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LITERATURE.
" Tho lover’s Talc,” Tennyson’s
Early Poem, Revised and
Completed,
"The History of tho War Depart
ment," by L D, Inger
soll.
“The Ago of the Antonlncs ”•••
Leighton's School History
of Homo. -
“Detmold,” a Romance, by W. H.
Ruhop—Tho Second Coming
of Christ.
Literary Notca---Now Books Bo
colvcd—Periodicals of tho
Blonth.
"What In Light 7" by 0. P. Randall—
'Wasted Forces in Natnfe—Soienoo
Notes.
LITERATURE.
THE X.OVKII’B TAIVK.
Mr. Tennyson’* earliest stylo Is Brought Into
strong contrast with his roaturer work by tbo
publication of -“The Lover 1 * Talc.” Three
parts of this poom wore written In tbo
10th year. Two ports were printed, but after
wards withdrawn from the press. One of the
poet’s friends—the same whose' virtues are eel
crated in “In Mcmorlnm ’’—privately circu
lated among their common associates some of
the printed copies, without tho omissions and
amendments that the poet had In contemplation,
and marred by many errors of the compositor.
Of late years these two pans have been “ mer
cilessly, pirated.” Tho author has therefore
deemed It best to reprint them, together with
the unpublished third part, written at the same
time, and tho sequel,—a work of after life,—
“The Golden Supper.”
The first three parts of tho poom exhibit tho
. qualities of stylo that are characteristic of a
youthful and ardent temperament, and a com
paratively untrained .intellect Fullness of ex
pression, excess of sentiment, doubtful taste In
the choice of Images, may bo observed on nearly
every pniro. Though tho movement ts so im
petuous It advances more slowly toward a dell
nits end In the first three parts than In tho last
It wants precision. It dashes against small ob
structions in the way. and eddys madly about
them. .The descriptive passages, though very
beautiful, aro long and languid. Wo can give
only this one:
• There came a glorious morning, snch a on*
As flawns but once a season. Mercury
On such a morning would have fliwg
From cloud to cloud, and swum with balanced
losomu toll mountain: wbon I said to her,
“A day for gods to stoop," she answered, Ay,
And men to soar ”: for as that other gazed,
Shading bis eyes till nil tho,fiery cloua,
The pronhot and tho chariot ana tbo steeds,
Buck’d Into oneness like a little atar
Were drank into tho Inmost blue, wo stood.
When first wo came from out tho pines at noon,
With hands for eaves, unlocking and almost
Waiting to see some blessed shape tu heaven,
8o bathed wo u ore' In brilliance. 1 Never vet
Before or after have I known the spring
Fonrwltb such sudden delago of ifoht
Into the middle summer: for that day.
Love, rising, ahooK his wings, and , charged tho
With Ijikjid May-sweet* from hound to hound, anq.
Fresh flro into tho sun, and from within .
Burst thro’ tho boated buds, and sent hi* soul '
Into tho songs of birds, and touch’d far-off
Ills mountain-altars, bis high hilhr, with name
Milder and-purer. ‘
The'speech is extravagant, even for a lover
crazed by griof. One la constantly reminded of
“Locksloy’s Hall,” the smooth versification nud
overburdened sentiment of which are more than
ones anticipated in the youthful poom:
She was dark-haired, dark-eyed:
Ob, inch dark eyes! a single glance of them
'VIII govern a whole life from birth to death,
Careless of all things dre, led on with light
.In trances and In visions: look at them,
,IU MaiUVIUUUIH lIU.U.L. "•
Voa lose yourself in utter ignorance;
You cannot dnd their depth; for they tro back,
And farther bock, and still withdraw themselves
Unite into the.deep soul, that evermore
Fresh springing from bor fountains in tho brain,
Mill pouring thro*, iloods with redundant life
Her narrow, portals.
Trust me, long ago
I should have died, if it were possible
To die in gazing on that perfectness
Which I do boar within mo: 1 had died,
but from my farthest lapse, mr latest ebb,
Thine image, like a charm of lisht and strength
Upon the waters, push'd mo back again
On these deserted sands of barrorvllfe.
Tho' from the deep vault when the heart of Dope
Pol) into dust, and crumbled in tne dark—
Forgetting how to render beautiful
Her countenance with quick and healthful blood—
Thou didst not sway mo upward; could 1 perish
While lhou,;a meteor of tho seiralchre.
Didst swathe thyself all round Ilopo'a quiet ora
Forever?
Much happier, it seems to us, arc occasional
felicities of expression like tho following:
I listen'd,
And bor words atolo with roost prevailing sweet ness
Into my heart, os thronging fancies come
To leva and stria when summer days are new,
And soul ana heart and body aro aft at ease.
And all the maiden empire of her mind,
Lay like a map bolero roe, and 1 saw
There, where 1 hoped myself to rolgn as King,
There, where thu day 1 crown'd myself as King,
There in ray realm and oven on my throne,
Another!
, Tbo second and third parts oro moro tumultu-'
cuts. Hie perturbed spirit will not rest. It sees
Visions and dreams dreams. Still it tolls itsowu
story, but with so much agitation that the hear
er caa scarcely separate tho actual from tiro
Ideal. What Julian has seen and what ho thinks
ho has seen aro so confused la his poor brola
that they form (or him only one existence. The
marriage la for blm a funeral. ‘
' . ~ . ... . There came on mo,
Tho hollow tolling of the boll, and all
Tho vision of ilia bier. As heretofore
I walk’d behind with 000 who veil'd his brow.
Mothougta by alow degrees the sailen bell
Toll'd quicker, and the breakers on the shore
Sloped into lonaer surf: those that went with me.
And those that held the blsr before my face.
Moved with one spirit round about the bay,
Trod swifter stops; and while 1 walk’d with these
Is lasrvol at that gradual change, 1 thoueot
Four bolls instead of 000 began to ring,
Fear merry bells, four merry marriage bells,
Id ctancimr cadence Jangling peal on peal—
A long loud clash of rapid marriage bolls.
• . , The woods upon the lull
w sv«d with a sudden gust that sweeping down
Took the edges of the pall, and blew It far
■Until It bung, a little silver olood
Over the sounding seas; 1 turn'd: my heart
shrank tu me, like a snow-flake In the band,
waiting to sou the settled countcuance
Of her! lov'd, adorn’d with fading flowers,
Dut she from oat her dcalh-liko chrysalis, - *
Bhe from her bier, »s imo fresher life, 7
My sister, and my cousin, and my love, *
U.pl 11,1 illy cl.u In brtj.l Htiite—hor li.lr
Studded with one rich Provence rose-a light
Of smiling welcome round her lips.
Tito fourth part, ••The Golden Supper, n has
■already been published. Uis a more finished
Work than Uto others. ThontpvetQeiit |g stately
and dignified, but steadier than before. There
U now no llugcrlng over details. -The contrast
Is, Indeed, so marked that tha poet hat been
to put the atory In the mouth of another.
There la no description of the funeral, or the
grief It caused. We plunge at once with the re
jected lover Into the tomb of hie lady;
wish.** be said. •* to -peseta llten.
5“ t 0 ** wllh bsr— tin tbß great day " p *
with that music which rights all, \ ,
u head In band.” And kneeling
Dmr° lD hß°»- r?ailfU - - HMthal w “* mao, !
“'d* thni onca vraa fovlng iietTu,
Uurts that had beat with each a love at mine—
ft®* “fb M n0 ‘ nor * o ' *ocU a« her—
fof.Hy put bla arm about bar neck
And hUecabor more than once, till belpleaa death
■ •him* 16 * blia bold- nay, bat I wrong
T? */ ® T ,* r f* nce ?- h 1 * dM * Wjr ««m Id death;
placing bit true haoa upon her heart,
0 101 ca rt," he moaned, “not area
CaocbUl you all at once”: then, alerting, thought
' iJaap? ' Ui CO °* • •*©• 1 wake or
pr am I made Immortal, or my loro
Mortal once morel” U heat—the heart—lt boats
Faint—hntUbeat: at which his own began
To pmse with such a vehemence that It drowned
the feebler motion underneath Ids hand,
lint when at last hie doubts worl satisfied,
Ho railed tier softly from the sepulchre,
And, wrapping her all over with the cloak
lie came fn, and now striding raid, and now
Hmlujr awhile to rest, hut evermore
Holding hli golden burden in his arms,
Ho boro her thro' the solitary lend
Hack to (ho mother'll house where she was born.
How linn nml truo was tha touch that In*
scribed these Hues! They ore not lame. They
nro brcallicd upon by a vlnlo passion which dlg
nlllca Itself by aclr-rcstrnint.
Them wilt bo but one opinion o§ to Uio pro
priety of publishing “Tho Lover's Talc” In Its
complete form,! Ills a true poem, far superior
to any that wo have bad of Into years. Even tho
minor defects of tho first nans enhance Its
value, for they nro accompanied by so smooth
a rhythm, so much felicity of expression and In*
tensity ot feeling, that, by contrast, they help to
exhibit the genius of tho writer In a stronger
light. ( ,r Thc Lover's Tale.” ll,y Alfred Ten
nyson. 82mo. Boston: Houghton. Osgood <k
00. Cloth. 21! cents.)
THIS WAIT njEIAATtTMENT.
A history of tho .War Department, with bio
graphical sketches of tho Secretaries, has been
Issued from tho press of Fronds B. Mohun,
Washington, D. C. The author Is L. Di Ingcr
sol), who has bpen employed In tho Department
Library (or some years. Ho has had access to
the records of the Department and the advice
and assistance ot many persons connected with
it. But ho alone Is responsible for Uic words ot
the narrative and tho form It has assumed.
The War Department was naturally the first
to receive the attention of the Continental Con
gress, and for many years was tho most Im
portant. - After tho adoption of the Constitu
tion, It was' overshadowed by the Treas
ury, ‘ uuder Hamilton, and Uio De
partment of Foreign Affairs, under
Jefferson. The rough work of war was done.
Ihe financier mm the diplomatist were calico
on to make Its results mure certain and abun
dant. One had to repair the losses It hud caused
at home, nmllhc other to soothe the angry
feelings It had raised abroad. While this work
was In progress tho War Department was neg
lected. Its purpose was thought to have been
fulfilled, in view of Hie exhausted condition of
the country new wars seemed Impossible. Who
could meditate further expenditures for war
when Uie Treasury was straining every re
source to pay part of tho Revolutionary
debt) There was. Indeed, u War De
partment organized. Without the form
of such a Department tho Government
would have been Incomplete. But Its resources
were very limited, and Its duties too general to
admit of any groat efficiency. The llrnt Secre
tary, MaJ.-Gcn. Knox, had control of the army
and navy, bounty-lands, and Indian affairs, his
duties being thus nearly equivalent to those of
throe members of tho Cabinet ns nt present. A
Navv Department was created In 1703, but tho
War Department was still overloaded. In a
speech In Congress as late as April. 1812,Gcorco
M.Troup, of Georgia, said: “Tho Secretary
boa to perform, besides thu duties belonging to
the head of tho War Department, tho duties of
thu tJuartcrmastcr-Ocncrnl, Coramlssnrv-Ocn
cral. and Master of Ordnance, the business of
the Indian Department, military lands, and In
valid pensions.” Deficient ns the • staff
was, Uio rank and tile in the first
years of this century wus In
a still worse plight. Though the act of 3802.
putting tho army on a peace footing, provided
for a respectable force, no enlistments were
rondo to fill tip the complement. “In ISOS, tho
entire armv consisted of 3,782 officers mul men;
In 1807, of less than 2,500; in 1800, of 2,705; and
on June 0,1812, almost contemporaneously with
the breaking out of tho war. of 0,714, exclusive
of the staff.”
Tho consequences of starving the nrmy were
seen in 1812, wbon tho country was obliged to
pay many times over for the paralraonv ol pre
vious year*. Tho want of n well-trained staff
caused tho failure of our troops In nearly nil the 1
first engagements of tho war. The pernicious
contract 1 system and a bad commissariat kept
our soldiers 111-fed, dlsnlrltcd, and mutinous,
and distracted the attention of tbo officers from
tho work thov had immediately ut hand. Tho
War of 1812 was lost for the want of agood Sub
sistence Dopartmnnt. 'The lessons which it
taught, however, wore almost worth tho price
paid for them. Our.ormles have been srerslnco
well fed. The Mexican War and tkb War of tho
Rebellion dould not have, been carried to a suc
cessful end If tho Subsistence Department had
not aided the armies In tho field so powerfully
as-dt did by prompt ami siifildout supplies.
Some ot tbo feats of this Department in tho lost
War, as related by Air. lugcrsoll,-were won
derful.
, Tho War Department owes much to the. Boc
rotaries who have directed Us aUnlm. It is a
long and, on thu whole, an illustrious lino.
1 hero area few. names that blur tho record.
Maj. Eatou, one of Jackson’s Secretaries, added
no lustre to the office. Secretary Davis was on
excellent olllcor, and did much for tho Depart*
incut, but was afterward the head of a conspira
cy to destroy It. Secretary Floyd was a traitor
while lu olhce. The older Cameron did not in
crease tho fume of tho Department. Secretary
Belknap resigned under a cloud. On Umothcr
mid brighter side of the record there are such
names ns Knox, Dearborn, Armstronjr, Monroo,
Crawford, Calhoun, Cnss, Poinsett, Marey, Holt,
Stanton,.and Tofu Mr. Ingoraoll has written
all the biographies In good spirit; only that of
McCrary would bo better K it were less ful
some. The.narrative Is rather dry, showing no
marked ability ns a writer on tho port of the
outhor. Ills, however, 'calculated to.servo a
useful purpose by offering a view of American
history from a now point of observation. (•• A
History of the War Department of tho United
States, with Biographical Sketches of-tho Secre
taries."' By L. D. ImrcrsolJ. Washington, D.C.:
Francis 11. Mobua. ttvo., Old pages. $11.59.)
ROMAN HISTORY.
Two books relating to Roman history como
together for review this week. Tho first Is
“ Tho Roman History of thu Second Century;
or, The Ago of the Antonlncs," by W. W. Copes,
M, A. Oxou., anil tho second Is a .school “His
tory of Romo," by K. F. Leighton, Ph. D.
(Lips.). Wo direct attention to Mr. Capes' Ifltlo
volume, nublished In thu series of “Epochs of
Ancient Htsterv," especially on account of tho
sketch of Marcus Aurelius which it contains.
Tho short reign of Nerva Is allotcd only seven
pages; twenty years of Trojan—momentous
years they were, too—are disposed of in forty
three pages; twenty-one years of Hadrian in
twenty-four pages; Antonnlus Plus’ twumv-threo
years in six pages; ami then the story of;Marcus
Aurelius is told in fifty pages. Mr. Capes deals
with the history of this remarkable man In an
opprcclatlve. and conscientious spirit. Ho is
careful,' on tho ono hand, uot to de
tract in tho least degree from his
memory, because ho has so otten been
cited os a character perfect without
Ihe knowledge of Christ, while, on tho other
hand, ho seeks no divine standard or parallel lu
try him by. Marcus Aurelius is said to navo
been full of tender charity end anticipations of
Christian feeling; to have refrained from ex
travagance or bitterness in nil his smse of tho
unreality of earthly good: to have cuing firmly
to thu thought of Ruling Provldouco, widen
stirred his heart with tenderness ami love; to
have possessed a delicate sympathy with nature,
and yet to hare been haunted with a certain mel
ancholy, as tC he felt Ills knowledge of Hie here
after doubtful and of little worth.
Meantime [vara our author) tho poor artisans
and freedmon of (ho Chmilan Churches wore pray
ing to their Father in Heaven with all (he court
donee of trustful childhood. Tho rabble of tbo
streets wore clamoring for (heir Uvea and qnlckon
lug the loyal zeal of many.it Gallic on tho
seat of Judgment; but they found comfort
in tho thought of Ono who called them friends and
brothers, amt who had gone before them un tho
road which (hoy must travel, nuppurto.l br tno an
•eon help of np Kternal Love, They laid their
dead within the catacombs, tracing on the rough
hewn woils tbs symbol of the cross or tho form uf
the Good Shepherd; but they felt no dark mis
givings ana no inexplicable yearnings, and so were
Cannier in tholr life and death than tho philo
sophic Emperor of the proud Roman world, who
speaks once only of the Christians, and then
nonces them as facing death with tho composure
of mere obstinate pride.
Mr. Capos gives good reasons for doubting
tho truth of tlio stories of Faustina’s alleged
landellty; but the burden of testimony, It must
bo confessed, Is against him on this paint, hov
ers! Interesting chapters are devoted to "Tim
Attitude of tho Imperial Government Toward
Urn Christians”; > l Tlm Characteristics of the
JSiato Religion and ot tho Bites Imported from
the East"; "The Literary Currents of the
Ago": and "The Administrative Forms oflthe
Imperial Government.” Tho volumo is fur
nished a suitable Index, a full table of con
tents, mid running captious Inserted In the text.
It Is well arranged for uso as a text-book, or for
Um easy reading of those not familiar with the
history of Uio period In question. (New York:
Charles Scribner’s Sons. sl.)
1 Leighton's school " History of Rome ” ends
wjth (lie conversion of Constantine, but Is lu
reality very meagre for the period between the
death ot Augustus und the founding of Con
stantinople. Its merit—and It unquestionably
bss merit of a high order—consists iu Us treat
ment of tim history of the Roman Republic.
The author Is too good a scholar and too fresh,
perhaps, from the German Universities to at
tach any weight or credence whatever to the
various old woman's talcs which most persona
now living have been taught to regard as tho
THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE t
history of early Home. Mr.’Leighton sweeps
all these myths away, lie does not even con
descend to slate the evidence against them, nr
rather tho want of evidence In their favor, Ho
assumes thatnll well-instructed people know that
the fabulous narrative of Livy was long since
abandoned for historical purposes. At tho aamo
time ho reeognlr.es the Important fact that these
fables were Interwoven with the domestic life
of tho Itomana. Whether they were descended
from gods or not, It is Important to know that
they thought they were so descended. Mr.
Leighton treats yerv fully, as we hare said, of
the history of the Homan Republic. Ho lias
also described the growth of Iho social ami re
ligious Institutions of the Romans, and tho
gradual modification of them; their private life;
their customs, dress, tools, etc. lie docs not
give a full Idea of tho corruption which was rife
in Romo In tho last davs of tho Republic, but
In all other respects his sketch Is complete and
admirable. Tho history as a whole Is probably
tho host fur school purposes that has over been
offered to IhopubHc in this country. (" A His
tory of Rome.” By U. F. Leighton, Ph. D. New
York: Clark & Maynard.)
DETMOI.D.
Wo are unable to sharo In tbe admiration
which Is qulto common, in tho newspapers at
least, for Mr. Bishop’s romance, “Detmold.”
Though It Is written with much care, and seems
to show more than ordinary powers of invention,
tils thoroughly commonplace so far as the
characters are concerned. VDetmold” Isa
young roan whoso life Is blasted by a crime that
his father committed hi early life and expiated
In tho Penitentiary. This father, at Uic date of
the star}'. Is, to repeat Mark Twain’s phrase,
“keeping store” In the Tillage In which ho
yielded to temptation, ”and Is respected by
all,” though not received In Die first society at
church sociables or welcomed at Dm strawberry
festivals with all the cordiality ho might de
sire. Tho father, who is a man of strong sense,
bears these slights with proper patience; but
Dctmold's proud spirit Is stung by them.
Hu leaves homo ami practices lift profession,
that of an architect, \f\ a distant city. Ho falls
In love, follows Uic young woman of his choice
to Europe. Is flrf.t, rejected, by her, and aft
erwards taken into favor ana about to bo ac
cented, when a rival, In tho burst of passion,
tells of a lons-concculed crime of Dctmold’s
father. This revelation breaks off the match
till some further knowledge Is obtained of the
young woman’s father, who proves also to have
been a criminal, when the two loving hearts are
happily united. The characters, as wo have
said, nro commonplace. It is Impossible to lake
any deep Interest in the fortunes of the two
lovers, or to think of the hlgh-comcdv man as a
civilizing agent, or to do more than rejoice
feebly when the genteel Italian villain breaks
his neck. The author fails to show much origi
nality In the description of Italian scenery and
manners, nml tho crime which ho invents for
Dctmold’s father—tho stealing ot two un
claimed cars of dry-goods from a side-track—
hardly rises above the grotesque. The Dcstlhat
can be said lor Detmold with all duo candor Is
that It has been printed In (he Atlantic. (“Del
mold.” A Romance. Bv W. U. Bishop. Bos
ton: Hoachtoo, Osgood & Co. sl.)
‘•TI1IS SECOND COMING OF THE
L.OHD.”
This subject Is attracting universal attention
at the present time. Among the various views
that aro advanced In regard to this question tbo
theory of Swedenborg Is perhaps the most
peculiar. It is the object of the Rev. Clmuocey
Giles, In a volume lately Issued, to develop and
vindicate this theory, lie contends that Christ
Is not to como hereafter in any literal sense, lie
la continually coming to His people by tho Il
luminating Infiuooce of His Spirit, and nt death
he comes to every Christina by eliminating the
spiritual body from the natural body. Thus, by
the translation of believers Into the spiritual
world, they aro enabled to see the Lord In.llls
glory and to rejoice In die consciousness of ills
immediate presence. Those readers who are
not familiar with die views of Swedenborg on
this subject will be Interested In dm perusal of
these lectures of Mr. Giles. They arc highly
suggestive, where they do not carry conviction
us to the multi doctrines which they aro design
ed to inculcate. Probably the majority of read
ers will not accent die teachings of tho author,
but few will regard with disrespect his graceful
handling.of Luc grand theme which 1 ho has
chosen. (“Tho Second Coming of tho Lord: Us
Causes. Signs, and Effect*.” By tho Uev. Chaun
cey Giles. B. Llpplncott &
Co. 1878. $1.26.) r-v.j 1 il W. P.
HUME’S ENGLAND.
. Messrs. Harper & Biros.bftvo begun a reissue
of the principal historic®! works Id their list.
Macaulay's England I».five volumes nos tho
first venture. This was followed by Motley's
“Dutch Republic" In threS volumes, and wo
hevo now received “ Humo'J9J£m;lnnd ” in six
volumes. Tho size ami’ stylo of binning
In all tho works mentioned are uniform.
Thu paper is thin, but of good
quality, and the print clear. Gllt-edees at tho
top, and strong linen covers, In colors, make
the set ornamental as well as useful: and the
price Is so moderate—s 3 per .volume—as to
bring It within the reach of nearly everybody
who has, or hopes to have, a library.
Hume's history lost by comparison with
Macaulay's when Che latter was tho fasnlonablo
book of tho day; but there has of late years
been a disposition to restore tho balance, partly
at least, in favor of the former. Hume was not
so brilliant a writer an Macaulay, but more con*
scSfliitious. His rank Toryism and his infidelity
nllonaCtd many who might otherwise have been
numbered among bits readers, but they did
not affect his history ntally. They
were' blemishes in It, • not in them
solves characteristic. Tho fact that
thee did not destroy the value of the history is
shown bv its survival, spite of tho oboioquy
wuk-h has been visited on tno author for a hun
dred yours. It Is doubtful whether Macaulay's
England, when it has been as long before tho
public as ilumo's, will bo considered as Impor*
taut a work.
Wo arc glad on all accounts that tho Messrs.
Harpers have included Humo in their new series
of standard histories. Whatever his faults may
havo been, ho had grpat abilities, and his opin
ions aye so well north preserving that without
them we should think Hie world poorer than it
is. (Ilumo’s History of England. Six Volumes.
Bvo. sl2. Now York: Harper & Bros.) ’
TRR N API Kit LETTERS.
Extracts from tho MaeVoy Napier corre
spondence, just published by Macmillan & Co.,
aro flo|tlng about tho newspapers.- Homo of
them aro os follows: Lord Francis Jeffrey, of
£dinbur/j Jttvfeio fame, in reply to u letter
from tho editor, Napier, asking him- for n re
view of tho late W. 0. Rryant, which he had
promised, thus writes: “I have done nothing
with Brvuut. Bo is a Felicia Homans lu
breeches."
One or tlio Macaulay letter# ia the collection
of the Kapler correspondence contains & pas*
sago Hint would have gratified Intensely those
Americans of one or two generations ago who
wore so outraged by Cliorlos meltons’ '‘American
Notes." Kapler, as editor of Uio Jidlubur//
Jletilem, bod Invited Macaulay to review the
book In question, and-in declining the task
Macaulay said: "It is Impossible for me to
review it; nor do 1 tltlnk ■ that you would
wish mo to do- so. 1 cannot praise
it, though It contains a few lively
dialogues uuil descriptions; for it scorns
to mo to boos a whole a failure. It Is written
like the worst parts of * Humphrey's Clock.’
What Is meant to be easy aud sprightly is vul
gar and flippant, as lu the flrat two paces.
What is meant to bo floe la a great deal too floe
for mo, as the description of the Falls of Nlog
ara. A reader who wants au amusing account
of the United States had bettor go to Mrs.
Trollope, coarse and malignant as she Is. A
reader who wants Information about American
politics, manners, and literature bad better go
even to so poor a creature as Buckingham.
In short, 1 pronounce tho book, in splto
of sonio gleams of genius, at once frivolous and
dull. Therefore, 1 will not praise U; neither
will I attack it*—first, because 1 have eaten salt
with Dickens; second, because ho Is a good man
and o man of real talent; third, because ho hates
slavery as heartily as 1 do; and, fourth,'because
1 wish to see him enrolled In our blue and yel
low corns, where be may do excellent work as a
skirmisher and sharpshooter.” Kothing could
bo more lust than this criticism of tho most Ill
natured book Dickens ever wrote.
Lord Brougham, to a letter to Mr. Kapler,
says ho Is amazed at the praise which Macaulay
heaped upon Lord Olive. Clive was a great,
but a very bad man. "All men,” says Brough
am, "know ho was a robber, publicly, and a
cruel, bloodthirsty man, and all Indians know
that lie actually robbed Orme, the historian, a
nsrvous man, whom ho throttled on the walk
near tho Conges, und extorted £lo.Odd" Mac
csulay's defense Brougham' calls " most protll
goto political moralltv,” and adds that "all tho
sentences a man can turn, oven R he made them
In poor taste, and not in Tom's snip-snap tasto
of the lower empire—oil won't avail against a
rotten moralltv-” Macaulay’s paper on iVorreu
Hostings Brougham found "admirable, Dating
some vulgarity und bis usual want of
all power of reasoning.” Of. tho article
on -Sir \VUUuu Tcmolc, Brougham writes:
SATURDAY. JUNE 28, 1879-SIXTEEN PAGES.
'• Macaulay's Is an excellent pacer, only
no dex* take a terrible apace to turn in.
OoodOodl whol on awful man Jio would have
bean In Nisi Prlusl Ho can pay nothing under
ten paces. He takes as lobe to delineate three
diameters of llltlo Importance ns 1 have to
sketch ton, the greatest In the whole world. 1
really wish you could glyo him a hint; and, as
lb la the only,or almost the only thing bo wants
(some bread to ok ht» nndk I* another onrt n sad
want), ho may well boar a hint." Macaulay had
no good onlnlon ol hla own article on Moore's
"Life of Myron," “I send od my article," he
writes, •* and If you should send it back to mo 1
shall not bo offended, foMtts wretchedly bad. I
never wrote anything so much against the Crain
In niv life. I'do not wish the faults of the
printer's devil to bo added to mine, which ore
olono quite enough lor our J{(vk\o. u
• ——
LITERARY CONGRESS.
Cvrrt»ptn4enrt .Veto J’nrft Tribune,
London, Juno Pi,—lt may bo within jour
memory Hint un International Literary Con
gress was held last year in Paris, under tho
Presidency of Victor Hugo. It sat for a week,
talked a good deal, and, In the end, passed a
number of resolutions about literary property,
copyright, and kindred matters. •It completed
also some kind of on organization, and voted to
meet In London this year. It has met accord
ingly, and Is getting through a certain amount
of work, of-which tho practical good remains
to bo demonstrated. Such attention as was
given to the Congrcsrlast. year was duo mainly
to Victor Hugo. He delivered an address at tbo
Chatclot Theatre, uud presided In person over
some of the business meetings of tho Congress.
Tho London public wore.encouraged to hone
that thegrent Frenchman would cross the Chan
nel In order to resume bis duties here. But he
has not come. I doubt-whether he ever meant
to come, or gave anybody any right to stir up
expectations of his coming. There was more
chance of getting ML Jules Simon, an
Inferior but still rather, shining luminary.
Ho too is detained by pressing political
duties. Then It was said that Mr. Tennv
son would tnko the choir, A report which was
from tho beginning Incredible to those who
knew anything of Mr. Tennyson's habits and
his horror of public assemblies. Ho. did, how
ever, allow the use of'his name, on wlmt Is
styled the English Reception Committee. So
did Mr. Froudo and Mr. Anthony Trollope, and
Mr. Leslie Stephen, after some urging. Now n
reception committee is a good thing, but It
raises the question who Is tn be received. • If
It had been Victor Hugo'or Jules Simon, well
and good. But It turns out that only
one foreigner of real distinction has
thought It worth while to come to London to
attend this Congress, M. Edmond About, ami
M. Edmond About Is by no means In tins first
rank of French authors. Next In notonctr to
About stands M. Adolphe Bclot, a. prolific
writer of nasty novels, and then a crowd of more
or less respectable nonentities. I really cannot
see a name on Hie list of men actually present
which I think it at all likely you would rccog-'
nlzc If 1 mentioned It. Thera arn some worthy
persons among them, but they arc nut the kind
ot people likely to effect grout literary reforms,
nor was It needful that the most eminent writers
ot Groat Britain should have been called on to
welcome them.
LITERARY NOTES.
The Life of Admiral, Coliguy, by Walter
Bcsant, has been added to Harper's Half-Hour
Berios.
Max Adder’s newspaper sketches bare been
printed by J. M. Stoddard & Co., of Philadel
phia, In a smalt volume, paper covers, price 25
cents.
The Franklin. Square JUbrary has been In
creased by the addition to It of George Eliot’s
“Impressions of Theophrastus Such.” Price,
10 cents.
Houghton, Osgood & Co. have printed Ten
nyson’s “Lover’s Tale” in a small volume, with
doth covers, for the amazingly low price ot 25
cents. To be bad ot the publishers on applica
tion by mall. .'
Two works pertaining to tbo history of En
gland which wo hope to i notice mure fully at
some future time nro “Greene’s History ot the
English People,” Vol. 111. (Now York; Harper
& Bros., $2.50), and “ Lectures on the History
of England,” by M. J. Guest (New York: Mac
mllllau »fc Co., 51.75)..
. Vol. I. of Harper’s Hand Book for Travelers
in Europe and the East forIBTU treats of Great
Britain, Ireland, Franco. Belgium, ami Holland..
The whole work la Issued, it will bo remembered,,
iu three volumes: price $3 per volume. This la
tho eighteenth year of the publication of the
Hand Book, ana It has constantly been growing
In favor with' travelers and la fullness ana
accuracy of details.
Tho voung Count do Fcrscn writes to bis
father in Europe directly altor the canturo of
Lord Cornwallis In Yorktown: "In Virginia
there nro at least twenty negroes to every white;
thisiswhr this Province supports but few sol
diers in tho army. All those who engage In
trado aro looked upon as inferior to the others;
they sny that these are not gentlemen, nnd will
not associate with them. They all' have aristo
cratic ideas, and to see them It Is hard to uom
prehend bow they could have entered Into a
general confederation nnd aoceptcd a Govern
ment founded on a perfect equality of condi
tion ; hut tho nnmo spirit which has led them to
throw off the English yoke may well lend them
to other stops, nnd I shall nut bo surprised to
ecu Virginia separate from tho other States on
the pcaco. 1 should not ho surprised, oven, to
ectr the American Government bccomo a corn
plolo aristocracy.” —The Magazine of American
History. '
Messrs. Estes & Laurlat, of Boston, will pub
lish iu the 101 l an authorized translation of M.
Maximo Lalanne’a capital “Treatise on Etch
ing.” According to Mr. iramcrton’s dictum, M.
Lnlanno la tho heat French etcher of tho present
ilay, and his treatise on bin favorite art is cer
tainly tho brightest and dearest exposition over
written of the processes involved In It. Thu
hook Is Illustrated hy ton plates etched by M.
Lalanuo, which will ho coveted for thetr own
sake by all lovers ol the art. TJio plates for tho
American edition have been printed In i’aris, so
that they will bo equal In every respect to those
In tho French edition. Thu translation will bo
mmlo bv Mr. 8. It Kuctcler. ihn editor of tho
forthcoming “American Art llovlow,” who will
also odd on introductory chaotcr on the simplest
elements of etching for the benefit of amateurs,
who mivv prefer to overcome Uie first technical
Uiniculllcs boforo plunging in tneU aa ret with
M. Lalanor.
Charles Dickons 1 beloved borne,—tho dream
of his youth,the dcllcht of his prime, —Gadslllll
Place, is now for sale. Ho bought It for $3,050,
but Improved it so much that it will now bring
live times that sum. When bo died a reserve
price of $50,000 was put on tho property, at
at which price It was secured by his eldest
eon Charles, who notv «offers It to tho
highest bidder. In addition to the associa
tions connected with it. Dickens. practically
rebuilt the house, and added considerably
to the land originally pertaining to it. Among
many other tilings which Dickens did for the
house was to make a well, tho progress of which
was somewhat n serious mutter for him. 110
used to say, “ It la quite a railway terminus; It
Is so iron and so big.” Dickens made under
neath the road the famous tunnel which con
nected ills lawn with the shrubbery, iu which
was placed tho still morefamous chalet present
ed to him b> Mr. Fuchtor. Up to the last
Dickens was improving his beloved residence.
The last thing ho did was to build a conserva
tory, and It was only on Lite Sunday before his
death that he had tho great satisfaction of see
lug this completed. Uu said to his daughter,
“Well, Katie, now you seo positively the lasi
Improvement tfl tiads tlllt.”—.AVw York Tribune.
“ Thu Annual Record of Science and industry
for 1878," edited by Spencer K. Baird and nub
llsbcd by the Messrs. Ilarpor ds bens., has come
to hand. The acrlca is now recognized as a
standard work by scientltlc men everywhere.
Hie principal articles In the present number
have been prepared os follows: 1 ‘Astronomy,”
by Edward a. Holden: “ Physics ortho Globe,"
by Cleveland Abbe, with the asalstaucu of I'rof.
Cf. G. Rockwood. of Princeton. N. J.;
“ Physics," by George F. barker, Pro*
fossor of Physics in the Uni
versity of Pennsylvania; “ Chemistry." by the
earn*; “ Mineralogy," by Prof, Edward 8, Dana,
of Yale; “ Gcoloiry," by Prof. T. Btovy Hunt,
of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology;
“ Hydrography " and "Geography." by Fran
cls M. Green, Lieutenant-Commander U. 8. N.;
“ Microscopy," by Prof, llamilton L. Smith,
of ilobort Colleae; “Anthropology," by Prof.
GtU T. Mason, Columbian Univcndiy. Washing
ton, I>. C.|' “Zoology," by Dr. A. 8. Packard.
Jr., brown University: •* Vertebrate Zoology,"
by Prof. Thcodow GUI, Washington, 0. C.;
“botany." by . Prof. Farlow, Harvard College;
“ Agriculture " and “ Rural Economy," by
Prof. W. O. Atwater, Wesleyan University;
“Engineering," •“Technology," and “In
dustrial Statistics," by William H. Wabl,
Pb. 11.. Philadelphia. The names of
writers given above are those ot experts In the
several departments; and the volume Is there
fore truly representative of all that American
edcntitlc men know of the progress that has
been made during the paet year fu the domain 1
of science.
BOOKS RECEIVED.
Bsonaanoas in Astronoxy, ttitu Dibeotiobs
non faioauoui bxt'XuixiutTs Ago TiLßacorio
Work. By Henry While Warren. Hew Yorkt
Harper * Bros. IM7O. 284 pages, 81 lUnstrstlons
ana maps of stars, 32m0,, cloth, $1.73.
Lira or Pnor. Albbut Hopkish. By Albert C.
Bewail. Now York: A.D.F.Randolph & Co. 1871),
140 pages, ISmo., cloth, $1.60.
This WniTiscs or Ai.nr.RTOAr.uriw. Edited by
Henry Adams. Three volumes, largo Bto. Cloth.
Philadelphia: J. B. Lipplncoit * Co. sl6.
Tun Zuu e axn run British PnosTirns. By T.
J. Lneas. New York: harper * Bros. 1870. 41
pagc*.quarto. (Franklin Square Library, No.OS. I
Paper. lOcenla.
Slain, \\ irr, oit Wtnowf Bylin. Alexander
fiMsntf.) {Mrs. Annie P. Hector.] New York:
Ilcnrr Mbit & Co. 1870. 207 pages lOmo. (Leis
ure-Hour Series. No. 106.) Cloth, sl.
Cmrr.ro »r Pina; A True fliory. By Julia Me*
Nalr Wright. New York National Temperance
Society and Pohllshlng-Honae. 1870. 01 pages,
one Illustration, Iflmo,, cloth, 40 coots.
Heroine a middle-aged Hcotcu woman with an In
herited me of liquor; the story of her miserable
career.
Tapis rnon Emirinza. By Vincent Ring Coop
er. Newlork: Harper A Bros. 187 D. lUJ pages,
><Lmo. (The Harper's Half-Hour Series., No. 111.)
Paper, 20 cents. ■.
"(wonts in dimple and attractive language, fol
lowlngKnrlnlde* very carefully, the stories of Ipht*
genla, Andromache, AlceaOs, Hecuba, Helen,
Medea; written for jonne pupils about to read the
plays In me original Greek.
PERIODICALS RECEIVED.
Tho for July has articles
on tho following subjects: "Form of deeds as a
Factor In Natural Selection In Plants," by Robert
E.C.Sterns;" ASpcculatiou on Protoplasm," by
Pcrslfor Frazer, Jr.; "The Fertilization of Sev
eral Species of Lobelia," by William Trcaleaso;
"A Contribution to the Zoology of Montano,"
by E. D. Cope.
Tho Magazine of American Ifixiory tor July
hos the following table of contents: "The
French In Rliodo Island,—with a view of the
Vernon House, Rochambcau's Headquarters,
Newport, U. I,; Mop of Newport In 1777; a fac
simile of n Letter of Rochambeau, and Insets
aUbart of Narragansettßay, 1777, and a view
°i 1 ~ 0 Admiral de Ternay “Letters
of du icncn, Ald-dc-Camp to Rochambeau,
)L rUlun .. l .° father In Sweden, ITbO-lßfi.
' .Conclusion)“Notes, Queries,
and Replies"; Literary Notices.
The contents of Appleton** Journal for .Toly
t. r „° as follow*: ‘‘ltlcarda,” a story, by Mary
vUecr-Fishcr; “Reforms In Asiatic Turkey,’’
w o“® who has lived there: "Italian Sketches:”
il i, ® Homes of the Piaster-Image Men; 11.
Italian Moving, by Linda Vlilari; ••The Seamy
novo !' by M alter Uesant anil James
Hfce, Chapters VII. to IX.; "The Mldwaylnn,”
l* v > t'! 1 . 6 ',* a 3‘ n i “Conspiracies in Russia,” by
Karl Blind; ••Moralists on Blue China”; "Mr.
Browning's Dramatic Idyls”; “The Uueen’s
Private Apartments nt Windsor”; "The Rose
of Love,” a poem by Marie Lc Baron. Then
follow the editorial departments.
Tiie Popular Science Monthly tor July has the
, W/JK * a blo of contents: "Wasted Forces,”
by Wllllain fl. Wahl, I’h. D.; "The Geological
Survey of Uib Fortieth Parallel,” by Prof. J. S.
Kotrberry; "A Study In Locomotion,” by Prof.
K. J.Marcy (lllufliratcd); "John Stuart Mill”
(}*•)• by Prof. Alexander Bain, LL. D.; “AQucs
*|9» ox hating." by William Browning, Ph. B.;
« v* e Condlunn of Women from a Zoological
Point of View (II.), by Prof. W. K. Brooks; “A
Visit to the .New Zcalnpd Gevsers,” by Clement
Bunbury; " Pleased vrlta a Feather.” by Prof.
Grant Allen; "Food and Feeding” (I.), by Sir
Henry Thompson; “Sketch of Julius Robert
Mayer” (with portrait); etc.
SPARKS OF SCIENCE.
UTILIZING WASTE PRODUCTS*.
From a Lecture by WVUatn U. Wahl, /fl. o.
Those inventions ore descrying of special
honor, and generally receive the most substan
tial recognition, which develop new industries
or utilize waste products.
The glycerine Industry, which has attained
colossal proportions, is a notable Illustra
tion of a great manufacture based entire
ly upon the saving of what until lately
was a waste product of tbo soap-bollor.
As even more important, 1 may mention the In
dustries connected with the manufacture of
aniline dyes and artificial madder from the
refuse coal-tar that was formerly the curio add
nuisance ot the gas-works. Old bools and shoes'
and leather waste are turned to good account
by tho chemical manulacturer in producing the
cyanides, ferro, and fervid cyanides, so Tndlspcn
sable in color-printing and photography. Of the
carcasses of slaughtered animate, not a scrap or
morsel Is allowed to go to waste, as you ire well
aware; and even the waslefclood of the abattoir
Is used by the tbo manufac
turer of albumen, oawdust mixed with
blood, or some • oilier agglutinative
substance and compressed by powerful pres
sure In heated dies, Is formed Into door
knobs, hardware ami furniture trimmings, but
tons, mul a thousand useful and decorative
articles; or, os la the case with the spent bark
of the tanneries, It Is utilized for fuel under
steam-boilers. Oyster-shells, of which our bar
barous progenitors of ages ago made the shell*
mounds that delight the soul of the anthropolo
gist of to-day, are burned to llmo; the waste of
tho llnsecd-oil manufacturers is eagerly sought
after as food for call lc; the waste ashes of wood
fires are leached for potash; river-mad Is min
gled with chalk, and burned and ground to
make the famous Portland cement; and the
ruthless hand of Utilitarianism has not oven re
spected the brickbat, that had served from tlmo
Immemorial only to crack tho heads of opnos-
Ing factions, but grinds It up to mako cement
with lime. Ihc finest glue size Is made from
tho waste of parchment skins. Tho waslcgasos
of the hlast-furoaco aro now utilized to heat the
h ost, to generate the steam that drives tho en
gine that makes the blast, to hoist ores, drive
machinery, etc.; and even the slog, that has
served for years only to decorate the hillsides.
Is now cast Into paving nnd building blocks, or
granulated to make building sand, or ground
lor cement, or mixed with suitable chemicals
mid turned Into tho commoner grades of glass,
or blown by a jot of steam Into the tincst flla
menls to form the curious substance called
mineral wool, now largely used as a non-con
ductor ot bout upon steam-pipes, boilers, roofs,
etc., eta . '
So, too, tho .noraoas hills ot inllirncßc-co.il
din, that In the coal regions of our State hove
for years borne silent but eloquent testimony
to Hut crudity and wastefulness of our methods
of mining coal, now bid fair soon to disappear
beneath boilers supplied with Ingenious dust
burnlng devices, or in tho form of lumps of
anUlcial fuel. Even the .anthracUo-coa! de
posits, now so enormously valuable, were a few
years ago but so many layers of black stone, un
appreciated and valueless. The waste heat of
tho limc-kllQ is made to generate steam, ami
warm Immense public buildings In England and
on the Continent; and the “exhaust” of the
steam-engine is made to do service la heating
the water fed into tho holler.
Suppose wo take steam, tho almost universal
motive power of to-day, as an example, and
put the Inquiries, What ought wo to get out of
It uml what do we get out of It f Ami, when I
am through, X think that many of my hearers,
who have heretofore entertained (he belief that
steam-engineering was a Held that had Oven so
thoroughly worked up that hut little remained
to be accomplished In (he direction of Increas
ing the duty of our steam-motors, will be will
ing to acknowledge themselves mistaken.
To got at the practical duty ot a steam
engine, wo must begin with tho source ol the
power, tho steam-generator—popularly and'
must inappropriately called Uie steam-boiler;
and, as tbe source and origin of tho power gen
erated la the boiler and directly traceable to tho
combustion of the fuel, it is evident that we
roust begin with that. Let us Inquire, there
fore, what power we ougfrt to get from a perfect
steam-engine burning pure coni, and then com
pare it with what we do get In the best sUam
engine practice of to-day. ‘ •
To understand the deductions I shall shortly
'make la getting at this comparison between
theory and practice, 1 prefer to Itmto.you to
follow me through a few theoretical considers
lions, rather than ask you to accept the con
clusions simply on my bare assertion.
It has long been known that a dellulto relation
exists between the quantity of heat developed
In a given operation uud the quantity of me
chanical force (manifested as work) that could
be obtained from that beat. The übsuluto na
ture of tltls equivalency U tacitly recognized,
though perhaps imperfectly comprehended, tu
tho practice of every brooch of industry employ
ing beat as a source of power; for it U this fact
which establishes tho dimensions of the steam
boiler, and tbe several proportions of the engine
to do tbe work required of It. The steam-en
gine, In simple language, Is simply an apparatus
fur turning heat Into work; and it Is, therclorc,
quite possible to express tbe value of a given
quantity of the form of energy wo call heat lu
terms of mechanical energy that wo call
“work”; and Bclcuillic investigation has estab
lished an admirable unit for this comparison iu
tho “foot-pound,”—that Is, the force required
•An address delivered at the opening of the
spring course of lectures ot the Wagner Free Initl
lute vf SKUocv, Philadelphia, March I, 1870.
? P™"'l wcleht lo the Ilißht of ono tool.
Wow, lo estimate the value of heal In terms
or work. It was found necessary todotermlno (ho
amount of mechanical forco ncccsjary to raise
the sensible neat of ono nouml of water one
degree In temperature. This amount has been
carefully determined by several eminent sa
vants, nml has been given ibe name of tho
'• mechanical equivalent of heat.” The value of
this constant has been found to be 772 foot
pounds,—! hat In u> nay, the mechanical energy
JWMCMcd by a Imxljt weighing one, pound, after
fall ne from a hlghtl of 7T2 feet/woutd, If It
could all be converted Into tho form 'of onertty
we call heat, bo exactly sullklcnt to raise tbo
temperature of one jtouud of water one
degree Fabr. (where the ccutlgrado ther
mometer Is employed, this constant'
will have a value of 77U X 1.8 UNO foot
pounds). Now. this much having been gained
in fixing the principle of our calculations, let us
so back to our steam-boiler, and to the coal wo
feed it with. It has i>eeu experimentally deter
mined that, If tbo entire quantity of heat given
oil during the burning of one pound of pure
coal could bo applied without loss to heating
water, It would sufllcc to raise tbe temperature
df ono pound of water 7,WX) deg. C.: or what Is
the same thing, differently stated, It would be
sullkient to raise tho temperature of 7,000
punnds of water one decree. The possible
mechanical duty of the “ theoretically perfect ”
steam-engine is found simply by multiplying
tbo quantity which expresses the thermal
equivalent of coal by the quantity which ex
presses tbe mechanical equivalent of heat, and
tiie result would ho the true value of ono
pound of coal burned In the boiler In “foot
pohnds.” Performing this simple arithmetical
operation, wo obtain (7.0 U) X 1,800—) 10,080,000
foot-pounds; or, to put ir mum simply, suppose
we convert these foot-pounds into horse-power,
which we can do by another simple arithmetical
operation of dividing them by 83,000, and wo
shall have as a result that ono pound of pure
coal, numed In the perfect boiler In one minute,
would, if wo could upply It with absolute
economy to the performance of work, exert a
force of (10,030000-.’ShnOO—j 332 horsc-powerdur-
Ing one minute; or. If burned during nn hour,
then onc-sixtieih of 332, or 6.5 horse-power.
With a perfect boiler, therefore, wu ought to
get 5.5 horse-power per hour out of every pound
of coal burned on the grate-bare. NThv, let us
Inquire, What do wo, get in tract ice 1 Surely,
you will sav, our scientific mechanics and engi
neers have succeeded In getting a goodly per
centage out of this possible figure; and the
splendid engines, of massive construction, that
work so beautifully as to excite oUr wonder mid
admiration nt their smoothness and case of
their movements must be very near perfection.
Alas for tbe vanity of human expectations I In
stead of getting 5.5 borsc-pmvcr out of every
pound of coal we hum In the boiler, the very
best boiler and engine that havo over been con
structed require two-und-n-halt pounds of coal
lo give out one horse-power: which means
that, In splto of the vaunted progress
of thu mechanic arts m our times,
the best engineering talcft applied to the
Improvement of the steam-engine, from ‘ the
time of James Watt down to Corliss, has onlv
succeeded hi making It yield a duty of 15 per
cent of what it ought, to do, leaving au enor
mous margin ot 85 per cent tor future Improve
ments.
In the foregoing remorKs I have, I fenr, load
▼erteiitljrbeon unjust to our etifino-butldcrs,
for by faf ntb greater portion of this 85 per cent
of wasted power is chargeable directly to tne
Htcam-boilcr, and but a comparatively smalt
proportion thereof to Urn engine. In consider
ing the question ot tho duty of steam-motors,
however, we must take the whole machine
(engine ana boiler) as a single appa
ratus. If our boiler-makers could do us
well ns our engine-builders—^the two indus
tries arc quite separate, us you may know,—the
showing would bo much more favorable.
It will be instructive, 1 think, to trace out the
causes of the groat waste of power that I have
just pointed out, und to see if there are no
means of rcmcdvlng them. And if yon will fol
low roe. they will be very apparent.
The first imdgrcatcsl source of loss resides in
the difficulty—l mav, 1 think, safely say the
Imposslblllty-rCf burning solid Jucl economic
ally in any lorn of furnace that has yet been
devised; und this prime difficulty Uan unan
swerable argument in favor of tne substitution
of liquid or gaseous fuel for steam-making as
for otner purposes. Let us analyze the mutter:
The buyer of coal purchases at tho outset at
least 10 to 15 oor vent of iion-comimstihle and
useless material with every pound of coal, In
the form of ash; while at least 5 per cent
more of the coal is lost by falling
through the grate-bars in Die form of the
dust or. partially burned fragments that find
.their wav into the ash-pit unutilized. If oven
now. with so much waste as 1 have lust Indi
cated, we coffid really turn to usuipl account
the whole oi tho thermal cUect of tne 65 per
cent of the combustible that we have left, we
might well lie content; but such is far from
being tho case. Tho furnace gases cannot, by
any possible mode of constructing boilers, be
retained long enough in contact with tiic steam
generator to yield up all tliclr heat, and they
are thrown out from the chimney frequently ot
a temperature of 600 decs. Fahr.; and, whit Is
■till worse, their combustion is frequently so
Imperfect that they entry nil with them out of
the cnimncy great volumes of mi burned carbon
In the form of smoko; the cold air with which
the fuel is fed, and which must become highly
heated before It will begin to combine with the
fuel, and whlcQ abstracts this beat from the
glowing coals through which it passes, is an
other serious Item of loss, which is in
tensified by tbc necessity of frequently open
ing the furnace-doors when large volumes
of cold air rush into the fire-space; mid, lastly,
the conduction ami radiation of bcaufrom the
generator to surrounding objects complete the
category of losses. Summing uo all the hems
of loss in the steam-generator, It is probable
that with the twit forms of boilers which it bus
been possible to construct, not mure than 05
per cent of tne theoretical thermal effect of the
luclis utilized In the generation of steam; mid
of this 05 per cent from 5 to 10 per cent Is lust
somewhere on tho passage of tbo steam from
the boiler to and through the engine by conden
sation in steam-pipes, ami friction of Die ma
chinery, leaving us but 15 or 20 per cent actual
ly realized la practice. 1 beg Unit you will not
think that I bare purposely made the case of
the steam-engine worse than it is; for. so fur
from doing so, 1 have actually made out the
most favorable possible showing for it by select
ing for my example the best practice of the best
makers.
Much of this loss, possibly tho half of It, I
have no 4 hesitation in ascribing to Uie use of
solid fuel,—coal or wood. And I take tills op
portunity of putting myself on record before
you, as X have done (or years persistently in Uie
scientific journals, as an earnest adiocato of
fuel in Uie gaseous form, not only for Industrial
and manufacturing purposes, but also In thu
household. Let mo give you a few thoughts oa
this subject.
The great and obvious advantage of gaseous
fuel—to leave tho quesUon of Us convenience, ut
present, out of sight—resides in the fact that
Uio character, of Uio fuel permits of Its in
stsneous and perfect intermixture with the air,
by which a vastly more perfect combusUon is
insured,—au advantage Uiat finds admirable ex
pression in the regenerative furnace of Siemens.
Hut, In addition to Uie advantage 1 have Just
alluded to, namely: tho great gain due to thu
more perfect combustion of gaseous fuel, there
are other advantages on the score of convenience
and economy that are nu less Important. I re
fer here to the saving in thu carriage of coal
from the yard to the place of delivery, and the
recarriagu of ashes,— charges which are espe
cially onerous in the numerous cases where boil
ers. stoves, etc., nro located in tho upper stories
of buildings, or situated Inconveniently os re
f;ards ordinary delivery by wagons. The saving
n wages of stokers to clear Uie fireplaces and
keep Uio heat ot thu furnace always at the
proper intensity,—dllllcultlcs which tho adop
tion of gaseous fuel would entirely obviate,
since it furnishes no ashes to remove,—ami thu
prooerrvgulatlon of tho gas supply, would Insure
a perfectly uniform hosting effect for hours
together, without supervision or attention ut
any kind. Thu incidental saving of fuel or
steam whenever by improper regulation or thu
Inattention of stokers tho furnaces are allowed
to become too but; and, on the other hand, (ho
saving in time and material that would other
wise bo wasted by low fires and thu frequent
necessity of stoppages until tho required steam
pressure is restored; and last, but nut least,
tbo great sovlngof fuel now universally wasted
'in keeping up boiler, mul range, and heater, and
stove tires overnight and at nil seasons.—all
these, uml yjhcr items that 1 have probably
overlooked in this hasty outline of the subject,
form togoUicr an array of object {unable featuios
sulllcleut to bring any system into (llsusu where
a remedy so easy to apply as the adoption of
fuel in the gaseous stale la ut baud.
THE MAKING OP BELES.
If, Jt. Jtoutii in Oo<hl n’liriit.
Only two metals ore now used In large bolls—
tin and copper. The Belgians use 113 to 80 per
cent of tin; the English lean to more tin—US to
81 per cent. Tin makes the bell sound bright,
but it olso makes It brittle, and the reason why
the English can afford to put In more of this
brittle element la because they make their bells
thicker, as a rule; and the reason why they are
made thicker Is, Uiat Instead ot being merely
cblmca, Uiey are swung, round on a wheel,
which brings Uto hammer with great force upon
the bell. If wo treated the delicate Bolgiau
bells In this rough fashion we should probably
crack them, though If It were known Uiat
they would bo swung, Uiu llclglau
makers could doubtless thicken them to older;
they are not meant In Belgium to bo whacked
like big drums, but to be struck .with hammers
from “pp” to “ff,” like aplanoforto. They
resonate more easily than English bells, re- 1
ouiring a gentler stroke to elicit their full tone. ’
In a word, the Belgian bell is a musical note,
not a gong nor a drum. Secondly, the thickness
nml general proportions of the Dell arc of tho*
utmost importance. Beils vary from ono-ilf-
Iccuth to one-twelfth of (he diameter at tho'
thickest part of the sonml-how, and tho hlght
la commonly about twelve times the thickness.
English bells are, roughly, as broad as they am
long, If yon measure diameter from outside 1
rim to rim, and length from rim to'
top of canon. But, In ' truth, tno thick
new of the bell at different levels
;Is all-important. *Tho , thickness near
the top Vs as Important as that of the sound
bow, and Uyj diameter of tbe crown as critical'
adlmensloftV tlmtof the rim. Tho deep, rich
tone (hi proportion to size) of the smaller Bel
glau hells Is probably largely duo to the wide
top diameter, combined with tho thinness In
certain portions, of the sides half-way down.
Iho way in which altering the thickness affects
the tone, and even the pitch, of a boll Is
shown by the fact that a sharp belt can bo
flattened by shaving off the metal Insldo
above - tbo sound-bort; and Mrs Lewis
lull* mo that he has destroyed boats by
scooping the bell elsewhere onut they disap
peared at a certain point, but that on contlnu-'
tng to scoop they reappeared, AU this shows
how purely tentative and experimental Is
at present the art of bell-founding In
England, In Belgium It Is not -. scientific,'
but empirical, tho accumulated experience of
ages. A certain tact or rule of thumb takes tho
place of science: rules there must be, founded
on principles, but the masters cannot explain
their secrets. They produce the work of art;
others are left to discover the laws they have
obeyed. When wo haveanalyxed their methods,
wo maybe able to make their bells. 8o thought
the Gormans when they measured and analyzed
Raphael and Tlntoret, and produced the correct
but lifeless ham’Uet of Ary geheffer; so thought
Vulllaume when he Imitated the very worm
holes In tho Amatls. but for all that the French
Addles arc not Amatls. It may turn out that la
Ihc making of rich musics! bells like those of
Van Aerschodt there Is something which cannot
be taught—the Instinct, tbo Incommuulcablo
touch.
•WTTAT IS LIGIITf
To IheJAUor o/ The Tribune.
Chicago, Juno 'This Is nn ago itr which
there probably has boea a greater development
of knowledge of things nortolnlng to the natural
sciences than In any that has preceded It.
Since that eventful morning in tho history of
the world when tho creative flat went forth,'
“Let there ho light,” down the stream of Time
to the last half of the seventeenth century,
very little has been known of -light, what it is,
how it travels through space, etc.
Even tile jfreut Newton, with his wealth Of In
tellect. made one of the greatest mistakes of his
life in supposing, as he evidently did, that light
is produced by the passage through space of
Infinitesimally small particles of matter with
great velocity, and that these particles entering
tho eve ami passing through tho several humors
ami lenses of that organ, Impinged on the retina,
nnd produced In us tho sensation wo call lights
To those who arc not familiar with the construc
tion and functions of tho eye, let mo say that
tho retina Is a web or network of exceedingly
line filament or nerve tissue that surrounds' or
cavers the interior lining of that part of the ovo
bade of the crystalline lens. It in
us a feeling of wonder that a mao possessing
the gigantic Intellect of Newton should have
entertained for a moment a conclusion to far
beyond Die palo of probability as this would
seem to be when viewed iu tbo light of tho
nineteenth century, for how could sucbadolK
cole membrane as ttic retina of the eye bo con
tinually bombarded with such a battery of par*
tides, small though they might be, without ultt*
moldy destroying It!
There were, however, oven in the seventeenth
century, men who discarded Nowtou’s theory
as inconsistent with natural laws, and also be
cause is did not account for all the phenomena
of light. Of those who opposed Newton’s the
ory wore Huyens, the astronomer, und Bales,
the mathematician, but even these men, loomed
os they were In scientific lore/could not,'for
want of the ncccssarv instrumental appliances,
either prove Newton’s theories wrong or dem
onstrate tliu correctness of their own.
Later, Sir Thomas Young, one oi the greatest
minds that have existed since that of Newton,
und after him the celebrated Frenchmen, Au
gustine Fresnel, and others, have investigated
mid experimented until at leugth the theory of
light and its true cdfees is no longer an enigma
or matter of conjecture in the minds of any
well-informed student of science either In this
country or In Europe. ,
Light, as wo shall see, is tho product of threo
elements acting mechanically—namely, combus
tion, ethereal motion, and tho retina of tho
eye; In other words, light Is the product
of motion. It Is generated by the
lino trill, quaver, or tremulous motion that is
imparted to the other In the process of combus
tion. Whether this combustion bo generated la
the molten nucleus of tho sun’s orb, or tho
gaseous envelope that surrounds it, In tho gas
lights in our houses, the coal und wood consum
ing on our fires, or the explosive discharge of
some electrical current,—whatever It may be.
there is n rqotlon imparted to tbo other, and
this—ln the form of a wave like the waves on
the surface of water—files off through space
with a velocity that far outstrips Die lightning.
Entering- the eye and Iraplbgtng oa
the retina or nerve filament, already
described, through the medium of tha
optic nerve, the motion is extended to
tho brain, and we realize tho sensation of light.
Until these ether-waves Impinge on tho retina
of the eye there U no such thing os light.
This theory of light Is best Illustrated by
that of sound, which, being a grosser material,
Is in a much greater degree cognizable to our
kenscs.
It is generally known that sonnet la tbo orod
ucl of three elements, namely, sonorous or
vibrating substance,—which may be a bell, &a
anvil, or auv other hard substance,—then tlio
air as a medium through which Uio vibrations
In tJiu form of waves ore to pass, and, lastly,
Uio drum or nerve flUmont of the oar corrw
spending to the retina ol the eye on which thesb
aerial waves Impinge, producing Uie sensation
of sound. Take away cither of these elements
•as In Uio case of light, and there can be no
sound, Hang a bell in a glass receiver
and pumo the air out of it, ana Uio boll mar
ring till doomsday and no sound will bo heart!.
Or, If the ear-drum bo defective, Uio bell may
be rung In open air, or the blacksmith may
smite his anvil with the might of o Hercules,
but still there will bo no sound. Hut does tho
reader ask 11 1 mean literally Uiat there will bo
nu sound I 1 answer, Ves. Where there Is no
oar to bear, there can bo no sound; and whero
there is no eye to sec, Uiore cau be no light 1
Thu stroke of the belbclapner against Its riot
produces no sound, but simply vibratory mo-
Uon; but, It there la a surrounding of air, this
vibratory moUon . will bo communicated
to the air, and through it to. the ear;
and If there Is a drum in tbo cor to rccetvo
Uiut motion, and convey It to tbo brain, then*
and not till uien, will there be sound.
The principle Is the same with tho eye. In
combustion the trills ol Uio burning matter art
communicated to Utu other, and through It as a
medium it is transmitted through space to tbo
form of a wave, and when It impinges on the rcb
iua ol Uie eye It produces in us tho sensation of
light. Now, If tho gaslight of the chandeliers In
our parlors, or Uio sun-burner or other llght
pruauclug apparatus in our ' churches or
nubile halls, shall bo burning never so brightly,
if there Is no eye present, there can be no light
In Uicso rooms, fur I repeat that there must oe
Uio retina of an eye on which the other-waves
may impinge or there cau bo no light. This Is
a clear ana logical deduction from tho premises,
ami cannot be gainsaid.
These waves, impinging on the retina of our
eyes, produce light. Impinging elsewhere oa
ourbodlcs Uiey produce heat. Thor are (be con*
version of motion into heat and light, and ora
the reciprocal of cacti other.
Nature has provided iu us certain nerves that
when nrooerly agitated will produce the sens**
lion of found, others that will produce tb»seu
latlon of light, and still others Uie souse of tost*
lug, smelling, and feeling. These, hs well as '
light, are Die product of motion;- lu fact, we
may safely say that everything that exists In uo
lure Is thu product of either heat or motion.
As we giuso Into uthbrlal soace on a sunny day
we ace nothing but brightness and eflut
'gent light on every side; but
things aro not always what they sesm,
to be. This boundless, celestial space lass dark
as thu densest darkness that Uie mind can con
ceive, and, as iu the figure wo gave of the light
of a room In which there was no eye to sue,Ta
this case there Is no light where there Is no eye.
If we gaao at the stars lu Uie solitude of the
night, mo oUiereal waves traveling hence from
each twinkling star leave no token of Uielr pres
ence In the countless billions of apace Uiay. have
left behind them. Though these waves cross
and recrosa as. Uiey go, they no doubt blot
each other out at Umos, but are quickly replaced
by other waves. “ so that every star, oy Its light,.
proclaims Us uudsmaged Individuality, as If U
alone bad disturbed Uiu universal ruuose. -
(». r. runpiLL,
SIR HENRY BESSEMER’S WORK. I
In aa appreciative article on filr Henry Bess*
mer, apropos of his knighthood,: the Lon£e*
TVmei gives some striking statistics to show tlm
vast advances made lu the production, of steal
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