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Chicago daily tribune. [volume] (Chicago, Ill.) 1872-1963, February 09, 1879, Image 12

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12
ADULTERATION.
Frightful Abuse of the Stomachs
of the American
People.
l*eamits, Chiccory, Beans, and
Blue Clay Mixed with
Cofl'ec.
Baking-Powders Made with. Alum
Instead of Cream-of-
Tartar.
lea Poisoned with lilaet Lead, Prussian
Blue, Dutch Pink, and Ar
senile of Copper.
Oil of Vitriol iu Vinegar—Flour Mixed
with Plaster of Paris, Olay,
Bone-Dust, Etc.
Glucose in Sugar—Terra-Alba, Mer
cury, Copper, and Lead in
Candy—Arsenic in
Wall-Paper.
Draft of an Anti-Adulteration Law
by the Leading Medical Socie
. ties of New York.
COFFEE.
yew York Eremna F-'St.
The writer hereof, while sitting In the office of
a large coffee and spice mill a few years ago,
beard a clerk ask the manager whether an order
for a large quantity of ground coffee could be
filled within a certain time. Before replying,
the manager stepped to a speaking-tube,
whistled, and then asked; “Has that cargo ot
peanuts arrived yet?” Baring received an an
swer apparently satisfactory, he told Hie clerk
that tlie order could be filled in tlie time men
tioned. A not unnatural cariosity to learn what
connection existed between coffee and peanuts
failed to obtain any very definite response from
Hie manager, and It is only recently that the
mystery has been solved to the writer’s satisfac
tion. Peanuts for a long time were used to
adulterate ground coffee, until the public, be
coming distrustful of the ground article, ceased
buying any coffee except that which was
roasted whole and so sold. This practice great
ly cheeked the adulteration ot coffee until
very lately; but so profitably can coffee be adul
terated that already there are several processes
in use for preparing a coffee-bean out of a
variety of foreign substances. For example, in
England, application for a patent has been made
lor pressing finely-ground chiccory into molds
of the exact shape of coffee-beans.
Dr. William A. Hammond, formerly Surgeon-
General of the United Stales, told Uie writer
that, during the War, be found Uie coffee
grounds in the large Government hospitals
were regularly bought by certain dealers, who
then sold them to coffee and spice mills. As
nearly as be could remember, most of tlie
coffee-grounds from the Washington hospitals
went to Delaware. The trade was so openly
carried on that the dealers thought best to
account lor It by saying Unit the grounds were
used not for making coffee a second time, but
for adulterating pepper and soiccs; but Dr.
Hammond said that there were so many other
things equally available for those purposes that
he felt confident the spent coffee was dried,
worked over, and, after being mixed with a cer
tain proportion ol fresh ground coffee, offered
for sale. . .. .
In the course of investigating this subject,
the Evening representative happened to
meet an old acquaintance formerly engaged in a
coffee and spice mill. On being asked about
some of Uie tricks of the trade, he said:
“Now, look here, you think that there's noth
ing too bad to be done in one of these mills,
but I can tell vou of a trick that beats any adul
teration thev ever did clean out of sight.”
Having obtained a promise that no names
should be used, be said that he had been asked
a couple of years ago if he would like to under
take the manufacture of artificial coffee. Be
ing of a speculative turn ol mind (and en
vaksani, none too scrupulous) be went into the
business.
“We used to buy a very soft, fine blue clay,
grind it thoroughly and uryout tlie water. It
was then moistened to a molding consistency
with extract of chiccory and dandelion, molded
into coffee-bean shape and mixed with a certain
proportion of pure coffee. When roasted it had
ail tlie appearance of genuine coffee, with the
additional advantage to us of weighing more.
Using 25 per centum of elav beaus, which
weighed about 25 per centum more than the
real coffee, we would get per centum more
weight out of a given quantity by measure, aud
this additional weight was enough to pay for the
working ot tlie clay into shape; so that opr clay
coffee gave us a clean profit of 25 cents on tin;
dollar, beside the profit on the genuine coffee.”
*• Did vou sell much of ill”
“We "did a very large business. We could
undersell any other bouse in the market, but we
never ran down our prices so as to excite suspi
cion. By keeping jus; enough below market
rales to secure a sale for all we could handle, we
kept up good profits and a good reputation.”
*• Where did vour clay come from?”
“That X can’t tell you. I’ve gone out of tlie
business myself for reasons of myown, but—”
“There are others still engaged in it; is that
it?”
“ Well, I reckon I’ve told you enough for one
dav; (suppose you hunt up somebody else.”
A diligent search through New 7 York and
Brooklyn failed to discover any more trace of
this business, and it is probably carried on iu
Boston, Philadelphia, or the West.
T hat caiccory and cereals (beans, wheat, or
rye) are made to resemble the native coffee beau
is proven by the analysis of the samples bought
in different New York groceries. The first eight
samples mentioned in Dr. Mott’s report were
bought whole and ground in the presence of the
buyer. Unfortunately no samples of the whole
beans were taken, but the fact rhat chiccory was
louud in considerable quantities in 25 per cent
of the samples shows that it must have beeu
pressed into shape to resemble coffee. House
wives. therefore, who have heretofore depended
upon buying their coffee whole, to get it pure,
will find that they have been leaning on a broken
reed.
Id roasting coffee iU weight is diminished by
the evaporation ol Its moisture, from 14 to 3J
per centum. Some dealers succeed in recovering
a part of this loss. Just as the not coffee is
withdrawn Xrom the roaster, a spray jet of hot
water is turned upon it tor an instant. The
heat of the coffee evaporates most of the water,
but about 4 to 5 per centum of wcitrbt is re
stored. The objection to tuts trick is that It
causes a verv uoticeahle loss of aroma, ami
therefore lowers the strength of the coffee.
Some dealers have processes for treating in
ferior kinds of coffee so as to make them appear
liae the better qualities. For instance, San Do
mingo, Mexican, Maracaibo, and Rio are made
to resemble Java bv a kind of sweating. As
Java sells at about twenty-three cents a pound
wholesale, and the others at about fifteen cents
a pound, the profit will be seen to he enormous
BAIOifGPOWDEK.
There are certain constituents of good baking
powder which mar be regarded as entirely free
from danger. The consist of pure grape cream
of tartar, bicarbonate of soda, and carbonate of
ammonia. The cream of tartar unites with the
other two ingredients, and carbonic add gas ts
thrown off, producing the same effect as 3'east
iu a much shorter time. It has been found,
however, that alum will also unite the
oilier two articles, and carbonic acid gas will be
produced. As alum costs less than three cents,
while cream of tartar costs more than SO cents a
pound, it is easy to see why alum Is substituted
lor the latter by sonie baking-powder manufac
turers- itis admitted by ali medical authori
ties that cream of tartar leaves no injurious
substance in the bread; alum, on the other
si;»r.d, is :u itself an astringent, and there is
wide and deep-seated prejudice against its use.
In England and other countries the adulteration
of food with alum is forbidden by law
under heavy penalties. The chemical ef
fect of alum used lu bread to whiten
it. is to form two salts of alumina —the
sulphate and the phosphate of alumina.
When used in baking powder the alum forms a
third salt, the hydrate of alumina, as well as
the other two. ‘This hydrate of alumina is far
more easily soluble than the other two; hence
any objection that may exist to the use of alum
atoue in bread applies with greater force to Us
use in baking-powder.
Dr. William A. Hammond, formerly. Surgeo
n United States Array, of Xo. 43 West
Fifty-lourth strest, expressed himself as per
fectly certain of the injurious effects of alum.
whether used alone to whiten bread, or as an
adulterant of baking powders. Alluding to the
claim advanced that the alum was neutralized
and chucked into an insoluble salt, he. said that
this was u wholly improbable assumption, since
such a perfect change could not take place un
less the amount of alum and the bicarbonate of
soda were combined in the exact
chemical ratio necessary for each to
absorb all the other. Not onlv was
this impossible in the manufacture of
large quantities of baking-powder, but the ho
mogeneous character of The compound could
not be exactly maintained throughout the whole
mass, and therefore there would be sure to be a
certain amount of free alffm In any bread made
with an alum baking-powder. But even if the
exact proportion were maintained, the salts
formed would retain their injurious properties,
as thev would be dissolved in the gastric juice.
The gastric juice contained not only lactic acid,
but a large amount of hydro-chloric add, ana
both the sulphate and hydrate of
would be dissolved. The phosphate might no
be, but in that case the bread would be
of one of its most desirable ingredients,
the use of alum not onlv dangerous to tho siom
aeh, but deteriorating to the food. 1 icjiy
dratc of alumina.” Dr. Hammond said, ould
certainly be injurious to the k. ‘®l
It would inevitably tend to constipate tbe bow
els and interfere with digestion;; and
Hint tends to render the albumen of the bread
insoluble, and therefore takes nwa> from its
nutritive value, is injurious. f
There are probably more than 000 Kinds ol
bakimr powder manufactured in this country,
ami while someof them are sold from the At
lantic to tlie Pacific, the majority have only a
local sale near fheir respective places o f „ ianu
farture. Through Dr. Henry A. .Mott, Jr., the
well-known chemist, one of themosteompeteut.
trustworthy, and careful experts of this country,
the following analyses were obtained, showing
the presence ct alum in large quantities m
many of tl.e hakimr-oowders having a wide sac.
Dr. Mott kindly furnished not only the results
of his own analyses, but only those of several
chemists of his professional standing, included
Prof Henrv Morton, President of btevens Insti
ni?L o? Technology; Prof R. W. Sel.cdler;
Dr Stillwell, of Walz&-Stillwell, “analytical
this city, and Prof. Patrick, ol Mts
souri. . . ~
Dr. Mott’s report is as follows.
sir; ] n accordance with your request, I
herewith embody the resolts Pf the analyses of
Lakmß powders, iu afl of which alum was found as
aU ''"iraid'B , ’' (J. C. Grant, Philadelphia), contains
Mnvincible ’’ (Snyder Brothers <fc Co., Cin-
* Brother. New York).
“"‘l-auno'co” (Smith, Hanway & Co., Baltimore,
Hd.). contains alum. , . . _ . x
••Charm” (Kohrer, Christian & Co., St. Louis),
contains alum.
•*Andrews’ Rcral ” (C. E. Andrews & Co., Mil
waukee). contains alum.
(Bennett & Sloan, New Haven, O.),
Co ?“vi‘"-(Church & Co.. New York City),
contains alum. _
••Orient” (Crouse, Walrath & Co., Syracuse.
N, Y.). contains? alum. _
••Amazon” (Kwkine & Zrskme, Louisville,
Kv.), contains alum. . T . .
“Lakeside” (C. O. Pernne, Chicago, III.),
contains alum. , _ ,
“Twin Sifters” (Union Chemical Works, Chi
caco.Tll ), contains alum.
T * Superlative ” (A. W. Zietlow & Co., New
York), contains alnm.
* * King ” contains alum.
••White Lily ” (Jewett & Sherman Co., Milwau
kee. Wis.), contains alum.
“ Monarch ” (Ricker, Crombie & Co., Milwau
kee, Wis.), contains alum.
• • Cue Sooon ” (TayiorManufacturing Company,
St. Louis), contains alum.
“imperial” (Spragues, Warner & Griswold,
Chicago), contains aium.
“Honest” tSchoch & Wechsler, SL Paul,
Minu.), contains alum.
“ Economical ” (Spencer Bros. &Co., Chicago,
311. j, contains alum.
“Excelsior” (L. E. Taylor, Chicago, 111.),
containsialura.
• • Chartres ” (Thomson & Taylor, Chicago),con
tains alum.
••Giant” (W. F. McLaughlin, Chicago), con
tains aiem.
•• Richard’s Queen ” (Star Chemical Works,
Chicaaoj, contains alum.
Yours very truly,
Henry A. Mott, Jr., Ph. D-, E. M.
Dr. Mott, the Government Chemist, in bis re
view of this subject in the Sc ent jic American,
makes special meu'iun of having analyzed Uie
Koya! baking powder, and found it composed ot
wholesome materials. He also advises Uie pub
lic to avoid purchasing baking nowders as sold
loose or in bulk, as he found by analysis of
many samples Uut the worst adulterations are
practiced in this to-m. The lanel and trade
mark ot a well-known and responsible manu
facturer, he adds, is the best protection the pub
lic can have.
TEA.
From inxervtetes with T. Angell, in Soston
Herald.
I stated In mv paper read before the social
Science Association that the adulterations of
teas were too numerous to mention. .Mr.
Sharpies savs that so far as he knows there is
no »uch adulteration practiced in this country,
and that, as a rule, our teas are generally good
and pure, and sold as they eomc, out of the
original packages. In my paper 1 do not say
where the teas are adulterated. I only charge
that they arc adulterated. I suppose, however,
that most of the adulterations arc- made before
the teas reach this country. In Hassell's work
on adulteration 1 find twenty-nine pages devoted
to descriptions of the various adulterants and
methods of adulteration of leas. Manyot the
articles used in such manipulation are very
dangerous, and, I think, fully justify my state
ments. • *
„ Xu an extract dipped from the Boston Journal
of Mayo, IS7T, it is stated that the laws of
Canada require the Commissioner of Inland
Kevenuc to cause an analysis of various articles
of food to be made iu order that the public
may know correctly of their nature. The Com
missioner, in treating of the subject of teas,
is quoted as saying that “hereafter the tea
supplies of Canada and of the United States are
more likely to be adulterated than heretofore,
pecans? the customs authorities of England are
authorized to -refuse train* to leas which arc
found to be adulterated.” lu the Massachusetts
State Board of Health report of 1574, page 4i«,
it is stated that leas are colored with black lead
and Prussian blue. In au article. Jrom the St.
Albans Jies&itger of Jan. 3,1579, copied from
the San Francisco -Vms-Adter, I find some facts
regarding the trade frauds and adulterations
practiced" in San Francisco. Here 1 find stated
that exhausted tea-leaves are imported at a low
price as teas. »They have been redded and col
ored with Prussian" blue or indigo, and combined
with powdered gypsum and turmeric. From the
New York Ji'vcntnQ J*ost I learn that the sophis
tications practiced upon teas are large in num
ber and olteu harmful in character. The greater
part of the adulteration occurs in China, but the
English and Americans appear to nave become
skilllul imitators of the Cninese in at least some
branches of this nefarious industry. Mineral
and organic substances are used to increase the
weight and bulk of the tea. Fictitious strength
is imparted to it by the additional substances,
and pigments are employed to produce a desira
ble color. A preparation rejoicing in the name
of “Lie tea,” was formerly, and Is doubtless
still, used as au admixture with genuine tea,
particularly with gunpowder. “Lie tea” con
sists of the dust of tea and other leaves, which
is mixed with various mineral substances, and
agglutinated into little masses by means of
starch or gum. Itis treated with mineral pig
ments.
But the operation which is most generally car
ried on is the artificial facing or coloring of
teas. This practice is almost entirely confined
to green teas, of which, it is said, on high au
ihoritv. but few grades reach the consumer iu a
pure state. Green lea is also converted into
black by chemical treatment. In fact, these
metamorphoses have {riven rise to a special ami
regular branch of business, notably iu this city
(New York) ami Philadelphia. The pigments
most used lor coloring ereen teas are Prussian
blue, indigo, turmeric, and China clay, the pecu
liar glossy surface they frequently present be
ing produced by means of black lead, talc, and
soapstone. Other and far more dangerous sub
stances. such as arseuitc of copper, chromate of
lead, and Dutch piuk, arc said to be somtiraes
employed. From the Xew York Sun 1 take
this extract: ,*ln most of our leading hotels
and eating-houses the tea-grounds are saved by
the servants and sold to parties who come
around in wagons at stated intervals.
What they did with the grounds was,
for a long time, a mystery. Lately,
however, the secret has escaped. We hear, on
good authority, that they arc taken to a factory
in the vicinity of Central Park, steeped In acid,
and dried in the sun on copper plates. By this
process each leaf is shriveled and made to as
sume its former shape. The color is beautiful,
and the old ..c* odor, so familiar to all who love
this delightful drink, Is plainly recognized. The
drying process completed, the grounds arc
packed in tin caddies or wooden boxes, and dis
tributed through the country, where its remark
able cheapness attracts universal attention.
Occasionally a little genuine tea is mixed with
this preparation. . . . The tea is not strong
enough to injure anybody’s nerves, but the
acids used may undermine the health and prove
extremely injurious to invalids. As a general
thing, the farmers can lav down this rule: the
greener the leaf and the brighter the caddy, the
poorer the tea.” There, 1 think I have given
enough to convince the most skeptical that'teas
are adulterated, and that some of the adultera
tions -have been made in this country, though,
of course, China is the centre of such adultera
tion.
BUTTES, CHEESE, AND MILK.
I have authority showing that oleomargarine
TliS CHICAGO TRIBUNE; SUNDAY. FEBRUARY 9, : IS7O SIXTEEN Pa&Ea
is m'xed with real butter, aud that it is quite
difficult to distinguish the mixUire iu the
market; and I find in the Advertise i of Dct
icrr if wis then estimated Mm! 1.j0,000
oleomargarine cheeses were daily mamifaclined
in this country. This cheese consists of oleo
margarine oil’ mixed with skim-milk, and it is
"aid'ean scarce! y be detected from true cheese
in’the second place, judging from what is said
iu the Boston Journal of Chemistry ]” “
the lame number of tin vessels m 1 hiiadelphia
found to contain lead, and that several children
had died in Mich lean from lead-poisoning by
drinkiue milk which had stood in tin pans, and
that a large portion of the tinware iu the
market is unlit for use, I should say that, in mv
judgment, such revelations ought to lead to an
immediate testing of our milk-cans.
YIN EG Alt, ETC.
In the edition of Chambers’ Encyclopedia for
187*1, the 403 th page of volume 4, we shall find
that cayenne pepper is adulterated with red
lead, mustard with chromate ot lead, curry
Dowder with red lead, and vinegar with
sulphuric acid, arsenic, aud corrosive sublimate.
In Massachusetts, it appears by the report of
the State Board of Health for 1572, page lob,,
that acommon adulterautof vincgarissulplmrle
acid. In the Massachusetts J’ioughman of Dee.
1,1577,1 And an article copied from the Ameri
can in relation to vinegar adul
teration. In it is this statement: u A consign
ment of spurious vinegar was recently recently
rejected and condemned by the Board of Health
of the District of Columbia.” It was Irom Chi
cago, and consisted of three car-loaas. The re
port ot the District Board of Health on this case
closes with these words; “When we think that
oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) can be bougnt at
five cents a pound, and that a pound ot said
acid would render a barrel of fluid as
acid as the strongest vinegar, the
wouder will cease that :t can be
sold cheap.” The Scientific American thus
closes a notice of this matter; “The fraud and
danger are more general than the great mass or
the people will readily believe. It is asserted
that probably one-half the vinegar sold at (New
York] city groceries is a rauK ; poison, with
sulphuric or other objectionable acids for its
base.”
PICKI.E3.
Now we will look after pickles. I find copied
in tlie New York of Scpc.2o, 1873, from
tlie American a statement to the
effect that all bright green pickles are made so
bv copper, indirectly used, by preparing them in
copper cauldrons, or directly by me intentional
use of verdigris. On page 303 of the report of
our State-Board of Health you will find that,
out of twelve samples of piclciea, put up by as
many wholesale dealers, ten were found, upon
examination, to contain copper, and nine of the
samples showed that alum had been used in the
prepuratiou of the pickles. A fresh, bright
greeu color is stated to be the indication of the
presence of copper, and the report says that its
presence may be confirmed by immersing In tlie
vinegar poured from tlie pickles a bit of
clean polished steel, or a knitting-needle,
and allowing it to stand for several
hours. All the copper in the solution
will then bo found as a metallic coating
on the steel, or, if the quantity be very small,
tlie steel will have a reddish tinge. In the re
port of the Massachusetts State Board ot Health
for 1874, page 4T7, it is stated that pickle* are
Injured by the use of sulphate of copper iu their
preparation.
PLOUR.
We will now glance at the adulterations of
flour. 1 slated in my paper that flour was adul
terated in England, and probably iu this coun
try. with olaster-paris, bone-dust, sand, clay,
chalk, and oilier articles. We turn to page 103,
of volume 4, of tlie 1374 edition ot Chambers’
Encyclopaedia, and find that flour is adulter
ated not untrequenllv with various substances,
among which are alum, chalk, carnouate ot
magnesia, bone-dust, plaster-oaris, clay, etc.
We next look upon page 4< i ot tlie Massachu
setts State Board ot Health Keoort for 1374, and
flea Unit adulterations have been made here
with ground damaged peas, alnm, and kaolin,
which latter is a line, white deeomuosed feldspar.
To what extent flour is adulterated in this coun
try, and whether by manufacturer, seller, or
baker, I have no peisonal knowledge, but I do
think it is remarkable if there is any Englisn
method oi adulteration, out of which money
can be made, ibat has not found its way to
America.
SPICES.
In regard to spice adulteration 1 have found
nothing more suggestive tuan Uie report of tlie
Canadian Commissioner of Inland Revenue iu
reference to analyses of various articles, which X
fled copied in Uie' Boston Journal of May 5, 1377.
From this I gather that ISO articles were an
alyzed, of which 93 were found to be
adulterated. Ot ground doves, cinnamon, gin
"■er. aud mustard examined, not a sample proved
~o be pure. From 10 to 15 per cent of tile aU
spice examined was found to be roasted pea
meal. Ground doves were found to be extended
with dove husks, woody fibre, aud roasted pea
meal. Cinnamon proved to be composed ot
cassia husks.iCocoa contained Venetian red. Of
Uie samples ot coffee tested, it was found Uiat
chiccory, roasted peas mid beaus composed the
greater part: pure coffee occupying only a
nominal cushion in tlie compound. Tumeric
and wheat flour were the chief ingredieuts ot
mustard.
PATENT MEDICINES AND BITTERS.
In Uie report ot tlie Massachusetts State
Board of Health fur 13?2, puire 175,1 find a
startling statement in regard to the uae of,
opium. In tlie soothing sirups usually given to
cnildren, and the various other anoraiaable
compounds which pass under the names of
cougn sirups, pectorals, cholera medicines, pain
killers, etc., I And that opium lorms thejmost
important ingredient. With these and other
facts of a like* nature iu view i think a public
health association would find a wide field of
usefulness in stopping the sale of these dan
gerous compounds. 1 may also add in this con
nection that among the various bitters and
patent nostrums widely sold in our markets
there is a still more enlarged field for the inves
tigations of our chemists, and such investiga
tions could not fail to be of great benefit to
public oealtb. lam informed Uiat tiie active
properties of most of the bitters sold arc de
rived from the quantity of alcohol contained in
them. Here is also a field for temperance re
formers.
SUGAR AND SIRUP.
It appears to be an idea entertained bv some
that sugar is too cheap now-a-days to make it
profitable to adulterate it. At least this is what
Mr. Sharpies thinks. This may be so, but you
can see that, with terra alba at less than a cent
a pound, it would pay to adulterate sugar with
it, as well as with otiler mineral matters equally
cheap, if not cheaper. In an article on “ Hard
Times.” by Charles Wyllys published
iu th tGataxy magazine for April, 15 j /, page-174,
I fiad that stone is ground into three grades,—
soda grade, llour grade, und sugar grade,—and
sells for about half a cent a pound. I have
heard of these stone-mills being located in dif
ferent parts of the country, and that thousands
of tons of stone have been ground in them every
year lor use iu the work of adulteration. Mr.
Sharpies suggests that 1 bring him a pound of
adulterated sugar for analysis, which he will
make free of charge if it is adulterated. It is
said that Diogenes, some 2,000 years ago, went
around in the day-time with a lighted
lantern iu search of an honest man. I
could find a good many honest men in Boston
in half au hour, but If I should go to the
cheap grocers for a pound of adulterated sugar
lor .Mr. Sharpies to analyze, I fear I should
have a task greater thau that of Diogenes. The
editor of one of our most influential Boston
papers told me recently that one of our confec
tioners'admitted to him that ho used about 33
per cent of terra alba in his confectioner}*. In
mv scrap-book I find a paragraph from the
Washington J'ost of Dec. 4,15T8, which informs
me that it has been already Droved that a large
majority of sugars of cheap grades, sold iu
open market, were poisoned. One of the chief
adulterations is glucose, an insipidly sweet
product derived from corn, and worth from two
to three cents a pound in the market. It readily
assumes all the external appearances of sugar,
but possesses no nutritious qualities. It does
not assimilate with the blood, and exercises a
baneful effect upon the kidneys. The frightful
increase of mortality caused by Bright’s disease
of the kidneys, which has so sorely "puzzled phy
sicians, is now attributed to the increased con
sumption of glucose as au adulterant in sugar.
The article goes on to show that, while the
value of glucose imported into the
United States in 1573 was §2,352, in IS/
or two years thereafter, it had increased
to 8233,306. A careful analysis of 100 samples
of sugar, procured at different stores throughout
Uie City of New Turk, showed the presence of
between 10 and 15 per cent of glucose und
kindred impurities. This statement refers only
to the cheapest grades of sugars. The obvious
inference from this is that, while they are the
most adulterated, the poor man’s sugars are the
dearest iu the market.
Sirups have been found to contain a still
larger proportion of glucose, ranging all the
way froin 2o to 70 per cent of their total volume.
The statement is also made that a suostautiai
chunk of tin, five inches iu leugtn by three
fourths of an inch wide, had beeu precipitated
in a single gallon of sirup. Another insidious
poison employed for bleaching low grades of
sugars is muriate of tin, and its effects arc seen
iu what physicians call a new class of diseases.
Xo less than thirteen old conservative houses in
XewYork City in the sugar trade have been
compelled to suspend business on account of
the methods of adulteration employed by less
scrupulous houses in the sugar trade. ‘X find
in the AdvertUer of Xov. 4, IS7S. an extract
from an article in the Xew York Übr.’d, which
begins in this way; “ Yes, said a well-known
chemist to a Worid reporter, people will have
tin-lined stomachs before long. T hen the chem
ist went to a closet ami rook therefrom several
small bottles. He exhibited several s.ieets ot
tiu which had been extracted from sugar pur
chased from extensive dealers in the city [New
York). This, said the chemist, is what they use.
In the adulteration of sugar, ami l am told that
some of the sugar dealers buy tin by the ton.
This tin has been cut with muriatic acid, ami
was used iu sugars am! sirups, h rom -o to ou
per cent of glucose is also used in sugars and to
per cent in sirups. Poor starch and flour are
also used by some of ’those sugar dealers, and 1
am told that such adulterated sugars produce
skin diseases.” In the Hebrew Leader oioept.
20, 1873, published in New York, thcre is an
article with • the heading of * Arsenic in
Food,” in which X find, among other things, that
glucose is produced by the action of sulphuric
acid on starch, and that much of that acid in use
was made from arsenical pyrites.
In the New York Jin-Keepers' Magazine for
August, IS7B, there is published a petition to
Congress from the Protective Association
against the adulteration of sweets. In that
document it is stated that the sweets now in
use' in the United States, including ( cams
sugar, maple sugar, sirups, candies, jellies,
honeys, eta, are often adulterated with! glu
cose* and sometimes manufactured entirely ot
It; that tins glucose is manufactured Irom
corn-starch by boiling the starch with
sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol), and then
being mixed with lime. The glucose alwavs
retains more or less of the sulphuric acid ami
lime, and sometimes it has been known to con
tain copperas, sulphate of lime, etc., etc. ibe
article goes on to state that seventeen speci
mens of common table sirups were recently ex
amined bv 1L C. Kedzie, A. M., Professor of
Chemistry in the Michigan Agricultural Col
lege, and that fifteen of these proved to be made
of glucose. One of the fifteen samples contained
141 grains of sulphuric acid (oil ot vitriol) and
724 grains of lime to Hie gallon, and another,
w hich had caused serious sickness in a whole
family, contained seventy-two grams of sulphate
of iron (copperas) and 3C3 grains of lime to the
gallon. I would say here that Mr. Kedzie is
President ot the Michigan State Board ° r
Health, and probably no authority in the West
is more eminent on matters of analysis than he
is. I received last night from the Secretary oa
the Michigan State Board of Health a report of
the meeting ot that Board on the 14th of this
month, in which Dr. Kedzie made a report on
tlie adulteration of sugars, lie explains m
this report the methods of coloring sugars bv
the use of poisonous materials, and also of
adulterating sugars and honey by the use of
glucose. Dr. Kedzie hud analyzed various
samples of sugars aud sirups which had been
exposed for sale throughout Michigan, and had
found them generally adulterated. The pure
while granulated sugar, he says, that is not
sticky, out flows freely like sand, is generally
pure. Tlie A coffee sugar often, and me B and
C coffee sugars almost always, contain tin
salts. TheGrarigerstoro hi Kent County, Mich.,
sent a sample of sirup for analysis, which was
found to contain considerable lime and cop
peras. As a general thing, cheap sugars, how
ever clear they might appear, were adulterated.
Ju the Massachusetts State Board of Health
Report for 1874, on page 477, the names of some
of the adulterants of sugar will be found. Hie
evidence of Dr. Kedzie and others seems to fully
sustain the statement of Mr. I'uilcr, of New
York, a retired sugar-dealer, which was made
■ by him at a meeting of the United States ISomxl
of Trade, held in New York City Nov. 13,13« o.
This was to the effect that sugars, molasses,
and honey were now so generally adulterated
that, although very lond of those articles, he
did not dare to use them except iu small quanti
ties.
CONFECTIONERY.
Now, we will look into Hie matter of the
adulteration of confectionery for a moment,
and by way ot a wind-up to this interview. Of
course, Hie readers of Uie Hera d have not for
gotten Hie cases of prosecution of confectioners
iu Boston, not very long ago, by Uie City Board
of Health, for adulteration ot Uieir products.
In these prosecutions it was clearly shown that
yellow lozenges and eonleelionefy were given
their coior by Uie addition of chromate ot lead.
In Uie trials that ensued a chemist testiiied Uiat
an analysis of some of the candies in question
snowed the presence of three crams ot chromate
of lead to each pound of candy, and that onc
llftti ct a grain of such chromate of lead
had proved fatal to a child who
had eaten it. Now let us glance at wliaat
the Massachusetts State Board of Health savs
In regard to this subject. In Uie report of 1873,
pages 12 and 13, it is stated that tlie oil of al
monds used by confectioners contains prussic
acid; that almost ail the candies, and many of
tlie soda-sirups, bearing Uie name of perishable
fruits, have uo trace ot fruit about them, but
are flavored by fruit-essences, which are deleterl
uus eUiereal extracts made in the chemical
laboratory. Many of tlie fruit-jellies in the
market are made from apples, anil flavored by
the same artifleial essences to resemble tlie vari
ous fruits from which they are supposed to be
made. On page 15 of this report it is stated
Unit lead, mercury, arsenic, and copper are not
infrequently found in Uie coloring-matter of
confectionery, and especially of sugar-toys. In
Uie report of 1374, page 477, 1 find Unit confec
tionery is adulterated with ami poisoned by
arsenic, sulphate of copper, prussic acid, tartaric
acid, and fusel-oil, aud, on cage 475, I And nu
merous cases of poisoning by ice-cream aud
confectionery cited m the report referred to.
WALL-PAPER,
,In tlie issue o£ the J’ilot of Jun6l, 187 S, I find
this statement in tlie editorial columns: “ Only
about 15 per cent of tlie wall-paner mauutac
tured do not contain arsenic, and no one but a
chemist can decide whether or not such paper is
dangerous. Tlie only way to be quite sure is to
eschew paper altogether, and get your walls
painted. It will surprise many to know Hint a
house may have all its walls and ceilings painted
and handsomely frescoed lor less expense than
it would take to paper them. A painted wail
can be washed. It is more beautiful, more
healthful, more durable than paper.” And the
article adds; “Yet, for one house painted and
Irescoed, there are thousands lined with poison
ous wall-paper.” Mow, why is it? 1 stated in
mv paper that, in a single year, there was im
ported into this country 2,317,743 pounds of
arsenic, and that It is sold at a wholesale price
ol from one and a half to two cents a pound,
and that each pound contains a fatal dose for
about 3,800 adult human beings. In ranking
wall-papers, it is cheaper to use arsenic
than any oilier article to get tlie desired colors.
In the Massachusetts State Board of Health Re
port for 1872, there are twenty-live pages de
voted to tlie subject of poisonous wall-papers,
and the cases of sickness they have occasioned.
On page 33. where the subject is begun, I find
the following: “As a result of the un
equivocal warnings published by physicians in
past years, the use of arsenical paoer hangings
became for a time, and in some degree, un
fashionable; but the .dictates of fashion are ca
pricious. and are uot long mindful of the pro
tests ot science. The public has forgotten the
experience ot ten years ago, and tlie poisonous
paper-hangings are displaced in the shops to
day with the same fascinations of colors, de
sign, and finish, that have characterized them in
the past. In every store which the writer has
visited, in the course of these investigations,
specimens ot the paper have beeu obtained,
which, on being tested, exhibited the presence
ot the arsenical pigment in a greater or leas
degree.” On page 30 X find that Prof. Bacon
asserts that “frequently as much as fifty or sixty
grains of the arsenical pigment is spread on
each square foot of tlie paper.” On page 37 the
same writer states that, taking the average re
sults obtained by analysis, a room of ordinary
dimensious, decorated with arsenical paper
hangings, would hold on Its walls considerably'
more than a pound of poisonous coloring mat
ter, containing half its weight ot arsenic.
In the Boston Mcdica! and Surgical Journal
of May 11,1878, there is an article on arsenical
paper-hangings by Dr. Francis il. Brown, then
surgeon to the Children’s Hospital of this city,
but now of the United States Marine llospita'l,
Chelsea. He gives in this article cases of ar
senical poisoning from wall-papers which oc
curred in bis practice in” one year, in one ot
which were also included the death of two
canarv-birds that showed symptoms of having
been poisoned bv the arsenic of the paper-hang
ings. On page 530 of the number ot the journal
above, quoted from, Dr. Brown gives, from the
dirit'Jh Medical Journal ot July 22, 1871, the
symptoms of arsenical poisoning: Irritation of,
the mucous membrane, causing diarrhcea and
vomiting; gastric derangement, resulting in
permanent indigestion; incessant severe cold in
the head, which in one instance lasted several
years; ulcerated throat, with acute inflamma
tion, resulting in diphtheria and quinsy; bron-.
chltis and congestion of the lungs; soreness ot
tlie mouth, lips, and tongue, which appear as it
scalded in patches; inflammation ot the eyes
and eyelids; congestion and torpidity ot the
liver;'severe bilious and feverish attacks,—in
short, irritation of every organ. In many
cases, if not in all, the action ot the heart was
. weakened, and in some palpitation frequently
occurred. There were pains in various parts of
the body, especially across the shoulders, and
down the spine and limbs; also in the joints,
which were often stiff and swollen; scaling of
the skin and irritating eruptions. The effects
upon the nervous system were most remark
able, producing a thoroughly shattered condi
tion, great irritability, depression, and tendency
to tears, with unusual prostration of strength.
The list also includes giddiness, headache,
acute earache, neuralgia, bleeding at the nose,
frightful dreams, hysterical faintness, cramps,
rigor, numbness of the limbs, rigid spasms,
and convulsions. The last symptoms devel
oped in the worst cases were loss of memory
and threatenings of paralysis: also spasms,
with twitching of the body and limbs. In con
cluding, Dr. Brown says on page 535 of the
Media’ Journal: “It is less generally knmvn
Hint tlie presence of arsenic is n 0& ' “y,,,,.
creen papers alone, anil 1 show >ou of
imr n number of:specimens of walllo P as
various lines, which mav be „D[)e;ir
verv innocent in their out" aril api
anee, but which I have bro'eh i
analysis to contain arsenic in
amounts.” In tlie Advertiser o( Ma>
find a communication on tlie subject o' Dl
- wall panels. The writer states: Ihm '»
tins month’s Boston Journal oj Chemistry that
the manufacture of these poisonous papers
Increasing. 1 find in the Newlork li f
April 4 that recent analysis have shown that
many of the pale colors, and eyen white, con
tain more arsenic than the brightest ffreens. i
a recent lecture before the Chemists and Drun
insts’ Association, the lecturer stated that oi
sixty specimens of different papers of varuHi
colors—blue, red, pink, brown, and other colois
—analyzed by him, only ten were harmless, me
otherscontainim; arsenic.” On
“poison scrap book,” as 1 may call it, I find mat
tlie lecture referred to was delivered before mo
Manchester (Enariand) Chemists’ aud Dtuggists
Association, by Mr. Sicbold.
I now produce a book of arsenical wall-papers,
fifteen inches long by nine inches broad. It
was issued by tlie Michigan State Board of
Health in September, 13T4, and by order of tlie
Board placed in every important library in me
State. It contains seventy-five representative
specimens of poisonous wall-papers, and on the
cover is a specimen of very poisonous green
glazed paper, such as is often used to cover paper
boxes with. At the same time I would not by
tnis give the impression that other shads and*
colors of fancy papers do not contain arsenic
also, for they afeen do. This book is very aptly
entitled “ Shadows from tlie Walls ot Death,
and it can be seen* at my office any day ot this
or next week, between the hours ot 1:30 and
2:30 o’clock n. m. ft was prepared by Dr. K, C.
Kedzie, I’rofessor ot Chemistry in tlie .Michigan
State Agricultural College, President of the
Michigan State Board of Health, aud Chairman
of the Committee on Poispns.
SUMMING-UP.
How anythin" or anybody, short of Omnis
cience, can know the latest of our adulterations
of foods, liquors, and other things, and the vari
ous articles that are used for purooses of auul
tcration, is more than I can comprehend. Prob
ably ail the chemists in the United States never
analyzed one package in 100.000 of any article
commonly and widel v sold in this country. And
in those they do analyze they are always liable
to be deceived bv such pretenses as Dr. Mott dis
covered in New York iu his investigation of
baking powders, viz., that sample cans
of a pure article were (riven away
to all dealers for the purpose of being
analyzed. It is only isolated eases here and
there which arc ever brought to public notice,
because thus far it has been nobody's business
to Hud out the extent to which adulterations
arc carried. It is not necessary to show that
adulterations have been practiced in Boston to
show that precautions should be taken against
them in Boston. We have in our market
articles from all parts of the .world. If arsenic
has been put into candies in Prance, or red lean
into curry-powder in England, or arsenic into
toilet-powders both here and in England, or
poisonous tinware is widely sold in Philadelphia
and Michigan—then it is time for somebody to
find out whether these articles are sold here.
When it is shown that one-half the vinegar sold
in New York City is rank poison, because, as the
Washington Board of Health says, five cents
worth of oil of vitriol will make a barrel of it,
then it is time that everybody should find out
about it here. When it is shown Hint out of ISO
articles of the spice kind analyzed in Canada 03
were adulterated, and of several kinds iiot a
sample was found pure, and Dr. Mott flnds, iu
New York City, alum in every one of
tlie sixteen baking-powders he analyzed
(alum being three cents a pound and cream of
tartar 30 cents), and a large Boston manufac
turer of spices, powders, grocery supplies, etc.,
acknowledges that he has tilled orders for the
West log cream of tartar that contained terra
alba,—then it is time for us to be sure that we
are not using the same articles in Boston.
When we know that a well-known and reliable
chemist and physician of this city has found
milk in one instance adulterated with calves’
brains, that establishes, beyond all disnute, the
fact that the thing can be, has been, and may be
done. When the Michigan State Board of
Health publishes a book containing scventv-Bve
specimens of poisonous wall-papers, and outs it
into every important library in the State, and
savs that they are simply representative speci
mens of articles sold in every city and town ot
Michigan, and warns the people of that State
not to buy them, then it is time to inquire
whether it is not best to warn- the people of
Massachusetts against the use ot such papers.
When we show that last year' 93,030,000
pounds of oleomargarine butter was manu
factured in this country, and a vast
amount of oleomargarine etieese; that these
articles . cannot be .detected in -the
market; that in them have been found else
where horse-fat, fat from bones, and fat usual
ly used to made candles; that an eminent
rincroscoplst of New Y’ork City says that they
are not subjected to sullicient heat to kill the
parasites that enter and breed in human bodies,
and that he has reason to believe that the ref
use tat ot at least one pork-packing establish
ment. in New York City is used at one of the
oleomargarine factories in that city, and tiiat he
finds m oleomargarine tissues ot animals and
suspicious fragments and cells, and thinks the
article dangerous for table use, —then it is time
to look out that none of this New York oleo
margarine gets into Boston. When it is shown
that sugars and sirups are largely adulterated
in New York City with glucose and tin and
other adulterants, and that glucose is manufac
ture i by a process which incorporates with it oil
of vitrol and other deleterious substances; and
that in Michigan, out of seventeen table-sirups
analyzed, fifteen were found to be made of
glucose; that a single gallon of one of them
contained 141 grains of oil of vitriol and 724
grains of lime, then, it seems to me, we should
be on the lookout for these articles in Boston.
If our sugars manufactured here areallpure,our
oleomargarine of the best, our vinegar all
from highwines and cider, our beers
and ales all they purport to be, our tinware all
safe, our kerosene oil all legal, our baking pow
ders all good, our wines and spirituous liquors
all unadulterated or unmixed, and every one of
our hair restorers and wall papers free from ev
ery dangerous ingredient, stilt I say there is con
stant need of a live, active association iu this
city to keep out the poisonously adulterated
articles which are constant ly liable to be brought
here from other places. I say that no sucli an
association, supported by our honest merchants
and citizens, can largely protect them from the
frauds and underselling of unprincipled adul
terators hero and everywhere, and give them a
reputation that would be wonh millions to the
trade of the City of Boston. Let tiiat associa
tion have, like the Society for Hie 'Prevention ot
Cruelty to Animals, its rooms, and oilices con
stantly watching to protect the public health;
arresting every man that ought to be arrested,
stopping every business of adulteration tiiat
ought to be stopped, publishing in every Boston
paper every fact that ought to be published,
giving strength to our _jitate4 Board of
Health and our City Board ot Health,
helping them with the State Government
and the City Government, . when they
might need help—an association which, without
fear or favor, shall be able and ready to enforce
every law tiiat ought to be enforced in the in
terest of public health, and shall stand for the
protection ot the men, women, and children of
this city the State, as the Society I have before
named'stands for the protection of dumb beasts.
Tiiat is what I want, and it would benefit aimgst
every man. woman, and child in Massachusetts,
except, perhaps, those who might wish to grow
rich by poisoning and defrauding their foliow
citizeus.
A PROPOSED ACT TO PUNISTt THE ADULTERA-
TION OF FOOD.
yew York Times.
Dr. E. R. Squibb read an interesting: paper
before the State Medical Society, at Albany,
yesterday (Feb. 5), on the subject of food adul
terations. The paper contains the rough draft
of a prooosed law to prevent the adulteration
of food and medicine, and to create a State
Board of Health. This draft is the result of a
thorough consideration of the subject by a joint
committee of the New York Academy of Medi
cine, the New York Academy of Science, the
County Medical Society, the Therapeutical So
ciety, the New York College of Bharmacy, the
Medico-Legal Society, the Bublic Health Asso
ciation, and other learned bodies.
Dr, Squibb, In his paper, sets forth that the
working of the English “Sale of Food and
Drugs act” of 1575 has proved that a law to
prevent adulterations must carefully avoid cer
tain difficulties which are sure to be met with.
In the first place, the offense of adulteration
must be simply and distinctly defined in all its
forms. This is essential in order that the of
fender may clearly understand when and how
he is transgressing the law. Consequently, Dr.
Squibb would avoid general definitions requir
ing to.be interpreted by test cases, and would
make his terms so specific as to make doubt or
inadvertence impossible, thus economizing the
time of courts and law-officers, and leaving to
them, in the main, only the decision of questions
respecting the turpitude and degree of the of
fense and the extent and nature oi the penalty.
He thinks that such definingclauses would have
a strong tendency to deter producers from
adulteration.
In the second place, the'questions' of intent
to defraud and of prejudice or injury to the
consumer of adulterated articles have been
carefully avoided, such intent being alwavs diffi
cult to prove even when it really exists; while
in very many of the adulterations practiced
there is no conscious attempt at fraud, nor any
design to injure the health of consumers, it
hns hence been decided by the scientific com
munities that the offense shall consist in the
adulteration of the article and the proof by the
analysis of the debased article itself. Iheplea
of absence of intent, or of the harmless nature
of the adulteration, may, under such a law. In
fluence the court in determining the nature or
decree of the Density to bo imposed, but can
not affect the question of conviction ou the
* a f)r! Squibb reviews the question of whose
duty it shall be to prosecute for offenses or to
take the initiative in such prosecutions. The
first and most obvious mettiod of procedure—to
impose that duty upon the consumer who is
injured, and to use the inspectors and experts
siiiiolv as witnesses for the prosecution—he re
jeef® on the ground that experience has shown
consumers will not-rive time, money or:trouble
to sucli prosecutions except in cases where a
ilacrant and somewhat immediate injury to life
orlieallh has resulted from the consumption.
It has been found equally
institutions and societies with the ) dutj, of■ prose
cutinc civinc them the fanesand other emolu
menu to compensation. This dimeulty of pro
curin' action in such cases has led all who have
examined the subject to the conclusion that
such a law, in order to be reasonably effective,
must embrace within itself ail that is essential
to its execution. This requirement Dr. bqudJO
finds in the creation of a State
invested with certain powers and dut cs. *o
justify the proposal of such a Board ontbescore
of exnensc. it is estimated that the loss to the
copulation of this Stato is §700,000 per annum,
or 14 cents per capita, while an ‘usidution suai
as the act contemplates would cost *>600,000 ptr
an The l iaw defines “food ” as embracin': every
article used for food and drink or the food ailt *
drink of man and animals, while the term
“medicine ’’ is held to Include every other arti
cle used for the preservation of health or the
relief and cure 01 disease in man animals, em
bracing antiseptics, disinfectants, and cosmetics.
The difficult question of establishing a stand
ard of purity is disposed of by D». Squibb in a
very sensible and satislaetory manner, Divid
ing articles of food into two classes, simple and
compound; the standard for simples Is fixed at
the average quality of the substances in their
natural condition (when so used), or afj:er prep
aration by drying, grinding, packing, etc., with
out damage, according to the best methods, and
without me admixture of foreign substances
bei’ond what is essential —as salt in meat—to
their preservation in a wholesome state. The
standard for compound articles is fixed by the
publicly-known formulas, according to which
they should be compounded, or the labels or
descriptions fixed to the compounds as sold or
offered. Curiously enough;' it is °asier to estab
lish a standard respecting simple articles of
medicine, for here the “ United States Pharma
copceia '* may be adopted as a guide or basis,
and all controversy evaded as regards articles
of home production. When not embraced
within* the “ Pharmacopoeia,“ the statement of
some commonly-accepted standard of authority
is to decide respecting the purity of the article.
If the simples are pure, the compound roust be
pure; ami hence the formula, recipe, or
label is here held to be conclusive as to the com
pound it calls for. In patent medicines, the tes
timony of the owner’s private formulas is con
clusive, provided always that no compound shall
contain any poisonous or hurtful ingredient not
specified oh die label, a oaking-powder contain
ing alum, or a cosmetic containg lead —neither
being stated upon the label of the compound
subjecting the seller to all the penalties of will
ful adulteration. A patent medicine containing
any such deleterious or toxic ingredient not
plainly shown on the label, subjects the proprie
tor to prosecution and penalty. The offense of
adulteration in articles of food is defined to con
sist, first, in adding one or more substances to
another, as corn-meal in Hoar, whereby the
strength,*-purity, quality, or value of the sub
stance is reduced, with the effect of tending to
deceive the public; secondly, as in artificial
wines or mustard, in the substitution of one
substance for another; thirdly*, as in skim milk
or partly exhausted lea, coffee, or drugs, in the
abstraction of any part of the substance with
the effect to reduce its value; fourthly, as oleo
margarine for butter, in the application of a
name belonging to one substance to another
substance, thus tending to deceive the consum
er; ami, fifthly, in the presence in any substance
of any impurity or foreign matter, either natural
or accidental, if in unusual proportion, as dirt
in food or medicine, and metallic salts in canned
goods. The admixture of different qualities, as
damaged wheat in Hour, or garden rhubarb in
medicinal rhubaro, is set down as adulteration.
Dilution of any kind, as water in milk, the ad
dition of coloring, coating, or polishing matter,
etc., are also defined as adulterations.
KID GLOVES.
Statement of the A. T. Stewart House.
Sew York Commercial Bulletin, Feb. 4.
The following statement may more folly ex
plain the connection of Messrs. A. T. Stewart &
Co. with the recent kid-glove reappraisements:
The 44 Alexandre” gloves manufactured by
the firm of Messrs. Cb. Fortin & Co,, Paris,
which firm is composed of Mr. Fortin, who
represents more especially the “Alexandre”
glove, and .Sir. Courvoisler, who represents the
** Courvoisier” glove; the latter make is con
signed under the “Courvoisler” brand to their
Loudon firm of George Hooper, Courvoisler &
Co., and to Messrs. Luckmeyer, Kunoth & Co.,
of this city.
The “Alexandre” glove is exported by
Messrs. Fortin & Co. from Paris to New York
and consigned to A. T. Stewart & Co., under
contract made by Mr. Stewart in behalf of his
bouse in 1573, which contract is now m force,
binding the manufacturers to invoice the gloves
at a fair market value, and to protect this fair
market value, as established by them, gave to
A, T. Stewart & Co. the opciou to take to their
own account all goods at invoiced prices at
which they were consigned.
When the recent advance of prices by the Ap
praiser’s Department was made on gloves of
similar value, say the “Trefoussc v and “Peri
not” make, and knowing that, in turn, this ad
vance would probably reach the invoices of
Fortin & Co., A. T. Stewart «fc Co. requested,
and have from time to time received, the testi
mony which has been produced and placed be
fore the different reappraisoments during the
post year, and which lias been the basis of the
action taken by A. T. Stewart & Co. to sustain
the invoice or market value, on bcnalf of Fortin
& Co., at which these gloves were consigned.
Messrs. Fortin & Co. have not hesitated to
give cverv detail of information of the cost of
production, which has been verified by state
ments from quite all the other well-known
makers in France, and in many instances this
verification has been substantiated by sworn affi
davits.
In further verification of the correctness of
their action ami honesty of purpose, by the con
sent of A. T. Stewart & Co., to whom their en
tire production was engaged on consignment,
Fortin ifc Co. have lor the past six mouths
opened the sale of these goods to the markets
of the world in the Paris market, in lots of hun
dreds of thousands of dozens, as would suit the
requirements of buyers, at 42 francs for ladies’
two-button gloves, or at the prices at which they
are consigned, and at these prices dealers have
availed themselves of this offer, ami sales have
been effected whenever purchasers deemed it
for their interest to make them.
Amoug the first rcappraisemonts was one of
the “ Jouvin ” glove, which Mr. J. H. Dunham,
of Messrs. Dunham, Buckley & Co., acted as
Merchant Appraiser, ami sustained the invoice
price of 42 francs per dozen; iater re
appraiseracnts were held on the “Tre
fuusse,” “ Periuot,” and “ Alexandre ”
glove, when Mr. J. M. Constable, of Messrs.
Arnold, Constable Co., was the Mer
chant Appraiser in the “Trefoussc ” glove;
Mr. J. H. Dunham, of Messrs. Dunham, Buck
ley & Co., was again a Merchant Appraiser ou
the “Pcrinot” glove, ami Mr. Hugh Auchin
doss, of Messrs. Aucbincloss Bros., was the
Merchant Appraiser on the “ Alexandre” glove,
when, after a most exhaustive examination of
the question of value, with all the evidence
taken in all the cases belore them, they unani
mously decided that the gloves were invoiced at
a lair market value, and sustained the invoices.
In the later reappraisoments of the “Alexan
dre ” glove, which are now under discussion, no
new evidence on behalf of the Government has
been produced that would be accepted iu auy
court of justice; notwithstanding the fact the
two merchants acting iu the last rcaopraisement
have differed from the previous Merchant Ap
praisers above noted, and advanced the invoice
value from 42 to 46 and 47 francs, respectively,
for the ladies’ two-button gloves.
The merchants claim, according to the pro
visions of the Treasury regulations See. 3,332,
of April 30, 18m, wherein it says: “Incases
where the manufacturer ships all his goods to
the United States on consignment for sale, and
the market value cannot be ascertained bv the
methods before indicated, it should be fixed bv
reference tojthe market value of the component
materials ofjthe goods at the time and plade of
manufacture, with the expense of manufacture
and a lair manufacturer’s profit added; and
the appraised value in such cases cannot be less
than the cost and profit so ascertained,” that
they have [clearly proved the invoice value
,covers the cost of manufacture and a fair
manufacturer’s profit added, besides a further
margin of profit to cover any contingent ex
pense not embraced in special items of cost
that can be clearly identified.
'1 hey prove the cost of manufacture as fol
lows:
One dozen raw skins cost
Tanning into leather....
Total— ...41.50
One dozen tanned skins produce an average
of iwentv-two pairs ladies’ two-button cloves
which makes the cost of 1
Leather for one dozen gloves.
Dymmr
Cutting
Sewing
Fastening and finishing
Total..
Ten per cent profit
Total .
These goods being invoiced at -12 francs less 6
per cent discount, or francs 80.43 net, leaves 83
centimes, some 2J-X uer cent over the above-men
tioned profit, to go fur interest or other contin
gent expense. Now, as money has commanded
hut a low rate of interest the oast year in Eu
rope, the above allowance would be ample to
cover the interest on capital for the short time
of nroduciinr the goods irom the purchase of
the raw skins.
■Here it may be proper to remark that from the
reduced value of skins during the last six
months of 1373, as proven, it would be equitabie
to reduce the foregoing estimate of the manu
facturer’s cost by at least 5 pur cent. This bus’s
of cost has been clearly proved by numerous
w itnesses, representing ail the principal mak
ers, from evidence actually taken from their
books, substantiated in many cases bv swum
statements. The variation ol cost from these
figures by the different makers has been but
trilling, say within 1 frune per dozen’. To show
that this invoice price of 48 francs represents a
lair market value in the country where these
goods arc produced, we will follow the consign,
ment to this country, where the goods are sold
to sec what profit results to the consignor. It
is as follows:
The goods arc sold at
Less trade litacuunir 10 per cent allowed to
buyers 1.80
Cash discount Q per cent do.
$15.23
Average depreciation of stock, C per cent bi
Intense carrying stock, 3 per cent.
$13.83
Usual commission naid on foreign accounts.
1U per ceul....^.
This is the net amount realized for one dozen
of gloves widen cost landed, with all expenses
of freight, insurance, duties, etc., 5U.78 per
dozen, thus leaving a margin of profit of bat 6
per cent against the risks of one of the must
precarious and tickle articles knownto the trade.
The correctness of this calculation is proved
by the actual transactions of one of the
consignees in the eases under considers*
tion of the business for the years 1376 and
IST7, amounting to one and a quarter millioa
dollars, on which the return was only 3Jf per
cent, not being enough to pay the usual com
mission by nearly 5 per cent, which commission
was not included in the returns of expenses for
selling.
To prove still further the correctness of this
position, tile entire tra-_.aetioD of this samecou.
signec in connection with this article for the iiya
years 1373 to 1377, inclusive, aggregating be
tween $4,000,000 and $0,000,000, based upon the
same relative estimate of cost, was a net return
of an average profit of S per cent, which is 2
per cent less than the usual commission paid oa
sales of foreign goods, and which commission
of 10 per cent was not included in the return of
expenses lor selling.
In answer to the pretensions of the custom
authorities that these goodsare worth 49 franc?,
the price realized in selling, as previoaslyalMHrD,
proves that the business would be done at a Ja»-.
Thus, it the foreign value was 49 francs the/
would cost landed, with all expenses o! duties,
etc., $13.72, for which at the price at which they •
are sold in this market only $12.50 is milled.
And as a furtberillustratiou, if the foreignnlue
is 53 francs they would cost lauded sliS6, foe
which, as previously stated, only $12.50 is real
ized, thus showing at these proposed advauetd
invoice prices the importations would be pro*
hibited and the business in the article would be
destroyed.
It mav be further stated that these smooth were
offered to be sold to buyers in any quantities at
the invoice prices, out which offer was embraced
bv buyers to the extent of only about 1,503
dozens, and notwithstanding the article has
been pressed upon public attention, the sales
have not been increased beyond the above quan
tity. This offer has remained for six months
open to this date to the entire trade at iuvoiw
prices of 42 francs, and in any quantity.
It is claimed by special agents, on behalf ofthe
Government, that similar goods arc sold to the
London market at 52 francs. To this the im
porter replies that it has been proven on tlie re
appraisements that the article sold to the Lon
don market is made from the choicest selection
of skins, ordered in lots of small quantities wild
great details of assortment, which very modi
enhances the cost of production, say at l«ut
some TO or 13 francs per dozen, in proof of
which one of the largest makers in France,
who manufactures as largely for England asfor
America, stated that, owing to the immense de
tail of London orders, he would prefer to maSs
goods lor America at 40 francsperdozcnialarw
lots, as usually ordered, than to execute ordeH
as given lor the Loudon market at 00 francs per
dozen. •
Uis also claimed by special agents, on behalf
of the Government, that many London mer
chants estimated the value of these goods at 51
francs; if this is so. it is perfectly incompreDep:
sible, when they have been freely oilered in
Paris, as it had been proven they have been, as
the invoice prices of 42 francs, that these Lon
don merchants have cot bought the goods ami
realized the enormous profit of 2o percent,
which could so easily be done by the simple
trouble of taking the goods across the British
Channel, and the investment of their capital ia
a transaction which is complete in the short
time of fifteen days.
A dove flew to my window.
And peered through the shining pine.
Cooing ia mournful cauence
Asad Datsweet retrain.
It vainly neck’d and fluttered
’Gainst the wall of glossy sheen.
And fain would enter my chamber..
As into a world unseen.
Perhaps it bore some message
From loved ones fur away.
Some token of peace and gladness -
To cncor the weary day.
Upon which I opened the casement
To welcome tne feathered gnest—N
But, start.ed. it flew from my presence, .
As one wuh fear oppressed.
Edward EncEitTOi.
Pars Place, ItocnEsvEK, Mlnu.
Here*? a hand in pure friendship, and may it cov
iim»c
To bless us with joy and with peaceful communion;
May our hearts ne inspired by unselfish devotion,
And bound by the strung bond of brotucrly union*
May no coldness inweave in the soul’s warm affec-
non.
But manhood's esteem, still ingenuous and free*
Pour us oil on the waters of strife nad contention.
While tossed by the oiilows ou Life’s stormy se:u
i). i)icx iL
How Melssonier Received the Accolade.
Mtiissohier had been nominated Euigiit of the
Legion of Honor, and, as lie was a protege of
tie Cailleux, Hie artist was to receive the in
signia Irom the hands of the latter in person*
Out of consideration for Mcissouicr’s
habits the Director ot the museums appointed
the late hour of 7 a. m. for die ceremony of *n*
vestment. Somehow* Meissonier overslept him
self day after day, but at length paid some one
to get aim out oi bed and in a fiacre by ifie an
pointed hour. When he reached the Louvre M*
de Cailleux was In nis study attired iu nothing
but his shirt. 4 * Ah! so here you are!” he said
to the young painter; vlseetc takes time to
rise by 7.** Aleiasonier apologized. u Euoueu»
sir,” said M. de (Juiheux; Uieu ringing, he was
answered immediately by a servant. “
he continued, turning to the attendant, “brut*
me my coat and sword.” John aid as desired,
and helped his master on with the two articles,
regardless of M. de Caiileux’s singular aspect
with pantaloons. *• Approach, sir,” ordered
the official, and M. dc Mcissonier aid as desired.
When three gentle taps had been appliedto u»*
recipient’s back, a smack given to ms sbonWer
and a iraternal kiss printed on his cheek, M*
Cailleux took his coat and sword oil and sat
quickly down to his writing again. Ihe cere
mony'has remained vividly stamped on im*
artist’s memory, and from h:s lips very P ro Dar
bly did M. de Perrin hear the story. *
A Royal Tlebalt
King Leopold* of Belgium on£ Ncw-Tcar’i
Evej paid a visit to the venerable Prince u«
Ligne, President of the Senate, in order to waft
him a Happy NcWrYcar. When the King, ut
unpretending carriage, arrived at thet'nnees
door the evening was somewhat advanced, imu
the only servant at hand to receive him was »
blunt and eccentric retainer who had been sumo
half a century In the Prince’s service. The out
fellow, who failed to recognize his sovereign*
coolly asked him: ‘ 4 Do you think this a P rop !£
timeto come and see a person in my mast« *
position]” The King look the rebuff 7*o
philosophically, and drove away without at
tempting to mortify the ancient Cerberus vj
opening his eyes to his awkard mistake.
Francs .
....35.00
.... 0.50
Frana,
... l.fo
4,00
5.50
... 1.20
35.14
S. 51
38.65
$10.20
- .. 97
$14.38
. 43
sl2. £0
THE DOVE.
A TOAST.

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