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LITERATURE.
■•doethe and Schiller,” by
Prof. Boyesen—“ Rud
der Grange.”
«Thß Dawn of History Glad
gtono’s Gleanings "—Grove’s
"Dictionary of Music."
ulho Croat Composers”—" Gram
mar of Painting and Engrav
ing Court lloporto.
Periodicals— Tho Paris Salon
N 0 ...The Portfolio—Art
Notes.
Ptgwltios of Dew—Bbo of Anesathet-
Icj— Color of Doable
, Stars.
IIXEIUTORE.
GOETHE AND SCHILLER.
Prof Doycien's biographical aud critical
k^'u of Goethe ond Schiller were briefly re
f rtdlolo these columns some months ogo,
but no sttempt was made at that time to weigh
Uitlr full literary significance. Originally pre
wired u lectures for use in Cornell University,
lies# writings have here passed Into a more dar
kle and noteworthy formf They have sold very
Jargclr, and have helped to introduce Goethe
iod ScbHlcr anew to many who had only a small
imailotaDce with them. The sketch of Goethe
» D d the commentary on Foust are far the most
important parts of the volume. One cannot
help feeling that tho essay on Schiller was much
leu s Isbor of love on the part of Prof. Boyesen.
There ts leas in Schiller's life and writings to
nouso enthusiasm. Ho was a national poet;
Goethfl was a world-poet. The types of tho
former were transitory; those of the latter cter
nil.
The method of tho biographer Is excellent.
He does not permit bis regard for truth and
candor to be wrecked by any preconceived theory.
He is not bent on accounting for words or ac
tions which, from tho nature of the case, cannot
surely be accounted for. Ho Is content to give
conflicting testimony fairly, nndlcave the reader
to accept any conclusion that ho may prefer.
Prof- Boyesen has attempted to construct a con
sistent and harmonious life for Goethe; to ranks
the storm and stress period of creation prepare
the way naturally for Uic antique Grecian pe
riod; and to reconcile his scientific vagaries with
bis ideas of poetical activity. White we do not
(eel that this effort boa been in all respects suc
cessful, we accord to the author both sincerity
slid Ingenuity la making It. Ho has attempted
no suppression,.and has advanced no evidence
(or more than It was worth.
One merit of the biography—perhaps the one
for which it ts chiefly remarkable—ls the close
md consecutive connection it establishes be
tween real incidents In Goethe's life and tho
writings, or parts of writings, founded upon
them. There is no groat literary personage
wbote private life has been more fully or more
faithfully embroidered 1m bis; published works
than Goethe’s, and yet thework of connecting—
or rather separating—the two has seldom been
well done. Biographers hove wasted too much
time ;on trivialities, or thuv hare kept tho
private and the public life too distinct from each
other. The German biographers generally havo
fallen lots tho former error, and Mr. Lewes,
among English writers, Into the latter. Mr.
Boyesen’s keeps both threads running together,
and'so holds the'attention of ti;o reader by a
double tie. '. • *
Boyestn writes with much fullness of
GoUta*!'and Schiller's love-affairs, and is
usable to see in thu conduct'of either any base
sen. Goethe's desertion', ot •Frlederine Brlon
and Lillie has commonly been interpreted os
evidence of bis heartless and selfish nature; but
Prof. Boycseh Justifies him la both instances,
believing that bo saw he bad not the power to
make the young women happy, nor they to
afford him the kind of intellectual companion
ibln that bis nature craved. This, of course, is
pire Fatalism, which Is perhaps as characteristic
ot Prof. Boyesen as It was of Goethe himself.
There is more reason lor praising Goethe’s con
duct in the affair of Lotto and Kcstner, suppos
ing that the former bad (alien in love with him,
la Prot Boycaco conceives. This supposition,
it must bo admitted, throws anew light on the
irlgiD and motive of Werther.
The commentary on Faust will- bo esteemed
br many readers only halt-way satisfactory.
Then is little room for disagreement with what
b said in reference to the First Part, the crili
dm of which is truly admirable, but the almost
unqualified approval of the Second Fart will bo
fop moat renders a stumbling-block. Thcgrounds
of Prof. Boycsen's approval ore almost as dlffl
cult to comprehend as the thing approved. Tho
nobridgablo chasm between the two parts yawns
as wide and deep os bufore. Mr. Boyeson bas
merely flown over It on bis Pegasus, and wo who
hfte no winged steeds are left lamenting. But,
though our author bas not succeeded in bring
ing the two parti Into unison, be bas at least
iiplalncd the operations of Goethe's mind
working at different stages toward such widely
aUslmliar results. Tho marvel is, that, having
perceived so clearly thu two motions, tho autnor
eould not have calculated more accurately tho
reaultant force and direction. It would bo
*ro Q r, nowever, to point out the error in this
criticism without noticing duly the great merit
ot the commentary on the First Part. Tho
characterizations or Mophlstopbctes and Mar
guerite are especially subtle and discriminating.
Bothi essays exhibit the results of much read
ing and study, and that on Goethe a real affec
tion for the subject. They will repay the
P*™ ll of all cultivated people. Tho style is
Brilliant, clear, and attractive, and tho criticism
i a sJf ent . and Incisive. (New York: Charles
■cflbaer's Sons. Price, |3.)
RUDDER GRANGE.
This Ut charming little book. Buch a mix
lure of gentle sentiment and genial fun does
•°l often appear. The success of the story was
Mil achieved when the plan was once bit upon,
wd tbs carrying out of the Idea la as good as
lUcoDcspUon. Given such materials as a young
fcwricdcouplo, too poor to sot up housekeeping
WMwherothan la an old stranded canal-boat,
wgood and simple-hearted to fall In finding
irkDd# everywhere, too enthusiastic to avoid
nesting with ludicrous disasters, and, withal,
loving and gay to let these disasters depress
“V r, P |r its.~what more can be aakod to In-
talol Only tho power of Mr.
"if; 10 ?, shows in the creation of such charac
*? . Pomona, and the
.** Edward; and the imagining such
raeuieoti u the scene when Lord Edward scares
e . o iher characters up to ilia roof of thu
' 00 which they stand prisoners
KHK reads aloud to them. To de-
Jrl,* fR the irresistible comicalities would be
! ho whole book. It has already been
Suhii y *f te halTely copied from during ita serial
MWlctllon in Xeribner't Monthly. BtUI, there
If® l *°orthree bits of the broader fun that
“•jwoll be repeated:
1&V.! ®??J peculiar features of the esiab-
French flat") was the imam's
14 was at the rear end of the floor, and,
w C (4 wl,V M . nol muc h space after the other rooms
ttsi iK£?.\i l WM very small: ao small, indeed,
lUirt 1 aceom ®o i isto only a very short bod
tSs ’inuiH® were amend excellent girls at
I °®ce where 1 called. Imt
UIL then >. they were afl too
•Miuiv.A WM ona hiir Scotch girl, who
hi, If m, e i^ c Z*° D r ‘ ,r «a, and I would have taken
»«commas?,! notohjcclod to my plan for hot
"Mihfti. loi*'lI oi *'l ... I first thought of cut-
Wlfork.J" ,h# psrtlilouwollaithefootofthe
final ihohrr t ?, pu . lbor feet through. . . .And
has a l»« u . t turning the bed around, end cut*
paiherhlts i ! e ' through which ehe might have
!i ? th* little room on thle side. A
b i haTe ,toot t under Ihe hole, and her
T a^e«mp, l r^hty r ?* t * doa * cn,bloQ on tho table
lero'iniSVhi, 11 ” oQld have frightened roe to death
•«U»s übiS.J om * ad ••• that bead oa acoiblon
Wt. Joba the Baptist," Interrupted Buphe
’wil'jb,.' ' * lbß Plan would hayo bad Its ad
»lMow* V.ul Ruphemia, looking out of a back
Job »U ost ‘ lovely Rule Iron balcony I Do
‘'Tbit', ,V I# 00 "arm ovonlngeT"
'•'‘Ma lt f. flt, ' eic ao«. Wo don’t go ont thore
{‘otus bsla, Q JVH hot Indeed on accooot of the
* tb» fl2, , .°u‘re. You eee there U a little door
balcony, and an Iron ladder
lr »t Uonr.**“ Coßjr haocath, and so on down to
hiuto«MD through that hols and
so down that dreadfel steep ladder 6t«t; time
thoro in a flref"
"Well, Ignesswe should never go down bat
ojice."
"No. indeed I You'd fall and break yonr necks
the drat limn."
But of course the points wherein Mr. Stock
ton has made his book superior to the common
run of professedly end grotesquely humorous
books are not quotable in n newspaper review.
They are subtle and delicate touches, hints of
character, naive expressions, noticeable avoid
ances of all exaggeration, mid so on; and the?
are plenty enough to make "Rudder Grange o
stand high in the gov fluid of American humor.
(" Rudder Grange." By Fronk R. Stockton.
New York: Charles Scribner's Boos. 1 vol.
ISmo. Price, 61*25.) J. K.
THE DAWN OP HISTORY.
A very useful little volume designed as an in
troduction to pru-hlslorlc study Is 11 The Dawn
of History," edited by C. F. Kcary, M. A., of
the British Museum. The title of Editor "is
modestly taken by Mr. Kcary, though bn has
written eight of the fourteen chapters entirely,
others in part, and extended his rigid super
vision over Uiu whole. Thu chapters not written
by him are ascribed to persons of the samo
name, and presumably of his own family. It
msy be tlmt he chose to assume the title of
editor because ho laid no claim to originality:
if so, Ids example is far In advance of that of
some Illustrious men In our own country, who
have not hesitated to permit thu use of their
names as authors, though their labors havo
begun ami ended with the correction of some
body olSe’s proof-sheets.
The chapters on "The Earliest Traces of
Man" and "Thu Second Stooo Ago" follow
pretty closely Gclklo, Lyeil, Lubbock, and
Tylor: those on "The Growth of Language"
and "Families of Language" Max Muller;
that on "The Nations of the Old World” Bun
sen, Lenormant, nml Rawliosou; those on
"Early Social Life" and "The village Com
munity" Sir Henry Maine and Lnvalave; those on
"Religion,” “Mythology,” "Picture-Writing,"
etc., Bunsen, Mux Muller, Rawlinson,ctc. ’ Tho
work has been admirably done, and we should
think Is well calculated to serve auscful purpose.
It gives in one small volume an epitome of tho
knowledge that It has taken many learned men
In the aggregate centuries to acquire. The
Acid of research covered by It has only been
opened fully to investigation of late years, mid
it is constantly demanding morn of the atten
tion of scholars mid men of thu world. ("The
Dawn of History." New York: Charles Scrib
ner's Sons. Price, 81.25.)
GLADSTONE’S GLEANINGS.
Four volumes of Gladstone's " Gleanings of
Fast Years " havo thus far been issued by
Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons. They are neat
ly bound In brown cloth, aud sold for the very
moderate price of $1 per volume. "These oc
casional productions," Mr. Gladstone says in
the preface, " extend over Hie long term of
thirty-six years,—years eminently anxious, pro
lific, and changeful. . . Essays of a contro
versial kind, whether In politics or religion, and
classical essays, are not included In the collec
tion." Volume I. embraces eight essays, some
what heterogeneous Id their character, collected
under the title of "The Throne and the Prince
Coosort: the Cabinet aml Constltutlon." These
ore: An address at Manchester on tho death of
tho Prince Consort, reviews of three successive
volumes of Martin's "Life of the Prince
Consort"; articles In Hie Nineteenth Cen
tury concerning the County Franchise,
and Mr. Lowe's position thereon:
and the celebrated essay "Kin Beyond Bca,"
which, however unpatriotic in Its character, was
greatly admired In America a few months ago,
at the time of Its publication. Volume 11. In
cludes onlv personal nml llterorv essay*. These
are: An essay on Blanco White (1845); Giacomo
Leopardi; Tennyson; Wedgwood (1883); Bishop
Pntteson (1874); Macaulay; Dr. Norman Mao
lead. Volume 111, contains historical ami specu
lative essays, us follows: "Tho Theses of
Erastus aud the Scottish Church Establish
ment” (1844); "On‘Ecce lloroo* (1868); "The
Courses of Religious Thought," "The Influ
ence of Authority in Matters.of Opinion"
(1877); "The Sixteenth Century Arraigned Be
fore the Nineteenth." Volume IV. Is made up
of foreign essays: "Letters to the Earl of
Aberdeen on the State Persecutions of the
Neapolitan Government ” (1851); " Official Re
ply of the Neapolitan Government" (1852);
Farlnl on the States of the Church, Germany,
France, nml England (1870); "Hellenic Factor
In the Eastern Problem"; Montenegro; ami
"Aggression of'Egypt aud Freedom la the
East."
Mr. Gladstone's literary style Is not the best,
but his thoughts are weighty, and whatever
aubject ho mar choose to write about gains im
portance by his accession to the company of dis
putants. We think this Idea of tho collection of
his scattered writings ism good one. Certainly
there ls.no other Englishman in public life who
has so large a share of Uiu esteem and affection
of the American people. (“Gleanings of Past
Years.'.' , ByW. E. Gladstone. Four volumes,
each Iflmo. Price, $1 each.)
GROVE'S DICTIONARY OP MUSIC,
Tho. sixth part of Grovu’s “Dictionary of
Music and Musicians” is out, and Is by far tho
most interesting number of the scries. It
covers the ground from the article “Ounol”to
“Impromptu.” His a very linportaut musical
letter, and heads such composers as Huendo),
Haydn, Hlmmcl, Haase, Hesse. Hummel, Her
old, Hiller, Halevy, pad Helmholtz, tho famous
discoverer of harmonic laws. All these biogra
phies are well printed—particulorlv that of
“Haydu by Pohl, of Vienna. It’isa model
sketch, and will give the musical student a hot
ter idea of tho composer of the “Creation ”
even than the largo works which have
been written. In audition to these biog
raphies, this . number also contains au
able paper upoii “Harmony,” by Parry,
and an extremely interesting description of tho
Harmonica, or ''Musical Glasses.” which bas an
American interest, as Dr. Franklin constructed
a machine upon tho principle ot obtaining music
from wet glass, which Is Illustrated in this num
ber. It also contains a novelty in the shape of
some music written for the glasses by ueotho
von, which has never before been printed. Five
American subjects are included in the list of
contents, viz.: short biographies of Minnie
Hauck, Edward Hodges, long time an organist
in New York City, and Samuel Holyoke, a
famous teacher of the lost century, and
ekutcties of the rise ami progress of thu Harvard
Musical Association amt Handel ami Haydn
Society of Boston. Tho present number of this
excellent. Dictionary completes tho volume.
[Now York: Macmillan A Oo.J
THE GREAT GERMAN COMPOSERS.
The latest Issue In tho Appleton New Handy-
Volume Series la, 44 Tho Great Germau Com
posers,” the list of subjects Including Bach,
Handel, Gluck, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven,
Schumann, Schubert, Franz, Weber, Mendels
sohn. Wagner, and Chopin, though the latter
was la no sense a German composer, notwith
standing the desperate eiTort of the compiler to
make It appear so to Urn preface, which, by the
way, is the only original thing In the book.
The sketches, if they may be called
so, are made up ot solid chunks
taken from flchoelchor, Schindler, Lamoadlus.
Bombot, and other reliable biographers, and
from the Polkas, Rsu, Hies, Hamels, and others
who aro not reliable. So little discrimination
has been observed In the preparation of this
book, that long-ago exploded errors, misstate
meats, and silly stories are again paraded be
fore the musical reader as seriously os If
they were discoveries of yesterday, while many
of the rcallv Imnortant facts pertaining to the
lives and works of these composers are omitted
altogether. Tho musical student, who has
neither the time nor opportunity to consult
standard works, needs some well-prepared
hand-book for-reforonce, which shall give him
out only tho most prominent events of the com
poser’s life, verified by the most recent authori
ties, but also a careful and concise analysis of his
stvlt, with a few leading illustrations. This Is all
the more to be desired, because private libraries
can only be collected with much expense and great
painstaking, while public libraries pay little or
no regard to musical literature. The volume
under consideration tills neither desideratum.
It will give him a wrong Idea of the composer
and no Idea at all ot his music. [New York:
Appleton Co.]
'GRAMMAR OP PAINTING AND EN-
GRAVING,
The control of. Mrs. Daggett's admirable
translation of Charles Blanc’s 44 Grammolre dea
Arts du Desscin” has, we are glad to know,
passed to a Chicago publishing bouse,—Messrs.
8. C, Griggs & Co. Tho work at Uie beginning
was sotborougbly identified with this city, aud
the translator Is so entirely a Chicago woman,
that there always seemed to be something Inap*
proprUlo In having It published awsy from
bom?. It has lost nothing by being
transferred to Messrs. Griggs * Co. They
have retained all the original plates, and have
given to this book the same substantial paper
and binding which have been used In their other
best-class publications. They have also reduced
tho price, with a view to bringing the book
within the reach of persona of moderate meant.
At this distance of time It would be Idle to
offer any commendation of M. Blanc’s original
, work, or of Mrs. Doggctt'a translation of U.
THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE: SATURDAY. MAY 17. 1879—SIXTEEN PAGES.
Doth were long aero approved bv True Thiuhne
nml oilier Authority more competent. It la suf
ficient to (mv tlmt tiic merlin oi botli works have
been nmply recognised by the best critics In nrt
mid literature In this country, 'liicre in no
book In existence which In equal compass elves
so complete a statement of the rudiments of
art. (•* Diane's Grammar of Fainting mid F.n-
S raving,” Translated from the French, bv Mrs.
ate N. Dogirett, with nearly fifty Illustrative
engravings of famous nrt Works of Michael
Angelo, Bellini. Ilnnhnel. Da Vinci, Rembrandt,
Lorraine, Fmil Potter, Holbein, etc. One beau*
tlfut volume, octavo, cloth. Price, #3. .Chicago:
B. 0. Griggs & Co., 35 Washington street.)
APPELLATE COURT REPORTS.
The second volume of the Appellate Court re
ports has just t>ccn compiled by Judge Brad
welt, and published by the Chicago Lerjal Wriee
Company. It is a handsomely gotten up book,
and contains all the remaining opinions of the
First District not published in the preceding
volume,up to the March term, 1870, the remain
ing opinions of thu Second District of the June
term, 1878, and all the opinions of the Third
District up to thu November term, 1878, and a
portion of those of that term. Wo had occa
sion when noticing thu first Volume of thu work
to apeak o! the careful manner in which thu
opinions of thu Judges were reported, and the
present volume appears to bu oti the same high
level. It is the only scries of reports of the de
cisions of the Appellate Court now published,
and must, be had, even though (he decisions ore
not technically to be regarded as precedents.
L’ASSOMMOIU.
Two translations of have
been printed In this country,—one by Peterson,
which wisely retains the title of the original,
and the other by Cartotun, under the title of
"GcrvaUc." Neither is In all respects what a
translation should be, but the former, by John
Stirling, is possibly the better of the two. How
far cither has been expurgated, it would bo drill
cult to determine wltnoui more trouble than
the Inquiry seems to be worth. It is certain,
however, that enough remains to make thu
story very shocking and repulsive. As to the
moral tendency of the book, It Is a little late to
speak. It is a temperance lecture in the sense
that a drunkard wallowing In the gutter and
rejoicing in his own tilth Is a tomperaccu lect
ure. Anybody who has It in his heart to enjoy
this spectacle will delight In the novel; but
roost persons will read it only with the most
uncomfortable sensations.
BRIEF NOTICES,
Macmillan £ Co. hnva Just received tho Oral part
of one of the moat important cniccDriaca of scholar
ship of the day—m Skoal's • • Etymological Diction
ary. " which appears in tbo Clarendon Pre*e eUrtee,
Tills is tho product of tho most thorough learning
ami the niortadvanced scholarship, and will take
rank as dm standard book of reference. There will
bo four partH, at tbo moderate price of $3. AO each.
— PnbUt/ier't Weekly.
The above work has been received, and ylll bo
more fully noticed in due season.
A. F. Nightingale, of Lake View (near Ravens
wood, III.), bas complied, nml D. Appleton &
Co. have published, ."A Hand-Book of Require
ments for Admission to thu Colleges of the
United States, with Miscellaneous Addenda, for
thu Use of High Schools, Academies, and other
College Preparatory Institutions." The book
will show at a glance what arc the requirements
of any college, and must be a great assistance to
persons in doubt about the college they shall
enter. The cost is only 81,—less tliau tho price
of a few catalogues and postage.
Probably no work of a Ilka kind ever reached
a more extensive circulation than "Winnowed
Hymns." Over half a million copies havo bccu
sold. The same compiler, Chaplain .McCabe, has
Just Issued onothurwork of like character, called
"Jor to the World." It U suited to thu re
ligious services of all denominations. Retain
ing the most popular hymns, munv new ami
beautiful attractions have been added. Thu
recitation ot thu author wilt doubtless give it
a large sale. Hitchcock & Walden, Chicago,
Cincinnati, and St. Louis, are thu publishers.
PERIODICALS RECEIVED,
Messrs. Charles Scribner's bans send us the
bound volume of their magazine for the first
ball of the current year. The numbers have
been noticed separately on their appearance, but
It Is impossible in (he monthly parts to get thu
full effects ot the engravings, or perhaps to no*
predate the lavish expenditures of the publish*
ers (n this enterprise. The success of the maga
zine, it Is a pleasure to be able to say, bas been
equal to its merits, the circulation monthly now
being in the neighborhood of 100,000. Wyatt
Eaton's portraits of Longfellow and Emerson
arc the frontispieces of the present volume, and
the articles on the poets in thu text arc perhaps
the most valuable contents of the volume.
The June number of Harper's Magaslnt. ap
pears in enlarged form and new type. The
character of the contributions remains as high
as ever, and the illustrations arc ns usual line
specimens of the wood-engraver's art. Among
the noteworthy articles are “Berg and Thai.
Sketches in Tyrol, IV,” by Col. George E.
Waring, Jr.; “Thu Grand Days of Hlstrlonis,”
by Olivo Logan; “ A Free Lecture Experience,”
hv James T. Fields; “Black Point,” a story, by
Constance FonlinoroWoolson; “ Recollections of
Agassiz," by E. I*. Whipple; “ Alexander Spots
wood,” by John Eaten Cooke; “Young Mrs.
Jordine,” a novel, by Dinah Muioch Crafk;
“Tim Draining of a Village,” hv Col. George
E. Waring.' “The Easy Chair” has something
to say about Madame Patterson Bonaparte, the
“Moderate Temperance Reform,” “Honorable
Politics,” etc., etc.
Tim Atlantic for Juno opens with a vcrv 11 tell*
lug”. article on “A New England Factor)’
Town ” (Fall River), by the author o( tho “ Cer
tain Dangerous Tendencies In American Life.”
Tho writer advances tho appalling and ruvolu
llonary opinion that olcht hours* labor per day Is
not enough to keep any class of men, even brain
workers mid clergymen, In good physical condi
tlon. Tho article Is throughout vigorous mid
suggestive. Mr. Howcllp has a characteristically
humorous paper In this number, entitled u Ray
ing a horse.” Charles Dudley Warner writes
ot u Tho English People in Bhakspcarc’s Dav.”
Thomas BUiloy Aldrich of ‘‘Dobson's Proverbs
in Porcelain.” and Richard Grant While of U A
Sunduv on the Thames.*' Dr. Ueorue M. Board
contributes a paper on “The Pnysicul Future of
the American People.” There arc seventeen
papers iti the Contributors* Club. The number
as a whole is, to quote the publisher’s announce
ment, “one of the best ever Issued.”
BOOKS RECEIVED.
Nrw Bbctiokai. Map or Nehraska. Chicago:
R. R. Paje A Co. Price, sl.
Literary Notes. By A. P. Russell. Onevol.,
liirao, 9-. Boston: llonchton, Osgood A Co.
Rapid Transit Abroad. Journal of a Hurried
Tour In Europe. Hew York: James Millar.
Price, 91 .‘-'5.
Tur Ljttlr Brown Girl: A story. By Kamo
Stuart. New York: Dodd, Mead A Co. Cloth.
Price, 80 cents.
Fali.kk Auono Tiiievss. A Summer Tour.
By Mrs. M. L. Raytie. Idmo. $1.60. Now
York: ti. W. Carletou A Co.
BtUTtsii Poets. Riverside edition. Skelton *
Domic, Uvola. Herrick, 1 vol. $1.72 each. Bos
ton: Houghton, Osgood A Co.
Mr DKsina: A True Story. By the author of
“Tho Wide, Wide World." Now York: Robert
Carter A Bros. Price, $1,75,
Tub Epic or llapks. By the Author of 44 Bongs
of Two Worlds," Klmo. Seventh Edition. Bos
ton: UoDerls Bros. Price, 91.61). 1
Lkttbus viiom Fr.uiiiDA. By Mrs. 11. W,
Beecher. New York: Appleton. IS7O. 85 pages,
Illustrated, KJmo, Cloth, 60 cents.
Wiui Lifr is a Shutiikun County (370 pages).
By tho author of “Tho Game-Keeper at Homo."
lurao,, Boston: Roberts Bros.
The Peace Parliament; ok, The Hbionitruc
tion Cubed or Christendom. lUnio, Cloth, 60
cents. Uoaton: Houghton, Osgood «fc Co.
Ok London Untutiß: A True Story. By Julia
McNair Wright. New York: National Temper*
aoco Publication House. Price, 40 cunts.
Douwort A Russian story. By Henry Orevtlle.
Translated by Mario Stewart. Philadelphia: T. 11.
Petursou A Bros. Paper. Price, 50 cents.
God'* Plan or Salvation! ou, His Pimrosn
Conteiininu Man and Barth. By Eider J. M.
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Piutrusisn l,Kui9t,ATion os AnuLrr.nATios or
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Co create a Suite Hoard ot Huultli, will* exulnnu*
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Marin Gowan Brooks (‘iMsrla del Occident”).
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$1.50.
An Oriental cnlc, first pnbllsbcd In Boston Hi
IS'.’.'j; founded upon the jstory of Sara. ItugucVs
daughter, as given In thq book of Toblt lu tho
Anocrypha: design of poan Is to show bow love
adeem Individual nature, molding and swaylmr
both human mm angelic nature: Kufns W. (ins
wold characterizes It (IHlpfks "one of the few
compositions destined for durable fame . . .
one of the most original, passionate, amt harmonl*
ous worKfl of tuatrlimtloQAver conceived." Author
horn in Medford, Muss, I*U7; died about IHIR.
Mrs. Gustafson, author of “Meg: A Pastoral,”
prefaces poem with a sketch (4(i paces) of Mrs.
Brooks’life, and letters .from celebrated writers
who know her. Motes (DO pages).— Publisher*'
Weekly.
ETTEUAEY notes.
The English cbcss Journal, Wutm'nster Papert,
la dead.
The Athenaeum criticises Fronde's "Ctnsar"
severely.
Harper'* elves us a liplf-hour with Thackeray
this week In “The Four Georges.”
Ucorpcßarrott Smith, uu English gentleman
who, among other works, has written a Life of
Shelley mid a volume called 11 Facts and Nov*
01(818,“ will soon publish a Life of Gladstone.
Se'tnct Ktm, the scientific Journal recently
established by Casslno, of Salem, Mass., under
editorial charge of Mr. Ernest Imrersotl and Mr.
William C. Wvckoir, Is hereafter to bo pub*
lished by Mr. Wycltoff In New York. Mr. Ingcr
soil will retain hlsplace as editor.
A correspondent of Hole* and Queries suggests
the following motto lor the new index Society
of London: “Iformv part venerate the in
ventor of indexes; and I know not to whom to
yield the preference, either to Hippocrates, who
was the great onotomlzcr of tiie human body,
or to that unknown laborer in literature who
first laid open the nerves and arteries of a
book.”—D’lsrncU’s Miscellanies, London, 1700,
p. 100.
There will bo published, May SO, by A. S.
Barnes & Co.. New York ami Chicago, “A Man
ual of International Law, 1 * by Edward M. Gal
laudot, Ph. 1).. LL. D., President and Professor
of .Moral and Political Science In the College ot
Deaf Mutes, Washington, D. C. This book
gives In condensed form a comprehensive view
of what is.uow recognized as the laws of nations
throughout the civilized world, and la designed
for higher schools and colleges.
There ore many penonswbo think themselves
well read in belles-lettres who urobablymcvcr
heard of Henry Tlmrod, thu pout of South Car
olina. Yet It was of him that Tennyson said,
buloro Timrod’s death, that ho was the truest of
American pouts. There Is now a project on foot
In Bouth Carolina to erect a monument to the
memory of the genius whoso name will probably
live long after some of tbe State’s most cher
ished military heroes have been forgotten.
Thu people of Haworth determined to pull
down the old church and build a new one and
larger one, on which u cry went forth in favor
ot the little moorland sanctuary, so hallowed
by association with genius, within whose waits
Ellis, und Currcr, und Acton Hell worshiped,
and Patrick Bronte ministered, and beneath the
shadow of widen he buried bis wife and six
children before departing himself. Thu little
church now hears no further truce of the Brontes
than a small tablet on the chancel wall, opposite
the pew in which they sat, but the spirit of the
family pervades the.place, nod Instantly almost
sultleicut was subscribed to preserve this memo
rial of those who mode Haworth famous.
In accidentally turning over Tub Chicago
Tiuuunb of March 15. we came across a fair cor
respondent, who, adoring lu Mr. Howells “thu
most fascinating ot novelists,” contrives to pay
him a curiously circumstantial compliment.
It seems that her brother, relying upon the
realistic fidelity of the author of “A Chance
Acquaintance,” resolved to spend his honey
moon at Quebec, ami In the very boarding
house patronized by Kilty und her cousins.
He readily Identified the premises, hut was
disgusted to find that another enthusiastic
couple had got the start of him, and
were already ensconced In the apartments
“olive with the memories of a charming
woman.” It would be as ungracious (or us
os lor Mr. Howells or tbe boarding-houses
to deprecate such ingenious criticism, since it
offers us a useful hint. Tito truth Is that Mr.
Howells' studied backgrounds are too rich In
those petty details which tend rather to fdeutltl
cation than to edification, which burden without
enhancing the Ideal picture. After all, hU mis
sion lies in a corrupt following of Dr. Wendell
Holmes rather than of Zola or Balzac, but, un
fortunately, the “Professor” does not bear
Imitation. We felt a lively It morbid Interest
in all those physiological, psychological, and
metaphysical vagaries playing round simple
characters in an everyday story, but we awake
in alarm to find that literary permanency has
been voted to thu guileless country girl,
badgered, bullied, analyzed, and at last-en
slaved by tbe inexorable Lunacy Commissioner.
— Academy.
Mark Twain’s new book U thus described by
himself: “U is a gossipy volume of travel,
and will be similar to the 1 Innocents Auroad’
In alto, and similarly Illustrated. 1 snail draw
some of the pictures for It myself. However,
that need not frighten anybody, for I shall draw
only a few. I think the book «UI sot be fin
ished in time for the summer season, nut will
appear lo the fall. I call It a gossipy volume,
and that la what It U. It talks about anything
and everything, and always drop* a subject the
moment ray Interest la it begins to slacken, it
In an discursive ns a conversation; It has no
more restraints or limitations than a fireside
talk has. I Jiavo been drifting nruiimi on nn
Idle, easy-going tramp—so to sneak—for a roar,
slopping when I pleased, moving on when 1 got
I'endy. My book baa caught the complexion
of the trip. In a word. It Is a book written
bv one loafer for n brother loafer to read.”
Mark Twain says he did not write a l>ook about
England, because there’s nothing funny in tho
country. "Why, (here’s the English humorous
papers,” said a correspondent.
'•They are not funny: they are pathetic,” ro*-
piled Mark.
“ You could have written about the mannera
and customs!”
“Yes. Imtonly to a certain extent. . . . The
real interest would bo In the private ami domes*
tic manners mid customs, mid I luui no right to
print anything about those, either pralssfullv
or otherwise. I was a guest In manv English
homes, butwhon a man takes you into Id* house
he tacitly takes you into his confidence, aud It
would he a graceless thing to abuse It.”
THE FINE ARTS.,
THE PARIS SALCtfL
.Vrrc York Herald.
Pxms, May 12.—Theopening o( the Salon to*
day Is naturally the prevailing topic of interest.
Its distinguishing feature Is Its Increased pro*
portions, both as regards space and the number
of pictures exhibited. The Judges have this
year shown great leniency In their Judgments.
They have received every possible picture, tho
Increase on the usual number admitted being
little short of 800. The/consequence Is that
there Is but little credit Jn being accepted this
season, the number of pictures below the or*
dlnary average of merit being about that figure.
Several well-known names arc missing from this
'year's exhibition. M. Meisionlcrlmscontributed
nothing. M. Oerome has gone to Algeria in
search of health and new studies. MM. dc
Neuvllle mid Vlhcrtjiave sold to Americans and
sent to their owners the works they Intended
for the Salon. .M.jMunkacsv’B picture waa not
finished in time. The following are the princi
pal works exhibit/d:
Bouguereau, U’llMam A.—” La Nalssanee do
Vcuus.” M. Doggucrcau also exhibits & “ rem
ain Girl ” carrying her little brother In her
arms,—llfc-alzs figures, painted from nature, In
the ojieii air.
Mile, barab Bernhardt has abandoned the
large painting which she commenced lust year.
She finds time, aside from her laborious hours
at the theatre, to mode) manv busts. Her pa
trons arc chlclly wealthy travelers. She has
sent to the Salon a “ Head of a Young Girl.”
Several (Works by the Bonheur family are to
he seen it the Salon this year. Rosa has lust
finished an Importuut picture,—au order from
Mr. Dolsuncr, of Virginia, but she no longer
contributes to the public exhibitions. Her sis
ter, .Mine. I’evrol-Bonbeur, has a pulutlngof cat
tle in the fields at noon, and another of sheep
lying oo aldllside In a silvery morning light. M.
Auguste Boubeur exhibits one very large mid
one smaller cattle scene, and M. Isidore Bon
lieur two bronze grouos,—burners on horse
back; one In andent costume and one In mod
ern, with horses corresponding to the types of
the two epochs. *
Cahancl, Alexandre—“ Portrait dc M. Mne
kay.” ■
Lore, Gustavo—“Orphee ot les Mcncadcs.”
The following arc American artlits:
Anderson, A. A., New York—“UavldOardant
les Troupcaut dcSon Perc.”
Bacon, Uenry, Boston—“Uo Eutcrreraent-cn
Mer."
Blersladt, Albert, New York—Unable to fin*
lah ia time his new larco painting of the 44 Yo-
Semite Valley,” Mr. Blersladt contributes to this
year’s Salon only one small picture of Western
scenery. It is a warm, sumiy autumn land
scape. Tim river flowing through Die middle
ground is happily treated und contributes much
to tho succcsslul ulfcct nf the picture.
Blsphsm, 11. C.—Portrait of the famous Hon
Sultan, who constitutes ono of tho chief attrac
tions of Bidal’s menagerie.
Blasiillcld, E. H., New York.—“Un Assaut
d’Annes Eulre Deux Dames do PAuclcuue
Home.” .
Bolt, E. D., Boston— 44 Paysngca.”
Brldgmau’s “ Procession of the Sacred Or.”
Bridgman, F. A., Now York—“Lc Cortege
du Bocuf Sacrc, Apis.”
Buncc, W. O.—“ Unc Idyllc do Ventso.”
Chase, H.—“Un Loitgrc Hollandals.”
Corson, Miss H.—“ Nature Morlc.”
Dnnu, \V. P. M.—“ Les Brlsants.”
Deacon, California— 4 * Vu« du Mont Blanc.”
Dodson, .Miss S., Philadelphia—” Deborah.”
Dubois. C. 12., New York—“Vue un Suisse.”
Flagg, Montague, New York—” Un Portrait.”
Gardner, Miss Elizabeth— 44 Ala Fontaine.”
Oreatorox, Miss— 44 Lea Flours dc Mentour.”
Ilealy, G. P. A., Boston—“Deux Portraits.”
These...two. .pictures, painted In the veteran
artist’s happiest style, tire' portraits of the
daughters of tho lute John Slidell,—Mme. d'Er
langcr and Mme. de St. Buman. Mr. Healy is
at present encaged in painting a tnll-lcuglh
portrait of the star of the day, Mtss Emma
Thursby.
Heaton, A. G., Philadelphia— <4 Uu Petit Cal
cul,”—ou Jtullou hoy counting his pence.
Hvhouiud, U. N., Philadelphia—“ Desdem
ona.”
Knight, D. R., Philadelphia—“Lo Yen
dongo.”
Lioplncott, W. IL, Philadelphia—“Un Jour
do Conge.”
Loomis, C.. Syracuse—“ Viola” and “La
Presentation du Prctcndu.”
May. E. 11., New York—“ Marguerite."
Moslcr, Henry, Cincinnati— I “LeHetour,”—a
fublo from Lafoutalne. Excellent in composi
tion und color.
Mlllutt, F. D.—“Lcs Paclficatours,”—an Inci
dent of the Eastern war.
8., Boston—“Lo Sacrifice
Pearce. C,
d’iaaac.”
Ramsay, Mlluc, Philadelphia—“ La Leltrede
Cachet.”
Sargent, John 8., Philadelphia—" Portrait du
Carolus Duran.”
Stewart, Jules L., Philadelphia—“ Portrait do
Fantaisie.”
Tuckernmn, E., Now York—“ Corneille.”
Wanl, K. M., Urbana—“Uo Tooncller.”
Williams, K. D.—“ Hue de Montlguy.”
THE PORTFOLIO.
The frontispiece of the Portfolio for April is
an etching by L. Uichcton of Ersklno Nichols'
“ Worrited.” Mr. Nichols is an A. R. A. He Is
best Known as a painter of Irish character, but
is himself of Scottish origin, having been bom
at Leith in 1835. Mr. Nichols Is widely known
for his humorous conceptions. In this study
he concedes an elderly gentleman, very much
perplexed, knitting his brow* and biting his quill
pen. and apparently unconscious that a wholo
world of art-peoplo is observing him. Thu
fourth of tbu series of papers on Oxiord is
printed in this number. It is devoted to
“Jacobean Oxford.” Another article of
moment is. by Mr. liamorion, con
cerning Goya, thu great Spanish artist ami suc
cessor of Velasquez, whose works at the Paris
Exposition were so remarkably noticed bv the
newspaper critics and unnoticed by everybody
else. Accompanying the article Is a sketch of
(loya etched after the portrait of Lopez.
The art chronicle is, as usual, full und entertain
ing. It loog ago Justified the wUdom of the
editors in establishing It. (New York: J. W.
Bouton. Price sl.)
ART NOTES.
The works for repairing the Cathedral of
Strasbourg, which have been suspended during
the winter, havo been resumed with energy.
It is expected that these works will be finished
this year; they havo been In progress for eight
years, and Involve a vast amount of construc
tion, or rather reconstruction, including Uic
wooden roof.—.lfAenctum.
•The Finance Committee of the Board of
Trustees of the Metropolltau Museum, of which
William E. Bodge, Jr., Is Chairman, are quietly
pushing the matter of tho subscriptions to the
fund for tho purchase of the Avery collection of
Oriental porcelains, tho King collection of gems,
and the other purposes mentioned in the circu
lar lately Issued. Steady progress, we are glad
to say, U being made, and, though tho list has
not yet been mode public, we are given to un
derstand that a good-sized sum has already been
raised, the amounts subscribed ranging from
SIOO to SS.OOO, and the Trustees doing their full
share.— Heru'a.
Tho Corcoran Gallery of .Art has Just pur
chased and placed on exhibition seventeen por
traits by Uealy, originals and copies, from the
collection of T, B. Bryan. Fifteen of them are
of the Presidents, from Washington to Lincoln,
all being represented except Harrison. Tho two
remaining ones are of Martha Washington and
George Peabody. The former and that of Wash
ington aro from Stuart’s original studies lu the
Bouton Museum, and those of John Adams and
Jefferson after work of the aamo hand. John
Quincy Adams, Jackson, Van Buren, Tyler.
Folk, Fillmore, Fierce, Buchanan, Lincoln, ami
Feabodv are licaly’s originals or replicas. Tuat
of Taylor la after Amaus*. Tho collection of
the Presidents was painted by Healy on an order
for Louis Fhillippe for the gallery at Versailles.
Couture’s “Conversations on A£f* will be
resdy at Q. P. Putnam’s Sons’ wittmt a week,
la one of bis chapters, Couture protests against
the rigot of critics to Judge an artut'a work.
Thor are at liberty, be asva, like the rest of the
world, to say that they like or do not like an
artlat'a pictures, but to give advice, to take, os
It w srflj tho brush of the painter and direct 1(, to
•oik of the chiaroscuro of stvlp, of color, of
drawing. this “I* not to bo borne.*’ They know
nothing, ho says, of the work, and identify “the
words of the trade, like apes.” Ills advice Is to
choo>,o a subject which would not irouhlo
those who are at work, and If difficulty
should be fouud in finding one, ho
kindly oilers to give his assistance/*
Couture says further that ho would Ignore two
antique In giving first lessons to beginners In
*•*l. To use it with beginners Is monstrous,
while the teacher is trying to make bis student
Teel the beauties of Ids statue he Is giving him
false Imopcsslons and familiarizing him with what
he cannot understand. A teacher vau make his
pupil copy a table or a book, mid bo cun hare
plaster casts of them If he like, hut “to leach
from the antique Is Impossible; the puotl has
many things to leam before he cau compre
hend It.”
SPARKS OP SCIENCE.
Tim ncrosinoM of dew.
To tot Editor a t Tilt Tribune.
Chicago, May 15.—Since writing tho article
published In your Issue of Uie 10th Inst., t have
received a pamphlet from Prof, gtockhrldgc, of
the Massachusetts Agricultural College, Am
herst, containing Ids report on and the result of
a great number of experiments made during the
months Of May to November, Inclusive, and
from which experiment* he lodines towards
conclusions, other than those held by scientists
generally, and as supplementary to what 1 have
already written on this subject I desire to sub
mit the followlngparllat review of his report:
Prof. Htockbrldge, If I understand him right,
concludes that the deposition of dew Is (Im re
sult of moisture rising from or la the ground
to Its surface, whore It meets or comes In con
tact with tho colder air, as hu clolnw, Immedi
ately at the imitate of the ground. mid Is de
posited there ns dew. In support,of this theory
be cites the result ot numerous experiments.
Let us examine these briefly. /
ile gives the average result of a large number
of experiments from Mir tv November In
clusive, os showing conclusively In his opinion
that the generally accepted theory of the cool
ing down o( the earth at night to a temperature
below that of tho air Is susceptible of a little
modification, for he say# that In nearly till of
these experiments he found the soil la the
morning several degrees warmer than tho air
above.
In record to this, observation has taught mo
that there art so many conditions that affect the
tcmpcmUiryof the soil ami air tlmt such experi*
menu cauflot be lully relied ou a* proving or
disprovingeither tlio theoryofTrof. islOckbrmgo
orthe more generally accepted theory of Dr.
Wells, alluded to lu my former commuuleu
tlon.
1 have myself made similar experiments over
und over again, und on the same ground, and
with very varying results. In most eases 1 have
found the surface of the earth to begin
to cool down after sunset, in lair
weather, and sometimes to run down 8
or 10 degrees even by 11 or 10 o’clock, but
generally Horn fi to 10 degrees In and during
the night below* that of the air. lint in a trial
made tills morning (May 15) the soil at the sur
face Is 4 degrees higher than tlmt of the air four
feet above the earth.
Tiic past night was clear, the ground moist
from a rnin-fati ttoo days before, the air still,
the tcmperoturt'GO Fahr., and a heavy dew de
posit the result. But my observations of the
temperature of air mid soil Ims been almost in
variably the reverses of what indicated tills
morning, so that, taking Into the account the re
sults ot experiments by Prof. Stockbrldge und
others, as well as my own, I am clearly of the
opinion that the deposition ot dew does nut de
pend wholly on an excess of temperature In
either the earth or soil, but that it tin* air,
whether by radiation of heat from the earth or
otherwise, becomes cooled down to wlmt
Is known as the dew point, it will
deposit its moisture on the earth or other terres
trial things, but X certainly do not share in the
conclusions of Prof. Stockbrldge tlmt this cool
ing process takes place at, the ground surfaces.
Uis experiments with the tin cans illlod with
soil, by which lie found u deposition of moisture
or dew on the underside of the cover and not on
the upper side, carries no evidence, to my miud,
of the correctness or incorrectness of either
theory, nor dues the fact that, when a hay-cock
Is removed from the ground on wiildh it has
stood over night, It is always found wet under
neath, prove anything further than that where
the ground is both moirt und warm it sends off
its heat and vapor together into space, and if a
hoy-cock or a mower’s whetstone, to w hich tie
refers, a board, or other substance sball cover
any portion of the soil, they will arrest this
vapor in its upward course and it will bo de
posited underneath them in the form ot con
densed vapor of water, just the same as the
steam would condense on the. under sldu.ql the
cover of our dinner-pot when boiling over u fire.
The metal cover to the tin can that Prof.
Stockbrldge used was, ns Prof. Tvndatl asserts,
a “poor radiator,” hence, as Melonl and others
have found in similar experiments, Us temper
ature was higher than the air in contact with it.
and would not bo instrumental in condensing
the moisture in tliu air that came in contact
with It; therefore no dew would necessarily bo
deposited thereon, but, like the bay-cock, it
covered a certain portion of the earth’d surface,
und, like the cover to dm put, also whs in the
war of the free passage of the rising moisture,
uuu, as a matter of course, would intercept ami
condense it then ami there, without reference to
which was the coldest, provided the air whs be
low the dew point. lienee we may conclude that,
with a dry soil und atmosphere, the earth will
so far radiate its heat into space as to reduce its
temperature by night hclow the dev.*
point, and below* the air above
It, and to condense the vapor held in susuen
slon by the air, ami dew will oe uepo-iltud; but
if the soil mid other terrestrial substances be not
sutilcicntly reduced in temperature to do this, or
If it be higher than tlmt of the air immediately
In contact with it. observation shows conclu
sively tlmt dew will be deposited notwithstand
ing. Utherwisc why do wo And a henvv deposit
oi dew often congealed into hoar frost on the
roofs of our houses, ou the tups of our trees,
etc. I I conceive this latter phenomena conclu
sive as against the theory tlmt dow Is deposited
at the surface of the soil. There can be no
question that vanor rises through the pores and
arteries In the son ami passes into the air; then
it diffuses Itself tike other vapor, and then
cooled bv any cause, whether it be by the iotlli
enee of cold winds, or by contact with the o.irfh
or other terrestrial things tlmt have radiated
their heat inio space, it will be condensed ami
precipitated as dew, and, If cold enough, it will
congeal ami become frost.
The experiments of Prof. Stockbrldge, which
wore evidently made with a great deal of cure
und with & desire only to eliminate the truth
without reference to whoso theories should bo
upset bv the results, to my mind show tlmt
very different results would be obtained on
different soils, and also on the same soils at
different times, depending ou the temperature
of the earth, air, ami especially of tlm winds.
The one great principle that is so apparent iu
tlm case of deposition of moisture by condensa
tion on the outside of an ice-pitcher in warm
weather, and ou tlm inside of a pane of window
glass in cold weather, is conclusive evidence that
dew U tlm result of contact of air with colder
bodies, und the dew ami frost ou the roofs of
cur houses is just as conclusive tlmt other con
ditions than those of vapor rising from tlm
earth will, und do, produce dow.
G. I*. lUndai.l.
CONCERNING ANESTHETICS.
flitiinn Journal of dhtmiuru.
It is not merely pain na such which wo seek to
provost by anesthetics, uor is it always well for
a man to endure the' pain ol an operation be*
cause ho fuels that hu cuu nerve himself to it
without flinching. As Dr. Tidy well said In a
paper ho lately read before a medical society lu
Loudon, anesthetics uro given “to diminish
nervous and mental tax”; and this means a
deal more than, tho simple avoiding of bod
y pain.
Anesthetics diminish tills nervous and mental
tax by allaying tho apprehension mul fear of an
operation. The degree of tins apprehension and
tho consequent harm it docs vary much with
different temperaments. Hence uu anesthetic
may bo more needed by one person who is going
to have a tooth pulled than by another who is
going to have a leg cut off. In many rases tho
suffering from anticipation of the pain is lur
worse than the pain itself.
Moreover, the Insensibility to pain during the
operation also diminishes this nervous tux. it
Is sometimes said that "no one ever died of
pain”: but this is not true, lor pcuplu some,
times do dla.of pain, it must be borne in mind
'that, With advancing civilization, (lie nervous
system becomes more sensitive to pain. The
use ol anesthetics is, therefore, more necessary
among cultivated nations in this nlucteCutn
century than It would have been among the less
susceptible people of former times.
Again, anesthetics allow far more ctoborato,
prolonged, and careful operations to be per*
formed than were formerly practicable, and tbe
gain to the patient Is often incalculable. When
an operation bad to bo excruciatingly painful
from beginning to end, the surgeon was com-
Belled to muae it ss brief as possible, oltcu at
io Inevitable sacrifice of precision and com*
pleteaess.
Another advantage in tbe use of anesthetics
Is that “their after-action diminishes the need
there formerlv was for the administration of
opiates alter tbe operation and for weighty
reasons anything that obviates a resort to opi
ates is an important gain.
U may be sold Unit there is a risk In tho em-
ployment oCrinesthetlcs, but this la so Isslimlfi
cant when weighed against the bcnefltgdorjred
from them that it cannot be scrlouslrorgod as
iin objection to tlietr use. it | s , Imwover. a
sufficient reason why they ehould/not bo In
trusted to Ignorant or ttnsklllful/hatida. It
Any he a question whether they ahsnld ever bo
administered except under the'' direction of a
regular physician. ’
COLORS OF DOURLfer STARS.
n Tim**.!'
It has been proved (by English observers) that
some relation exists between the eolar activity
and the relative poaltlomAM the members et
our planetary system. And'the Ihrbt of Planets
Is found to vary/bolh la' Intensity and color*
there changes bring In softs rdallon,’apparent
ly, to the orbital poaf®o» planets. Such
correlations lately.' wiiprtcewted to M. Nloatcn, of
the Drusscl/KpjUl Observatory, to examine
whether (feibls stars did not show something
of the saw kind, or whotlicr the changes In
color of (/tain of those systems were not con
nected'mb (be position of the companion rela
tively oflbo principal star, ile has accordingly
drawn‘ip a table of colors of twenty binary
group* According to nearly a century of observa
tlons/ey astronomers. The results of this
inmiry are briefly these: 1. la systems with
wel/mnrked orbital motion, mid especially In
thorn of short period, the two components navo
or/inarlly the sumo yellow or white tints. 3.
Is systems about which we have color
observations sufficient to enable us to
confiect the color .with Uio position
of die satellite in Its orbit, the principal star Is
while or pale yellow, when the companion Is at
Its periastcr (I. c., nearest the principal), where
as. in the other positions, It Is yellow, gold
yellow, or orange. 8. Hie companion follows
the principal star In Us fluctuation of color, and
often surpasses that In color us It withdrawn
from periastcr. 4. The same similarity of tints
in the two stars appears both In binary groups
with rectilinear motion, and In those with
orbital motion and long periods of revolution.
5. in perspective binary groups, the companion
is almost always blue. This last observation Is
thought to point to a superposition of tint (is
in the case of distant mountains looking blue).
From these groups, the small star may bo
reasonably supposed much farther distant than
the large one; la fact, near the Confines of Uio
visible world. May nut this blue color (It Is
asked) bo due to a gaseous medium expanded la
celestial space, acting on luminous rays which
traverse It quite like our own atmosphere, of
which tt Is, perhaps, merely the continuation 1
ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM.
At the meeting of tltu New York Academy ot
Sciences on March 10, Prof. C. A Seeley, In a
paper entitled “ Ignored Facts in Electricity
and Magnetism,”—fully illustrated by experi
ments,—showed that scientists and Ibo text
books misrepresented the phenomena of static
induction. It is commonly asserted that, If a
soft-iron bar bo brancht near a magnetic pole,
the bar becomes a magnet with two active poles,
und a point of neutrality between them located
at the middle of the bar. It Is stated that, if an
insulated conductor be brought near a prime
conductor it becomes electrified, so that the
minus electricity occupies the half of the
conductor contiguous to the prime-con
ductor, and the plus electricity the remote
end, with neutrality between the two halves.
But, on testing the statements by experiment, it
will be found that the induced magnet lias only
one kind of active magnetism, which is of tlm
same name as tlmt of the inducing pole. and.
moreover, tlmt it is pretty evenly distributed
over the mass of the bar: it Is practically a mag
net with a single pole. Similarly, the free elec
tricity of the insulated conductor is plus and
pretty evenly distributed. The actual facts are
susceptible of simple and unequivocal demon
stration. A compass-needle, when carried along
the bar. or put in auy position with reference to
it, turns constantly to the bar with thosamo
pole; Irou-lllingß arc attracted all over its sur
face, etc. The condition of the electrical con
ductor may be shown by pith balls orothcr sim
ple electroscopes.
SOUTH AMERICAN ARROW POISON.
At Urn last meeting ot Urn Boston Microscop
ical Society, Dr. A. N. Blodgett read an Interest
ing paper on curare, the •South American arrow
poison, which is now used to render lower ani
mals nneonsefous during surgical operations. It
has been found, Dr. Blodgett asserted, that cu
rare produces insensibility without, interfering
with the functions essential to life, uml supplies
a need tlmt the medical profession have long
felt, In that It docs not require watching when
administered, as do other und chloroform. The
exact derivation of curare docs not seem,to bo
dellnitclr knowu, but it Is said to be prepared
by scraping the young hark of two plants be
longing to the same species as that from which
strychnine and coccuius indteus are derived.
Thu bark is exhausted In water, mixed with
other vegetable substances, and evaporated
till it forms a thick paste. It is much moro
energetic in Its action on soma classes of ani
mals than ou others. Birds are more pro
foundly affected than quadrupeds, and reptiles
arc poisoned for a much longer time than birds.
It is generally administered hypodermically, la
exceedingly minute doses.
SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION.
E. HU)?, of Riga, has experimented with' dif
ferent materials: wadding, raw flax, hemp, tho
waste from silk, wool pad cotton spinnings, as
well as sponge, and Dually wood-dust, as found
lu any cabinet-maker’s shop. They were satu
rated with various fluids, viz., oils, fresh and la
n gummy state: turpentine, petroleum, various
varnishes, etc. All the fibrous materials took
lire when saturated with any of these oils or
with mixtures of the same. Sponge and wood
dust, on the contrary, proved to bo entirely
harmless. Combustion ensues most rapidly with
17gr. of wnddlngund D 7 gr of u strongoll varnish,
in thlrtv-fuur minutes; while 200 gr. of washed
cotton waste, of which a portion was saturated
with 750 gr. of strong oil varnish and the re
mainder wrapped about It, repaired almost four
teen hours. These materials were placed In a
well-sheltered spot, and subjected to a bust of
from 18 deg. to 4 deg. (C). bilk did not flamu
up, bat slowly charred.
SCIENCE NOTES.
Dr. Henry Draper, of Now York, whoso dis
covery of the presence of oxygen In the suo ex
cited much attention n year ago, and was tho
subject of some adverse criticism, has continued
his Investigations until ho has : achloved results
which must convince tho most skeptical. The
photographs which ho has now obtained nro on
u larger scale than those on which he first based
his discovery. It is Dr. Draper's Intention to
visit this country In tho course of the sunmter,
when ha will doubtless receive a hearty welcome
from our trading scientific men,— Athenaum,
News has arrived by tho last mall from Zan
zibar that Mr. H. M. Stanley Is busily occupied
lu engaging porters for a Journey Into tho In
terior of Africa, .but that ho preserves the ut
most secrecy as to Ids intended movements. A
numirU current amongst the porters that their
journey is to commence from the west coast; If
this be the case, Mr. Stanley must bare Intro
duced a radical ehaugo Into the original plane
of tbu Belgian section of the international Afri
can Association, for whom he Is believed to bo
acting. That, accidents apart, hu will be moro
successful than the unfortunate leaders of tho
first Belgian expedition few will be so rash as to
doubt, and be is sure to have good and sufficient
reasons for the course he Is adopting.—A^fur*.
A mild controversy has lately prevailed among
visitants to tho library of tho Anthropological
institute. Dr. E. V. Hayden has presented his
magnificent album of photographs of members
of seventy Indian tribes of tho United States.
Thu chiefs are depleted some 'with scalping
knives, scalps, ami tomahawks, and some in
cost-tall costume. Among the OHbbewsy chiefs
Is a photograph of Hole to tho Sky. and this la
declared uy some to be uo other likeness than
that of I'rof. Buskin. At all events It resembles
him much. It Is not suspected that the photo
graph of an Indian chief has been abstracted by
some amateur since its arrival here, and replaced
nv that of Mr. Rusklu. it can acorcely be be
lieved that I'rof. Hayden has been Imposed upon
bv some American wag and a esrto of Mr.
Ruskin been foisted on als collection.—AfAm
<rum.
A book has recently appeared In Lelpslc In
which tiie author, I’ror. Jager, maintains that
an increased proportion of water io tho tissues
and humors of the body Is one of the most
essential conditions ol liability to disease. We
guard against disease if wo attend to making
the houy yield os much-water as possible
through skin mid lungs, and avoid all that fa
vors the accumulation of water. Jager there
fore recommends: i, wearing close-fitting wool
en clothing throughout the rear; 9, from time
to lime engaging lu bodily movements which
promote perspiration, on which account, e, g.,
he regards vigorous gymnastic exorcise In
schools as an important preventive of disease
smuog children; U, ou outbreak of disease, tho
use of vspor or sweating baths, of drinks that
excite perspiration (tea. coffee, strong wines,
and beers, etc.), and of food that does the same
(atroncly-seasoued, especially with Spanish pep
per); 4, constant ventilation of lilting and bed
rooms, so that the moisture of the air may not
become great. ...
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