
tion. could have averted it or waided off its con
ftoquooccs onoo it was inevitable, it was occa
sioned primarily hy two things, the most danger
ous aud the most difficult to reach of the many
sources of danger against which those managing
railroads hayo uindoopiagly io contend! n some
what defective) dibopliuo, aggravated by a lltllo
not unnatural cartdcssnoi-s., The rnlo of lbs
company was specillc, that all the wagons of ev
ery goods-tralu should no out of the wayoud tbo
track clear at lenst ten minatos before a
gcr-tram was duo: but iu tills cose shunting
was going actively ou when tbo Irish mail was
within a mile and a half. A careless brakeman
then forgot for unco (hat bo was leaving bis
wagons standing close to tho head of an lucimo;
a blow in coupling, a lUtlo heavier pcrluipu than
usual, sufficed to sot thorn 'ln motion j and they
happened to bo loaded with oil.
Behind all this, however, there wan apparent a
grave and radical detect in tbo construction of
llioroador tho arrangement of Ho sidings, iu
that tho station at Llanddults was placed upon an
incHno at all. As will hoicafter be hood, this
practice on the part of those laying out railroads
has been the cause of frequent disaster, uud
must continue to bo so ns long as it exists.
Every engineer knows perfectly well v.bat tho
anglu of equilibrium is; and to establish sid
ings. or to habitually permit shuotlng. where that
auglo is exceeded at tho head of an incline, iu
simply lo immro, soon or late, a disaster.
THE HEW-HAMDCmj DISASTER.
A catastrophe strikingly similar lo that at
Aborgole befell an express train on tbo Hudson
River Railroad, upon the night of tbo Ctb of
February, 1871. The weather, Tor a number of
dava preceding tbo accident, had boon unusually
cold; and it 1m to tho suffering of employes inci
dent to exposure, aod tho consequent neglect of
precautions on tb«ir part, that accidents are pe
culiarly duo. On this night a froight-uaio
was going south, all those in charge of
which woro sheltering themselves, during a
steady run, in the caboose-carat its rear end.
fiuddcalv, wnen near abridge over Wappiugor’s
Cieek, not far from Now Hamburg, they discov
ered tba\ a car in tbo centre of the train was off
(bo track. Tbo tram was tlnally slopped on the
bridge ; but, In stopping It, other cars were also
derailed, and ouo of these, bearing on it two
largo oil-tanks,' finally rested obliquely across
the bridge with one end projecting over tbo up
track. Hardly had tho disabled tiain been
brought to a standstill, when, before algunl
lanterns could, lu the confusion incident to the
d aaoior, bo sent out, the Pacific oxpiess from
Now York, which was a littlu belaud lie time,
came rapidly along. As it approochod (he
budge, ha engineer saw a red lantern swung,
and instantly save tbo signal to apply tbo brakes.
It was too late to avoid tbo collision ; but what
onsned had in it, so far as tho engineer
was concerned, an element of tho heroic,
which bis companion, the fireman of tho
engine, afterwards described on tho wit
ness-stand with a directness and simplic
ity of language which exceeded all art. Tbo
engineer's name was Simmons, and ho was
familiarly known among his companions as
“Doc.” His fireman, Nicholas Tallon, also naw
tho rod light swing on tho bridge, and called out
to him that the diaw was open. lu reply, Sim
mons told him to spring the patent broke, which
he did, aud by this time they woio alongside of
tho locomotive of the disabled train and running
with a somewhat Blackened speed. Tallon had
now got one upon tbo step qf tbo locomotive,
preparatory to springing oIT, and, turning, asked
uis companion if bo also proponed lo do tho
same: “Doc looked around at me, but made
no reply, and then looked ahead again, watoolng
hla business: then 1 jumped and rolled down on
tho ice in tho creek; tho next I know 1 hoard
tho crash aud saw the tiro and smoko." The
next saw of “ Doc” Simmons, ho was dragged
un days afterwards from nndcr his locomotive at
the bottom of tho river. Rut It was a good way
to dio. Ho wont out of tho world and of the
sight of men with bis hand on the lever,
making no reply to tbo suggestion that he
should leave his post, but “ looking ahead and
watching hla business.”
Dauto himself could not bivo imagined a
greater complication of horrors than then on
sued; liquid lire and solid frost combined to
make tbo work of destruction perfect. Tho
shock of tho collision broke iu pieces tho oil-car,
igniting its contents and flinging them about la
ovory direction. In an instant, bridge, river,
locomotive, cam. aod tho glittering surface of
tbo toe, woro wrapped in a shoot of flamo; ut the
same time, tho strain proved too groat for tbtf*
trestle-work, which gave war, precipitating the
locomotive, tender, baggico-oars, and one pas-
Houger-car, on to the ice, through which they in
stantly crushed aud sank deep out of sight bo
neath the water. Of tho remaining sevrgi cars
of tho passenger-train, two, besides seiora! of
tho frolght-tralu, were destroyed by fire, and
shortly, as tho supports of tho remaining por
tions of tho bridge burned away, the superstruc
ture foil on tbo htU-auomergoJ tram aud buried
it from view.
Twenty-one persona lost their Urea in this
disaster, sod a large number of others were in
jured ; bub tlio joss of life, it will bo notiood,
was only two-thirda of that ot Abergele. Tlio
New-llamburg catastrophe also differed from
that at Abergele in that, under its particular cir
cumstances. it uas far more preventable, and,
Indeed, with the appliances since brought into
use, it would buroiy have boon avoided. Tlio
modem train-brake had, however, not thou been
perfected, so that even the hundred rode at
which the signal was seen did not afford a suf
ficient space in which to atop the trahi. Under
auy circumstances, however, it in difficult to eve
bow it is possible to pflard against contingencies
like those at either Abergele or Now Hamburg.
At the time, as lo usual iu such 4aaos, the public
indignation expended luelf m vague denunoia
lion of the Hudson River Railroad Company,
because tiio disaster happened to take place
upon a bridge m which there was a draw
to admit the passage of vessels. There
seemed to be a vague but very general
Impression that draw-bridges wore dangerous
things, and, because other accidents due to dif
ferent causes bad happened upon them, that this
accident, from whatever cause, wta iu itself
sufficient evidence of gross carelessness, Iho
fact was, (bat not even the clumsy Connecticut
rule, which compels iho stoppiug of all trains
before entering on any draw-biidgo. would have
sufficed to avort the New Hamburg disaster, for
the river was then frozen and the draw was not
iu ao that, for the time being, the bridge
was an ordinary bridge i and not even in the
frenzy of crude suggestions which invariably
succeeds each new accident was any one ever
found iguoiant enough to suggest iho stopping
of all trains before entering upon every badge,
which, sh railroads generally follow water
courses. would not iulrequeuuy necessitate so
average of one stop to ovary 1,000 feet or so.
Only incidentally did tho bridge at New
Hamburg have anything to do altb the
disaster there, the essence of which lay
in the sudden derailment of an oil-car
iu front of a ram-uger-train running in the op
posite direction and on the other track. 6f
course, if the derailment bad occurred long
enough before the passouger-rraiu cams up to
allow the proper signals to be given, and this
precaution had been neglected, then the disaster
would have been due, not to the original osuae,
but to the defective discipline of tho employes.
Buch does not appear to have been the ease at
New Hamburg, nor was that disaster bv any
means the time due to derailment and the throw
ing of cars from one track iu trent of a train
parsing upon tho other. Indeed, an accident
hardly loss destructive, arising from that very
cause, had occurredculy eight months previous
rilK CHICAGO TUI BUIS'H: SATURDAY. DMCR.URKR !. tr.
in England, am! resulted in eighteen deaths and
more than ilft» canes or injury.
'ins. (;i,ATmuii'»r,-i.A:n; Arciun.VT,
A noodr'-train, nude up if a locorm
livo ati<l twnnly-itlno vtihoiih. was run
ning at a speed of smm t’U imb-s an
hour mi tho (treat Northern Hoad, be
tween Newark and C a»p'l.\ about 1M) mil"S
from London, when thel .rwar.l axle under ono
of tho wagous broko. Ah a result of tho derail
ment which ensued. tire (ram became divided,
and i rcnrnllv tin, dmb.M car was driven bvtho
itrn*-BUro behind it ottl of i,s rourne and over the
interval, so that it finally rested partly acrots
the oilier track. At Just this moment ah otour
sion-lram fmfti London, made up of twouty
tbreo o!irr:u4'cs, and containing romo 'HO passen
gers, camo along nt a m-ood of about ?15 inilcsnii
hour. It was qmto dark, and tho engiuoor of
tho freight-train in vatu waved Ids arm un a sig
nal of danger ; ono of tho guxt'JH, also, ulioa-d
a red light with his hand-lantern, hut his action
either was not Keen or was misunderstood, for,
without any reduction of tho speed being made,
tho eugnio of the oxciirdoudraln plunged Tioad
long into tho disabled goods-wagon, Tho
collision wax en violent as to turn the
engine a<ido oft tho track and cause it
to strike tho stone pier of a bridi/o near
hy, by which it was Hung completely around and
then driven up tbo slope of tbo embankment,
w hero it toppled over like a rearing hoi so amt
fell back into tbo roadwav. Tho tender likewise
was overturned, but not so the carriages; they
rushed along holding to the track, and the side
of each as it passed was rinpod and torn by tho
projecting end of tho freight car. Of the
twenty-three carriages and vans in the train,
scarcely one escaped damage, while the more
forward once wmo tu several cas-oa hf.cJ ono
on top of tho other or forced partly np tho em
bankment, wiiCDCO they fall back sgaiu, cniidi
incr tho passengers beneath them.
Tills accident occurred on the 21st of June,
3370; it was very thoroughly investigated, li /
Capt. Tyler on behalf of Uio Board of Trade,
With tho apparent conclusion tlurtitwartt.no
which could hardly have been guarded against.
Tho freight-car whom broken axle oc
casioned tbo disaster did not belong ta
tho Great Northern Company, ana the
wheels of tho train bad been properly
examined by viewing and tapping at tho seroial
stopping-places; Uio Haw which lod to tbo frac
ture won, however, of ouch a nature that it
could have boon detected only hy tho removal of
tho wboel. It did not appear tllai tho employes
of tbo Company had boon guilty of any negli
gence; but it was diillcult to avoid tho con
clusion that tbo accidont was duo loojio of (ha re
delects to which tbo results of oven tho most
perfect human workmanship must over remain
liable. and Ibis had revealed itself under ex
actly those conditions which must involve tbo
most disastrous consequences.
Tho English accident did, however, establish
ono Uiing, if nothing else ; it showed the Im
measurable superiority of-Uio system of inves
tigation pursued in the case of railroad-acci
dents iu England over that pursued iu tills
cpimtry. There, a trained expert, after
tho occurrence of each disaster, visits
tho spot and sifts tho affair to tho voiy batten,
locating responsibility, and pointing out dis
tinctly tho moosurcs necessary to guanl against
its repetition. Here the case goes to a Cor
oner’s jury, whoso findings as a rule admirably
sustain tho ancient reputation of that augrut
tribunal. It is absolutely sod to follow the
course of these investigations, they are conducted
with suck an entire disregard of method and
lead to such inadequate conclusions. Indeed,
how could it bo otherwise ? The same matt
never investigates two accidents, and, for tho
one investigation ho does make, ho is competent
only in bis own esteem.
THE NORWALK ACCIDENT.
Tho railroad at Norwalk crosses a smalt inlet
of Long Island Sound by means of adiaa-bridgo,
which is approached from the direction of Now
York around a sharp curve. A ball nt the mad
bead was in 1853 tbs signal that tho draw was
open and tho bridge closed to tba passage of
trains. Tbe express nasscnqor-tralii for Boston,
consisting of a locomotive aud two baggage and
five passenger-cars, containing about luU per
sons, loft Now York, as usual, at 8 o'clock that
morning. The locomotive was not in charge of
its usual engineer, but of a substitute named
Tucker, a man who somo seven years before had
been injured iu a previous collision cn tho tamo
road, for which ho did not appuar to have boon
in any way responsible, but who had then given
up bin position and gone to California, whence
ho had recently returned, and was now again no
applicant for an engineer’s situation. Tula was
bis third trip over tho road or substitute. In
approaching tho bridge at Norwalk, he apparent
ly wholly neglected to look for the draw-signal.
Ho was running his train at about tho asnai
rato of speed, and first became aware
that tho draw was open when within
400 feel of it, nud aflcr .it had become wholly
impossible to stop tho train in time. Ho
immediately whistled for brakes’ and reversed
his engine, and then, without netting the brakes
on his tender, both ho and tho fireman sprang
off and eaeaped with trilling injuries. The tram
at this timo did not appear to bo moving at a
speed of over 15 mllea an hour. Tho draw wan
CO feet in width: thn water, in tho then state of
tho tide, was about 12 loot deep, and tho same
distance below tho level of the bridge. Al
though tbo speed of tho train had hewn material
ly reduced, yet, when it came to the opening, it
was still moving with sufficient impetus to send
its locomotive clean across tbo CD-foot interval
and to cause It to strike the opposite abutment
about 8 feet below tbe track; u then fell heavily
to tho bottom. The tender lodged oo top of it,
bottom up aud resting against the pier, while on
top of tlue again was the first baggage-car. The
second baggage-oar, which contained also a
compartment for smokers, followed, hut. in
falling, waa canted over to tbo north Hide of
the draw in each a wav as not to ho wholly sub
merged, so that most of those to it were saved.
Tbe first passenger-car plunged into the open
ing next; Uh forward end waa crushed in. an it
fell against the baggage-oar iu ftout of it, while
its roar end diopped into (ho deep water below;
aud on top of it came tho second passenger-car,
barviog tho passengers m tho first beneath tho
debris, aud partially submerging itself. Tho
succeeding or third paieougor-car. instead of fol
lowing tho others, broke in two iu tho middle,
the forward part hanging down over tbo edge of
tho draw, wlulo the rear of It rested on the track
and Blaycd tho course of the remainder of tho
train. Including those in tbe smoking compart
ment, moio than 100 persons were plunged into
the channel, of whom forty-nix lont their livos,
while some thirty others woro more or lees se
verely injured. Tho killed wore mainly among
tbe paseeogoni In tbo first car; for, in falling,
the roof of tho second car was split open, and it
finally rested in such a position that as nu suc
ceeding car oamo ou too of it, mauv of
those In it woro enabled lo extricate
themselves; indeed, more limn one of
the passengers, iu falling, were absolutely thrown
through the aperture iu tbo roof, and, without
any volition on tbeirpart, woro saved with uu
molstoned garments.
This temble disaster was due, not alone tothe
carelessness of an engineer, but to the use of a
crude aud inadequate svalem of signal*. It su
happened, however, that tho Legislature of lbs*
Htate waa unfortunately in session at the time,
aud consequently tho public panic and indigna- ;
tion look shape in a law compelling everv train
on a Oouneciioat railroad to come to a dead
etaml-stiil before entering upon any bridge iu
which there was a draw. This law is still in
force, aud from time to time, as after tho New
Hamburg catastrophe, an unreasoning clamor is
raised for Un enactment In oilier titates. In
point of fact, it imposes a most absurd, unneces
sary, and annoying delay on traveling, and rests
upon the Connecticut statute-book a curious illus
tration of what usually happens when legislators
undertake to incorporate running railroad regu
lations into tbs ntalutcs-atdargo. There Is
probably no souvoo of danger to which travel by
rail ia subject which admits of aucb certain and
infallible signaling as draws in bridges. Tbo
idea of stopping before approaching them is en
titled to about the esme respect as would bo a
proposal to recur to pioneer locomotives before
oil night trams.
ACCIDENTS AT PEAW-BIIIDOES.
The machinery b* which draws must bo work*
od can be automatically connected with Bljroala
of almost any description at any defdreddistaace.
By ona roeibod iu two, a careless engineer is end
donly aroused to a proper pefoimaoce of bis
duties and a ooneelaoaueu of impending danger
by tue disappearauoo of tbe amoke-stack of hie
locomotive : by yet others, but passing a given
Koinl in dotlauce of signals sends blm crashing
irougb a gate, and causes tbo sounding of au
storm sulliciout to arouse all but tbo dead. Either
of those methods sccuies a much greater degree
of safety than a mere stopping of trains, which,
in more than one Instance, bos proved a wholly
lusufUeieut protection.
This was curiously illustrated in the case of
an accident which occurred upon the Boston it
Maine llailtood oq the morning of tbe Slit of
November, 1862, when tbe early local passenger
train was ran into tbo open draw of tne bridge
almost at the entrance to the Boston station. It
ao happened tbot tbo tram bad stopped at tbo
(Jharleaiowustatiou just before going on to the
bridge, and, at the line the accrdeut occurred,
was moving at a speed scarcely faster than a
man could walk ; and yet the locomotive was
entirely submerged, aa the water at that point is
deep, and the only thin? which probably caved
the tram nae, that the draw was uo narrow and
the care were so long that the feremoet one
lodged aoraw tbe opening, and lie forward end
quly was beneath the water. AX tbe rate at «hioh
the train was moving, tbe rcaiauaoo thus offered
eafliifllcicnt to sto;ilL,th.iUg’i, r.rcu on it wan,
tin Icmi than nix porn'xia I >il tuntr lives, and a
much larger number were more or leas injured.
Hcieall the precautions imposed byiho Coi
iiecl'ciil law were taken, and poivc.l n*qv (o re
veal tho weak point in it. Tho accident wan duo
to the neglect of the coiporr.iLn in not hating
the draw and its system of signals interlocked
in Hucli a way I hat the movement of the one
should automatically c<m><? a correspondin''
movement of the other; mid thisneslect in high
quarters rnado it i-ou<ililo for t car«!c*s employ*,
to open tho draw on a ’ arycuhrlv da:k and
foggy morning, while ho (or.;ot at the saute to
shift his rignAls. A ultimo provision mar.log
compulsory the inteilo.-Hng of all drats tu rail
road bridges with a proper and infallible system
might, therefore, liavc claims qu ih-s consutcra*
lion nf an intelligent Legislature; not so an en
actment which compels the utopping of trains nt
points where danger is s.ur.ll, and nukes no pro
vision r*s ioiq>rcui oihoi pviul.i where It is groat.
And vet biidre-ucudooU nlsajM have been,
t aml will probably always remain, among
the womt to which frsvrd hy rad
is ozpuatd. It would to impo-eible for oorpora
liotui to take to,,greatprccaatton.4
r.nd that the precautions taken ore verv great is
conclusively shown by tho fact tin*, with (hou
i.ands of hrirfgos. miny times each dav subjected
lo the strain of the pii»ago at speed of heavy
trains, so verv few disaetors occur. Novorih*,-
lepa, ttiero are innuy precautions whhti, ta the
face of terrible experience, corporation:, do not
and will not take. Eor instance, ovny ra.hrul
bridge, nut only throughout its hiq::h t.;t
througbout its approaches, should bavoV.s twk
pioteit'id ai.Ruist po’.aibto derailment, ft it, the
exception and not tho rule, however, that thin m
done. Long Immunity from dimeter breeds a
species of rcckloHsue:-s even in tho niort ca-;-
lions, and yet the single iniuLia{» iu a lhouH*n i
imiHl HUrely fall to the lot of tome one. .Mun/
yeais ago tho terrible results which must soon
or la’.o ba cxpecteil, wherever tho oouse
qucucc.l nf a derailment on the approach',*
to a bridge are not surely guarded a-fiippi.
woro illustrated by a disaster ou the Great West
on, Kaihond of Caur.da winch combined mnuv of
tho worst horrors of both the Norwalk amt 'tho
Now Unrobing tragedies ; more recently the al
most foigottou lesson was enforced again on tho
Vermont A Massachusetts I toad, u, on tho bridgo
over the, Miller Itiver, at Athol. Tho accident
liiMt referred to occurred ou tiio Ml, of Juno.
IS7II. but, though forcinlo enough bh u rouunder,
it was tamo imitod in coniparr-ion njili toe
JaulmcH f’auat dii'amor, which is still re.’ur'iober
d tin,ugh it happened as long ng'.‘ aa the 17th of
March, is", 7.
TUB DRX-J.MiniNEM CWAI, ACf.'TI>CS'T.
The Great Western Railroad of fjr.uada crossed
tho canal l»y n bridge at an elevation of ui-oul r*)
feet. At the time of Iho acdlint them worn
some 18 feet of water in tlis canal, (hough, as in
usual in Canada at that kojbod, it wan covered
by ice eomo 1! feet in thickuea*. On thn af.or
noon of the 17th of Match, no the Jcc.il acc :u
--inodation-lrnin from Hamilton wan nearing iho
bridge. its locomotive, though u wan then mov
ing at a very slaw rate of Breed, wan m Homo
wo/ thrown from tlio track and on lo tho timbers
of the bridt'O. These it cat throuj;b, and then,
falling hcavilv on thu string-pieces. it parted
them, and instantly pitched headlong on to tho
fro/.on curfacn of the canal boluw, dragging after
it tho tender, baggage-car, and two passenger
cans, which compound tha whole train. Tncre
wao nothing whatever to btcak the fall of CO
feet; and even then Si feet of ice oulylotervcneJ
between the niina of the train and the bottom
of tho canal 18 feet below*. Two feet of Kolid ioo
will afford no contemptible rosiHanco to a fall
ing body ; the locomotive and tender crushed
heavily through k, and matauily sank out of
Bight. In failing the baggane-car struck a car
nor of tho tender, and was thu.i thrown some 10
yarns to ono aide, and was fol owed by the Hist
passenger oar, winch, turning a eomordaait iw it
wont down, fell on its roof and wan crushed
to fragment*.. but only part ally broke
through the ico. Upon which the next car fell
endwise, and rested in that position. That
every human baing in tho liret car wns either
ctiifihedor drowned seems tnout natural; tho
oulv cause for asiouishmout in louud in tho fact
that any ono should have survived each n cans
tiopbe,—a tumble ol CO feet on ice as solid as a
rock! Yet, of lour person* in tlio baggage-car,
three wont down wuh if, ami not one of thorn
«m more than slightly injured. Tho engineer
and thoaiAD, and tho occupants of tho second
pasaougor-car, were less fortunate. Tuo former
wore found crushed under the locomotive in tho
bottom of tho canal; while, of tho latter, ten
woro hilled, and not ono opcnned revere injure.
Very rarely indeed in tho history of railroad-ac
cidents havo ao largo a portion of tho.-e on tho
train loot their lives au in this cane, for, out of
ninety por.iocs, aixtv porihhod, and in the num
ber waa included every woman and child among
the passengers, with a single exception.
There wero two circums ancon about
this dieaater worthy of especial notice. In
tho llrat place, as well as can now bo
ascertained, in tho absence of any trustworthy
teconl of an investigation into causes, tho acci
dent was easiiyprovo.itablo, though bv means of
appliances which even yet have never boon
broucotiuto general use. It appears lo have
been immediatoly caused by the derailment of a
locomotive, however occasioned, just as it was
mitering on a owing draw-bridge. Thrown from
tho tineas, there was nothing on tho flooring to
prevent tho detailed locomotive from deflecting
from its course until it toppled ovoi the ends of
tho tine, nor wero tho tics and flooring apparent
ly BUlhcieotly strong to sustain it even while it
bold to its coiuun. Under such circumstance*,
tno derailment of a locomotive upon any bridge
can mean only destruction ; it meant it then, it
means It now ; and yet our country ia 10-dav full
of bridges constructed in an exactly similar way.
A very simple and inexpensive appliance would
make accidents from this cause, if not impossi
ble, at least highly improbable. Ii is only ucr
o.reary to malm tho ties and floorings of
al bridges between tlio tracks, and for
3 foot on cither side of them, tmfli
cieutlv strong lo sustain tho whole weight of a
tram off the track aud in motion, while a third
rail, or strong truss of wood securely fastened,
should bo laid down inldwtv between tho rails
throughout the entire length of the bridge and
its approaches. With this arrangement, as the
flanges of the wheels are on the inside. it mum
follow that, in caaiof derailment and a diverg
ence to one side or the other of tho bridge, the
loner Bide of the flange will como against the
central rail or trues Just so soon as the diverg
ence amounts to half the space between the
rails, which in tlio ordinary gauge is 2 foot and 10
Inches. Tho wheels must thou glide along this
guard, bolding the tram from any furlhcrdiverg
once from its course, until it can bo checked.
Meanwhile, as the t<ea and flooring extend for
the space ol 3 feet outside of tho track, a imfli
oiout support is furnished by thorn far Uio ether
wheels. A legislative enactment compelling thu
construction ot ail bridges la thU way,, coupled
with additional provisions for the interlock
ing of draws with their signals In ths cases of
bridges aerot-n mvigaole wat ora, would bo open
to tho objection that taws against dangers of ac
cident by rail have almost invariably proved in
effective when they wore not absurd, but in it
self, if enloiced, it might not improbably render
diaasters hko those at Norwalk and Dos Sardines
tetrors of the past. The New-Uamburg accident
depended on other conditions.
ThcfO was, aho, one rather noteworthy foatuvo
in tho Daa-Jlidinee accident. Tho question as
to what is tho best method of coupling together
tlio screial individual vehicles which make up
every railroad-tiuin. lias always been much d s
ciiHsed among railroad-mechanics. Tho decided
weight of opinion has been in favor of tho
strongest aud closest couplings, so that under
no circumstances should the tiain separate into'.
parts. Taking ail forma of railroad-accident to
foluor, this conclusion is proeably sound,
t is, however, at host only a 'balancing
of disadvantages, a niorp question as to
which practice involves tho loibt amount
of danger. Vet a very terrible domonauatiou
that there arc two bides to this as to most other
questions, was furnished at Den Jardinoe. It
was tho custom on the Great Western Road nut
only to couple the cars together In tho usual
method then in uuo. but also, as is often douo
now, to conned them bv heavy chains on each
aide of the bumpois. Accordingly, when the
locomotive broke through the Dee Jarvlincs
bridge, it dragged the reel of the train hope
lessly after it. This certainly would not have
happened bad the modern self-coupler boon in
use, aud probably would not have happened bad
the cars been connected only by the ordinary
link and (hub; for the train waa going very slow
ly. and the signal for brakes waa given in ample
time to apply them vigorously before tho last
care came to thu opening, into which they were
Anally dragged by tho dead weight before them,
ami not burned by iboir onu iiuustus-
On tbo other hand, we Jtiave not far to
go lu search of scarcely Ices fatal dis
asters illustrating with equal force the
other nhje of the proposition, m the terrible con
sequences which have ensued from the separa
tion of cara in case aof derailment. Take tbo
memorable accident of the 17th of June. 185 s,
near Toil Jervis, on the Erie Railway, for in
stance.
TOE MBWI6YIS ACCIDENT.*
Aa the oxpiejs-tram from New Vorlt was run
oiu* at a speed of about ilO miles an hour over a
perfectly straight piece of (rack between Otis*
villa ami Fort Jervis, ahortly after daik on (bo
evening of that day.it encountered a broken
rail. Ihe train wan made up of a locomotive,
two baggage-cara, and live passenger-cars, ali of
which, except the last, passed aafuly over the
fractured laih The huit car waa apparently de
railed by this, and drew the oar before it oil the
■ <r>.-T\v!',f,vr-: pages.
to ra?-H trm tl.cn drarfred alonv.
f ■ ’i. -1 •fr i n to itt Jo. for a(» a-
Ifu. -s i.: rt . j<« 4" l f ;i;t, '-'.lieu the i"m:ihrv'‘ at
ii.trji;. .<!, nu-I t.icy »c..l ovor tho '-uit-ui!;-
-I).-’Sr tli-ro unr.o !J0 feet
n'i'i-!;*. *.« ‘li ni*!i; Id > rx (In Piopo. (ho
1 'ar fairlr ov* r. ic tui’ fintOlf on Its
J. ‘’-inU! ono ot iti h'.avy iron truck* broko
tiir<Jt:,»ll and fell upo i the hcnnath,
i i'l-su/ .vi i tnarnm- thorn. Tho ;.thrr car. moro
furt iri.d . tr-i.-r] it I?-*- ny.n:i ;l» -*i !a on a pile
of f-:-iu"H r.t tlm foot of tho oir.'-a? Lmtttl. Mix
I fr oi.s kill'd au<i fifty mvcr-ily injured,
i.il •>!' tiiO i l;m<T i; ; {||(! J»»|’ t.Vf,
Ju Ui.n rp. .<■. hr.d t.n hcid. the do
ra'.lo 1 car t tunili no: Java jp:.o over lh«* cm
ban <uv-n‘ *,vl i r, *<i »• ,t ij-iriai would have
I pen ru-t-iitr-l. ‘S.il.-in ir..p overrent* luvo.
ho.rcv.a, cr.'vtel n,ie. u.r'-t eti.’.icicnt to pro*
vent too rc-'jiurcn j of cis.or uc-udouta under
tho nun* c ni'litiout nf thv. *•„ Ivt .Torvill. The
dilliu-uiiv lav i:t tho riu'.ituv to Flop a (lain.
thongU uiurui? al.'.-ily nt'KKia'o »;i< c-l, within a
rernoMHlilo time. ’lho .uottloienev of
tho old jimul-liriJ.o in a vail:-'! r-irrrjp.'ncv
received one m;ro iilmh.nui ru Tim train
eeom.i l-> Imvi nio iio.itiy half a rn I--. Hf;*r
Ibo ao 'iJcnt to ia place.’ before i: oiul I !;.j
stopp'd, r.lthonrli tho u.pinear had tru-im-, no
tice of it 60 I rt fi I a I vp, 'i(i 3
('oni’lin;> die; not map nuhl a di.-tmvc had ]r'-u
tra.CMcd in which the modern t rarn-br i’..' would
have loducod tho speed to a point at who-h lJi>»y
would luto liven o injected to no
tur-iiii.
mi: cAit’a-nocK ac-wivcs-t.
Tho accident ton yearn laic, at (;aj*n lloc’k, on
tho same road, lf» mile* rout of Port -lervin. nun
avail) viy uitmlar to tuanne jurt tl-so.lhoj • a:.d
vet in tbirf cu-.o tlso pitting of too
ttono )/fo*uit«*cl the rear of tho tiam frmn «lr.iv*
р. ltd he:*J to de.ittualion. iloiti dii'a.-.U-M
wen* o -ea 'iotic 1 by broken t.nln : hut. v. iul" the
first omur.'cd on a mnvoa:. the la«tv,ao on a
cnrva ut ix joint uhe:o Hie road, obmy
too hill.}, hud ou ouo n.ib o I u a hold elevation,
cud on tin) oUuu hK.‘ p (IfSivity of fji> fee-.,
vSih roui; arid L’*widtr». f J ho tram was a
loiur one, c nun of tho l.oco.Tiotivo, thuo
harca.Tc and rod Rcren \ a*ccnror
с. and it «tic(in;iierp:l the br-i'nn tr.i, wlulo
tho runo tit a hiuii ral-* r.f ii[ cod.
A;;aiu nil ti.o train ; a'./j.l ov-u* Uio fr.ifturo m
tafetv, er.ee- tih ) la-t oar, which wa« eiiapppd,
ftittnero, olf too tract and over tho cmbarl;.
Juuit, hit'; it v.a» alotip, but only
for a .vii irt dniluncii: tho mtcusfl etraui theu
hruLo tlm between t.ie loti: tcarc.Uß
n-id tlic licud (if l.iu U'Mii. nitil. tli * hut of tho
tour iihcad/ over tho p.-iicipho. ihe othctu
aiincwt lihl inily lopplml over after it andplutir.ed
and tolled down tbe ravine. A pe*Hotif:cron Ui.b
pt.rtiojj of tho train, v.Jio v.0r.l wuh ii, do.-cmie 1
l!iO car )io wmi m“ an f.mnn over anil over, until
the outer roof wan torn (of. the fell out,
and the moor root wan crui liod m.” lucay.
four p- tv.,;:a warn ludel and ciuiiiy inhro-i:
but ill this tnVtnce, at m liiat r.t I>tn* -hifdiup i.
the only uhl jecl furaurpriaa waatiiat there kcto
unv i-urvtvurn.
AcciuMii* umitnr from tho purling
of dciu.avo couplings have of couraj
not uncommon, and limy cousthut.v
ouo of tho grtMtcal dangiru incident to hcavv
gridu-nIH; i;i i;un.:(ninung invhm.—, fioight
ti'aum will, it i* found, I r ak in two. and then*
hinder pane ejau lauiije.lug down the grace,
O'* was bOfii st Anorgcli. ino Amoiicau
ger-tmin.*. iuwlh;U ca-h car it provided w.th
I rakes, nto innsli h-K* liable than tim Knchuh,
iho snood of winch is regulated by brakc-vaiiß,
lo accidents of this descripuou. indeed. it may
bs que .tuned uhe'-htr lu America any rerlou*
d.snuer b:«« occurro 1 from the fact that « por
tion of a passenger-tram on a road operated by
Hearn gov beyond control in descending r.n in
cline. There have been, however, terrible catas
trophes from this cause in Ragland. an-1 ihav on
the LancarhiroA Vorl.:mitoßoadu»arll(‘lm»horo,
n hUtiQii i-ouiolj milc» north of ;.J.v.»who»isr..
deserves n prominent plate In tho record of raii
road-accidtntu.
It occurred in the early hour*of the m-r.-iog
of the 4th of September, 183 b. Tl.cic had becu
a great fe:o at Uio iichcvuo Caitlenu, »;i .Man
clieiwr. oo iho -nl upjii ths concluiiuu of which
Home 2,b-)U crowded st ouco upon the return
trains. Of Uk-ho, there were, on thn haocaidiiio
A* York-hire rtoad, three,—the first coriHinting
of fourteen, the i ojouJ of thhty-oao, and tho
last of twcniv-fuur carnage's; and they
were BiartCii, with intervale of ton minutes b«-
tacen thorn, at r.buut II o'clock at night. Tho
Jir*l tram uu>ncd us jtnunov in safety. Not i;o
tho second uoil the lh-rd. dhe iioliusb'M e au
lion is at ilu tjp of a ei*cji incUne, This tho
teeoiul train, driwo by two locomotivos, sur
mounted. and then Rtoimj.l for tho delivery of
While lh ;.-o wore leaving the
ca'hagcu, ti rmp as of fractured iron wtu hoard,
nod tho guards, looking back, saw tbs whole
rear portion of the train, constating of ucroutcou
carriages and a hrr.ke-vnu, detached from Iho
rest of it nnd quioilv siippiug don u Uio incl.no.
The detached poitiou was nnv.ng ho slowlv that
ono of the guards Miccecdeil in catching ;be van
and applying the brake*; it wau, however, al
ready too late. Th-' velocity was greater than
tlio brake-power could overcome, end the seven
teen carriages kept descending mere and mere
rapidly. .Meanwhile tlio thiid tram had reached
the tout of tho incline and begun to ascend it.
wbcu its engioetr, on roundings curve, caught
tsglit of the dcFCendiug carriages. lie iamiedi
atcly reversed L'h engine, but, before bo could
bring his iit.ui to a aumd, thov woro upon him.
Torlunatelv tho vau-hralics of thu detached car
ri.i'jot!. though iuaudicicnt to atop them,
vet did , reduce Uictr ppecd; tho col
lision, nevertheless. was tei rifle, Tho
of tho blow, so far a* ibo nd
vancing train wan conenmcd, expended on
the loconiolivo, which was demolished, while the
t-HMsenguis escaped with a flight. Not k> those
lu tlio descending carriages. With them there
was nothing to break tho blow, an-j mo two
foicmoHtoi them were cranked to fragments
and their pataengerd scattered over iho hum It
was shortly alter midnight, and the excursion
lulu clambered out of the tiaine and rasuod fran
tically stunt, impeding every eiTort locloar away
Hie debris and rcbouo the injured, whese ehr.oks
and cuca wore mcesHant. The bodies of ten
person’*, ouo of whom had died of sulfrcation,
wero ultimately extricated from the luitw, and
twenty-two ottiers sustained fractures of limbs.
At Oca Jatuincs, tho couplings were too
•troug; at Poit Jervis aud at ilshosbfro, they
wero not strong enough s at Car's Rock, they
gave wav not a moment too soon, "There, are
objections to a plenum, and there arc objections
lo a vacuum,” as Dr. Johnson remarked,—"tut
a plenum or a vacuum it must be "; but there
tie no argumouts in favor of railroad-stations or
aidiugH upon an inclined plane. Alnu-gclo was
000 iliustraiiou of what soon or late niu.it roeoU
from them. Mid Hclni'diore was another, lu
iaihoa4»mecb&nicß there arc after oil some
points Biiscoutiblu of usmonstiatljn. That tbo?
should still bn Ignored, ia hardiy loss singular
limn it is stuprising.
THE FALLEN EMPIRE.
Hirpculi, glorious, great, an t grand, la other days,—
Uiio no)g> Uiiud your Liv-rt ths klualctu'a
blow*.
And struck for God and Min when madly glared the
luttle-blaza.
On act imJ laud, between you and your unbelieving
foes,
Until your valor broke at last iho soul-degrading
<lv i;»
That iiiudels bad alretchoi a.russ the Old World's
fairest Uiulu ;
Thou sou: your via’ry-Cashing hags across tho M'est-
era Main,
And /omul a Ksvr, another World, to give to Chris-
tian bauds:
0 land uf by-gous glory I why did you not the lesson
learn.
When in the race of nations proudly stood you in lb«
That only Bute* continue grand, sublime, aud strong,
that spurn
To stupe their course upon the wrong, the narrow,
■eiush j Uu
Tbsl Lluds lu poverty the nn/hone down to raise tbo
/etc?
IkLind waa Koine with warning voice: her eagles,
well you kuu«.
Had soat-int in uiumph over nearly all the Eastern
World; •
And bow her loading minds, forgetting what to alt
is due,
Looked «uh to tel/: abl quickly, sadly, were her
banutre turied.
Your people's wealth, your people’s blood, in vain
and cruol war
Were poured out on those new and savage coasts, o'er
which tbo star
Of peace/al em| ire should have loomed, and shed its
rays benign
On fading forest, rising spire, the forge, and lowing
kino;
And then your fubled Cl Dorado, sought through
war la vstu.
You would have found in fields of happy progress,—
nut of nl;iln,
Cmcsuo, Dec*. U. 11. N. Msonisc.
Its Effort on tho Brain.
Lour before the eta of temperance ordinance#
and oraaniiialious, Hyiti, by for tie greaieet
auatomiat of the age. used to say (but Uu could
distiiiguiah, tu the darkest loom, by one stroke
of tbo scalpel, tbo biainof the inebriate from
that of tbo mau who lived eonoily. Now and
then he would congratulate hie class upon tua
poaseaeiuu of a druukatd’s bruin, admirably fit*
ted, from tta hardness and morecomplete presor*
vutiou, (or thu purpose of oemoiistralion. When
the anatomist wishes to preserve a human braiu
for any length of time, be effects that object by
organ in a vessel of alcohol. From
a soft, pulpy unbalance, it tbeu becomes com*
paratlvoly bard; and so, too, before death, the
use of alcohol clonus the induration of the deli
cate aod gosiamer-like tissues.
TENEMENT-HOUSES.
A Pest from IVliicli Chicago Is Kol
Bxcupi.
A Close Inspeotion of a Poverty-
Stricken Section,
Collection ot Ignorance, Children, Foul
Smells, and Disease.
How People Live in These Nurse-
ries of Pestilence,
A Workingman at Hi; Dinner.
The real extent of nretchc lnc** and poverty
c-.ißritit; tit Chicago is not grnurally known by
the W'dl-to-do classes. Tbs pontlncen a«'d !%•
di.:ii ::i t’m tipper walks of life afft too deeply im
tucracd iu j rolcesional and social pursuits to
beitotv mote titan a passing thought at rare in
t«rvali upon (lie thousands of hungry wretches
v, Uo itihahil the by-ways of this city, and whoso
cnioer begins In sorrow, and ends in vice. As to
bucinrc'B men. they are e-.ttj lens acquainted with
the itabhtj and renditions of the poor. Condi
lions ato not in thoir liuc. They d-al with par
ticular persona and things.but not with generali
ties. Their tns.inoes In to buy and anil, whether
tiie tmrcbanciiao be land, calico, or brains, and
nil beyond ilutli hnrna'.sml.
t;ik condition c>r tub loonr.r. cnviszs
is. lioivov.T. o subject that du«e,*vei the atten
tion and ooriiiiJcij'.vioa of all pool citi/ens. If
there m r<jniparati\*cly le-s poverty and p.-i mo
litre than in oilier citit-a. tho fact, an well as the
reason therefor, should Lo known ; if more, then
it should be all tho more widely known. The
collodion of figures upon thR» tmbjoct is ren
dered unusually tiifllcull. owing to tho fact that
tbo districts populated by tbeeo classes are scal
tered nil over the city. The North, West, and
South Sides all have their share. Nor aro they
cuniincd ua a rule to cormin streets, butexiet all
over. It is trio Hist there arc a four localities
where more than in others tho poor folke con
gregate. As tho wealthy have their Michigan,
Calumet, and Ashland avtnues. bo tho wretched
have their ."firing and Lanubco streets. Veliu
tin Ir.tler ca.no tho rule does not sttictlv hold, for
oft« , n the lowest aud most mteeraolo iiorelw are
set amid houacu of comparative comfort and re
spectability.
TIIK r.TI=T MUK
containing as it does nearly two-thirds of tho
resident population, mtuiativ com;»rises tho
abodes of a greater portion of tho loireßtarlasi*.
Tnoru are numerous d.slriets which arc given
over altuust whollv to Uneven and daFporadoe-i.
Thciti aco others stdl more forlorn in appear*
aticc wacre are huddled together that largo
Lo iy of pawns who rumo under tho •• poor but
honest” category. Tuov cotupnj-j tno families
of inoa who wot I; lor r. living whenever
tiiev can get a chance, and rhea ih*y are out cf
v.\ r.i, which happens ollcn, taoy elm out a mis*
oratlo existence, aided occasionally by tho put>-
lic iusatuiloas of clur.ty. To thorn tho County
Agent m a somewhat uiytntcal angel, who a;>**
p avo at ram interval*. of di:o estrmnity. and
uolcs out the food necessary to euotaiu life.
hi always a time of itio greatest Paid ship to thcao
people, Tiieir uarmui’s am lacs lu?n thau dur
ing any other portion of ta« vear. nnJ their nec
essary expenses greater. Fuel and clothing Ikj
come cs«o3t ale. vhoroai during warm weather
they can gt-l along vary c*::;fjrmb!y without
oulici. Much ni Teiing w (vn'o jnor.t.
At the i jo-en: date '.bore mo Uig-j numbers of
the..e poo; lo who aro without ornplovincut, and
mli j will ho obliged io nak relief of the county
before tne winter will L ivo fairly commenced.
In order to ontnn so mo just idea of tho extent
t > winch _destjimi.nl prevails, a Tiunovs re
porter vibited several of tno poorer Jistncts on
the Went Side yeslerdar. m romoany wirh a pby-
Rician, who in fits o.iic.at cviac.tv obtained e'u
iitaco to ntanv of the hovels* which are bo
abundant in too eomlnchtcm portion of the
city. Tho tract Timteu lies bottmea Canal, Hal*
sted. Fourteenth, ami Kigbtoemh ptrocts. Tho
people who livo heroaieoi different nationali
tich, tiio Irish and Oenr.au being nio-t largely
rcDreecutct. .Mingled with these aro a number
of Mohcmiana, iiollautloia, and ivlcsi. Tho
commonoet luud of dwellings are frame
TESKUUNI il.'UlK.*. .
nod occupiedby families and d:oJ together aaclore
lyaa could well 1 w imagined. tlacb loomgeueiaily
contaion a family of live or bix people, aad as
thoro are ordinarily a dozen ronun in tbo Uouoo.
tbo number or people living under tlio name roof
was lontid 10 bo not lo.'a than Bitty,
ami uoraouatus more. Iliri pethups u better Idea
could l>c obtained of Inn minuet 1 m which tbnsu
peoj'lo lire by describing particularly tbo interior
of certain of (ho more u.iuccablo ulnimurcs.
Tbo tirct place visited v.an on Foiirtaanlb
Btrect.oaslofCr.ua!. The clistauca from Canal
bUcct to tbe river in hero about two bloclts, and
tbo general ceuect of tbe ijuanar m of tlio moat
forlorn description. Fiaioa tenomout bouses
lino both tides of tlio sliced, plain, uopaintod
nuacturca, most uf thorn Using two stories in
height.
no. no
was of thin kind. It was mptaro-built. with two
front oiunuiccs. Thera woru no doors, thoae
tij.tnres baring been doubtless considered by Hie
architect of too house ai usulo.se npuc-udagOH.
There wan a gate, but it was off us binges, and
bunc half war across the opening m the fence as
if offering a sickly sort of resistance tu tue in
truder. TacU'd against the side of tbo hoube,
close-to tbo entrance, was a rouyb board, on
-wnich was pointed iu rudo characters the fol
lowing :
Itcofa eoaled
here
7a.«ut
" This place," acid tbo Doctor, os be ushered
tbo way into tbo baiemeui. down a short bight
of rickety mope, "isouoofmy favorite bauuts.
J have to como here every few Java iu order to
compel the pooplo into Home show of cleaollncaa
uecMaory for tha preservation of their lives.”
a snap flicktNtjm ouoit
never greeted human noatnl.i than did that
which saluted tbe visitors on entering tbo low
corridor in tbs basement. Whatever were tin
components of that Blench the reporter will not
undertake to explain. It was there, and it was
lively. A knock ou the left-hand door received
no response. aud. unceremoniously shoring it
opou.nho via’toie outmed. If tbo ntcucb wse
lively bofuro, it wan thou uutiualillodiy navaga.
It rushed out of the dour iu a volnmo that was
almost overpowering. Tito room presented to the
view of the intruders waa low, narrow, aud dark.
In one corner stood a bed of straw, unmade, and
having only a fllthj-looking blanket for a cover
let. Ttiero waa a rusty, broken-down stove In
another corner, but no tiro. Two chain and a
June table completed the fmuitino. Tbe bviug
objects, and the moet prominent onea visible,
were six children, tanging m ycara from 1 to 10,
Blunted or lying ou tbo bars floor, aud appar
ently making no effort to amueo themselves
either by talking or playing. None of them
woto more titan balf-drcaaod, and the
youngest bad on nnls* a single rag of
a wrapper. Their hair uaa matted and
tangled, and their faces were bo smeared and
covered with dirt aa to deprive them uf all ex
pression. Only their eyes gleamed out through
tboir uncombed locks, and pare them anything
but a human appearance. They wotu tbe sole
occupants of the room, their parents being out
at work, according to the statement of (be eld
est child, uttered in disjointed English, There
being no inducements lor a protracted stay iu
this gueer apartment, tho visitors withdrew into
the atroet for a breath of fresh air. After 'a
brief pause
ANOTQEB DESCENT
was made Into tbo basement, the back room
being this tune the point of attack.
Hole was found a young German
woman with a very young baby iu her arms. Thu
girl wse very pleaeant-lookiug, and the room was
comparatively clean. Her husband was au em
ploye iu a lumber-yard, sod was getting along
well, although be expected to bo out of work m
a week or two. Acmes the ball wore found tiro
mote families, 000 containing eight children
sod the other live. The larger family was m
very destitute circumstances. The mother, a
bard-wotkei aud worried Gorman woman of 55,
acted as If completely discouraged with the up
hill of life. She was earning a little money by
doing nabbing. The old mau eat by tbo window
with tao unwashed children ou each knee,
and a/iaflla ou bin broad coanunauce, which
aoemafi fi only expression of intellect of
which, capable, and which he therefore
kepU'P MM/per tuanwutly. Ho eaid that he had
badavVW >• smooth, aoddidu’t know when be.
would get any again. Ho continued to emlla
during the whole interview. Ho smilod when
tho visitors looked at, tho nmuitudo of little
pledges of love that crawled around tbe dirty
lloor and maintained a perpetual equalling.
If the basemen: of tim'builling alone con«
tamed twenty-eight inhabitants, how oiau**
would bo found in
tub two ermt noons?
Such was the qnoation that arose in the mind ot
the reporter as ho mounted thoalairs. investl-
Reiinn revealed that In the four rnnma on tbe
lust lloor tboro were twenty-five children, a per
fect wilderness of children. l’co; mg out of
doors, tumbling In the balls, ro ling over tho
Moor, limy seemed to abound everywhere in end
-10-h variety. l).ny. shoric-headed, half-naked,
tlmy tunned a trulv pitiable Bight. The rooms,
with :i.o single exception bcfoio cited, were
Oltiiy and rank-smelhog. In oo cjso did a family,
no matter lio.v largo, occupy ni'.ro than on#
anmtucii'.. TUc same state of affairs ousted or
tbo top Poor.
'lhiHwit' tho largest tenomcnt-houßO in tbs
ueitrliliorlioiid. alMiougli there were many others
wi-idi j.ivu.vjted features as revolting. ' Ona or
lwi> honiott in the street were tolaraoly clean and
well furnished, hut they wore exceptional. Nos.
'.£ and I*7 r.crn oi,o-»tory shanties, situated oo
low gtoutid, aiKi.it li foet below tho level of lbs
Direct, anl wen surrounded by oxteoaive
od .nlcroua pouiii of *lop ! . In one of them two
s.attsinly *n: , ! , iu w<tr engaged over separate
v.tuhmb.-, an l I'm, c/.brr wax occupied by au old
crono who c u!d nr iti:rr hear nor could she
Dpcak coherently, In billi wets cvldonccs of
llio greatest poverty and di-troiis.
Alter ptaiirlng hastily tnr.m‘j!i the remaining
hovels on Fourteenth at.cat. thu investigators
turned soinhwords on Canal wired, thence weal
on Sixteenth. 1 c-aing Seward street, winch is
crowds t with tho abodes of tho poor, they civ*
toted ,
mriii.rsnroN Brunti.
Tbe appearance of this alley—Cor it is nothing
more, being oxtromolv nunow and only about
two hloclis iu lougtU—is of tho most dismal Uml.
Tho road is unpaged ami rough, while doop gut
ters on either mdo render travL-l somewhat pre
carious. In fart, it would bo a diSlisult matter
for two teams to pass oach other at any point.
Tho hotijcs hero are of every shape
and B;re. and nro Jumbled together in
odd eonfnniou. Tbe most prominent living
objects lioro. of courts, are children. These
neglected waifs swarm in tho gutters, and on
the unsafe lighting with laan and
huticiy dogs for the poKsosoion of a bone,
Kct&tnbliug liituor and taither uu hands and
knees, on four foot, and on two feat. kicking
their barp legs m>in tho air. and all the time
chattering in unintelligible dialect. They are.
Os indeed they acorn, very wretched commenta
ries cu life.
iluiii4o.Su.ri7 was a rotten old shanty, with
an entrance in tiio rerr. which arrangement, by
tne way. n< vciv common on Burlington atreet.
A utu row jju■'hjj.'u between tlia houso and
tiio next alpnnmg one led to the
back, in the Larmont wore found two fami
lice, and up-stnirn «ero two more. Thero was
no pretense at c-oatilmc i". Tiio floors rreio be
spattered with mud, tliO windows unwashed, and
there wih a general uir of HinfiltßsuuSit and an
odor of liltli Imgciiug about tiio pi utilises.
a ntofMAr. ntAti’iu: nr tui: Auciuxtcxonii
of tins street is that in t’.io rear of nearly every
dwelling tbero n» pnoiu.-r hmsc. also crowded
with InlmbitaulF. thus illustrating now lar spoco'
can no ecmiomixol. In tiiiit wav ihero is no
ground lift unoccupied. The tenements tu
Uio immediate ueiKUbx.hood or No. 67 strong
ly resemble cadi other in the character
of their inmates, if they uro nut alike io aciiitcot
ure. I’eoplo v.oro found huddled together, oftcu
os many as ton in a room, and all botmvmg cx
tremo poverty, waUli was only e.puiud by ihrir
hopeless ignorance. Tim j upuiaii.iu na? 'luiiud
to bo mostly German, uud their v.iuloaumjur of
living rendered them pecnhuily liable to d.wn-o.
An epidemic tronld inane frightful ravages if
once darted. And the wont uf uis th>i. the-.-
do not appear at anytime to contpremed i.u
danger wtnen they incur, and aro
TOG Gi-I’i'IPLV MMdl.lXf AM) r.tnr.LK-R
to tike ordinary precautions. Vc;> manvcfiL*
woman refuse to u.law tneir chiubc.i to *U> vac
cinated. erun when a Ileauh*Ui!icer goes pro uni
and proffers hi* services gratuitously. In this
respect tho Gonnaa ivo::ie:i arc wo.to than tiio
Irish. T'u j latter gciietslly acquiesce, but tha
uneducated Gormans almost always causo the
otticial a vast deal of anuoyunco by their foolish
resistance.
In the course of their peregrinations tbo vim
horn to this uii-trict ha 1 nmpm oppurmaity to
ascertolo the itigiedieuts of
a \vo;iki:jOMAN'S DiWEn.
It was noon befoio tlioy had completed theif
tour. Shortly after Id o’clock the men began UJ
pour into the street from work. About o dozaa
families were vieitod at meal-time. The food
was observed to consist chielly of block bread
and bruta. in afe w instances there was a sort
of a tutss, which Ind been cooked in an iron
kettle, consisting of pieces of meat, bread, tod
soup. Tho Doctor elated, as a result of ropo&lcd
observation, that much of (ho fvod eaten by thii
class was obtained at tbo slaagliter-hoodca mthe
thapo of roiuno and bluo.!. Tuo latter was e
staple at tide of diet with the poorer Germane,
who made it into pudding*, which were regarded
as a great luxury. Garlic is also frequently
eaten, as was UfctiiiuJ unpleasantly at several of
tli<* houses visited.
it is not necessary to describe in dotall the
Interiors of other tenements ua tliu stiost. At
No. bl>, a Htory-aud-a-balf house, hovou families
wore domiciled. .N'o. -if accommodated forty
norsous, sun it was a smalt huaso at that.
Others were found equally as crowded, and ail
woia vilo with dm and nibbieu and redolent
with foul smells. In oiu room, occupied by six
I>ci3oDß, was found a woman who had Just given
drill to a child, and the ovmu did njt seem to
have created any itunsation in the family.
Burlington street h not by any moans tho
only poor s'. root in tins quaiturof the city.
Tboro &iu oluers in the ncigiiburhooi which
p.ocont the tumo general features, or worse,
tstf.ug, Fisk, BKhomu.mil Bo ward aro equally
h piahd. In their prcL'cnt condition they endan
ger tho uhulo citv. being peculiarly liable to
breed pcutileuco and all kinds of infectious
Uiuoasoe.
CUBA.
Is il ua’ißtit ? It it naught ?
That tbo H mib-wim! brings her wall to our •hors?
That the ►jioilrru compass mir desolate lister?
Is ft naught? Mint no my to her, “blmo no mors,*
With tbe bet wherewith wo loved her and kiaac4
her 7
With the mucking Ups wherewith we aald,
•• Thou art lire dearest unit fairest to ua
Of «U ihc daughters the tea bstb tired,-
Ol all g-ion-girdlcd telce that woo us ”?
Is it naught 7
Miidt ye wall ? Must ye wait?
TUI they taiago her garden of orange and palm?
Till her hnirt U duet? till her strujgtti U watur?
Mun ye see them tralupla her, and be calm
As )>ri sis when a virgin la led tu alnughter 7
Shall they unite tbe marvel of si] land*,—
Thu nations’ longing, the Eitrth’i* lOiujJetcnets,—
On her ml month dropping myrrh; her hands
Tilled with fruitage, and spice, andswseLmus?
Must yo wait?
In tbo day, In the night,
le the burning day, tn tho dolorous night,
Urr mu-browned chcsks arc altloci with weeping
Her watch-ftrea beacon the minty belgtat:
Why are ber friends and her lovers sin i lug ?
•* Vo, at whoso e*r the tUilerer t*nd«,
Who were my kindred before all others,
Uath be set your heart* afar, my facade ?
Uatb he nude ye uheii. my brelhen,
Day and night T ”
Hear yo not? Hear ye not?
from the hollow lea the sound of ber voice?
The passionate, fir-oit lone, wbfeb sayeth:
“ Alas, my brother 1 alas, what choice,—
Tbe iutt that ehametb, tbo sword that elayelh I
They hind tool they rcod my delicate locks I
They shred the beautisui robe* I won me I
My round limbs bleed ou the moaotaln-rocki s
Have me, i re they hare i|ulte undone me I *
Hear yo not 7
Bi>cik at last I Sjwak at lut I
In the might of your •treugth, tnthe strength of yott»
right,
Speak out at last to the treacherous spoiler I
Say: “WiU ye harry her in our sight ?
Vo shall not trample her down, nor soil her t
Louse her bonds I let her rise in her loveliness—
Our virginal sister S—or, if yo shame her.
Dark Amuuu shall rue for her sore distress,
Aud her sure revenge thill be that of Tamar 1*
Speak ai last!
—Edmund Cmniu4 tittdman.
The Editorship of tbe London Ttmene
Mr. Delano is about to retire, at any rate Urn*
porarily, from tbe editorohip of the Tx>adou
'/' inns* with which bo baa bean connected for
thirty-eU veers. Mr. Dolaua iq the sou of (ha
lato Mr. William Dolauo, formerly financial man*
agor of tbo Times, who died in I&SH. Born la
mil. bo was educated at Magdalen College, Ox
ford, where be graduated 11. A. iu 183’J, aud was '
called to the Bar at the Middle Temple iu !?17.
He was only 25 years of age when, in 1839, he
became Mr. fianiea* assltdant editor, aud two
yean later he became full editor. Ur, Delane,
alter baring broken down once or t-vioa, Hods it
absolutely necessary to taks a lengthy holiday,
which, at til, aud after snob arduous work as his,
bo certainly deaerves. It is stated that Dr. Das
ent will, for a time, take bis plane. Dr. Daaent,
who Is also an Oxford mau, aud married to a sis
ter of Ur. Dolans, has been long oue of the rs-
Tiewers and on the permanent Bluff of the lYnirs,
but Is better known to the general public for bta
writings on Norso literature. In 15170 be was ap
pointed by the Government to the poet ol OtVil
Swvioo Couumnuoutr*
3

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