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BY MAIL—Hf ADVANCE —POSTAGE PREPAID. Daily Edition, one year 812.00 Part* of a year, per month 1.00 Sunday Edition: Li tarary and Eeilgtoo* Doable bheet 2*50 Saturday Edition, twelve pages. 2. OO Trl-WeckJy, one year. *MH' Parts of a year, per month .61' WEEKLY EDITION, POSTPAID. One copy, cer year. S t. 50 Club of four. ... 5.00 Specimen copies sent free. Give Poat-Olilce address in tan, Including State and Connty. . Remittance? may be made either by draft, express. Post-Office order, or In re Plate red letter, at our risk. TERMS TO CITY SUBSCRIBERS, Dally, delivered. Sunday excepted. 25 centa per week. Dally, delivered. Sunday Included. 30 centa per week. Address THE TRIBUNE COMPANY. Corner Madison and Dearborn-ata., Chicago. 111. Orders for ibe delivery of Tux Tatncxi at Evanston, Englewood, and Hyde Parc left In tbe counting-room will receive prompt attention. TKUSUXE BBANCH OFFICES. Tttx Chicago Tktoukx bu uublisbedbranch offices for tbe receipt of subscriptions. and- advertisements as followa; NEW TORE—Room 2 a Jribunt Building. F.T. Mo- Facdkx, Manager. PARIS, France—No. IS Ene de la Grange-Batellerc. 11. Mahlxk. Agent. LONDON', Eng.—American Exchange, 40 Strand. lIENBT F. GILIAG. Agent. BAN FRANCISCO. CaL-Palace Hotel. SOCIETY MEETINGS. ST. GEORGE'S BENEVOLENT ASSOCIATION will bold a Basket Picnic on Wednesday next. Aug. 7. at Woodland, on the I. C. B. R. Trams lemvc central De pot st fl:10. 12:10 and 3:00 p. m.: returning at 0:30 and 7:10 n. m.; stopping both ways at Twenty second and Thlny-first-sts. Adults, 50c: Children. 25c. Tickets can only be bad of tbe Committee ot tbe monthly meeting on Monday evening, Ang. A In tbe Clnb Rooms of the Sherman House, at 8 o clock. ALEX- COOK. Presu APOLLO COMMAXDERT, No. 1, K. T.-SUWd Conclave next Tuesday evening at 8 o’clock. A lull attendance Is requested a* business of Importance wlu be brought before the Commacdery. Visit ora always welcome. By order of the Commander. _ J. It. DUNLOP. Recorder. CHICAGO COMMANDERT, No. 19. K. T.-Stated Conclave Monday evening. Ang. 5, 1878, for transac tion of business of importance. A cordial welcome to visiting Sir Kmghta. By order of the Em. Com. JAS. £. MEG INN. Recorder. HOME LODGE, No. 008. A- F. & A. M.—Regular Communication Friday evening. Aug. ft at 8 o'clock, for work and business. Every member Is requested to be present. Visiting brethren cordially In^ted.^ XADY WASHINGTON CHAPTER, No. 28. O. K. S: —Tuesday evening. auk- ft Important business and work. A full attendance of officer* aud members re quested. By order of EVA McIIUGH. W. M. M. A. CORLISS, Secretary. ELLIS LODGE. NO. 447, I. O. O. F.-Notice Is hereby given mat the regular meetings *lll be beld on Monday evening. at 8 o'clock. Instead of 7 bureday evening as heretofore. J. E. FLEMING, Sec y. VAN RENSSELAER GRAND LODGE OF PERFEC TION. A. & A. Scottish Rite Masons, will confer the nth Degree on Thursday evenlnc next. By order of AMOS PETTIBONK. T. *.P.*.G.*.M. *. KD GOODALE. Gr. Sec. CORINTHIAN CHAPTER, No. G 9, R. A- M.— Spe cial Convocation Monday evening, Aug. 5, at 8 o’clock. Work on the P. and M. K- M. Decrees. Visiting Com panions are cordially invited. By order _ G. W. BARNARD, H. P. ST. BERNARD COMMANDERT. No. 35. K. T.— Stated Conclave Wednesday evening. Aug. 7. at 8 o'clock. Business of Importance. By order •_ J. S. WHITE, E. C. SUNDAY. AUGUST 4, 1878. In New York on Saturday greenbacks ruled steady at cents on the dollar in coin. Secretary Sheehan is spending his sum mer vacation in New York City, where his principal recreation seems to be the holding of conferences with prominent bankers npon tho question of specie-resumption. In this kind of idlesse the dreamy summer days glide past, and it is to be hoped that John Sheehan is happy. Congressman Calkins, of Indiana, declares that although the Nationals will hold the balance of power in the next State Legisla ture, they will not re-elect Vooehees to the United States Senate. This prediction is scardfely less'gratifying than his next state ment, which is that the successor of the Tall Sycamore will be a Kepublican. Several erratic witnesses appeared before tbe Congressional Committee on the Labor Question yesterday. One person, who said that he combined the two dissimilar occupa tions of brick-laying and editing, denounced the public-school system of - the country be cause mechanical trades were not taught, vehemently argued against the introduction of Chinese laborers, and predicted a labor riot nest winter. The second witness was a Socialist, who advocated the establishment of a grand co-operative Christian Society. Going from bad to worse, tbo third witness wanted several billions of dollars expended in docks and other public works in order to furnish employment to the masses of labor ing people. Altogether, the Committee had a doleful session. When the present State Treasurer of Kan sas entered upon the duties cf his office he gave bonds to insure the proper handling of the Stale funds. Among his bondsmen were several stockholders in Masten’s Bank, of Kansas City. On the principle that one good turn deserves another, State Treasurer Gates immediately upon assuming the dalles of bis office began to deposit the State funds in Masten’s Bank. And yet, when the bank closed its doors yesterday, there were foolish people who grumbled and accused the State Treasurer of carelessness. Besides a loss of $250,000 to the State, this failure has entailed losses of $72,000 to Kansas City and of SIIO,OOO to Jackson County. The assets, as usual, are of the optical kind. The latest and the most unblushing effort of the County King to get control of the ■crest wing of the Court-House and City-Hall building, is an accusation that the work now going on is not in accordance with the speci fications and is not of proper material. The result of these accusations led to a call of a meeting of builders, contractors, and archi tects who are not connected with the work on the building. These gentlemen yesterday visited the premises, examined ail the work which has been done, the stone and the bricks used, and. after discussing the speci fications and comparing the work, reached the unanimous conclusion expressed in the following resolution: Haotvid, Tfcal from the inspection of the work and material now in process of construction oa the Ciiy-Uall as it presents itself to-day. we £nd that i: is in every essential particular cqcsl to the rcr. rat-ms of the specifications and every war* enSicieni to make a permanent and substantia! srructnre, at the same time that the architect, alt. Cleveland, has made all requlslt* calcinations for safu hearing weight of every part of the bu*:d;ng. / The charges against the -work were pajt'of the general warfare made upon the city's un dertaking to have the west wmg built with out the interference of the contractors on the east wing. The city's half of-rtha building will cost two-thirds of a mfllibn of dollars leas than the county’s half, and there is the great grievance. The attempt is to break np this arrangement, 1 to set-aside all contracts, and, beginning anew/"call in ■ the county' con tractors and_their. pals and give them .the work and > the two-thirds of a million of dolla!rs extra. The Bing dies hard. The effort to stop the work and have the city discard the Bedford stone and sub stitute that taken from Wa zszz’b quarry would, if enccessfol, add heavily to the profits of the east-wing contractors j and Walebb had the face to appear at the meet ing yesterday to protest, in the name of the public* against the work now done and the Tttfttflrinl now used 1 In the meantime, the city’s half of the building is progressing admirably, at a cost of about half that of the county’s wing. The railroads will contest the late decision of the Secretary of the Interior in reference to the pre-emption of unsold lauds. The "Western roads, which are particularly inter ested in the subject, will pool together in the great struggle and contest every inch of the vast territory which they remorselessly acquired through the aid of active Washing ton lobbyists. Spbinoee, of the Potter Committee, bos modestly confessed that -what that Commit tee set out to do has been done, and that there is a great deal more yet to come. There is a wide difference of opinion be tween Speccoeb and the majority of the American people. Evidently he is laboring under a hallucination, and the infirmity is growing more and more pitiable every day. The temperature in St Louis has lowered enough to lot the local politicians renew their favorite squabble over tbe office of Postmaster. It is charged that Fillet has dismissed an employe of the Post-Office who was so rash as to oppose bis plan in the primaries. The enemies of the Postmaster have set a Nemesis npon his track, and hope to onst him on the ground of a violation of the President’s order for bidding Federal officials from meddling act ively with politics. If the allegation against Fillet is true, there is reason for his re moval ; but tho main difficulty lies in dis covering any man in St. Louis more scrupu lous than the present incumbent. NEW PARTY MOVEMENTS. The control of the American Government will always be disputed by two chief parties, massing together the great bulk of the peo ple; but it docs not follow that these two parties will always be the present Kepublican and Democratic organizations. Formerly it was the Federal and Kepublican parties, later on the Democrats and Whigs, and for the past twenty-four years the Kepublicans and Democrats. But there is rarely a time when there is not an effort at the formation of a third party, anxious to usurp the place of one of the two great political organizations, and to contend for the supremacy. During those periods when the two chief parties are distinguished by well-defined and absorbing issues, the new factions attract but little at tention; they are generally made up of “ soreheads” and their followers, and they rarely achieve even local significance. But the lack of any great national is sue between the two leading parties Is accepted as a sign of impending disintegration, and an effort at the organiza tion of a third party acquires an importance that it never has at any other time. The fact is not to be denied that the present is peculiarly favorable for the development of a third party, whose chances for ultimate leadership will depend upon the opportunity and ability it can control for presenting an issue of overwhelming importance and con siderable duration, upon which the American people will take sides. In all periods of strong party discipline there has been some one great and central matter in dispute. Federation for a long term of years and with various modifications; then the tariff, at a time when the coun try was ready to divide on sectional lines over this interest; the National Bank ; at tempted nullification; the Mexican war; annexation of territory ; Slavery and State sovereignty in various shapes ; and final ly the War for the Preservation of the Union, followed by Deconstruction, have all supplied sufficient material for strong party lines, and contention has been narrowed down to two factions, each struggling to establish and maintain its opin ions. At the present moment, and in fact ever since the Presidential election of IS7G, there has been no great dividing line between the two chief parties. Indeed, it was diffi cult to hold men down to party fealty during the Presidential campaign, though the status of some of the Southern States was still a matter of concern. Since the inauguration of President Hates, however, there have been notable indications of weakness in both the Democratic and Kepublican parties. Many Kepublicans have openly resented the policy of the present Administration, and have not hesitated to indulge their animosity at the expense of party welfare. Many Dem ocrats, on the other hand, have openly es poused the cause of the Administration, have not hesitated to declare that the country is better off with Hates than it would have been with Tilden, and in some sections of the South have inaugurated independent movements. During the long Congressional session of more than eight months, scarce ly a single measure was proposed that exacted the combined support or combined opposition of either party. In almost all cases Democrats and Republicans voted together in approval and in opposi tion, Whether in the case of silver remone tization, of currency retirement, of the Re sumption act, of the Bankruptcy repeal, of the Pacific Railroads, of the various subsidy suggestions, of appropriations and taxation schemes, Republicans and Democrats voted on cross lines, voted together, or voted apart, without any care for party unity. All this was tantamount to a confession on both sides of party weakness. There remains but one great issne between tbe Democratic and Republican parties,—National versus State sovereignty,—and that is inoperative in the absence of provocation; it is natural ly theoretical, except when tested by actual application, but it only needs some new out break on the part of tbe democrats—wheth er by efforts at nullification, or an attempt to break down the Constitutional amendments, or a revival of Rebel claims—to show how vital this issue can become, and how over whelmingly strong the Republican party is with that Issne alive. Meanwhile the two old parties are unquestionably in a dull and turgid condition. The situation, as we have described it, is the main factor in the Fiat party move ment, but it finds an important auxiliary in the unusually largo number of played-out politicians in both the - old parties. The men whose political ambition or whose greed for office has outlasted their ability or op portunity seize upon a new party movement with the same desperation that prompts a drowning man to clutch at n straw. There are all grades of these creatures. There are the superannuated theorists who cannot retain.' their hold on a people who have progressed. There are the retired or retir ing Congressmen who have been relegated to private life because of demonstrated in capacity or corruption. There are the sore THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE; SUNDAY. AUGUST 4, 1878-SIXTEEN PAGES. in both parties who must look for ap preciation or reward among people who do not know them so well as their former political associates. There are ft host of speculators, lobbyists, and jobbers of all kinds who are ready to encourage any new party movement that may some time gain sufficient power to bo useful to them. There are theorists who know they can gat no hear ing from either of the old parties, and are ready to lake their chances with any new party. From the very highest, striving for the Presidential nomination at the hands of the new party movement, down to the very lowest ward-bummers who have lost their influence in the pot-houses, there are always numerous people eager to attach themselves to any political offshcot, as they have every thing to gain and nothing to lose. These classes serve to give an illusive estimate of the numerical strength of the new Fiat po litical organization. But mere opportunity and the co-operation of unsuccessful or played-out partisan ad venturers are not enough to give a new po litical movement a hold upon the peopla. If tho disintegration of old parties is re sultant upon a loss of vitality in the issues they make, no new party or parties can hope to supplant them without supplying the needed vitality. It will not do to appeal for popular support on issues that are merely local, or secondary, or transitory, in their character. For a time there was a general and tromendous effort to make political tem perance the basis of a new parly; hut it fail ed. Grangorism was a still more determined throat to the existence of the old parties; but it soon exhausted its vitality. After it had accomplished in great measure the local re forms which it demanded, it ceased to exist as a political entity. So it may be with the present Fiat movement, which is endeavoring to coalesce under the name of “ Nationals ” several factions with distinct and not always harmonious purposes. There is no natural bond of affinity between Social ism and Fiatism, eight-hour-Trade-Uniouism aud Grangorism, and there are several shades of opinion under both heads. It is doubtful whether there can be a union of all these factions into one party, and still more doubtful whether such a party will be able to suggest a single issue that can command popular sympathy totheexteutof abandoning old party lines. Time and opportunity aro both at hand, perhaps; but it may be as diffi cult for a new party to present an issue strong enough to draw new party lines as it is for the old parties to find an issue on which present party discipline can be en forced. Nothing less than the Slavery ques tion conld have projected tbe Republican party. What issue with anything like the same vitality will serve a third party with a reason for existence to-day ? j GBAND-JTTEY INVESTIGATIONS. The recent decision of Judge Rogers in relation to hearing complaints by Grand Juries has provoked considerable discussion. The decision is to the effect that Grand Juries shall take no action on complaints not certified to them by Committing Magistrates, referred to them by the Courts, presented npon personal information by a Grand Juror, or introduced by tho State's Attorney. This, it is said, is a denial of justice,—-a refusal to hear the complaints of aggrieved persons, and limiting the office of Grand Juries to such work as the District-Attorney may select. At first thonght there may seem some truth in this view of the case; but a more careful consideration of the matter, we think, will satisfy tho public that there is more danger of abuses of the Grand-Jury system in the absence of such a rule than there is in its enforcement. The Grand-Jury system is of itself an in stitution that has largely survived its useful ness. The original purpose was to protect the citizen against persecutions of a politi cal character instituted by the Government, and against persecutions instituted by per sonal malice. The Grand Jnry is a secret rribnual; its investigations are mainly ex port*. An indictment of a citizen without cause is a grievous wrong; it always remains a stain on a man’s character ; and such a smirch should not be inflicted without strong testimony, and without some responsible voucher. Under the rule laid down by Judge Hogeks, any person having a charge of crime to make against another can go before a Magistrate, make oath to the facts, and have the person arrested, the charge exam ined, and, if the evidence warrant such a proceeding, have the accused held to bail to answer at the Criminal Court. This pro ceeding is open to all, and no man unwilling to take the responsibility of mating a public accusation of crime against a citizen should be allowed to do so secretly. In some States the Grand Jury is prohibited from hearing accusations of crime until such accusations have first been publicly made and examined in a Justice’s Court. The liberty and the good name of the citizen are too sacred to be exposed to secret accusation, followed by indictment, when the act is inspired by malice and hatred. At an examination be fore a Justice the accused can have the op portunity of meeting his accuser, and of explaining facts and circumstances which, however innocent, may, in the absence of such explanation and when related ma liciously, have the appearance of guilt.’ Judge Rogers, however, opens the door as wide as any reasonable man can ask for. Grand Jurors hove the statutory right to investigate any facts of which the members may have personal knowledge, and the laws of the State directly command the jury to investigate certain classes of crimes. In addition to these it is in the power of the Grand Jury to hear and act upon complaints which the District-At torney may bring before them. What eases, then, are denied a hearing? Only those cases where the indictment of a person or persons is sought secretly, upon ex-parU testimony, without the knowledge or the means of explanation, and where the accuser will not take the responsibility of makings charge that can be examined publicly. Cases where the conduct of public officers require investigation should be suggest ed by the District-Attorney, by whom, after all, the investigation must be prose cuted. It is not likely that any person hold iog that office will refuse such an. investiga tion without good and sufficient" causa ; and should he, by refusing such inquiry, assume the responsibility of screening criminals it would be an abuse of .-official power for which there is no remedy, except the con demnation of public opinion, and his eventual dismissal from office. ■' That officer is neces sarily invested with large discretion, which he may abus«-ot any time. The of a District-Attorney refusing to allqWc investigations into alleged official -crimes is so remote and so nnfreqnent that ft ceases to he as alarming or as injurious as to open the doors of eveiy Grand-Jmy room to every mean, cowardly, and malicious man who in secret seeks to smirch the character and subject to indignity those whom he dare not charge publiSyl Tho possibility of using the Grand Jury to insnlt, injure, and defame private character is too great, and its use’for this purpose too frequent, not to justify the restrictions 1 which Judge Rogers has placed upon the opportunity for making complaints of that nature. THE NEXT LEGISLATURE. It is time that those persons who feel any regard for the good- government of the city end of the State should evince some interest in tho matter of selecting members of the next General Assembly. There are four Sen ators (three holding over) and twenty-one Representatives to be elected in this oonnty, constituting a small Legislature of them selves, and charged with the interests of a larger number of people than are to be found in many of the States of tho Onion. Ohicago, as part of the State, and because of her own municipal affairs, has deep in terest in the character of the General As-> sembly. As a general thing this county does not fare as well with her twenty-eight mem bers of the Legislature as she might do if she had fewer members, but of a better and more experienced doss of men. Men without ex perience, fitness, or qualification seek membership for their own profit and grati fication, and too often to the great loss and injury of the State and of their immediate constituents. Unfortunately for the public interests, there is a Senator of the United States to be elected at the coming session, and the danger is that eighteen ont of every twenty members will be elected with refer ence to tho selection of some Senator, in which the people take but little interest, and with out any reference to the important questions of taxation and revenue, in which every per son in the State has a direct personal inter est Cook County might send down to Springfield twenty-eight wooden men, worked with springs, and who could vote for the caucus candidate as intelligently os the twenty-eight men selected and pledged to vote for Senator as the caucus may direct, and, the Senator being elected, tho twenty eight men representing this county, with a few honorable exceptions, might, according to past experience, be tobacconists' signs, so faros they have any knowledge or experience in the business of legislation, and under standing of the wonts of their constituents. Even if there is n Senator to be elected, that does not release the public from the obligation to nominate and elect intelligent and experienced men. In the seven districts of this county it is easy to determine the political complexion of the members who may be elected. The First, Second, Fourth, and Seventh Districts may bo assumed to elect two Republicans and one Democrat each, and, the politics of the members being ascertained, the twelve members may os well be intelligent, able, and experi enced men as of any other character. The Third, Fifth, and Sixth Districts are pretty certain to elect one Republican and one Democrat each, and the choice of the other members will depend on how the Socialists and Fiatists in those districts may vote. Of the four Senators to bo elected the chances are that each party will elect two, subject to the vagaries of the Socialist or Fiat vote. In every case, however, the candidates should be men selected for something in addition to their capacity to vote for a packed candidate for Senator, and voters who care more for needed legislation than they do for some Senator may have their votes determined by the character of the men nominated. It is therefore not too early to appeal to all parties to nominate men for the Legislature who have some brains or had experience and who are familiar with the legislative needs of the city, and to try and secure for the city a deliverance from some of the evils of our Revenue laws. LOED BEACOHSFIELD’S TRIUMPH. Lord Beaconsfield’s policy in the Anglo- Turkish matter has been indorsed by the very emphatic majority of 113, which the approving resolution received on Friday evening last; and a very suggestive feature of the vote is the unanimity with which the Catholic Liberals supported the Tories. The Tory or Government majority is 70, while the majority for the resolution was 143, bo- ing more than twice the regular party ma- jority. The very unanimous way in which the Irish voted for the resolution shows that the majority of people in Ireland as well as in England' are with the Government in de fense of the results of the Congress, as well as of the protectorate understanding with Turkey. Perhaps the vote might be still further construed to indicate that the Boman Cath olic Church has no sympathy with Russia, or with any reforms that might grow out of her new relations to the Sclavic peoples just emancipated from Turkish despotism. The chief significance of the vote is its com mitment of the Government, indorsed by the majority of the people, to the English protectorateof Asiatic Turkey. By the terms of that protectorate, upon consideration of certain reforms, to be inaugurated in the administration of the Turkish Asiatic provinces by the Porte, England stipulates, in case Russia shall ever extend her frontiers beyond the limits of Batoum, Kars, and Ardahan, as defined in the treaty of Berlin, she will aid Turkey with armed men to oppose such an advance. . In other words, the protectorate implies that Russia cannot strike Turkey without striking England at the same time. Hitherto the relations of England to the Eastern ques tion have al .rays involved the possibility of English interference with Russia in any movement against Tiu&ey; but now it is no longer a possibility. By solemn treaty en gagement England has made herself the active ally of Turkey; and, if the Porte shall carry out the conditions to which it has sub scribed, England is bound to make war upon Russia whenever Russia shall make war upon Turkey, the only bur to the operation of the treaty being the possibility of Rus sia’s withdrawal from its new Asiatic terri tory. As this event will never occur, the alliance will be a permanent one, or at least as long-lived ns the average of treaties. In making this arrangement with Turkey the English Government had the precedent of its success in the Belgian guarantee. Since it pledged itself„to maintain the Bel gian boundaries, neither Germany * nor Prance has offered to violate them, and, reasoning from analogy, Government has .the right to assume that the Russians will respect the Turkish boundaries. Undoubt edly the sentiment of; the English people is that the Government has indefinitely post poned the danger of. collision with Rus sia, and that, as the former settlement of the Eastern question in 185 G has lasted for twenty-two years, the: present settlement will lost equally as long, and perhaps longer, thus carrying it over into another century. What the responsibilities of this protecto rate may be, or what distracting problems may arise in the effort, to introduce good government among the widely-varying and natnrally-turbnlent races of Armenia, gov erned for centuries by corrupt and absolute Pashas, who will be likely to oppose any interference with what they consider their prerogatives, the English people evidently do not care to consider. They are content to have interposed a very strong barrier to Russian growth, which they regard as their most distinct peril in Asia, and they feel re lieved that tljey need have no further appre hensions, for the present at least. Whatever the future may have in store they are will ing to hand down os a legacy to the next generation. The essenoo of Beaoonsfield’s victory is his success in checking Russia without a great war, which might have involved half of Europe in a straggle whoso duration or consequences no ona conld foresee. Re garded from this standpoint, it wa» a great victory, and it is natural that the English people should feel elated, and overwhelm their Premier with congratulations. None tho less have they to meet the responsibilities pointed out by Mr. Gladstone. They will be fortunate then if they have an equally competent pilot. FUNNY MEN. The London Saturday liefiew, in a recent issue, has on article npon fanny men, which is devoted to the dissection of men purport ing to be funny, or supposing themselves to be funny, when they are only stupid, rather than to tbe definition of a really funny man. From the general drift of tbe article it wonld seem to have been written by some one who bad been bored with men setting up for fun ny. lie finds that all small jokers are more plague than pleasure, and worry ns when we want to rest; that sprightly men are better than witty men; and that even all Sidney Smith’s recorded jokes cannot account for his great reputation os a wit. He complains— and there is very good ground for his com plaint—that to be funny without ill nature is an uncommon gift; but be does not seem to recognize that in this lies the very distinction between humor and satire. Most wits trade upon other people’s weaknesses, say biting things, wound sus coptibles, call names, and hurt feelings. This may be satire, but it is not humor. It may be witty, bnt it is not funny. Fan is always bright, fresh, and harmless. The satirist is never welcome, however sharp ho may be, unless his satire is directed against evil. The really funny man is always welcome because he carries sunshine with him, cheers the cheerless, and makes men and women feel better. Ho also finds that there is not of necessity any want of reverence in true fun. “It has been often remarked that any fool can moke a joke of sacred things, and that mere coarse ness is often looked upon as a form of wit. The man who has to distort Scripture, or say what is nasty, or revile his neighbor in order to raise a laugh, may often succeed, but at best his wit is of a second-rate order.” There is great truth in this growl, and equal truth in his next growl, that “It is amazing to hud bow little will gain a man a reputa- tion for funniness in the country,” though be need not have limited his observation to the country. Men with a single story, and that not their own, have achieved a reputation for wit; and society is full of fellows whoso company is sought for because they have a small collection of smart sayings, native and borrowed, which they are always ready to dish out upon the slightest provocation, and usually most ready at the wrong time, it being one of the prime conditions of a really witty man that ho shall be funny at the jight time. Perhaps there are no better standards by which to measure real humor than Dickens and Thackeray. Dickens is indisputably funny, but Thackeray is a more legitimate humorist. Dickens traded upon human weaknesses. His fun is made out of eccen- tricitics of physique, oddities of character, weaknesses of disposition, peculiarities of dress, and fancifulness of habits. His satire was effective, but his wit rarely goes below the surface. He raises a laugh, bnt the cause is a very slight one. Thackeray went deeper than Dickers, and deep euongb to reach the pathetic, which lies at the bot tom of human nature. Dickers never wrote snch satire as Thackeray directed at the snobs, snch quiet wit as ho expended upon James and Bclweb, such real humor ns he displayed in the death-scene of old Col. Netccome, or such a combination of wit and satire as he effected when, with a few strokes of his pencil, ho pictured Lons XIV. in all his ugly nudity. The true humorist never exaggerates, but strikes a mean between laughter and tears that runs parallel with human nature, and makes men and women better. When Thackeray affirmed that a burnt-cork min strel had made him cry with a negro ballad, ha had a keener appreciation of hnmor than the crowd, who only saw sometingin the song to laugh at. Like the blind woman in the Dance of Death, he could see farther than the simple crowd, who thought it was funny that a pipe should weigh as much as a crown. The true humorist is rarely of a humorous habit him self, and does not always understand why he makes people laugh. Like Lamb, Hood, and Heire, he is usually most humorous when most melancholy, and shoots his most brill iant arrows when suffering the keenest. This kind of hnmor lives because its roots strike deep into human nature, while the merely superficial wit dies with the utterance. We are rather surprised that after devoting two or three columns to funny men the writer of the article to which we have alluded in speaking of women sho~.~ only have said, “ Who ever heard of a funny woman ? ” Is he not aware that all women are funny ? Judffe A. D. Barnes, formerly a Wisconsin man, and well known in that State, hut now of the United States District Court of Dakota, gives the Grand Jury some good advice in his recent chanre to them in regard to cheating the Indians. He said: Particularly do I call your attention to the mat ter of the Standing Pock and other luaian Agencies in this district. 'The means Is bountifully sup plied .from trie Public Treasury of the United States to pay for Indian annuities. The charge that the moucy thus furnished is systematically stolen from tfijj Government, defrauding the In dians, bos beeb so often made, and with so much definiteness apd certainty, that in fact the bad management of these agencies amounts to a public -scandal. Should complaints come before you or within your knowledge. 1 trust you will .heed them, ami let your investigations be searching and thorough. You arc at liberty to send for boobs and papers, and you should take all the time that Is necessary to obtain all- needful information. Roman or set or men occupy offi cial positions so high that their conduct in pnblic affairs may not be investigated by you. Superstition in regard to what is transpiring among the heavenly bodies and their influence upon the earth is passing away as rapidly in these latter days as it Is in the religious and material universe. It Milton lived and wrote to-day, he would not be likely to say: . . And like a comet burned That fires the length of Ophinchns huge In the Arctic sky, and from his horrid hair Shakes pestilence and war. Nor would Shakspeaee pretend he hod seen prodigies and beard the hooting of owls, os in “Julius Caesar” he says; I hcileve they are portentous things' Cnto the climate that they point upon. Nor yet in the same tragedy would ho be guilty of this: And graves have yawned and yielded up their dead. And ghosts did shriek and squeal about the streets, O Caesar! those things ore beyond all use, And 1 do fear them. When beggars die there are no comets Seen, The heavens themselves blaze forth the death of Princes. ■ Again, in “King Lear,” Qloster talks to his son Edmund about eclipses in a war that makes one think of a Chicago Times editorial on as tronomy. Thus: The late eclipses in the snn and moon portend no good to us; though the wisdom of Nature can rea son It thus ana thus, jet Nature finds itself scourged by the sequent effects. Love cools, Inecnsbip falls off. brothers divide; in cities, mu tinies: in countries, ‘ discord: in palaces, treason, and the bond cracked between son and father. That sounds a good deal as if the old man had suddenly determined to abandon his European trip, and the boys in the office had just got the news. It is hard to tell why Sitting Bull would not make an excellent and useful member of Con gress,—a position to which, it is said, the grand old scalp-llftcr now aspires. He is a man of more than average ability, is an orator of no mean pretensions, and, as a fighting-man, ho has done as much and as bloody work against the people as any Confederate Brigadier-Gen eral that is now a member of the House of Representatives. He likes whisky, too, and in this particular only emulates, but does not have the impudence to try and excel, his white brother. Neither would ho be guilty of vio lating the customary usages of Wash ington society. He confines himself to one sqnaw while sojourning at tbe.Federai Capita], but would be found to be cosmopolitan enough to do as Romans do while be is In Rome. His other great essential quali fication to make an efficient Congressman lies in his rare ability to appropriate with commend able facility whatever may bo lying around loose, and to enter into any little arrangements and combinations whereby his own personal in terests may be promoted at the expense of the General Government, it Mr. Bull will have his front name changed from Sitting to Walk ing, we are ready to take stock in him as a fit representative of the Coming Statesman, es pecially it the Democratic party Is to hold its present ascendency In the popular branch of Congress. Tho lengthy and intelligent interview with the 800. Horace Rubles by oar Milwaukee correspondent upon the present aspectof political allairs in Wisconsin furnishes os with the occa sion for saying that Mr. Kublze’s name is often very favorably mentioned by the Republican newspapers of his State os a suitable person to send to tne Senate of the United States. He was for twenty years the leading editor of the Madison Journal, before and during the period of our Civil War, and for ten years was Chair man of the Republican State Central Committee. All through his administration and under his guidance the State never faltered in its adhesion to the Republican cause, and in the promulgation of loyal sentiments it may in truth be said that Mr. Rubles rendered the same service in Wisconsin with his pen that the late Gov. Morton did in Indiana npon the stump. When Grant was first elected in 1868, one of his first official acts was to appoint Mr. Rubles to the office of Minister to Switzerland, a position that he held and adorned until tne expiration of President Grant’s second term. Unless it be ex-Chief-Justice Dixon, who does not allow his name to be used in connection with the United States Senatorship, there is no better qualified man in Wisconsin for that ex alted and responsible position than the Hon. Horace Rubles. A writer in the Cincinnati Commercial con tributes this interesting bit of reminiscence of Lord Beaconsfield to that journal; 1 remember him well when I was a young man, full of the same ambition os had animated himself twenty years before I met him. I was a member of the Literary and Scientific Institution in Alders cate street, London, In 1844, and it was custom ary to bold semi-annual meetings, that wore pre sided overby rising eminent men. 1 happened to be a member of the Committee deputed to wait on Mr. Disraeli, at his house in Park Lane, Picca dilly, to ask him to preside at our semi-annual meeting. We did so, and were received by him and Mrs. Disraeli,— the late Countess of Beacons field.—whom he had recently married. Of coarse we were received elegantly, and my friend Parrt, being considered tbe best-looking and the best qualified to address the rising statesman, he request ed Disraeli to preside over the semi-annualmeeting of the Institute, and stated that the members' would feel greatly indebted to him for any sugges tions for its advancement. Isholl never forget the extraordinary look Disraeli gave Parry, With an eye that looked from out the soul, with a Meobistophellsm that has marked his subsequent career, be said to Mr. Parry: 44 1 will have the honor to preside over your meeting, and Mrs. Disraeli will be present; Out, by the by, I hap pened to be in the Court of Common fleas yester day, and heard your eloquent defense. If 1 should ever have any inllaence you can command me.” He afterwards made Parky a Sergeant of Law. Mr. and Mrs. Disraeli attended our meeting, and he made an eloquent address. The most extraor dinary expression he made was: 44 Man can be what he pleases; every one of yon can be exactly what be designs to be. I have resolved to hold a certain position, and, if Hive, I will.” The territory taken from Turkey in the Ber lin treaty and given to Russia, Austria, Servia, Rouraania, and Montenegro, is about 71.500 square miles, and the population lost rather more than 3,800,000. The area is abont the same as that of Ohio and Indiana, and the population detached nearly as much as contained in those Stales. The Turks have been stripped of half their European possessions, but still retain6,ooo,- 000 miserable subjects in Europe. Russia contented herself with a clio of 9,000 square miles and a third of a million of people on the Asiatic frontier, and the recovery of the por tion of Bessarabia taken from her by the treaty of 1858. and thus again extends her frontier to the Truth on the west and the Danube on the south. But Austria is the party in greatest luck; she secures two fine provinces of 30,- 000 square miles, and a million and a half of inhabitants, without firing a shot or spend ing a dollar. Bosnia and Herzegovina were thrown to her like a couple of pears by the high contracting parties, Greece has secured Dom ing yet, but is in a fair way to obtain a large slice of Thessaly, which will carry her frontier close up to Mount Olympus. The Cincinnati Commercial of Friday says The Hon. C, C. Washburn*, ex-Govenior of Wisconsin, Is in the city looking after the insur ance on his Dig mill, recently destroyed ny lire, lie was introduced on ’Change yesterday. To-day he will visit the Cincinnati underwriters. They have $50,000 on his loss, and have raised the question of his right to collect, claiming that the (act of an explosion cuts him out. Tne amount due the ex-Governor of Wiscon sin from the Cincinnati underwriters is just the sum which he donated to the State for the pur pose of erecting an astronomical observatory on the University grounds at Madison. Mr. Wash burn was viewing the grounds last spring for the purpose of selecting the site. In company with the Regents of the University, when a tel egram was handed him informing him of the great loss that bad fallen upon him by the de struction of his immense llouring-mills in Min neapolis, His loss, however, did not deter him from keeping his word good with the people of a State that has honored him, and which he has faithfully served. The Memphis Appeal says that “It is essential that the Democratic party should be In posses sion of the Judiciary, Cor the Courts are the last resort of the' people for the defense of their lib erties.” What if the colored people should say the same thing! Would the Appeal admit the force of the remark! The notion generally pre vails that the judiciary should not be under the thumb of any party or clique in order to admin ister justice fairly and impartially. Two Mississippi editors have just been guilty of an act that has greatly disappointed and dis gusted all the decent people in the vicinity where they reside. One of them intimated,Tu plain Anglo-Saxon language, that If anybody said so and so he was a liar; and the other fel low thereupon began searching through his flies until be found where he had employed language capable of such a construction. Then, having first determined that he was the it. aforesaid, he quietly loaded his pistol and ™* 1 " menced to hunt for the other warrior It as if Providence had so ordered it, for the ow” 1 * tionable and subjective person was fhund ! r* front of a drug-store, where opiates, other appliances for doing up wounds and suT ping bleeding,are to beobtained. Here the Sri was begun and kept up vigorously until S pistols were empty, and the honor of ’both «r --isfied, ana, sad to relate, not a scratch „S, ’ either of the fierce combatants. The nm~T of the difficulty is that that part' of the S of Mississippi is about evenly divided upon th question as to which party is the liar, aithonrt the regret Is universal and unanimous thattW hostile meeting had not been fatal on both sides* WLa The German press, in commentiu"- upon the treaty of -Berlin,- seem to have taken their cna from Prince Bismauck’s farewell address to Wi" diplomatic colleagues. The conviction .is ei pressed in ail quarters that the Berlin treaty is a partial compromise between antagonistic in lerests, which, leaving sundry important point, unsettled, will lead to ulterior compromlst'or' else to fresh hostility in course of time. At the \ , same time'it is felt on all hands that,'i? the im * mense advantages gained by England are turned .to account, the future stages of the Oriental ; question are-ilkeiy to he marked by fresh victo--'* ries of Great Britain. There Is but one opinion M that If a Turkish army organized, or rather dis organized, a la Turque, very nearly succeeded : in defeating the Russians, an Ottoman force co operating with English troops for the'defense of Asia Minor and the Bosphorus must be crowned with success. Meanwhile : it Is hopai ' i that an impetus may be given to Levantine in dustry and trade by recent remodelings snffl-' ' dcntJyto strengthen the Ottoman Empire, to retard war, and, perhaps, to cause fntnrc ar rangements to be effected in peace. •• Certainly the late Mr. Charles Sumners friends have a right to insist that. If mediums will protend to interpret what the dead states man has to communicate, it shall be done-la good straight English, and bear the semblance' of common sense. But look at this os coming from Mr. Sumner, which is printed in the .Bos iter of Light: Go make farming an honorable profession! Go teacn yonrbora to till the soil, and briogforth with labor all that Nature has bidden in her soil Go teach yonr children that there is no disgrace hi : a blackened face or a smooched hand; thenyoa* will have a eolation to the mystery which to-diy pozzies so many of yon, and you will knowwfci, to do with your unemployed men and women. Shall I give my name to-day? Never did I fear to give it in favor of the block man. Shall Ifurto give it in favor of the white man? Kay, nay. ' If the great transition that a person expert enccs in crossing over Jordan makes as ssd havoc with bis literary accomplishments as the above extract indicates has fallen to the lot of Mr. Sumner, it would be well to take bat t small accident-insurance policy to cover cbntfo-' gencies before setting sail ou the River Stjx. The Hon. Lucius Fairchild, United Stales' Consul at Liverpool, sends to the Department l of State some statistics regarding emigration.’* The number of steerage passengers cleared from" that port during the six months ending Jos e: 30,1873, was 32,177. In the same period of 1877 • the numocr was 26,555,—an Increase of 5,(23 fa - 1378. The number of ships in 1877 was 330; h' 1378,401. The number of the same clou of 1 passengers arriving In Liverpool during the period In 1378 was 13,807; la 1877, 19,180,—a dc- ‘ crease in* 1378 of 879. Daring the month of 5 June, 1878, 71 ships left Liverpool with 7,315* emigrants,—s,79l to the United States, ami -1,271 to Canada. The recent resumption of work bn the Wash- Ington Monument brings to the mind of an ex change the disposition of a stone that was de signed for a place in the structure. Tbe Amer ican Minister told Pone Pius IX. that it was proposed to Insert monoliths from the various States and nations, and tbe Pope sent one to America. It reached Washington la ISM, when the Know-Nothing excitement was at its bight, and the young men of Washington re solved that the Romish contribution should not make a part of the monument. They therefore gathered together at night, chipped off a few pieces of the stone for relics, took It to the middle of the Potomac, and dropped it in. The New Tork Times says that the rumor set on fool that Niagara Falls bookmen beg for work at 30 cents per hour is bevond belief. The hotel prices are moderate, but the parks and side shows as voracious as ever. It costs 61 toll to cross the new suspension bridge in a two*borse carriage. Not the least outrage is the fencing in of tbe Falls on the American side and charg ing 25 cents to see them. On the Canadian aide, where a much better view may be had, all the points of observation are free to the public. 11l the Senatorial district composed of the First, Ninth, and Tenth Wards, represented for the past four years by Mr. Jons C. Hawks, many Republicans are talking of Gen. Hotch kiss. The General is popular, and would make a useful member. Be would be avert one® stronger candidate at the polls than some of the personswho are shoving themselves forward with impudent assurance for the nomination. Judge Bradwhll is talked of for Represent ative to the General Assembly from the South ern district, composed of the Third and Fourth . Wards, and Hyde Park and Lake. The Juilce . made a good member when he was in the Lezis* lature some years ago, and gave general satis faction. If ho is willing to serve again it would , probably be difficult to find a better man In the district willing to “run” for the position. ' From the Sth to the 17th of July 10,366 fo? eigners arrived in Paris, —3,003 from Enslandt 1,526 from Belgium, 1,253 from Germany. 8M from the United States, 689 from Italy, 66U from Switzerland, 445 from Austria, 379 from Spain* 292 from Holland,. 231 from Russia, 166 from Sweden and Norway, 107 from Denmark, and smaller numbers from twenty-one other States. We don’t want to handle those New Orleans and other Southern papers any more, escent with a nair of tones. ’Cause whyl they have the yellow fever down there, aud too disease may be brought by mail. It is said be contagious and epidemic both, and either is bad enough. THE ELGIN ASYLUM, Special Dispatch ta The Trljcnl. ELOUf, 111., Aug. 3.—The usual monthly meeting of the Trustees ot the Northern Hos pital for the Insane occurred on Thursday after noon. There was a full attendance, indndin. the Hon. C. W. Marsh, President, of Sycamore, I. C. Bosworth and Secretary K. W. Padeiforo, of Elgin; Frederick Stahl, of Galena; and • H. Holden, of Chicago, the attorney of the A deed was presented to the prooertr Included. In the bequest of the i«e Jonathan Burr, ot Chicago. At one tune beqnest was valued at $50,000, but,tho_ Irtn_ shnnkage of values has reduced it to * , $35,000; Ten thousand dollars of this amom , is In Chicago water-bonds, worth 3 per preminm, and readily turned Into cash. . .- • It is expressly stipulated in the will that J.. . the interest accruing from this used, and lor the specific purpose of Inrounroa v; the inmates of the Asylum with Increased means . of amusement, recreation, and comfort. Tills property was dnee diverted to the w , - ot the Cook County Insane Asylum at Jen«J, son by the Circuit Court, noon their data «« this Institution fulllllcd the provlslons ot too ... will. Upon an appeal to the SupremeiComv i was recently decided that the property snoum go to the Elgin Asylum. ■' THE IRISH LANGUAGE, Special DitvatcA to The Tribuiu. -* * rt New Youk, Ang. B.—Two months seo » school was started In the' Bowery to teach in .. „• Irish langnagb. The Philo-Celtic Society is Mr , . hind the enterprise, which is very success,el f far, as the dasses number ISO persons, with ~ average attendance of eighty. The eipens but 25 cents a month, and instruction is two nights a week. The Sodety hu bntni, also in Brooklyn, Jersey City, and Elmira, . proposes to extend them to other cities-. brightest and most advanced pnpu here » American.