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Chicago daily tribune. [volume] (Chicago, Ill.) 1872-1963, March 20, 1878, Image 4

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Wye QLtihme.
TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION.
»T Milt—m ADVANCE—rOSTAOB miPAID.
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Scanty.
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Poet-Office order, nr In rrglitercd letter*. at our risk.
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TRIBUNE BRANCH OFFICES.
TR> CntcAim Tnlnuss has established branch office*
lor (he receipt of subscrtotUma and advertisements as
ollows:
NEW YORK—Room 30 Tribune Rnlldlng. K. T. Mo*
ladpis, Manager.
PARIS, Prance—No. 10 Roe do Is Grange-Bstellere.
(I. Maul**, Ascot.
LONDON. Eng.—American Exchange. 419 Strand.
BanftT F. Oillk). Agent.
SAN FRANCISCO. Cal.-Palace Hotel.
AMUSEMENTS.
McVlcUrr’s Tlientre.
Msdlion ttreci, between Dearborn and State.
A Celebrated Cato.- by the Union Square Company,
iflernoon and evening.
Hooley’a Tlientre.
Randolph rtreet, between Clark and LaSalle,
(ngagement of Sothern. M A Croibcd Tragedian.”
tftcrooon and evening.
New Chicago Theatre*
Clark itrcct, oppoilte Sberman Home. EngagA*
bent of Haverly*a Ulnitrela. Allernooa and evening.
llaverly*a Theatre*
Monro* itrrrt, corner of Dearborn. “Aladdin."
Iflcrooon and ercnlns.
- Coltaetim Novelty Theatre*
Dark itrcct, oppoilto Court*llonso. Variety oer*
/ormauce.
WEDNESDAY, MARCH 20, 1878.
Greenbacks at tho Now York Stock Ex*
change yesterday closed at 98}.
Gen. Sir William O’Giudt Halet, Com*
nandc? of tho British troops in North Amor*
ica, ia dead.
The Lower House of tho lowa Legislature
yesterday adopted a measure looking to tho
enfranchisement of women, permitting (hem
to both vote and hold office, the vote stand*
ing SO to 42.
It is difficult to eeo what use there will bo
in holding n European Congress, as Itussia
not only refuses to formally submit all tho
clauses of the treaty, bat declines to ho ulti
mately bound by the decision of tho majority
of tho Powers. Meanwhile wo are rapidly
approaching the season of war proclama
tions.
Bills were yesterday introduced in tho
Sonata and House for tho bettor protection
of tho rights of authors and owners of plays
and dramatic literature. Tho absence of
suitable provision in tho law for tho products
of foreign brains when assigned to American
purchasers bos beou a source of a vast
amount of dramatic piracy and expensive
and tedious litigation, and it is high time
tho defects in tho Copyright law wore rem
edied so that such cases may bo covered*
Private correspondence which passed be
tween the lion. E. B. Wabhedcnb end Mr.
H. 11. Houuutoh, of Galena, Uiroo months
ago, and which 1h now made public for the
first time, shows that the ex-MinUter to
Prance then announced in the most emphatic
manner his determination not to become a
candidate for the United States Benotorship
as the successor of Gov. Oglesby. Mr,
WasnovßNE’s desire, when he asked to bo
recalled from Pans, was to permanently re
tire from official life, and it appears bo bos
not changed his mind.
Fall accounts are at hand of the disgrace
ful riot at Toronto Monday night on the
occasion of the appearance on the lecture
platform of O'Dokovin Kobsa, the Fenian
ezhortor. Both the man and his mission—
the raising of fands ostensibly for the
liberation of Ireland—wore known to
bo Intensely unpopular in Toronto,
and his appearance in public was a challenge
which the mob promptly took up.’ The
Irish liberator seems to have got horribly
frightened ut the consequences of his own
temerity, and on all hands the distribution of
discredit as between the mob, tbo mobbed,and
the inefficient police authorities was about
even. The (rouble broke oat again lost night
between the Young Britons and the mem
tors o! the Catholic societies, and largo ac
cessions resulted to the nuuker.of people
wounded with pistols, dubs, stones, etc.
There have as yet been no definite arrange,
monte mode relative to tbo proposed Con
gross of the Powers to knit up and finish off
tho muoh-ruvolcd Eastern question. Cer
tain indefinite and uusaiisfactoryintimations
are made, however, with reference to u pre
liminary meeting of representatives of tlie
Signatory Powers to fix a programme in ac
cordance with which tho formal in
vitation to the several Powers may
Uses, Tho Auglo-llussian ooutroveny has
assumed no now phase. It appears that
Russia is willing to submit tho entire treaty
to the Congress, but tbo cautious Briton is
not satisfied with tbo concession, and fears
(hero is some reservation by which Russia
may have it in her power to Inflict domoge
upon one or another of tbo varied British
interests that have played such a prominent
part in all the recent negotiations.
Tho singular sympathy for the timber*
pirates of Montana which has been shown by
Senators Blaise and Saucjekt found an oobo
yesterday from tho manly bosom of Eusns,
tho Democratic Senator from Louisiana,
whoso zealous consideration for tho feelings
of tbe pine-log thieves of his own State
found tho same expression in abuse of the
Secretory of tho Interior for enforcing the
laws aud endeavoring to protect the property
of the Government. Mr. OanisxuHor
epitomized tbe case very conclusively
when he said that no such, hue and cry
would bo raised but for the fact that there
was more feeling against Secretary Seamus
than in favor of the poor settlers. He
might have added that In reality the poor
settlers cut no figure lu tho case, since it Is
not they, but the rich speculators who steal
the timber to sell, who have been brought to
grief by the vigilance of the Interior Do*
partment ■
Secretary Bukbmab's Jppearanoe yesterday
before the Senate Finance Committee, in
connection with the consideration of the
House bill for tbe repeal of the Bcsumption
act* was an occasion of sufficient inkiest to
justify the newspaper correspondents in at
tempting to as far as possible defeat the
restrictions upon publicity imposed by the
Committee. From what is known of the
proceedings, it appears that Secretary
Sherman bos materially altered his
views concerning the effects of the
full remonetization of silver, and that he now
sots the znonomotatlists a commendable ox*
ample of intelligent candor In admitting that
the general effect of the Silver bill has been
beneficial, and that silver will bo a valuable
aid to resnmotion if the low as it now stands
ia not interfered with. The discussion of
the subjects under consideration and the In
terchange of views between the Secretory
and the members of the Committee will be
road with interest when the official report of
tho conference is made public.
We have been shown a letter addressed by
the Hon. William Henrt Smith, Collector
of Customs, to an importer, requesting his
co-opcratlon with the Meredith, Bingham,
and Hinds Commission, appointed to inquire
into tho subject of customs frauds at tho
port of New York. The letter !s excellent in
intent and spirit, but wo are of opinion
that tho scope of its purpose Is not broad
enough. It is not presumable that the Col
lector will, by letter, reach one in ton of the
importers of Chicago. Bat they all ought to
be enlisted In the proposed investigation.
Tho gentlemen of the Commission have
been sent hero by tho Secretary of
tho Treasury to colleot all possi
ble attainable foots bearing on tho
subject of tho mammoth system of frauds
carried on in Now York by which tho reve
nue is robbed and interior cities ore driven
from foreign markets. What is wanted first
is an expression of-opinion on the subject of
tho investigation; and this expression of
opinion should bo voieod by the whole body
of Importers. Tho hands of the Secretary
of tho Treasury should bo hold firmly up, in
tho grand raform ho has undertaken. Then
there should bo organization with the view
of collecting evidence,—not tho evidence of
one, two, or a dozen importers,
but the evidence of all import
ers who havo suffered by reason
of tho discrimination practiced against in
terior ports. There oro between threo and
four hundred importers in this city,—enough
to fill Ilorshoy Hall. Wo renew our sugges
tion, of yesterday,—that tho importers of
Chicago assemble together and take stops to
assist the Commission in Its efforts to remedy
tho abuses of which they have so long been
tho unresisting victims.
TOM SWING'S HOBBY.
Gen. Tom Ewino, who aspires to the lead
ership of the Greenbackcrs, desires to have
a national currency established on a pro
gressive scale by an amendment to tho Con
stitution. This notion is so far In advance
of Pendleton, Dan Voorhkes, and your
ordinary Groonbackers, that wo think tho
leadership of tho Greenback movement can
no longer be contested. God. Ewino re
cently introduced into (he House of Repro
sentatives a joint resolution proposing a six
teenth amendment to tho Constitution, the
purport of which is os follows:
Congress shall legislate for leaning-—million
of dollars of United autos non-bearlng-Intcrest
notes, which shall bo n legal-tender for all debts.
mibUo and private: tho aggregate of such notea
shall bo increased each year at a rate equal lotha
ttvoraao annual per cent of Increase of population
of the United States, as shown by the next preced
ing census; to which shall bo added a reasonable
amount for Joss of outstanding circulation; of the
lint Issue of said notes, as much as mar bo necei
sarv shall bo used In retiring alt the United BUies
notes bearing interest now outstnnoiog, and tho
remainder In reducing tho interpst-beirlnz debt
and each yearly Increase shall be apnlicd to the ex
llnsrulshmonlof such debt or to necessary public
works. No notes of the United States not hearing
Interest shall tie Issued except as herein provided
and no law of the United States or of any Bute
shall authorize tho issuo of notes payable to bearer
on demand by or for tho benefit of any person,
association, or corporation. Congress shall provide
for withdrawing from circulation oil bank notes
now outstanding.
The omission in the resolution, os*it
stands, to state the number of millions that
shall first bo issued under this constitutional
amendment, isn't really important. In the
end it will make little difference whether we
begin with one, two, or throe thousand mill,
ions; the outcome will bo pretty much the
same in any event. A fundamental objec
tion to the scheme is, that the rate of in
crease provided for is altogether too low to
attain the ultimate purpose of the amend
ment. It is evidently the design to substi-
Into an irredeemable paper currency for the
bonded debt of the country, the interest and
principal of which Is now poyablo in coin.
As it Is not proposed thus far to compel the
bondholders, by dire penalties in cose of
refusal, to exchange their interest-bearing
securities payable in coin for non-interest
bearing notes payable in nothing and
at no time, the Government will bo
forced to go into the market and
buy bonds with greenbacks at the rate at
which the holders of the bonds are willing to
sell them. Wo know of no mathematical
process by which wo can estimate the proba
bio amount of absolutely irredeemable and
non-interest-bearing notes a bondholder
would take lu exchange for a bond drawing
from 4 to 0 per cent Interest in coin and pay
able in real money within a definite period.
Wo presume, however, that the first step the
bondholder would toko would bo to ascertain
the value of old paper, and exchange .his
bonds for (ho now issue of greenbacks on
that basis. In this probable event, it is easy
to foresee that an increase of the greenbacks
limited to (lie ratio of the increase of popula
tion would ho lamentably inadequate to the
demands of the scheme, no matter how
large the volume of greenbacks might be to
start on.
Thoro is ono significant point, however, lu
thin proposed constitutional amendment. It
is a confession that, under tho Supreme
Court's construction of the organic law of
, the nation, the volume of legal*tondor notes
must be confined within tho limit of $400,.
000,000 filed by Congress at tho time of the
issue. Tho Supremo Court has held that the
onforcod Icg&Mcndcr of Government notes
was only defensible os o war measure. Tho
irresistible inference is that no such issue in
time of profound pcaco would bo recognized
by tho Court. But any issue of legal-teud*
era beyond the volume to which Congress
limited them, when they were author*
i?ed under an urgent emergency, would
be a new issue, and their legaHeudcr
function could not bo enforced. Tiu Tam*
umb has contended for this principle all
along, and it has been a full and final answer
to all the raids on the Government and on
Congress for an inflation of greenbacks, but
most of the dilutloulsts have refused to
recognize the force of tho argument. Tom
Ewino's proposed constitutional amendment,
however, is an admission that the issue of
greenbacks cannot be increased beyond tbe
limit of $400,000,000 without a change in
the Constitution. This fact was materially
admitted, also, by tho Banking and Currency
Committee in the bill prepared for tbe - par*
pose of substituting a national currency (or
the present National-Bank currency. This
bill docs not propose to substitute green*
backs for the bonk notes, but non-iulerest
THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE; WEDNESDAY. MARCH 20, 1878.
bearing and nondegal-tonder Treasury notes,
which shsll bo redeemable in greenbacks; tho
only Issue of legal-tenders proposed in tho
bill is that of $50,000,000, as a reserve for
the redemption of tho now Treasury notes;
and this issue just enlarges tho volume to
tho $400,000,000 limit and no more. So oae
of the bills for a postal-savings system pro
poses a new issue of greenbacks as a redemp
tion-fund, but limits such issue to $50,000,-
000 in order to keep within'the original
limitation. It seems that the lawyers in
Congress have fully conceded tho forco of
this argument, and we hope this fact may
have sufficient influence to bring the mass
of tho inflationists to their senses. At all
events, if there is to be any further discus
sion of an unlimited issue of irredeemable
paper currency, we hope H will be on the
basis of a constitutional amendment, as it
will thus be easier to make the fallooics of
the proposition clear to tho people.
THE VALENTINE SCRIP.
Owing to recent information from Wash
ington to tho effect that tho sixty days* limit
for an appeal from tho Land Commissioner
to the Secretary of tho Interior bad nearly
expired, and that tho city anthoritios bad not
at that timo filed tho necessary papers in tho
case of the Valentine scrip, wo are prompted
to recur to tho matter. A brief restatement
of the eoso may nrgo tho city authorities to
take an appeal, if they need any urging, and
will reveal to tho poople a gross and Inez
casablo neglect of tho interests of Chicago
if they fail to tako the appeal, which, wo
have not the slightest doubt, will result in a
reversal of tho Land Commissioner's decis
ion. The Valentine scrip was issued by
Congress in exchange for wild Government
lands, and with authority to locoto any pub
lic lands therewith. It was obviously tho
intention of Congress to give tho Valentine
claimants the selection of all (ho onoccu
pied and free public lands, but there was
no intention that the holders of this scrip
should avail themselves of any technical
flow in a previous sale or dedication of pub
lic lands to locate town or city lots, or other
property that had acquired special valao by
reason of improvements made by others.
Thus, even If tho Fort Dearborn tract was
not properly dedicated and sold, and If tho
United States Government still have a color
of title by reason of some flaw In tho dedica
tion or sale, the tract remains a reservation
for military purposes, and is not subject to
location by the holders of scrip issued for
Government land not previously disposed of
or reserved. Tho absence of equity in tho
Valentine claim, as well as tho injustice
done to the City of Chicago, and to (hose
private owners who have improved tho
property under tho impression that certain
portions had boon regularly sot aside
for streets and public grounds, deprives this
Valentine scrip location of every legitimate
claim. There is not a particle of doubt that
Secretory Scbubz, when the matter shall
come before him, will dispose of it accord
ing to tho equity of tho eoso, and it is not
unlikely that ho will require the Land Com
missioner to furnish a satisfactory explana
tion of a decision which woald practically
give speculators and blackmailers an advan
tage over innocent holders of the lands.
Two glaring inconsistencies have boon
noted at Washington in the Land Commis
sioner's decision: One was that, under the
construction put upon the case by tho Land
Commissioner, be had no jurisdiction over
it. Ho held that there bad been no
regular transfer of tho Fort Dearborn
tract by tho War Department; if
that Is true, tho tract is still a reser
vation for military purposes, and subject
to the order of the Secretary of War. It
was, under those circumstances, a piece of
Importinonco for the Land Commissioner to
undertake to dispose of the case, and his
interference is not Justified by either law or
courtesy. The Land Commissioner also
treated tho location of tho Valentine scrip
as if there wore a street running along tho
Lake-Front whore Michigan avenue for
many yean has been supposed to bo. Bat
If there has never been a proper dedication
of this tract, which is tho theory of tho
Land Commissioner's decision, then there
Is no suuh street, and the Land
Commissioner had no authority to make
one ia approving tho location of the Val
entine scrip. In one word, the Land Com
missioner has mode such a desperate effort
ia order to accommodate the Valentine
scrip speculators with profitable advantages
to which they wonld not be equitably entitled
in any event, that ho has overreached himself.
Secretory Honvnz is the kind of man who
will bo quick to see the justice of tho case,
and we have no doubt that a simple appeal
will settle definitely Chicago's right to tho
public property in the Fort Dearborn tract;
each a decision would assist materially In
procuring from Congress the proposed legis
lation to quiet the title for all time to como.
VINDICATION OF THE BETTJBHIKO BOARD.
The Louisiana question is probably disposed
of forever by the order of the Supreme Court
reversing tbo sentence in the Amdkhson cose
and releasing the prisoner from custody. It
has been a curious question from the start,
involving, first, tbo right of the people to
govern themselves, and, secondly, their
capacity to govern when the right was con
ceded. They bad the sympathy of a good
many enlightened men at (he North when
they stood In the position of a downtrodden
and oppressed people, struggling for their
liberties and resisting usurpation through
(he exercise of their heaven-given right of
contesting their taxes. But when they got
their liberties and proceeded to qse them
badly,—particularly for tho oppression of
their political opponents,—they lost ground
in publia estimation much more rapidly than
they hod gained it. It pros kot understood
that the liberty for wbioh they were con*
tending was the liberty to Imprison persons
who differed from them politically. Tho
liberty to erect a Bastllo, to restore Uiire* du
cachet, or to persecute for oplnion'ssake, was
never Included in the American scheme of
government. When the Democrats of Lou
isiana, therefore, used their power as soon
os they oould tor purposes of revenge, they
showed that their deprivation of power,
however brought about, was no great moral
wrong.
There was not tbe excuse of a sufficient
motive for the prosecution of Abukbsob. It
was instigated by a number of New York
politicians in tbe interest of Samuel J. Til*
deb, and the Inducements they held out to
tbe Louisiana prosecutors must, from the
nature of tho cose, have been small. They
oould only promise that, In cose of Mr. Tin
deb's elevation to tho Presidency in 1880,
the laborer should be worthy of bis hire.
This was, indeed, a remote prospect There
an two important steps to the Presidency,
neither of which Mr. Tildeb seems at all
likely to toko. He must be nominated, and
he most be elected. 11 he should live so
long, and dear away the cloud of charges
affecting his character, he would go into the
next Democratic Convention with chances
mach inferior to (hose he started with at St.
Louie. For ho had then tho prestige of an
alleged reformer to help him, whereas ho has
now only tho prestige of defeat. Besides,
a nomination is not so likely in 1680 os in
1678 to bo followed by an election. The
Democratic party has traded on its reform
capital jast as Mr. Tilde* did, and both
ore now bankrupt In reputation. This is
why tho Louisiana Democrats sold them
boltos lightly. They undertook to perform
a great service for a doubtful promise of
small and remote compensation. Tho
laborer Is worthy of his hire, not merely
of n promise to pay It If things go well.
It cannot bo said that the Democratic
managers of the Anderson trial have been
cheated. They agreed to convict tho Re
taming Board. They not only failed to do
this, bnt they did just the opposite. They
gave tho Returning Board a certificate of
good character. Nfcver was labor productive
of a smaller result. Tho Supremo Court,
In reversing tho decision of the Codrt be
low, used tbe following language: "If
every consolidated return wore forged, and
the Roturniflg Board complied with the
law, and made their statement from the
Commissioners' returns, ho injury could
result. It Is tho essence of the crime
that it should bo committed by a public
officer, and on a document which would
change tho result of the elections. This
was not done." If this la not a certificate of
good character wo do not know how one
could be framed. It may bo said that tho
language used applies merely to tho particu
lar returns of Vernon Parish, for tho alleged
forgery of which Anderson was put on trial.
But tho fact that tho Vernon Parish returns
wore specially selected by the Democratic
prosecutors to make on issue shows that
their strongest cose lay in them. Tho re
versal of judgment and order of roleaso is
evidence that tboro is no caso against tho
Returning Board, ond consequently that
it acted strictly within tho law. Thus
tho legality of Its canvass and of tho
casting of the Electoral vote of Louisiana
for President lUtzs is affirmed by the high
est Democratic court in tho State. t
ENGLAND AND RUSSIA.
Tho wrangle between England and Honda
now concerns the future. The treaty be
tween Russia and Turkey boa eliminated the
latter as a bone of contention in tho Con
gress. Her power is broken, and there is no
dcsiro or intention to reinstate her. No
nation in Europe would dare to undertake so
hopeless a task or oppose the amelioration of
tho condition of the Slavic Christians, or
oven reduce tho limits of Bulgaria as defined
in tho treaty, as that would once more bring
a portion of the Bulgarians under Turkish
rule, to free them from which oven England
consented that Russia should draw tho sword.
In fixing the new limits Russia has gained
immense advantages. In extending the ter
ritory of Montenegro she has gained two sea
ports on tho Adriatic. The now boundary
of Bulgaria gives her an outlet into tho
iEgean Sen at the port of Kavolo. The de
molishing of tho four fortresses in Bulgaria
removes that gigantic obstacle of the
Quadrilateral, which has heretofore stood
between her and Constantinople. The retro
cession of Bessarabia once more enables her
to regain her foothold upon the Danube, and
is equivalent to tho commercial extinction of
Roumanla. The surrender of Batonm gives
her possession of tho best harbor on tho Asi
otic coast of tho Black 60a. Kara andArda
han give her tho oontrol of Armenia, and the
occupation of Bayasid places her squarely
upon tho frontier of Persia, in whoso Court,
Councils, and commerce Russian 'influences
already predominate. Lastly, the opening
of the Dardanelles to merchant vessels in
tlmo both of peace and war cannot but re
dound to tho advantage of Russian commerce.
80 far as any of those elements of the treaty
aro concerned; it is doubtful whether the
Congress will disturb them. They are
points of vontego legitimately gained,
and of a character which Turkey
was competent to concede. The danger
which threatens tho relations of England and
Russia does not concern Turkey, which is a
by-gone, nor the complications in Eastern
Europe. The cloud of war looms up in Asia,
and tho energy with which England Is reor
ganizing her array in India shows that she
recognizes her danger in that quarter. She
has no Interests in Southeastern Europe. Tho
only interested parlies there ore Germany,
Austria, and the little Slavic Principalities.
Russia bos never given a thought to territo
rial aggrandizement In Europe. Tho direc
tion of her growth is eastward into Asia, nnd
she boa followed that direction so persistent
ly that already she has spread across the
whole northern half of tho continent to the
Pacific, dropping down, on the one hand, to
tho Chinese frontier, across which her trade
has already gone, and on the other to Persia
and Afghanistan, which brings Russia and
England almost face to foce on the Indian
frontier, and to Armenia, which threatens
Syria and the Volley of the Euphrates. A
prominent Spanish politician and close ob
server of political events recently contributed
to the VaIUMaU UautU some thoughts upon
tho situation, in which be writes t
Tbo military poaltioo which Knzltnd should
covet U tbo Valley of tbo Kuubratc-e ami that of
ttioTlgrie, with such a part of Syria a« would
aecuru at loan ouo port on tho Mediterranean,
the portion of Armenia annexed Including u good
natural boundary, —as, fur Inatauco, tbo mount
ains which limit (bo watersheds of both rivers.
This dominion not to bo a mere military outouat
like Gibraltar and Halts, bat a large territory with
resources of its own, of a value warranting the
amount of expense necessary to create formidable
strongholds on the MedUcrrsnean and on the
Persian Gulf.
This would secure to England the second
road to India; but, as this position is already
threatened by the Hussion occupation of
Armenia, tbore seems to be but one resource
left in case England is not going to contest
the entire treaty by the arbitrament of war,
and that is to secure her other and
route to India by taking possession of Egypt
and the Suez Canal. This may yet bo the
great question before the Congress, and, it
seems to os, is the only solution of the
oro question that promises lasting peace.
Egypt is now tributary to a Power that has
practically ceased to exist, and can no longer
defend her, or even dictate to her. In case
this relation continues, It is almost inevita
ble that she will become iiussianized, and,
when this happens, Buasia will stand be
tween England and India. The oconption
of Armenia has therefore forced upon En
gland the necessity of taking the Sues Canal,
and of assuming a protectorate over Egypt.
Germany is already trying to influence her
to recognize this conclusion, and the Berlin
correspondent of the London Tima declares
that the Government has advised the KngihtK
not to hesitate, assuring in advance the con
sent of Germany, Austria, and Bessie, and
predicting that in a year hence France would
prefer to have Egypt in the hands of the
English rather than remain longer under the
rule of the Khedive. How far Germany is
authorized to speak for Bossia does not
appear, but there can be little doubt that
this question will be one of (he most im
portant that will come before the Congress,
and that upon its aolntlon will largely depend
the future peace of Europe. In view of tho
situation, it is not hazardous to predict that
the concentration In • tho Mediterranean of
the most formidable fleet the world has
ever seen, and the bustle and stir In army
circles both In England and India, means the
ultimate seizure of Egypt by force for tho
protection of their India route. If they can
not occupy it peaceably.
HORBE-CAB LICENSES.
The City Council on Monday evening
passed an ordinance requiring o license at
the rate of SBO a year for each horse-car run
on the streets of Chicago. The total num
ber of cars run on all tho city roods is esti
mated at 700, and, if the ordinance become
a law, the total revenue from licence will bo
SBB,OOO a year. Tho amount of revenue is
not so great as to make tho license system a
bonanza; nevertheless, being cosh receivable
within the fiscal yeftr, it will be especially
acceptable to (ho City Government.
The law officers of the city have given an
opinion (bat the city bos no power to exact
any such license fee, nor to moke tho free
operation of the horse-railways dependent on
tho payment of a license fee for each ear run.
The Council did not seem to recognize the
ruling of tho Law Department as sound, and
proposed, by passing tho ordinance, to force
the railway companies to resort to the courts
for a decision ds to the power to make any
such demand. We do not propose to argue
that question of law at this time.
Outside of tho legal points of the cose,
wo suppose tho proposed taxation will be
somewhat popular,—first, for tho reason that
the general public regard all corporations as
fair objects of the most rigorous taxation
that the law will permit; and, second, be
cause there Is an Impression that tho horse
railway companies escape a large share of
legitimate taxation. The several horse-rail
way companies are assessed in the aggregate,
in addition to the value of their real estate,
on personal property about $300,000. That
sum, though not exact, is the valuation on
which tho State, county, town, and city
taxes are extended against all tho companies.
Of this, $128,000 are charged against the
South Side Company, $88,821 against tho
North Side Company, and tho remainder
will cover tho assessment of tho West Side
Company, which happens to bo taxed partly
in two towns.
The South Side Company is charged with
a franchise and capital stock valued at $2G9,-
687, and tbo West Side with tho same, val
ued at SIBB,4US. From those valuations ore
to be deducted tbe valuations for tangible
property,—real and personal,—and tho bal
ance, If any, is subject to taxation. Without
any exact figures, it is probably correct to
say that the South Side Company pays taxes
on a total voluotion of about $260,000, and
tbe West Side Company on a valuation of
abont $200,000, and tho North Side on some
thing like SIOO,OOO.
It was suggested that, if this ordinance be
legal, and bo enforced, the West and North
Side companies will discontinue the sale of
tickets, and thus reimburse themselves, and
that thoy will also reduce tho num
ber of cars in use, Tbe South Side Compa
ny sells no tickets. It is probable that tbo
Moyor, guided by the logoi opinion of tho
Corporation Counsel, will veto tho ordinance,
and thus oud tho matter; but, even if bo ap
prove It, tho railway companies, who hold
their legal rights under contracts mode by
tbo State, and not with tho City of Chicago,
will refuse to take out licenses, and thus
transfer tho question to the court for deter
mination.
POLAR EXPLORATION.
The President has notified Congress that
bo has approved tho bill granting an Ameri
can registry to tho Pandora, tho understand
ing bomg that tho vessel is to bo used exclu
sively for purposes of Polar exploration.
Mr. James Gordon Bennett, proprietor of
tbo New York Herald, is the patron of tbo
enterprise. Ho has engaged to buy tho ves
sel, provide it with an outfit, and place it in
charge of a competent commander, looking
for bis reward only in the approval of bis
own conscience and tbo credit that may at
tach to the Herald in consequence of so
brilliant an achievement Mr. Bennett’s
method of conducting a great newspaper is,
indeed, somewhat different from that to
which tho world has been accustomed. He'
makes his nows .and then records it The
only privilege be asks for bis enter
prise in tho first instance la tbe reputa
tion of enterprise in the second, which
is not striclly his duo. For anybody who
has a monopoly of (be interior of Africa or
the circle of perpetual snow oud lee can have
(he distinction of writing the first letters
from those thrilling regions. Tho trouble is
to got there first, not to collect the news
after one has got there. Tho veriest penny
a-liner that ever breathed could write on in
teresting letter abont a loud that bis fellow
men had never seen or hoard of before. It
is, therefore, not os a newspaper proprietor,
but os an explorer,— u tbo original and only”
explorer in tbo business,—that Mr. Bennett
deserves recognition and praise. ♦‘Original
and only ” Mr. Bennett is, for be Is tbe
original and only man to moke exploration a
separate business, without reference to tho
thing to bo explored. Science, commerce,
and religion ore all one to him. He ex
plores for bis own sake; and science, com
merce, or religion may scramble for tho pro
ceeds.
It is certainly to the credit of Mr. Bcnrxrr
that be works with system and energy. He
is worthy of the name of “Thorough,"
which Lord Brairronn has usurped too
long. Given a certain work to be aocom
plished, what are the best means of oocom
pllshing It ? This Is the question he puts
himself at the start. Having answered It,
or hired somebody to answer it for him, be
provides the necessary means with the ut
most liberality. This is the secret of St a*.
utv’s success in Africa. Explorers no less
intrepid than he have failed for the want of
sufficient equipment. He succeeded because
be had the means of success which were de
nied them { and for the providing of these
means of success Mr. Bzmrrrr deserves the
largest praise. He has apparently adopted
the same method in the organisation of his
Polar expedition. He has purchased a ves
sel specially adapted for the purpose, and
has procured from Congress a special detail
of naval officers to soil it. He will probably
place in command a man of experience and
couragej and it will not be strange if he
again succeeds where all others have
failed. He is to have the advantage
of the Howoiti plan, which late ex
perience tends to show is the only practica
ble mode of reaching the Pole. This con
sists, in effect, of the establishment of a per
manent base of operations as far north as
vessels can safely go, with the promise of re
turning home at their convenience. The
depot in this instance will probably be estab
lished on Lady Franklin's Bay, though Dr.
Hath recommends Smith's Sonnd for the
purpose. From the permanent depot, wher
ever it may bo, excursions will be made by
sledges until the Foie is reached. The plan
contemplates the reinforcement of the
colony every year until its object Is accom
plished. It will, under this arrangement, be
possible to lake advantage immediately of
an open winter, such as tho present one has
been. No doubt, if there bad been a colony
on Lady Franklin's Boy this year, the North
Foie would have boon discovered by this
time. It is to be hoped that Mr. Buck kit's
expedition may hove weather as favorable
next year, and, in any event, that his enter
prise and liberality may ultimately have their
reward in the realization of bis plans.
BOSTON FINANCIAL MORALITY.
Tho Boston papers have been extremely
malignant towards tho people of tho West
concerning the silver agitation. They have
denounced us as dishonest and ignorant, and
with destroying the national credit in order
to avoid paying our debts. The J Jerald of
that city published tho following:
We learn, from an authentic source, that within
two dsjs from ths pumas of ths Silver bill,
$15,000 was forwarded through a single channel,
by mechanics and laboring men of this city, tu
bo Invested in British consols. Tbs money was
obtained by tbs sals of United States bonds and
the withdrawals of deposits from banks aud sav
ings banks. One of tbs mechanics remarked to
the agent through whom be changed bis Invest
ment that. when a Government had shown each a
disposition of Injustice and dishonesty as had
been abown by the passage of the Silver bill,
there was no telling what next might happen, and
ha preferred to have hie money where its vales
wonld not be liable to further reduction by act of
Congress.
Hinco that time some twenty thousand
more of those mechanics and laboring men
of Boston, accepting the predictions of the
papers that the passage of the Silver bill
was the mere prelude to the general wreck,
assembled at the doors of the savings banks
and asked for their money on deposit in
thoso • institutions. Whether they wantod
their money to invest in British consols be
cause “ there was no tolling what next might
happen," is not stated, but the institutions
which bad declared so vehemently in favor
of all payments in gold sent frantic appeals
to tho Legislature that a law bo passed au
thorizing the banks, whenever they consid
ered depositors were Injuring themselves by
drawing oat ( their own money, to refaso
to pay at all, and, if necessary, to
retain ono-balf the depositors' money for
two years. Compared with paying debts
with 00-oont dollars, this Now England mor
ality of receiving depositors' money,’ payable
on demand, and then, on the plea that de
positors do not know their own basinets,
authorize the banks to refuse to pay any
thing, is, to say tho least, peculiar. It looks
very much like a scheme to enable the Bos*
ton banks to lock np depositors' money, and
then, operating on tho necessities of tho
victims, privately purchase the depositors'
books at 50, 60, or, horrible to rolato, at
oven “00 cents" on tho dollar. In all the
history of repudiation of just and honest
debts, nothing more scandalous has over
been proposed by any Stato Legislature. It
far exceeds anything like a Stay law. It
authorizes any bank, on its own motion, to
notify the depositor who has loft his money
in tho institution that the' bank will not
pay him, lest ho might injure himself by the
misuse of bis own earnings. Wo should
think that there would bo a general invest-.
meat by Boston mechanics and laborers in
British consols, when tho laws of the State
sanction such open and Undisguised confls
cation as this law proposes. Better even
than this would be the “ 00-cent" dollars.
Tbe Board of Education meet to-nlsht to
curtail tlieir expenditures and to bring the
year’s outlay for schools within the year's in.
come. It is understood that the Committee
having the matter in charge will propose to
reduce the number of school days In the pri
mary deportments, end thus save what Is to
be saved by closing the schools to the largest
number of children. The school system of
this State Is essentially a system of primary
instruction j it is intended with the means at
hand to give instruction to the largest num
ber of children, who otherwise would have
none. If there be SIO,OOO only to furnish
instruction, and there bo 10,100 persons to be
instructed, and the SIO,OOB will furnish
10,000 with all the instruction they can ever
hope to receive, and it will cost SIO,OOO to
instruct the other 100 children in higher
studies, there can hardly bo any
doubt os to which class should be
dropped. We ore informed that, by a
revision of the list of studies, the expenses
of the schools may be reduced fully 15 per
cent, and this con be done without closing a
primary class or reducing the term in the
least Wo repeat that over 80 per cent of
the children In the public schools never ad
vance above the fifth grade; to these chil
dren this education is vital, because it Is all
they ever get The cost of maintaining
schools for this 60 per cent does not exceed
possibly 60 percent of the cost of the whole
schools. In behalf of those children, whose
only hope of schooling is thus afforded them,
we protest against closing any primary class,
and against reducing (he number of school
days and school hours in these dosses. If
there bo retrenchment needed, let it not
touch these. Let not the Board dismiss
four children that ono may continue at
school; on the contrary, let the one be dis
missed that the four may be retained. If it
be necessary to dismiss any.
Ills repeatedly mcrttd bvtbe silver advocates
that the passage of their bill has not Injured the
country's credit. Then how do tney account for
tbe otter failure to place (be 4 per coot bonder
lan'lU a sign of Injured credit to fall from a 4
per cent to a 0 percent nallonf— Jftw YorkTrib .
Mr.
In tbe first place, the 4 per cent bonds bad
ceased to aell long before tbo Stiver bill pasted.
Tbo Syndicate broke down as long sines as last
October; secondly, tbe financial columns of tbe
New York Tribune show that bonds bare not
depreciated in pries, nor greenbacks either,
slues tbe SUrcr bUI became a law; on tbe con*
trary, they bore enhanced In value; thirdly,
mors 4 per cent bonds bare been sold by tbe
Secretary of tbe Treasury la the three weeks
since tbo Silver bill became a law than In the
three months previous thereto; fourthly, tbe
mass o! those willing to buy are waiting untU
Congress passes the bUI making legal-tender
notes receivable for 4 per coot bonds. People
do not want to sell their greenbacks at t dis
count for gold In order to pay a premium fur
the lowest bond on tbe market. Let the New
York Tribwu preserve Its soul in patience untU
the lav la so amended that tbe 4 per cent bonds
can be purchased at par lu legal-tenders, and U
wfil teo them subscribed for fast enough. It
would be more patriotic If It would cease Us
petulant snarling and contemptible lying, and
urge Congress to pass tbe needed amendment to
the funding act.
It was confidently alleged and generally be
lieved that not a “dollar of the daddies' 1 was la
existence previous to tbe recommencement of
tbe coinage under the remonetising act of Feb.
2d, 1878. It was supposed that during tbe
period of demonetisation they bad all gone
abroad or Into the melting pqt, but here comes
this announcement from New York: “At the
Sub-Treasury (bn tbe 14tb Inst),.1900,000 4UH*
grain silver dollars were received fur customs
duties. These were not of recent coinage.”
Where have these “daddies” come from, and
whore have they been bidden since’ 1873| There
were coined that year 1977.150 of the “dad
dies,” and In 187911,119,901 of them. It Is do*.
•Me that this SBOO,OOO lot had been exported
and hold by some foreign banker, and
npoo tho passage of tho Slyer b:ii he shipped
them home, now that tho “daddy " was himself
again. Other stray iota of old sliver dollars
may turn up In the same way; the more the
merrier. Tho number of old subsidiary coins—
-95,10, and 6 cent pieces—which bare come back
Into circulation Is quite surprising, considering
that from 1803 until 1875 eomporotirely few
were struck off at the mints,—only enough for
use on the Pacific; but most of tho old subsidi
aries tbit have reappeared hove older dates
than 1803, being mostly of 1853 to 1559, during
whichyears many millions of them were cotnsd.
We hare a small edition of Tammany Hall or
ganlzed (a Chicago, which contains just os ray
euons men with as corrupt purposes as the in
famous parent Institution to New York. A
Tammany Democrat, wherever ho may be
found, Is a person who believes that govern
ments exist among men for tho purpose of en
riching the wire-workers of the party. One of
this class ol Democrats Is Tom Dunlap, of New
York City. He has possession of a slnccurs
oQIco called “Commissioner of Jurors," in
vented by Tammany for the enrichment of
henchmen. This Dunlap acts upon the Script
uro saying that he who provldctb not for his
own household is worse than an InQdei. After
absorbing SB,OOO a year for himself, be divides
$15,000 a year among the following cubs and
collaterals:
Timms Dunlap. Jr., Commissioner's son.
Prank P. Dunlap, Commissioner’s son.
William Dunlap. Commissioner’s son.
JoiikJ. Dunlap, Commissioner’s son.
A. J. Ksroan, Commissioner's cousin.
, Frank D. Jounstuns, Commissioner’s brother.
In-law,
The Now York Titntt Is “chunking" tils
“ neat,” trying to knock It off tho “ banyan tree "
which overshadows the city ami sucks up its
substance.
Sboo-fly Cox says be deprecates "person
alities" In debate; he docs especially whenever
bo gets the worst of It. "The other day," he
said, “he bad somewhat Informally, and in the
honest fervor of the moment, characterized the
President as a fraud," but “tho moral to which
he would point his colleague was, that, when one
takes an oDlce to which ho Is not elected, and
takes It through corrupt means, It la better not
to trust anything bo does." This, remarks the
New York Tribute “did seem somewhat in
formal, but no more so than tho remark made oy
Squire Poukrot, of Stonluztou, who, roferrinz
to some observation of a personal character by
Squire Hull In the trial of a cose, sold: ‘Per
sonolabuso will avail yon notnlug, you blanked
weather-beaten, wltfacrcd-up, blear-eyed scoun
drelly old sou of a sea cook;’ and then, turning
to tho Court, * Tills remark la somewhat In
formal, but the moral of It Is (bat this old
scamp Is a blackguard and a liar. 1 "
One of the strange developments of tho tele
phone tests recently has been that sounds are
transmitted from one wire to another even when
the wires are not connected, in Rochester the
other day, a telephone gave out the lull notes
of some singing in Buffalo, much to the sur
prise of tho people In the office where It was
located. luvcstlgatlon showed that the tele
phone wire approached at one point within tea
feet of tho Western Union wire used in the
concert. By what mysterious force tho sounds
were carr led across tbo too feet of air, and then
carried on along tho second wire, bos puzzled
electricians to explain. For practical uses this
now freak of the telephone Is a drawback rather
than an advantage, as people employing the
telephone In business do not caro to hare their
language made public.
At the earnest solicitation of a large camber
ot< the best citizens of the ward, Aid. Rosen
berg, of the Second Ward, has consented to be
come a candidate for re-election. Ho had de
termined positively not to servo another term
In an olllco congenial neither to his Interest nor
his Inclination, and his change of purpose will
be learned with satisfaction by the taxpayers of
the ward, who will doubtless Improve the op
portunity to secure a continuance of the faith
ful service (n their Interests which Aid. Rosen*
debo has rendered during term Just expir
ing.
It Is noticed that the Washington Pott (Goo
fed.) savagely abuses all tbe appointments of
Republicans to ofllce made by tbo President as
unlit and Improper meu for tbo places: but It
bos never once found fault where tbe appointee
was au ex-Rebcl, and a Republican was turned
out to make room for him. It loadlyapplaudcd
tbe removal of tbe one-legged Union soldier
who bold tho Petersburg, Vo., Post-Office, to
make a place for a Confederate Democrat. Tbo
Pott baa peculiar Ideas of Clvli-Servlco reform.
Tbo London Spectator was lately betrayed
Into a curious blunder. In a leading editorial
on tbo Eastern question it ranked tbo Russians
as soldiers below tbo French or Germans, and
wound up by saying, “ We have not tbo force to
defeat tbo Russian army, If encamped opposite
ours upon a plain." Of coarse tbe Spectator
did not mean to Imply that tbo English were
worse soldiers tbau tbo Russians, French, and
Germans, but such is the Inference.
A promising young journalist of Bt. Louis
came to an untimely end Monday, a victim of
tbo Blue-Ribbon movement. About a week ono
be signed tbo pledge and quit drinking, but
this sudden deprivation of bis favorite cock
tails was too mneb for bis delicate frame, and
he passed away. There Is a warning in this ex
ample which we refrain from polutlug out to
the remaining Bt. Louis Journalists of promise.
In tho debate the other day in tbo Bouse on
tbe alleged failure of Civil-Service reform,
WntrruoiiNH (Bourbon, of Tennessee) gave
wbat bo understood constituted such reform,
vix.: "Putting Republicans out of ofllce and
Democrats In." That Is tbo only idea of ClvU-
Bcrvlce reform tbo average Democrat has.
One of tbe honorary Commissioners to (be
Paris Exhibition is only 21 years old, sod, of
course, bis father Is a "prominent politician."
PERSONALS,
Dob Ingersoll's personal appearanoo is neat,
bat notgod-dy.
Tboron Uarnum, the oldest hotel-keepor in
the country, died at hi. Louts Sunday.
Sin. Lucy Hooper boa commenced a series
of anutenr theatricals In Pans for the benefit of
Impecunious Americans In that city.
It is announced that Prince Philippe da
Bourbon Is shortly tomarry Mile. Dlsnc, daughter
of tbs lata director of tbs gambling-tables at Mo
naco.
Among tbe ooU of the British Parliament
which took effect on Jan. 1 was one to secure *
to married women la Scotland their property and
earnings.
The pleasing Intelligence comes from India
that tbe Jam of Nowsaoggnr has chosen the 3-year
old son of his brother as heir presumptive, which
Is all Jam foolishness, of course.
Scribner** Monthly publishes a number of
letters written by s Boston yoaug lady who was a
schoolmate of tbe present Queen of Spain In a
Parisian convent. Tbe Prioeosa Mercedes was a
nlca little slrl In abort dresses, sod had a prod-
Diction for playing prisoner's base, bat she was
far from diligent In her studies.
There was a romance In tbe life of tbe late
Judge Leonard, Representative la Congress from
Louisians. Some time ago at New Orleans be met
a young Caban lady who was visiting this country
with her parents, and between whom and Judge
Leonard a warm attachment sprang up. Tne
parents opposed the match, and shortly after
werds returned to Cube, having, however, agreed
to permit tbe couple to correspond. After her de
parture Judge Leonard read several letters, but, as
no answers were received, be suspected that they
bad been Intercepted. About three weeks are ba
determined to go to Cuba and get an explanation.
After be left Washington nothing was beard from
him nntU a dUpatch reached Secretary Kverte
stating that he had died at Havana of yellow-fever.
He was only 32 years of ass.

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