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Chicago daily tribune. [volume] (Chicago, Ill.) 1872-1963, December 01, 1878, Image 4

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Slrilm»e.
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SOCIETY MEETINGS.
•WASHINGTON CHAPTER. NO. 43. R. A. JI.-Rrc
ular Convocatioa Friday cvcnlnjr, Dec. ct a: tur
ner cl llandolph anti ilalstcil-stf.. at 7;:. < j • •• --i’
bctlncts and wurli on the Loyal Arcti Di*crc«.. v t-luutf
companions cordially By order
. V, MUNSTLiiMAN. H. P.
CHARLES B. ■WRIGHT. S«;retary.
COVENANT LODGE, NO. 520, A. F. & A. M.—Rep
alar Communication Frldav evening, Dec. a. at Cor
inthian Hall. No. 187 Haft Klnzle-st.. at 7:3uoVlock.
forboMacss and Important work. The members are
requested to attend. Visiting brethren cordiallv In-
Tlied. liy order of 11. j!<
WILLIAM KEUK, Secretary.
CORINTHIAN CHAPTER, NO. 69. R. A. M.—
Convocation Monday evening. Dec. 2. at 7: no
o'clock. Council Degrees will bs conferred. The
members of Corinthian Chanter wno have the decrees
arc reonested to be present, Visiting Companions are
Invited. By order G. W. BARNARD, H. P.
D. A. CASHMAN LODGE, NO. 656. A. F- & A. M.—
Reenlar Communication Tuesday evenins, Dec. 3. at
their hall, comer West Madbo.i and Robev-ws. Busi
ness: Annual report of Treasurer an<3 Secretary. Work
tn M. M. Decree. Visitors welcome. Gavel sounds
at 7:30 sharp. G. A. DOUGLASS, Secretary.
NATIONAL LODGE, NO. 596. A. F. &A. M.—The
Annual Communication will l.e held on Tuesday even
ing, Dec. :t. at their hall. cor. Randolph and Daisied
su., for the election of .officers and payment of dues.
All members are notified to be present. By order W. M.
A. C. WOOD. Secretary.
CHICAGO COMMANDEKr. NO. 19. K. T.-Spcrlal
Conclave Mondav evening, Dec. 2. at 7:30 n. m.. for
the transaction of business. The order or the Temple
will be conferred. Visiting Sir Knights welcome. By
older of the Eminent Commander.
JAMES E. MEGINN. Recorder.'
APOILO COMMANDEUT. NO. 1, K. T.—Stated
and annual conclave next Tuesday evening (Dec. :t) at
Ho'clodc, for election of officers, psvmentof dues and
either Important business. A fail attendance ts re
quested. Visitors welcome. By order of the Oom
mnuticr. J. R. DUNLOP, Recorder.
ASHLAR LODGE. NO. A. F. & A. M.—Regular
meeting Tuesday evening. •'Dec. 3. in their hall, 76
Mnnroe-st., fur husineasland work. All members arc
requested to be present. The fratemsty cordially in
riled. C. H. CRAM, Secretary.
DIVISION NO. 2. OF THE A. O. ll.—All members
are requested to meet at their hall tills morning at 9
o'clock charm ro -attend the funeral of our deceased
brother, John McGarry- By order of
JOHN BURKE. President.
ST. BERNARD COMMANDERV, NO. 35. K.T.-
Annual conclave Wednesday evening. Dec. i. at 7:20
o’clock, for the elections of officers and the payment of
dues. By order J. S. WHITE, E. C.
CHICAGO CONCLAVE, NO. SI, RED CROSS OF
Constantine—Rendezvous Saturday. Dec. 7. at 7:30 p.
m.. shars*. JOIIND. M- CARR, Soverclgc-
H, S. AUSTIN, Recorder.
VAN RENSSELAER GRAND LODGE OF PERFEC
TION.—There will be a Regular Assembly on Thursday
evening next for business. ■ ■
SUNDAY, DECEMBER 1,187 S.
In New York on Saturday greenbacks
ranged from 99£. to 99J.
The excommunication of ilrs. Tilton by
Plymouth Church reminds one of the jury
verdict which found the plaintiff gnilty and
the costs to be paid by the Court.
Livingstone, the Crow Creek Indian
Agent, has been indicted by the Grand Jury
of Yankton for forgery, embezzlement, and
conspiracy, and there are other Agents yet to
be heard from.
The news from Afghanistan is not cheer*
ing to the friends of the invading troops.
The Indian army, after having taken the
Kbyber Passes and penetrated the country
beyond, has been caught in the trap of its
own making. The Afredles have reoccupied
the principal thoroughfare and cut off
retreat.
As far as can be ascertained, a movement
is on foot among a number of members of
the Bar of this city looking to the impeach*
ment of Judge Blodgett, of the United
States District Court. Just what it will
amount to can hardly bo predicted as yet,
the effort being still in its infancy. The
immediate cause for it, we believe, was the
disagreement between Judge Blodgett and
the recent Grand Jury regarding the sup
pressed Hibbard indictment.
The Town of Jackson, Ky., is in the full
enjoyment of a civil war of its own. Two
lawless mobs have been fighting each other
all the post week, and half a dozen men have
been killed, including the County Judge.
It seems as if this charming exhibition of
neighborly hospitality ought to be interfered
with before long by the Governor; although
it may be that he is holding off in hopes that
the opposing parties may all bo killed. If
so, his intentions are laudable.
When the Irish members' of Parliament
are opposed to any measure they pursue the
obstruction plan, sometimes with success.
The policy of the Government in the Afghan
business bos caused the Home-Rulers to
unite with the Liberals in opposition. But
the Home-Rule leader, Dr. Burr, it is re
ported, has decided against the obstruction
plan this rime. Hence Parliament may go
ahead and do some of its pressing work be
fore the holidays. The rumor of a dissolu
tion and a general election is hardly credible
under tbe circumstances.
“Whether Mr. Bugling intended it as a joke
or not, liis letter to the County Commission
ers resigning Ms membersMp in that body
because he had been indicted in the United
States Court proved to be a good one. The
moment that letter was read the majority
rose to their feet instantly. To them it was
full of meaning. “Eesign the office of
County Commissioner because of an indict
ment? Forbid it, Heaven! Make, that a
mle, and who of us “would be safe ? Such a
rule will leave tMs Hoard without a quorum
in sixty days.” So the resignation of Mr.
Bceliko was unanimously refused.
There is a rumor that Germany has pro
posed a Congress of reigning Princes to
consider the subject of Socialism. But as
the reigning Princes of Europe just now,
with one exception, have vety little to do
witt( law-making, the prudent reader will
avoid attaching too much credence to the
report. Societies, dosses, and individuals
are subject to certain laws wMch can only be
changed or destroyed by Parliaments. “Wm
nmi, V icron, and Amadeus might confer
together for a twelvemonth, hut they could
not then carry their plans into ef
fect without the consent of the people’s
representative. Since the Napoleonic era
times have been mighty hard for the sover
eigns of Europe. France has been perma
nently reclaimed by the Republicans; in
Austria the Hungarians have gradually crept
into power; Italy has become modernized;
the revolutions in Spain have rendered the
royal tenure of office uncomfortably frail; and
even in Germany we find avowed Socialists
sitting in Parliament. What could all the
Kings and Emperors accomplish by a Con-,
gress except to expose their own weakness ?
The general trade depression now prevail
ing in England may be guessed at by the
items which now and then stray across the
ocean by cable. Almost every day there are
announcements of heavy failures and allu
sions to widespread strikes which, if occur
ring in this country, would cause great ex
citement The British newspapers, how
ever, take these things philosophically. It is
stated this morning that the Chattorly
Iron Company has refused an offer of 900
men to resume work at a reduction of 5 per
cent. This is p suggestive paragraph. The
Company some months ago decided to re
duce all bands 10 per cent, and the men quit
work. If there were any money in the busi
ness at 5 per cent off the Company would
without doubt accept the terms now pro
posed. That they cannot is only another
evidence of the break-down of this branch of
manufacture in England and Wales.
Last niglii the Board of County Commis
sioners for 1878 went out of existence, smell
ing badly to the Inst. Even with the re
cruits from the “Reformers'* elected in
1877, its last hours were full of sorrow and
trouble. The $30,000 involved in the Baums
case was just beyond their reach, always
eluding their grasp. Desperate as were the
efforts made to get it, “ solid ” os the “ 8 "
voted every time for its division, the Board
expired officially, leaving the money in the
Treasury. The Ring is broken ; the magic
power that governed a majority of votes has
lost its potency. The new Board will begin
its existence on Monday, and if it would do
well it will begin with a general break-up of
the whole county organization, from top to
bottom. In the meantime there will be
mourning and weeping among the retainers
of the old Board, but there will be a feeling
of relief on the part of the public that the
corrupt and dishonest County Ring shall
rule no more.
The Batjmeb cose has not been definitely
settled by the German and American Gov
ernments. Nor is it a case that will come to
an end for a long time yet, as it involves a
most important question,—that of citizen
ship. Battmeb, it will be recalled, was a
Chicagoan who returned to his native coun
try about a year ago and was immediately
ordered away by the authorities on the
ground that ho was subject to military
service as a German citizen. After a
year’s meditation on the case Secre
tary Evabts has reached the conclusion that
a naturalized German who sojourns in his
native land over two years gives the German
Government the right to consider such
sojourn as a renunciation of American citi
zenship. But this docs not touch the
Baumeb case, or in fact the majority of
such coses which may arise hereafter, as
Batjmeb did not remain in Germany but a
few months. This Government surely ought
to take some definite position in a matter
which is of vital importance to a very large
class of our naturalized citizens.
THE PUBLIC-WORKS ORDINANCE.
So far as the creation of an office under
the title of Commissioner of Public Works is
calculated to relieve the Mayor from , a bur
densome complication' of dulies, the project
is not objectionable. We believe it to be the
fact that, as the working head of the Depart
ment of Public Works, the Mayor is charged
with more than ought to be expected from
him in connection with the other dntles of
his office. Nevertheless, the ordinance creat
ing this office, which comes up for passage
to-morrow evening, ought to be amended in
several particulars before adoption. It is
especially defective in two respects,—first,
in not providing for the inauguration of the
new Department with the new Mayor, so as
to give every Mayor thd privilege of appoint-'
ing the Commissioner who is to, serve under
him, and, secondly, in not making the Com
missioner and the snb-departments properly
subordinate to the Mayor. The passage of
the ordinance in its present shape will entail
more confusion than now exists, and it will
become a fruitful source of contention in the
future.
The ordinance as it stands provides for the
appointment of a Commissioner by Mayor
Heath in the latter part of bis term, who
shall hold office for two years, or during the
greater part of the term of Mayor Heath’s
successor. And thus, in the future, every
outgoing Mayor would have thj privilege of
appointing the Commissioner who should
serve with the incoming Mayor. There is
no justice in this feature of the ordinance.
The new Mayor should have the privilege of
selecting his own Commissioner, by and
with the consent of the Council, and of
removing him at any time he may deem it
best for the public service. It is only in
this -fay that the Mayor cun be fairly held
responsible for the management of the De
partment, and it is highly desirable to fix this
responsibility upon the Mayor. The terms
of the ordinance, as it reads now, are
further favorable to a division and shifting of
responsibility by making the Mayor depend
ent upon the Commissioner in some cases
and the Commissioner subordinate to the
Mayor in others. Bor instance, it is provided
that the Mayor shall appoint the Secretary of
the Department, but only such person as the
Commissioner may recommend. The Mayor
may also appoint the City Engineer, hut
must procure the Commissioner’s consent to
bis choice, and then the Commissioner may
remove the City Engineer, but must secure
the acquiescence of the Mayor in such action.
The Superintendents of the various sub-de
partments are to be appointed by the Com
missioner, the Mayor’s consent having first,
been obtained, and may be removed by the
Commissioner under the some condition.
All this is needlessly involved, and the
effect will be that the Mayor may always
shift blame upon - the Commissioner and
the Commissioner upon the Mayor, while
the public interests will fall between two
stools. The administration of the public
works in Chicago is a charge amounting to
at least a million of dollars a year, and it will
not do to afford any opportunity to those
in control for avoiding responsibility to the
public. *
The proper model for organizing the Pub
lic “Works Department is furnished by the
President and his Cabinet. The purpose is
to relieve the Mayor from the mass of detail,
but not from responsibility. He should
have the appointment, with the approval of
the Council, of the Commissioner, -Secretary,
City Engineer, and the heads of the several
sub-departments, and the privilege of remov
ing these officials at will. To the Commis-
THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE: SUNDAY. DECEMBER 1, 1878-SIXTEEN PAGES.
siouer should bo intrusted a general super
vision of all the departments, and the ap
pointment and removal of the clerks and sub
ordinates, who should be hired and discharged
according to the necessities of the service
and their individual conduct and usefulness.
Under this condition of things a thorough
going system could bo established, the peo
ple could properly hold the Mayor to account
for the satisfactory and economical adminis
tration of the public works, and the Mayor
could make the Commissioner and the head
of each sub-department directly and person
ally responsible for the management of his
particular branch of the service. With such
a system there would bo no opportunity for
the .disagreements that formerly arose be
tween the Mayor and the Board of ’Public
Works or the Board of Police, through which
the efficiency of the public service was con
stantly impaired. Unless the Council is dis
posed to provide a simple and rational sys
tem of this kind, it will do better to let mat
ters stand as they are now.
THE ITCH FOE OFFICEHOLDING.
According to latest accounts the attempt
to run the office of Sheriff of- Cook County
by injunctions-has been abandoned. It
would have been more creditable to Mr.
Kebn’s sense of honor and the judgment of
his friends and advisers if the scheme had
never been suggested. The shape the proj
ect assumed when it was announced war
rants the belief that it was conceived more
with the purpose of keeping Kern in the
office than of keeping Hoffmann out. In
the same column in which the Kern organ
set up the theory that Maj. Hoffmann is in
eligible it also insisted that, in such case,
Mr. Kern would continue to be The
latter assumption was very quickly exploded
upon an examination of the law bearing on
the case, and since then wo have heard
no more of the unselfish and pure
minded patriots who proposed to, contest
Maj. Hoffmann’s eligibility to the office for
the soke of public morals. The fact seems
to be that Maj. Hoffmann’s right to the
office, since ho has been fairly elected by a
majority of the people, and has properly
qualified, can only be contested by a quo
warranto proceeding, which is a judicial
inquiry into the authority by which a certain
person assumes to exercise the functions of
any given office, and that such proceeding
can only be instituted after Maj. Hoffmann
has actually taken possession. In that cose
Kern would no longer be Sheriff, but an ex-
Sheriff, and there is no law or precedent
which could re-establish him'in a position to
which the people refused to elect him. The
idea of resorting to an injunction to restrain
Keen from turning over the office was a des
perate one, and we do not believe there is a
Judge in Cook County who would conseut to
issue such au injunction for fifteen minutes
after the-expiration of Kern’s term. The
latter’s talk about his own responsibility and
that of his bondsmen was all weak and
insincere twaddle, for the law expressly
exempts Kern and his bondsmen from all
liability after turning over his office, except
as to business transacted during his own
official term. If Maj.' Hoffmann were ineli
gible to the office of ’Sheriff, if there
were any honest intention to raise that ques
tion, it would have been done without refer
ence to Kern’s selfish interests. The way
would be to file a quo warranto after Maj.
Hoffmann had token his position; and, iu
case his ineligibility were established, Coroner
Mann would become Acting Sheriff till a
new Sheriff should be elected. It is safe to
say that no proceeding of this kind will be
taken unless it be promoted by malice on
account of the prompt defeat of tho effort
to keep Kern in office.
The controversy that has been raised in
this matter can only serve to illustrate once
more tho inordinate passion for officeholding
which seizes upon most men who have once
had a taste of it. It is like the opium hobit,
j and worse than Dr. D’Dngzb’s alcoholic
infusoria, for no variety of cinchona bark
will cure it. Men seem to be willing to sac
rifice money, reputation, and friends to keep
in office after they have once been there.
The combination of “a little brief author
ity ” and easily-gotten emoluments exercises
a curious and mysterious influence upon
most human nature. Once nn officeholder
always an office-seeker, might well become a
maxim in popular government. An impres
sion seems to prevail that a vested right is ac
quired by election or appointment, and that
there is an abrogation of contract iu choos
ing a successor. Kern’s cose is a conspicu
ous example of tills monomania. Two years
ago he was elected Sheriff by a good round
majority, and he went into the office with
the warm friendship of those who hod voted
for him, and tho confidence of the entire
community. He seems to have begun to
electioneer for a re-election almost before he
was warm' in his chair, and during the two
years made a host of personal opponents by
his promises and disappointments. It was
only after a fierce struggle that he secured a
nomination, and then his own party helped
to defeat him. A sane man, outside of tho
influences of politics, would soy that this
experience, including tho expenditure of a
large part of the money his office yielded
him, would have been enough,—and yet
he was not satisfied. He seemed to
be willing to clutch at a straw to retain his
hold. "Without the slightest prospect of i
success he has gained the reputation of de
siring to impose himself upon the people
after tho people had expressed their desire
that ho should retire, and there is no con
duct which colls out so much popular resent
ment. Wo presume from reports that come
to us that Sir. Kern has reconsidered any in
tention he may have had*to resist tho popular
will, whether he has been persuaded by more
judicious friends or whether he has become
convinced of the inefficiency of injunctions
in such a case, and that he will turn over his
office, public property, and prisoners to
morrow, take his receipt from Maj. Hoff
mann, and retire in os good order as possi
ble; and, after he shall have recovered some
what from tho itch for officeholding under
the influences of private business life, He
will recognize how narrow an escape he
made from a fatal mistake
A correspondent writes a long communica
tion for our waste-basket, because he does
not sign his true name, complaining that the
churches in tMs city do not welcome tran
sient visitors more cordially than they do.
Ha asserts—what we do not think is
warranted by the facts—that strangers are
hustled into the poorest and most undesira
ble seats, and that most pew-holders are dis
tant, and often insolent, to persons.not be
longing to the regular congregation. No
doubt a fine bit “ 'of irreligious sarcasm
might-bo woven into an article on the
.exdnsiveness and aristocratic tendencies of
our fasMonahle churches, and Mr. Eobeiit
In Guns o in. and his adherents will proba
bly not be slow in making the most
of that aspect of the situation. “ But there
ore two sides to this question. It must not
be forgotten that the regular pew-renters in
a church pay a high price in cash for the
privileges they enjoy, and that the cour
tesy which they extend to strangers and oth
ers springs more from a desire to do them
good than from the recognition of any other
obligation. But to return to the complaint
of our correspondent. We do not believe
that people suffer much from neglect in any
church in Chicago. On tha contrary, both
pastor and all the active members in every
congregation that wo know anything about
are always glad to see all who wish to come,
and it seldom happens that anybody has to
stand during service. Certainly no ono is re
garded as an intruder, and wo suspect that
this is a trumped-up excuse on the part of
those who could really find no other excuse
for staying away from church on Sunday.
CHUBCH-ABSENTEEI3M.
The Hot. A. B. Morey, of the Fifth Pres
byterian Church, Cincinnati, preached a ser
mon on Sunday last upon the subject of non
attendance in the Protestant churches of that
city. The statistics upon -which ho based
his sermon are sufficiently startling to have
justified the reverend gentleman in making a
close search for the causes, although, with all
respect for his honesty of intentions, we
conceive ho has ignored the real ones. The
substance of his statistics may be stated as
follows: The Protestant population of the
city is at least 120,000 souls. Of church
going age there are, say, 80,000. The seat
ing capacity of the Protestant churches is
00,000; the membership 20,000. On Sunday
moruing last the attendance was 12,500.
That is, a little more than one-sixth of the
Protestants of chnroh-going age went to
church, and of the actual members one
third were at home, and in all the churches
there were 47,500 vacant seats. It is little
wonder that Brother Moan? is startled at the
rapid growth of absenteeism.
In searching for the causes, the reverend
gentleman found that the first was the news
paper which was issued on Sunday ; the
second, the existence of so many foreigners;
and, lastly, the want of efficiency in the
work of the Church. The first and second
reasons are too weak and flippant to deserve
notice. The third is stated too much in the
manner of a glittering generality, and does
not go to the roots of the trouble. In such
an important matter as this it is -wiser to
look the truth right in the face and frankly
concede it, because,a thousand such sermons
as the Cincinnati clergyman preached will
not induce another soul to go to church,
while so far as his discourse was in the na
ture of a rebuke it was not pointed enough
to pierce any conscience in the pews. In
stating what it conceives to be the reasons
for this alarming growth of absenteeism
from the Protestant churches, The Chicago
Tiueuxe is only actuated by a desire to help
the clergy correct, the evil, for an evil it
assuredly is.
The most comprehensive reason for this
absenteeism is to be found in the growing
tendency of the Church to become a “so
ciety ” affair, and the disposition to run
end manage it after the manner of our social
clubs. If one does hot belong to the clique
or coterie of ‘ ‘society,” there is little room
or use for him in most churches. It is com
ing to be necessary; to go to church in your
own carriage, with i n liveried driver and
horses that step high. The low-stepping
horses that drag the ■ street-cars cannot take
you into,the churqh “society,” unless it is
known you have a--carriage at home and
are eccentric enough, to take the democratic
conveyance. It is coming to bo necessary to
wear very good clothes to the church, and to
manifest an esthetics taste and disregard of
expense about it, so,', that what is lost in
the loudness of the opera, for instance,
may be mode -up in cost. It is
coming to be necessary for the coterie of
church society to put,on an air of exclusive
ness that freezes out 1 those who do not move
within its limits. This, we assume, is a
wide departure from, the foundation princi
ple of the Church on- earth contained in the
instruction to go out'into the highways and
byways, and compel them to come in. The
Church has a firm grip on the avenues and
stone-fronts, but it does not reach out into
the byways or bring any influence to bear
upon the cottage of the workingman. Nor
would it be of any use to invite the mechanic
in to hang on a ragged edge, because his pride
would revolt at it, nor would it be possible to
induce a poor man to partake of a religion
that was beyond the possibilities of his
pocketbook, when salvation should be with
out money and without price, and iho
Scriptures request him to partake of the
waters of life freely.
In the second place, the management of
“ society ” in the Church, ns elsewhere, in
volves an immense expense. The expense
of the carriage and dress is but one item.
The expenses of social competition are
always on onerous tax. The fashionable
church, or auy church in which “ society ”
controls affairs, must of necessity impose
very heavy pew-rents and frequent assess
ments to moke the wheels go round. When
the rent of a pew in one of these churches
averages as much cost as the rent of the
average workingman’s house, how in the
name of all that is mathematical and moral
can a workingman afford to go to church?
It will not do to say that the working
man can have a back seat in the
gallery. The workingman has some pride.
Ho can have his seat in the theatre,
or the concert, or in any worldly
entertainment at the same price ns the rich,
and he meets them there on the level. His
natural pride revolts at beiug stuck off in a
corner where he is the victim of social distinc
tions. If a man is expected to go to a church
that cares nothing for him, because he is
not in “ society,” it is but natural that ho
should soon care nothing for the church and
stay at home. There is one Protestant church
in this city whoso seating capacity is 2,000,
and there are always 2,000 people in the
scats. • This church is the Temple of Thalia,
on Madison street, in which, for want of
conformity to dogma, Prof, riwixo is obliged
to hold his" servioc,. In this church one
seat is as good as another, and “ society ”
doeS not manage it. It I. practicable for a
poor man to go to it. It is practicable for
young men to go to it and feel at home, and
more youug men go there than to any other
Protestant church in the city. Therp are
no extraordinary expenses to this church
that involve the necessity of a contribution
box, with its weekly suggestions. Madison
street is filled with' horse-cars to take
away its worshipers. There are no
side-entertainments. It does not give con
certs, readings, or dramatic shows, is not
in the oyster, strawberry, or necktie busi
ness, and has no mortgages to lift from its
organ, furniture, bell, or building. The
Church should be the most democratic of all
institutions. The Homan Catholic Church
management understands this. That Church
has five or more services each Snhday. Four
of these are free and open to the world.
The pew-holder has no claim to his coat ex-
cept at the fifth. Thus it is that the Roman
Catholics have one church with five congre-
and the Protestants have five
churches with one congregation.
All denial to the contrary notwithstand
ing, the growth of absenteeism, we believe,
is due more to the encroachment of “ so
ciety” upon its direction and enjoyment
than to any other-cause, the natural result
of which is an alarming increase of expense.
Still, the statistics of Cincinnati are not
* w
safe guides as sources of comparison. Cin
cinnati never was a truly good city,
and for some time past, notwithstanding the
efforts of its one truly good man, the editor
of the Gazette, it has been going more and
more to the bad, until it is now pretty much
given over to music, hogs, beer, and Bon
Isgersoll, who has recently been holding
crowded levees to the edification of its peo
ple. It has almost entirely lot go of Chris
tianity, and one truly good man cannot save
it, any more than Lot was able to save Sodom.
There is too much church-absenteeism oven
in our own pious city, which does so much
for Christianity, charity, and mission work;
but it is not fair to measure our spiritual
condition by that of such a wicked city as
Cincinnati, .which has hopelessly gone over
to the “demnition bowwows.” Still, the
causes we have indicated are also at work
here, and they should bo removed, lest we
roach the pitiable condition of Cincinnati.
AMERICAN OEXPENDITOEES IN EUROPE.
The American Consul at Stuttgart, in
Wurtemberg, Mr. John S. Potter, in his
annual* report to the State Department,
makes special reference to the number of
Americans residing in Europe, their prob
able expenditure, and the purposes for
which many remain in Europe for a term of
years. Ho devotes a large part of his report
to what ho deems to bo generally a great
mistake: having American children edu
cated in European schools, especially in
those of Germany.
Ho has, by a diligent correspondence with
the American Consuls in Europe, reached an
estimate of the number of Americans visiting
Europe annually, by which it appears that
from July 1, 1877, to June 30, IS7S, there
arrived in Europe from the United States
80,553 cabin passengers and 59,834 steerage
passengers; and from Europe there arrived
in the United States 30,974 cabin passengers
and 77,300 steerage passengers. The steam
ship lines report that 80 per cent of the cabin
p ssengers both ways were Americans, which
would show that 29,244 American residents
visited Europe during the year, which is
about the average number each year. He
also finds that the average time spent by
Americans in Europe is two years, though
that of the mere sight-seers is much shorter.
Young persons, and families who go to
Europe with children for educational
purposes, remain from three to eight
and ten years. Families with young
children often remain until the young
est has acquired the language and
obtained an education. There is a largo
number of American families residing on the
Continent, whose heads have made fortunes in
the United States, who prefer European life,
and who live expensively, supporting con
siderable style, but who draw all their in
comes from investments in this country.
The reasons generally given for foreign
residence is that the educational institutions
of the United Slates do not oifer the advan
tages which they desire for their children.
Mr. Potter estimates the daily average
expenditures of each person, including cost
of living, education, traveling expenses, and
itho purchase' of I expensive trifles, at §3.
Assuming that 29,244 persons justly repre
sent the current number of Americans an
nually crossing the sea, and that the average
stay is two years, the number of Americans
constantly abroad would be 58,488, their
daily expenditure §292,444, and their annual
expenditure §108,594,000, drawn from the
United States in gold.
Mr. Potter has com
collected by him a stat
of Americans who are
ties named for educath
ipiled from information
tement of the number
residing at the locali
onal purposes;
Italy—
) Kudlcs *4O
) Palermo 15
» Messina 20
) Pome 120
Milan Hi
I Austria—
I Trieste 5
i Vienna 220
i Switzerland—
i Berne 50
i Geneva 350
i Lucerne 20
Zurich.... 90
Belgium—
Antwerp 25
Brussels 2GO
Sweden—Stockholm 250
England—
Glasgow 42
Lonuon 700
Russia—
St. Petersburg... 60
IVarsaw 40
Portugal—Lisbon.. 15
Tuscany—Leghorn. 19
Germany—
Berlin 200,
Btunswick 3C
Carlsruhe 30
Bohemia—Carlsbad 30
Germany—
Cologne 20
Dnsseldorf 22
Dresden 330
Frankfort 50
Freiburjr 13
Gotttni’ep 30
Hanover 500
Lcipsic 321
Munich 210
Stuttgart COO
Heidelberg. 30
France—
Boulogne.
Bordeaux
Marseilles
Paris ..
Italy—
Florence
iS’ice
Messina.
.. 100
*1,900
Total
* Estimated.
This number does not represent students
alone ; it includes families and others who
accompany their children during the period
of their studies; and there ore other places
besides those named where Americans are
studying languages, art, and science. But
putting the average expense of each person
thus engaged in acquiring an education at
$650 a year, the expenditure for those
enumerated would be $-1,500,000 a year, and
Mr. Potteu thinks this money, in an educa
tional way, might be more profitably ex
pended at home. On this point he writes
with feelings inspired by actual observation,
and so earnestly that wo think what ho
says worthy of reproduction and of careful
consideration. He writes:
The Government institutions of the United
Stale*, and the whole cnrrenl of practical life
under tnem.-is so different from those in Europe
that the wisdom of seminar American youths to be
educated whore they will be constantly subject to
teaching ami influences that arc incompatible
with the Institutions uuon which the prosperity
and existence of their country depends, and under
which they must live, may be satcly questioned.
Parents who love their country would do well,
before sending ibeir children abroad, to satisfy
themselves that the precise culture they seek for
them cannot be attained in a hieher decree, quick
er, cheaper, and more practical In character at
home. . . . Instances are known where, to
learn th* German language. American children
have crossed sea and land to enter a largo
school in Southern Germany, in which
the text-books or grammars used were
printed and published in Poston and New Jlavcn.
and tne instruction given by an eminent and gilted
l J rofe*sor who acuuired the mastery of the German
and other languages in America. But, while Amer
ican yrnmi* ladies; and gentlemen, and children
arc pursuing studies abroad, they naturally fall
into the free and easy ways of the social life that
'surrounds them, and unconsciously imbibe a love
of foreign customs, which makes them restless
under moral restraints and weakens their attach
ment to tne Jaws and systems of their native land;
and thus, with rare exceptions, they become un
fitted for nearly .all the paths of practical, encr- -
colic life under the republican institutions of the
United Stales.
This much applies generally to all parts
of Europe. Residing, however, as he does,
in Germany, he makes special reference to
those who attend''the universities in that
country, and the pictures he draws of uni
versity life cannot prpve attractive to Amer
ican parents. Here is a portion of what ho
says on this subject:
The music and technical schools of Germany
constitute the main attraction for American youths
of both sexes. In these institutions the courses of
study are thorough, and students must work hard
and lung in order to obtain marks of distinction.
But the scholars have no spur to cneractic work
except that which Is self-imposed. They go to
their lessons and lectures when they please,—crery
dav. once In a wee cor month, or not at all. Their
position, as members of the school, is not dis
turbed, nor. a reprimand given, so Jong as the
tuition fee Is promptly paid. The Professor will,
perhaps, mildly say to a derelict student, ** If you
do not study, you will not learn. It is wholly your
affair, and yon alone are the loser.” No effort Is
made to develop his moral capacities, or to assist
him m the oromoiion and refinement of his char
acter. Indeed, it would not be wide of thc’trath
to say that much is done which is positively inju
rious to character. The organization of the stu
dents into 4 * corps, ” "represented by different colors,
>if not encouraged is certainly permitted, and
* 4 dueling ” is one of the principal pastimes of the
44 corp student,” who soon becomes proud of bis
membership in an organization where ghastly
scars and mutilated feamresaro regarded os the
highest marks of honorable distinction.
In these great educational institutions, which
are professedly established for the purpose of de
veloping the highest and most refined capacities
of mankind, the 44 Kueipe.” or drinking carousal,
is an organized department of student or “corps "
life, and excesses arc cultivated with method and
regularly by meetings held once or twice in each
week.
Ho further describes the “Fast” days or
nights, when the Professors attend these
drinking banquets, and enter heartily into
the dissipation which is thus openly encour
aged. He also describes the fighting halls,
the scenes of bloody encounters, and where
men acquire fame in the proportion that
they take life in the dexterous use of the
sword among their fellow-students. Consid
ering the time thus wasted as taking a large
fraction from the natural period of life, he
declares that ** It would not be an exaggera
tion to say, that a bright boy in an American
school would finish his studies with honor,
enter upon the practice of his profession,
moke his mark in the world, and a fortune
as well, and retire from business before some
of the students in a German scientific schsol
had completed their studies.”
It is possible that Mr. Potter has exag
gerated the number of Americans residing
abroad for an overage period of two years,
and In this way has magnified unduly the
amount of money expended by Americans
annually in Europe* It is true that the av
erage American with a large and suddenly-ac
quired fortune does expend his money lav
ishly, and generally foolishly, but it requires
a great many of this class, even with the help
of medical and musical students of both
sexes, to expend a hundred and four mill
ions of dollars a year.
EDISON’S ELECTEIC LIGHT.
The holders of gas-stocks in England seem
to be recovering from the fright caused by
the announcement of Edison’s discovery of
an electric light. The London Times of
Nov. 14 reports an advance of 4 to 24 per
cent in the principal stocks. On the sup
position that the panic was caused by rumors
of European inventions,, this advance would
be difficult to explain. The'European in
ventions, so far os they have been tried, have
more than answered public expectations.
The Secretory of the Company formed to
operate the Kapizff light, now in use in the
London Times 1 composing-room, quotes with
approval the statement of Fontaine that
“ electric lighting costs annually 33 per cent
less than gas, and gives six timesmore light.”
It is evident that the advance in gas-stocks,
in the face of the results, is due to the belief
that such machines as Bapieff’s are not avail
able for common purposes, and that the
problem of the divisibility of the electric
light has not been solved. Edison has been
discredited by the scientific men to such an
extent that the holders of gas-stocks have
got their courage again. They believe his
much-vaunted “discovery” is not going to
amount to anything; and, unless it does,
they are perfectly safe in holding on to their
shares for the present.
It is a remarkable fact that just as the peo
ple an;the other.side’of-tho-water- have'be--
come convinced that Edison’s light is a fail
ure, the people on this side are more confi
dent that it has a reasonable scientific basis.
Wo do not say that Edison has succeeded, or
that be will succeed, in doing all that is
claimed for him; but we do say that there
are a number of reasons for still putting con
fidence in his promises. Not to speak of his
previous achievements, which should encour
age us to believe that he knows what he is
talking about, he has shown full faith in the
genuineness of his invention by preparing to
give it a trial on a large scale at Menlo Park.
He estimates the cost of his proposed experi
ment at 6100,000 to $125,000. It is not
conceivable that he would encourage his
friends to put money in such an enterprise
and embark in it himself unless ho had
pretty solid reasons for believing that
the outlay would be made good. His
own confidence in himself and the value of
his discovery, in spite of the storm of criti
cisms, sneers, and innuendoes with which he
has been visited, is almost sublime. It is
something’ like the confidence of Watts*
Arkwright, Fulton, and Stephenson, each
in himself; and every great inventor has
been compelled to persevere in the face of
the same obloquy before he has been suc
cessful.
Mr. Edison has given some important
clews on which it is possible to base an
opinion of the feasibility of his invention.
The most important statement that he has
yet made concerns the method of using
power in the proposed light. His critics
have maintained that it would be impossible
for him to use power more economically than
it is now used in the manufacture of gas.
The turning of water into steam, which is
necessary for the Wallace machine, involves
a great loss of heat; then there will be a
.7,048
loss by friction in machinery, a great
loss by induction, and a loss in heat at the
burner. Precisely at this point Mr. Edison
explains the whole philosophy of his system.
There is a loss by heat at the burner, it is
true, but that loss, as compared with the loss
by heat in burning gas, is only as one to ten.
Nine parts in ten of burning gas go away in
heat; one part in ten makes light. The
carbon in gas which is imperfectly consumed
is correlated in heat; and it is not possible
to consume more than one part in ten. If
the whole volume offgas at any given burner
could be condensed into’one-tenth of the
space, and burned, the intensity of the light
would be increased, Mr. Edison says, nearly
thirty-seven times. Now, in the case of
electricity the effect is that of condensation.
Only one part in ten of the power is used
for the production of heat, while nine parts
in ten are turned into light. Any person
who desires to test roughly the truth of this
observation can do so by putting bis hand
first near a gas-burner and then nea> an
electric light. It will be found that the heat
emitted from gas is, the difference of inten
sity considered, many times that of elec
tricity.
Mr. Edison discards combustion of car
bon altogether as a part of his scheme. His
effort is to get a platinum point—that metal
is chosen because it does not readily oxi
dize—into a state of incandescence. By an
arrangement which he has not yet divulged,
he keeps the platinum below the tempera
ture of 2,500 degrees, its melting point being
2,800 degrees. He does this by checking the
electric current whenever it is about to pro
duce more than the desired heat. The con
sequence is that his light presents chiefly the
phenomenon of incandescence, and only in
an inconsiderable degree that of combustion •
in other words, nearly all the power that he
brings to the burner passes off in light, and
very little in heat. The combustion which
takes place is that of the oxygen in the air
The difference between this system and that
which consumes a large quantity of carbon
in a gas-flame is fundamental. The savin*
effected by the former over the latter is so
great that Mr. Edison* calculates he might buy
gas at the retail price, use its superfluous heat
to make steam, and with that steam pro
duce an electric light which could be sold at
a profit. tThis seems a perfectly reasonable
explanation of the principle which is at the
bottom of the electric light, and which
makes it so much more economical in nse
than gas. It encourages us to hope that Mr.
Edison will do all that ho has promised, and
that, at no distant day, we shall have a
better light than gas, at a fraction of tha
price now chorged.
It -was currently'reported on ’Change in
this city yesterday that wheat is being ship,
ped in large quantities from Omaha and
other Missouri Elver points to Milwaukee at
10 cents per 100 pounds less than the rata
charged to Chicago; and the statement was
verified on appeal to parties stated to ho in
terested in the wheat in question. It was
also rumored that wheat is now being ship
ped by fill-rail from Milwaukee to the sea
board at 5 cen ts per 100 pounds less than tha
lowest rate that can be obtained by shippers
from Chicago. The truthfulness of this ru
mor was not admitted by the parties named,
bnt it was alluded to in sneha way as to leave
little doubt that the rumor is founded on
fact. In view of these conditions it is
decidedly refreshing to read the expression
of views of a leading railroad official given
in yesterday’s Teibuke. The gentleman
claims to think that “ the 'Warehouse Com
missioners are mainly responsible for the
diversion of this class of freight to Milwau
kee, the inspection there being better than
in Chicago.” , Parties in the trade say that
the existence of a grade known as “No. 4"
in Milwaukee makes it a little more difficult
to pass wheat into No. 3 in that city than
into the corresponding grade here; and, if
Milwaukee No. 2 be inferior to oar No. 2 it
is well that the world should know it, as the
quotations of the two grades in New York
generally indicate that the reverse is believed
to be the case there. The attempted ei.
planation of the wrong referred to seems
very much like adding insnlt to injury; and
the railroad officials would do better to re
form their practice than to endeavor to evade
the point at issne in any such manner as that
here referred to.
“Enough is as good as a feast,” is a trite old
adage, and everybody knows that one may nave
too much of a good tbiug. For example, the
■Democratic politicians have been yearning for a
“Solid South,” and they have got it pretty
much as they want it, under the shot-gun and
red-shirt method of electioneering; but they are
not exactly satisfied with their work. A Demo
cratic Congressman from the West (was It Bill
Springes?) remarked in Washington the other
day that “ The South is a little too d—d solijJ,”
the profane remark being elicited in a conversa
tion about the condition of affairs in South Caro
lina. He said that it was utterly impossible to
make Northern people believe that the Repub
licans in that State were not defrauded out of
at least three Congressmen by their system of
terrorism and Pallot-boz stuffing. No doubt
the bulldozers carried their little same
too for. They made too clean a sweep at the
first trial. Only two Republicans in the Legis
lature of South Carolina—a State that every-,
body knows is Republican—is overworking the
.opportunity. ' J >O ‘ M ‘ :
“The people of the United States have arsln the
silver option in the payment of debts, and never
will give it up—neverl ” This brings the bazzanl
dollar issue on to its old ground again, namely,
that the debtor shall have a chance to make bis
creditor take 85 cents for a dollar every time.—
Sew York Tribune.
Oh, no; that is not the idea in your bead at
all. You know* very well that the bullion
value of silver is as great to-day as sold was
previous to 1873. You know that cold has ad
vanced in purchasing power 20 to 40 per cent
within five years. What you want is to destroy
the silver option of payment, and compel every
man to pay bis debts in dollars really worth
125 cents each, as compared with former coin
values, and that is the reason you intrigue and
misrepresent for the establishment of the gold
standard; you seek to magnify the dollar; you
talk of a “clipped” dollar—what yon want is
a “loaded ” one. That is the true inwardness
of Jay Gould’s paper and of the milk ia his
cocoanut.
Oar readers may not have forgotten the over-
issue ot horse-railway stock in Philadelphia last
year. The guilty President of the Company
has bceu finally brought to trial. An exchange
says:
There was a grievous siebt in Philadelphia last
Monday. Jons S. Moist os was noon the stand to
testify in regard to the Market-Street Railway de
falcations. The ex-Prcsident of the Company told
a pitifnl story of his own weakness, of' the over-,
issue of stock to an enormous amount, of the mis
erably weak way in which he yielded to the impor
tunities and bnllyingof Jons R. Nagle & Co. Mr.
Moivrus is said to have answered in a mournful
manner when he acknowledged his own guilt, bat
he mentioned the vreatsums raised by the fictitious
stock os if they were small matters indeed. He has
had a disastrous familiarity with lame amount-* *«f
money which was not his own. He began by wink
ing at an irregularity of the Treasurer’of the Com
pany, and he ended by beina himself a self-con
victod criminal, from whom only the plea of
“Guilty ” was possiole. Tncre hare been many
pad losses of character in our time, but none sadder
than hid.-
The New York Tribune jokes Bill PeltoNi of
cipher-dispatch notoriety, in this unfeeling man
ner;
Col. William Tildes Pelton has wisely discon
tinued his practice of apriading the middle section
of his name in full npon his cards. Col. Pelton’s
middle name lias been in time past on extremely
useful and ornamental portion of his signature, but
never again willtne Tiloen part of Col. Pelton s
name invest him with any additional dignity or re
pute by rcilection. On the contrary. Col. Pee
ton’s middle name will he liable to do him sad dis
service so long as he wears it. For it will conlfn
nally remind him and remind other people of cer
tain transactions in the year of grace IS7C which
Col. William Tilpex Pelton and Col. William
Tilpen Felton’s uncle would be pleased to have
fonrotten. For these reasons we hold tbatCoL
Pelton exercises sound judgment and discretion
when >ic withholds as much of bis middle name as
possible from the broad sunlight of publicity. A
small and unobtrusive T. Is every way preferable
to the complete Tilden, whether In print or in the
bold, literary bureau hand which Col, Pelton used
to swing when he affixed his siimature to telegrams
and things in the day of hlsanttiority.
Some of ihe Milwaukee newspapers “wonder
that Senator Howe’s friends should holdalittle
caucus in Chicago instead of Milwaukee,” but
they may wonder still more to learn that there
was no caucus held here at the time referred to./
Senator Hows was on his way to Washington,
and some other Wisconsin men of note hap
pened to be here at the same time. The alleged
“caucus” was held in Room 239 of the Grand
Pacific Hotel, and the only persons present were
Senator ana Mrs. Howe and a representative of
The Tribune. The proceedings of the caucus
were published iu our issue of the next morn
ing in the. shape of an interview with ths Sen
ator.
Congress meets tomorrow, anti there areover
200 bills on the House calendar alone. Some o£
the Important bills Introduced at the last ses
sion, and ready to come up for consideration,
ore entitled as follows: An act to provide pen
sions on account of death, or wonnds received,
or disease contracted in the service of the United
States during the late War of the Rebellion.
An act to fix the pay of letter-carriers. Bill
regulating the compensation for the transporta
tion of malls on railroad routes, providing for
the classification of mail-matter, and for other
purposes. Rlil to provide for the establishment
of steamship mail-service between ’the United

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