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Chicago daily tribune. [volume] (Chicago, Ill.) 1872-1963, July 04, 1879, Image 4

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TISUMS OF HimSCUIPTION.
BT MAIL—IRADVASCK—rOSTAOB PRBPAIT).
« ft IMAi Mi J r Alit A nt/ll I ft —ft. ft ..... AM.'
{tally Edition, eneyetr..... ...912.00
raruourctr, pern-0nt*...., .....i .......... 1.00
Literary and helljtloiu Double
BUortnjr lU'Uou pii'ea.*2.oo
Wjikklt bditiok, rostrAiw.
Ob* omit, iWAe*r.
Club of four..!*...
Club of ten.
CJoo of iwentV.
Specimen conies sent free.
, Give Post-Ofllca address In full, taclodlai State and
County.
.llemlttance* may be made either by draft, express,
TWt-OSce order, or InVedatered letter, at our risk.
\ TERMS TO CflT SUBSCRIBERS.
Vail/, dellrered, Sunday kxcepted, 3.1 cents per week.
Dtlly. dellrered, Sunday Included, so cent* per week.
Addrrts THE TRfBUNR COMPANY,
Carter Madiaon andDearborn-Ma.. Chicago, HI.
Order* for, the dcllrery of TlixTiunrs* at Evanston,
Knglowood, and Hyde Park left In the counting-room
'will reealre Prompt attention.
TRIBUNE BRANCH OFFICES.
Tim Cnioioo Tbi bun* hasestablished branch office*
forilie receipt ol iQtxcrlptloni tad advertisements as
follo%»t
KKW TOJIK-Roora 20 Triton* Building. F. T. Mo-
Faddxn, Manager.
PARIS, France—Kb. iflßne de It Crange-Batellere.
XI. MAm.BR, Agent.
LONDON. Eng.—American Exchange, 449 Strand,
lUsrtF. QiLtio, Agent,
WASHINGTON P. C—lamF street.
AMUSEMENTS,
Ilooley’a Theatre.
Randolph rtrref, P*«wfrn Clark.and Lirtaße. En
gagement of Emerson'* Mcgatlurlao Minstrel*. After
noon and evening. ’
liavorly’a Theatre,
Dearborn street, corner of Monroe. Engagement
of the Tony DenlerTroupc. “Unmptylmnpty." Af
ternooa and evening
McTicker's Theatre.
Msdtson street, between Dearborn snd Stats! En
gagement of tho Standard Theatre Company, “Ji.
if. B. Pinafore " and *• Trial by Jury.” <
Hamlin's Theatre,
Citric fiireel, opposite the Court-House. Engage
meat of the Georgia Minstrel*. Afternoon and evening.
Metropolitan Theatre,
Clark street, opposite Sherman House.
ef May Fisk’s Dlnotherlan Lady Minstrels. Afternoon
and evening.
White Stocking: Park.
Lake Shore, footonvashlngton street. Champion-
Ship game between tba Boston and Chicago Clubs
at Stoop, m.
FRIDAY, JULY 4, 1879-
. Tho movement to bring about a return of
the French Parliament to Paris is in a fair
vrny to result in a transfer of the sittings of
that body from Ycrsallos to tho real Capital
of Franco. A bill to this effect was yester
day adopted by tho Senate.
Hot wesibor and sunstrokes wero quite
general yesterday throughout the West, Chi
cago coming in for no more than her shore,
and, as usual, being rather favored than oth
erwise in regard to heat. Tho rain-storm of
lust evening has hod a wholesome effect' on
tho temperature, though the outlook for n
fair day to-day is not very encouraging at 2
o. ra.
Instructions have been given by Attorney-
General Deters to the effect that the re
fusal of Congress to appropriate money
for thoir fees does not prevent United
States Marshals from performing all the
duties of their office. They will, however,
bo compelled to take thoir chances of over
gotlingpaid through an appropriation here
after.
Tho vc*‘ business of tho info Baron
Roxir- ll * LI) will bo carried on by his three
P -*iß. The family will indeed be fortunate
if out of tho threo shall develop o worthy
successor of his father, whoso capacity for
finance and happy faculty of keeping out of
politics or intriguo combined to make him
ono of the really great mon of tho ago.
It is bad nows for tho boys, but a godsend
to the rost of tho community, that tho Mnyor
has issued an order prohibiting tho fire
cracker or fireworks nuisanco in the streets
or alleys, and restricting this amusement to
large open spaces neor tho city limits and
distant from any buildings; and also pro
hibiting within tho city limits the infernal
fusilado of guns, pistols, and cannon common
to the Fourth of July. Tho Superintendent
of Police has boon instructed to enforce this
order and the ordinance already in force, and
tho police force could not be butter employed
than in making it their business to arrest
and march to tho station-house every boy or
man who disobeys (ho law.
Tbe law paused by tbo Democratic major
ity in the Forty-fifth Congress, forbidding
tbo employment of tbe army os a pom
€omilal\u t has bad .the effect in tbe Indian
country to render impossible tbo enforce
ment of property rights. Seven hundred
ponies were recently ma off by white men
from tbo Hod Cloud Agonoy, and, though tbo
animals are driven In full sight of tbe
military poets, tbo troops are by law for
bidden to lend a band in tbo reoapturo and
restoration of tbo stolen property to tbo In
dian owners. It was tbe chief design of tbe
Democrats to prevent tbo use of troops in
assisting in the raids of tbo revenue officers
upon illicit distillers in tbe Southern States,
but its effect is broader than that, ami it
protects horse-thieves os well as modn
shiners. \
The Tribune’s information in regard to
Cabtzb llabbison’s determination to resign
unless the Democratic office-seekers ceaso to
bound him, is confirmed by the following
statement which be is reported as having
made yesterday to an attache of an evening
paper:
“Yes, 2 did say I would resign, and 1 shill
certainly do so If Ibis persecution keeps up. X
cannot please everybody, act as 1 will, and mr fa
llen Is according to my best judgment, ilereaftor
I ■tioll bear no more applications for olaces. Jf
any eue applies to mo it wilt be tbs cause of tbslr
complete and entire dismissal. If cbeso wlhmu
names are already on the lists aouey roe. 1 shall
remove their names and (bey will set no place."
This is a very wise resolution of Mayor
Habbibon's, nod if ho will adhere to it
strictly, it wilt save him groat tribulation of
spirit, and perhaps avert the impending
catastrophe of his resignation.. The posU
tloa of Mayor of this city j*jkot on enviable
one in any ins®, and it iufotirarprisiiig that
Me. Hanson shonld'-ffid H almost unen-
in Uuy-Vnin aud nubecoming effort
satisfy the/greed of all (he Democratic
offlce-bonteitf. Mr. Harrison would bava
been easier/ in bla mind, aud tho city would
bavo beefc better off, if be hod warned off
tho pack/of wolrea at Uio rory start.
Mayor Habbison ordered Marshal Benner
to perform a service not iu the lino of his
duticn, and he very properly refused. He
wu «l directed to use his strong personal In*
fluonce with the members of the Department
to induce them to agree to what should be
known as a “volunteer" redaction of 6
per cent on their salaries. Tho Mayor, hav
ing thus bulldozed tho hardworkod firemen
through the importunities of their much*
loved chief, proposed to taka nil tho credit
to himself of having cqfedown expenses; that
is to say, ho put up a job to
gain a little pcraoiml glory by tak
ing • o paltry per cent off tho
pay of' every man who risks his life to
protect our city against destruction by fire.
Marshal Bbnnf.b declined to act so tho roper
in this confidence-game, believing, first, that
it was a shame to rcdace tho pay of his
men, who are already forced to a share
of 0 or 8 per cont on tho scrip
they receive; and, second,, that it was
not his place to work up bonoorabe for Haiw
msoM by coercing tho men into a " volun
tary " reduction. Apart from tho great nd
miration and esteem which tho people of
Chicago entertain toward Matt Benkea ns a
Firo-Marshal, his manly coarse in refusing
to net as entspaw for the Mayor will be by
everybody indorsed and approved.
•m
i'wiii
HEKOYAL OF FIRE-MARSHAL BEKNEE.
Tho announcement this morning that
Mayor 1 Harrison has summarily removed
Chief Marshal Benner from bin position at
the head of the Chicago Fire Department
will occasion tho utmost astonishment and
indignation among the people of this city,
especially when it is understood that tho only
reason -assigned for tho act by tho Mayor is
the assertion that Marshal Benner was not
in accord with him in tho matter of reducing
the pay of ibo firemen, while the foot is that
tho Chief Marshal declined to visit tho
men and use his influence to persuade
them to “a voluntary reduction" of 5
per cent of tholr pay, which would
amount to a saving of something like SO,OOO.
Whatever may bo the real reason for this
extraordinary proceeding of Mayor Harri
son's, tho reason assigned will be spurned as
utterly insufficient to Justify the displace
ment of such an officer as Firo-Mnrshal Ben
ner. For six years ho has, with an ability
amounting almost to a genius for this kind
( of work, directed tho operations of the Chi
cago Firo Department, and by his remark
iblo executive faculty, together with the per
sonal example ho has set before the Depart
mextof grcntskill and bravery osafirc-fighter,
and ol the most exemplary conduct and
doportnent ns a man and an officer,
Marshal Benner has brought his command
to a dogrot of efficiency and skill that has
been of inestimable value to tho people of
tho city, not Bono in the protection of thoir
property and the extinguishment of fires
with tho leant possible loss, but in entirely
overcoming tho prejudice engendered by
Chicago's suppose! insecurity, against fire,
and in gaining theontiro confidence of tho
insurance companies nt homo and abroad,
whereby the premiums on risks have boon
reduced to tho very lowwt rates granted in
any city in the country Ho has accom
plished this by asystoaof discipline and
government tho most exacting and inflexible,
but tempered with justice, Impartiality, and
integrity so fixed and firm tbit no amount of
political interference or pressure could
swerve him a hair's breadth from what ho
conceived ,to bo tho highest andbest inter
ests of his Department. Ho had the confi
dence and good will of tho people of Chicago
in a measure for surpassing tho pirror of
Mayor Harrison to alter or impair, and his
removal on tho day of all others in the calen
dar when his services were most needed
most bo sot down as tho craziest of nil tho
ridiculous antics performed by Oartbr H.
Harrison since his inauguration as Mayor.
There is, there can bb hat ono sentiment re
garding thU rxtroonliiinry removal. The
Common Council is nnnnimously opposed to
it; tho insurance men interviewed last even
ing were to a man opposed to it; and If it
were possible to tnko a vote of the people of
Chicago (it would be found that the half
million would bo ns a unit opposed to it.
Tho anger and disgust that will bo felt at
tho Mayor's exhibition of potty spito and
malice in tho removal of Marshal Benner
should bo demonstrated with such force and
plainness ns to leave nochanco for mistaking
tho temper of tho people on this snbjoot. It
may bo thot tho merchants, hnsmoKs-ineu,
and householders of Chicago,'rich'and poor
alike, and regardless of party linos, will de
cide upon some plan of notion by which to
express their dissent, and demand Mr. Ben
ner's reinstatement in n public and unmis
takable manner. Whatever form this ex
pression takos, it should bo prompt ami Im
perative, and, if Mayor Harrison's dignity
will not permit him to back down, lot him
carry out his suggestion of resigning at tho
earliest possible moment, and the people will
see to it that a man is elected to fill out Lis
term who knows enough to keep his hands
off th oFire Department.
THE DAT WE CELEBRATE.
The whirligig of time is a sure Instrument
of vengeance. Among other punishments it
brings around tbe Fourth of July with un
failing and startling accuracy, Tbo miseries
of the day are actually upon us. It began
-last night, -and it will drag out its noisy
career over to-morrow. Tbo crack of tbe
pistol is beard in the land. The boom of
the cannon resounds over tbo lake. Tb»
snap of tbo fire-cracker bangs tbo tympanum
and threatens tbo eye. American ingenuity
baa outrun Chinese invention, and minia
ture bombshells are furnished at a price and
in a quantity that brings (hem within the
roach of every family. The trail of tbe
fiery serpent is upon tbo front sidewalk.
Tbe rocket soars into tbo sir. So does tbo
metaphorical eagle. The blare of tbo rural
orator swells tbo fanfnro if not tbe heart of
Amuricaiibunmuily. There Is lio escape from
the universal holiday. Tbo small j»oya aban
don tbe harmless manufocturo of mud-pies
for tbe dangerous manipulation jot I'.'-cent
pistols. The big boys lay in gr eat chunks of
Indigestion and bead-ache for tbo next day.
The workingman seeks rout and amusement
by trudging through the sand bin procession
of bis kind. . Tbo servant-girl swelters in
order to dance at a picnic, bold in a grove
without trees. Tbe fatherland mothers, to
any nothing of tbo dkters liml cousins and
mints, devote tbo earlier part of the day to
tbo protection of Juvenile life and limb, and
tbo latter part of the day to amateur surgery
lu the binding up of wounds and the plas
tering of bum. Tbo fire-alarm is kept
busy ; tbo police are overcome by a souse of
jbuir Incapacity to grapple with American
patriotism ; tie bar-rooms furnish victims
for tbe atatioa-hoaso; and tbe runaways pro
vide patients for tbe hospital.
These'arc the chief features of tho Amer
icaa celebration of the one National holiday.
The day has lost Us hislorio character.
There was' au effort to revive it on the Oon
temilal Fourth, and there will probably be
another effort in tho same direction when
another hundred years shall hove rolled
around. In the meantime no National sig
nificance is attached to the day. No thought
is takeu of tho grand stniggle of which the
Declaration of Independence was tho mani
festo. If that instrument is read at a formal
qclebratiou it is voted a boro, aud the read
ing is regarded as a waste of time that
might better bo employed in shooting off
THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE s FRIDAY. JULY 4. 1870-TWELVE PAGES.
fire-crackers; if any reference is made to
tho Revolutionary period in (ho orations of
the day, it is only in rounded phrases and
empty oratory, Tho meaning of tho anni
versary is loaf in a pandemonium of noise
and buncombe., Political factions use it to
advance their selfish purposes; and dema
gogues improve it to practice decep
tion upon a class of people . who
can be reaohod more easily on this than
on any other occasion. Tho formal celebra
tions are class celebrations. There will bo
moro lamentations over tho “ Lost Canso " in
certain sections of the South than there will
bo of jubilation ovor tbe nationality which
the occasion onght to typify. Throughout
the North the day will bo largely used for
tho pnrpose of making formidable demon
strations, professedly in the. interests of tho
working classes, but actually calculated to
alarm capital and react to the 1 injury of tho
laboring men. A rational and proper cele
bration of the day would require some sober
manifestation of gratitude for the blessings
which tho Declaration of Independence as
sured to the American people; instead of
this, wo have noisy agitation of all kinds.
But repining will not avail to work any
change; tho character of tho celebration is
definitely fixed for all time, and its incidental
follies and horrors must bo endured ns philo
sophically as tho smashing of hats in Berlin
on Sylvtoier-Abend, or tho throwing of dust
and flour balls at the Homan carnival, or tho
blowing of poos and pellets on tho road to
tho Derby races. Tho Americans are not the
only fools in tho world.
The people of Chicago will find a good
deal of compensation for the miseries that
cannot be escaped to-day in the assurance
that tho most serious of tho threatened evils
has been averted. There has been a wide
spread apprehension that the military com
panies which have been organized in tho
interests of Socialism would attempt to
parade with arms to-day in defiance of the
law forbidding that kind of demonstration.
Had there been on attempt’ of this kind, it
is more than likely that a bloody conflict
would have resulted. Tho authorities, under
the spur of public opinion, would have felt
tho necessity of putting down so flagrant a
defiance of tho law, and tho same spirit
which had prompted tho Communist mili
tary companies to flaunt their contempt for
tho power of the State would probably have
suggested a desperate resistance to tho en
forcement of tho law. There could have
been bnt one result of such a conflict.
The supremacy of such o law would have
been amply vindicated, and the re
sponsible and law-abiding element of
society would have demonstrated that
adequate preparation had been made to put
down tho lawless element. Nevertheless,
the conflict would Lave been a bloody one, if
it had been forced upon the authorities, and
it would have boon followed by deplorable
results. As it is, the extent of Communistic
mischief will bo limited to the influence
which the designing leaders will exorcise to
day over the real workingmen- by the control
they have secured ever their picnic. This
influence will be dcloUrious enough, certain
ly, but so long as it shall bo exercised in a
peaceful and lawful mauutr, it will attest tho
obsobite freedom to which the Declaration of
Independence has led up in this country.
There will be soma aching heads and sorry
hearts to-morrow as a result of to-day’s cele
bration. Tho consumers of beer will have
Kotunjammer, and tho consumers of col
ored leAionoda -will sulfur from something
like cholera infantum. Most of the patron*
of tho horse-races will be lighter in their
pockets, If not in their heads and hearts, than
they arp. to-day. There will bo a good
many small boys dona up in moro or loss
bandages, and those who go through tho
flery ordeal of tho Fourth unharmed will
mourn for nickels that havo been squan
dered. Practically, Saturday and Sunday
will both be devoted to the difilcnlt and un
grateful task of “ tapering off," which every
kind of dissipation necessitate:*, aud the vo#o
majority of people will conclude with Sius
st’EAns that
•• If nil the year were playing holidays.
To spurt would boas tedious as to work."
THE OEEBNEBAUM BANI 3.
The report of Klmeu WAsnamH, Bank
Examiner, as the result of bis careful inves
tigation of the affairs of the German No*
tiounl Bank, leaves little room to doubt Uiat
the institution was mu raaiiiy to sustain a
little ring of banks and coffainroal estate
operations. Personal consUcrailou for Sir.
IlENnr GnEENKOAim and Jioso essociatcd
with him in tbe nctivo management of tbo
Gorman National does notf justify any con
coa'ment or extenuation of tbo irregularities
and abuses that have been revealed. In point
of fact, a literal interpretation and strict en
forcement of the United States Banking law
would subject tbe responsible officers of
more than one of tbo collapsed bunks to
prosecution, and tbo violation of tbo law in
!tbo case of tbe German National should not
bo permitted to escape proper official notice,
■Whether the nffaii; bo Judged by tbe embar
rassment which depositor)! suffered, or by
the actual losses sustained by tbo stockhold
ers, there Is & demand for snob action as
will be calculated to prevent similar manipu
lation of bank-funds in tbo future by those
who are managing banks under the National
law.
Tho Indebtedness of Uio Guekneuaum fain
ily to the German National Bank figured up
nearly $187,000. It was divided l>otwoen
Henbt Orerneoaum, on his individual ac
count, lIuKRT GUBCNEUAUM A Co., GnßENE
jjaum Brothers A Co., H. A D. S. Greene-
DAOir, Isaac Qrbknedabu ami Sarah Giieene
rattm, in addition to collotcrol iudobteduoss
from relations not bearing the name of
Gbkenkdaum. A savings hank, a private
banking and brokerage business hero and
another In Now York, 'seem to have been
practically run by those fund*. Of tho en
tire sura of $187,000, only $02,000 baa beou
actually paid back, nearly $69,000 has been
scratched off under Uio head of “profit aud
loss," by the terms of composition; tho
amount stilt duo is $05,810, which Mr. 'Wasu
dubn estimates to bo actually worth about
$5,725, and it is safe to say that this is
all that will bo realized from the notes and
collaterals on baud. A part of this Indebt
edness represents au operation only three
weeks before tho failure of the bank, where
by o good loan was transferred eo us to mako
room for Henrt Gbeenebavu’s personal note
and worthless collaterals.
Mr. Wasubvun’s report shows that the
bana was loosely and recklessly, if not
fraudulently, managed. Money was loaned
lu Urge sums for speculative purposes upon
insufficient security or no security at alb
Overdrafts wore common. Ileal estate woe
holdin tho name ot the President which
was said to luluiig to tho Lank. Tho
Presdout’s Individual account was largely
overdrawn, iu addition to the enormous sums
whiat ho aud other members of tho family
bad borrowed upon securities. Ileus of
uudtermiued aud doubtful value were cox*
riod on tho hooks os cash. The occounte
soom to have been kept cither without any
system, or upon n system devised (o deceive.
Many notes were not registered; debits ami
were made without showing what
they, represented; many entries were so In
definite that they contd not bo traced out;
tho bank was permitted to acquire a largo
amount of real estate, and the extent of those
©portions were canceled by carrying this
property in Hcnbt Qreenebaum's name.
Elmer Washburn is known to be a careful,
prudent, nnd thorough-going man, and when
he says that “ Tho conclusion is irresistible
that tho late President of the Gorman Na
tional Bank used its funds to bull the real
estate market and sustain tho credit of va
riant private banking institutions of which
ho was a member,"'the public will begin to
regard tho statement as entirely trustworthy.
THE REDUCTION OF LABOR.
Mr. Eruardt, ono of the Socialist mem
bers of tho late Legislature, in the interview
with him on Wednesday concerning to-day's
demonstration, expressed himself candidly
on one or two points. Tho report reads:
•‘What do you know about tho Intention* of the
wortlngmcn, Sir. Eiuurdt!” asked the Investi
gator.
•'I do not know much," we* the reply.
* 1 Have yon heard of much dissatisfaction among
them recently!” (
"Not ranch. They are ngtlntlne the eißht-hour
movement, hut I do not think they cbntcmplale
getting no any universal strike.”
• “What do they want!" ' , -
“They want lo make eight hoars a day's work.
In, come Instances I know of men who are klrcady
working cltrht hours and receiving pay for nine.
Tho men want shorter days, so that more can be
employed. They don't want to have a few Indus
trious men monopolize all the work.” ’*
“Will these men bo content when they get cl£bt
hours a day!” ' V
“ Yes; certainly.”
“Bnl they will get reduced wages!”
**l think not,”,
Hero ore two points distinctly stated : (1)
That a reduction to eight hours for a day’s
work is demanded, so that more men may
bo to do tho samo amount of work;
nnd (2) that oach man is to got the samo
wages as now. The “day” is to continue
tho mcasaro of wages, but tho day is to be
shortened and tho wages remain unchanged,
while tho number of men to perform tho
given amount of work Is to bo increased 25
per cent. Twelve men now perform 120
hours' work in n day at $2 each; hereafter,
fifteen men are to bo employed to do the
samo work, and each of tho fifteen Is
to got $2 per day, adding 25 per
cent to tho cost of tho clay's work.
Each man Is supposed to produce each day a
value equal to the wogos paid him. At
present tho assumption is thaC’in ten hoars
ho produces something which can ho ex
changed for the product of some other man's
ten hours of labor. If, therefore, a man
limits his production to eight hours, he con
only produce that which can bo exchanged
for tho product of some other man's eight
horn's of labor. It makes no difference
whether the man work eight, six, or font
hours per day, the thing produced will only
bo exchangeable for something requiring the
same number of hoars to produce. Tho
product of eight hours will not bo accepted
os the equivalent ol ten hours* labor, and no
matter how tho question will bo viowod, any
given number of hours of labor will pur
chase tho product of only tho samo number
of hours of labor, no matter whether that
labor bo performed by five, ten, or twenty
men. The measure of volue of labor is tho
value of tho produot of that labor. If two
men work fivo hours enoh thoir labor is
worth exactly as much as tho labor of ton
mo® working ono hoar each; and the wages
of tbo two vnen must bo equal to tho wages
of tho ten who perform only tho same
amount of labor. - ’How oau fifteen men per
forming tho labor now dono by twelve men
expeot for tho same work 25 per cent addi
tional pay nnd*not cause an increase in the
coat of tho thing prodncod?
A MONOPOLIST WAIL.
The Tribune yesterday contained in its
correspondence from Philadelphia the mourn,
ful and desolate wail of the quinine estab
lishment over the repeal of the duty on im
ported quinine. The manufacture of quinine
was begun'in Philadelphia sixty years ago,
and two establishments in that city have had
a practical monopoly of the business in this
'country over since. Mr. Powers, of the
firm of Powers «fc Weioutman, the largest
firm engaged in the business, died some
weeks ago, leaving an estate of many millions
of dollars, bis share of the profits on qniniuo.
The afilictod partners of the deceased and
the bereaved members of the other firm
engaged in the manufacture of quinine
have been plunged into the deepest
wo because of the repeal of the protective
bounty hitherto enjoyed by them. They
weep not for themselves alone but for their
country! The ingratitude of the nation cuts
them to the quick; they are overwhelmed,
and threaten to commit business suicide.
When the Rebels fired upon Sumter, and
raised their traitorous hands against the flag
of their country, the Philadelphia manufac
turers of quinine proceeded to Washington on
the Fourth of July, 1801, and, in the fullness
of their patriotic hearts, tendered their son*,
ices to moke quinine for all the troops that
might be colled for by.the' Government, and
for the families of those at the front; ail
they asked was that Congress should vote
them a subsidy of 45 per cent in gold
on all the quinine they should make, and,
thus excluding Rritish, French, and Ger.
man quinine, secure to these American mao
ufnclurers the exclusive right of making
American quinine to bo sold to American
soldiers aud their American families, to cure
them of and protect (hem from purely Amor
lean fever nud ague 1 The patriotic Congress
responded, ond placed a duly on all foreign
made quinine of ‘45 per cent la gold, which
with the ipcidonco was equal to from $3 to
s.') per ounce of quinine. All daring the War
and until 1873 this tax of 45 per cent re
mained, furnishing, a magnificent bounty to
these lyonopollsis. In 1873 the tax was re
duccd pn the sulphate uf quinine to 20 per
ceut, and on the Fourth of July, 1878, or
twenty years from the date of the imposition
of the infamous cud scandalous scheme of
plunder, it was finally abolished.
In the list of causes for National thanks
giving to-day there should bo an universal
outpouring of gratitude that this tax on
quinine has been abolished. After having
enjoyed tins' monopoly for twenty years,
having flonrftliod upon this tax gathered at
thu bedside‘Of oyer£ fever-stricken person
in tho overgrown, purse-proud
plunderers have tho Insolence to threaten
thot (hey v*ill make no more quinine.
These people in Philadelphia sell annually
1,250,000 ounces of quinine at $3.40 per
ounce. That is, the present price, The
foreign price at this time is $3.80, and the
duty carries it up to something over the
price demanded in Philadelphia. As tlvo
quinine can *bo manufactured iu Phila
delphia cheaper it cap bo mode
in Europe, certainly at as. low a
cost, tho difference between $2.80 and $5.40
per ounce is erectly tho sum of which the
American people are plundered for tho ben*
ofit of these two Philadelphia firms. Sixty
cents per ounce on n million nnd a quarter
of onnops mmually is equal to $750,000 di
rect special bounty collected by these men
without consideration and without justifica
tion. No wonder that tho quinine makers
hare been able to contribute to the spools!
lobby to “protect” tho sugar and other cor
rupt Interests which ore also plundering con
sumers under like special bounties. No won
der that these men In Philadelphia cry.out in
anguish that they hare been suddenly de
prived of tbe license to collect from the sick
and tbo weak this enormous special bounty,
in addition to their ordinary profits on their
productions.
Oar correspondent writes that these man*
ufaolurors of quinine, upon bearing of tbo
passage of the bill, declared several things,
among which were the following: (1) That
the foreign article is far inferior to that
made in Philadelphia, and Is never used by
the medical profession, because of its impuri
ties. (2) The Philadelphia manufacturers
will have to stop making quinine, because of
tboir inability to'soll in competition with tho
imported article. (0) They annually im
ported five million pounds of bark, but have
given orders to import no more. (4) They
will have to discharge tboir workmen, which
number eighty men I
The “unprotected” reader will foil to
reconcile those declarations. If tho British,
French, nnd Gorman quinine is so bad and
so Impure that the medical profession have
to forbid its use and order Philadelphia
quinine cxelnsivoly, why should’ the Phila
delphians, who have an exclusive market,
cease to do business? If the imported quinine
is so impure that it is never used in ibis
.country, bow is it to so compote with tbo do
.'mofltic article that tho production of (ho let
ter is to cease for went of customers? Tho
bark costa tho Philadelphians no more ihon
it does the French, and why cannot qnioino
bo manufactured in Philadelphia iw cheaply
ns in ‘Paris ? Tho most serious disaster pro
dieted by those men os a result of repealing
this bounty on quinine is the discharge of
eighty workmen, who are now enjoying tho
average princely income of $1.50 per day,—
total loss of $l2O wages per day. This la a
a blow to American labor under which even
protected Pennsylvania will stagger for a
century and from which probably it will
never recover. In the meantime, all thanks
to tho men who repealed this tax.
COHBTmrnOKAUTY OP THE MILITIA
• LAW.
When the Federal Convention completed
its labors, Sept* 17, 1787, and submitted the
Constitution which it hod framed to the
several States for their consideration and
adoption, it was found that many objections
were interposed to different provisions.
Many of the States were apprehensive of
vesting too largo powers in the General
Government. It is natural to expect that
a people who have bnt recently wrested
their independence from n hitherto superior
power, and bad done this in the name
of Liberty, would wotob with jealous
care over any methods of change ■in
government that might bo offered or
any now order of affairs that was to bo sot
up. With this in view, we can easily under
stand how every lino of the Constitution
was scanned and every provision searched,
ni though a possible Tory measure might
Imk therein. Several of the States claimed
there,was not sufficient restriction on the
General Government, and, though one by
one they adopted. it, yet they insisted that
amendments which would meet the' objec
tionable features should be presently made.
In. consequence of this universal feeling
Mr. Madison presented a memorial from
Virginia asking that the matter bo taken
np, and he * brought forward in the
House at the first session of Congress
under the new Concilia lion the ton amend
ments which wore subsequently ratified by
the States. The second of these is the one
whereon the claim of the unconstitutionality
of the Militia act is based, and reads as fol
lows :
“ A well-regulated mllltls being necessary to
the security of & free State, the right of the people
to keep and bear anna shall not he Infringed. ”
While this particular provision has not, to
our knowledge, Leon the subject of examine,
tion and decision by any Gonrt, yet several
of the other provisions, which originated
from the same causes and seek the same
purposes as constitutional limitations, have
been the subject of * decisions of
the highest Courts, both State and
National, over and over again. And
there can bo no doubt thot (hose coses ore
conclusive os to what must result from any
further judicial inquiry os to the scope nud
effect of those amendments; while, ns a mat
ter of sound reasoning on the principles of
the Government and the occasion of the
adoption of those'amendments, they are most
convincing.
In 1834, Walworth, then a Circuit Judge
and afterwards Chancellor of Now York, con
sidered a case in which tho question was
fairly presented as to whether tho Fifth and
Sixth Amendments were restrictions on the
power of tho States. After referring to tho
opposition to tho Constitution os submitted
to tho States, in which it was claimed tho
powers of tho General Government wore
not sufficiently limited, aud reviewing tho
occasion and manner of making these
amendments, ho oallsafctentlon to tho foot that
many of tho States have incorporated iu
their State Constitutions principles that oro
wholly inconsistent with the idea that
amendments ore in restriction of tho State
Governments, and concludes in these words:
“lam, therefore, clearly of Ute ouluion that
these amendments wore nevsr intended to limit the
powers of the Stales."
This case is reported in 3 Oowen, 830.
As Chancellor he afterwords expressed sim
ilar views iu Liyimoston ▼. Mayor of New
York (8 iCowou, p. 08), and in this caso
quotes tho following preamble to the amend
ments as passed by Congress as giving un
answerable proof of the purpose of tho
amendments t
“The Conventions of a number of States having
at the time of tbelr adopting the Conetltution ex
pressed a desire, In order to prevent misconstruc
tion sod abuse of Its oowers, that further declara
tory and restrictive clauses should be added; aud
as extending tho grounds of public confluence in
the (iovermnent will beet. Insure the beneficent
ends of Us Constitution, resolved, ate., that the
following articlee bo proposed," etc.
The ewe pf lUnnow vb. The Mayor and
City Council of Baltimore (7 Peters, U. S.,
217) vm brought before the Supremo Court
of the United States from the Court of Ap.
peals of Maryland, ou the question that the
property of Babbow had been taken by the
authorities of the City of Baltimore without
Just compensation to him therefor, and that
such taking was contrary to the Fifth Amend
ment to the Federal Constitution, which re
cites that private property shall not bo taken
for public use without just compensation.
Chief-Justice MinauiUi, iu deciding the
cose, said:
•'The question ttms presented U. we think, of
great importance. but not of mtioh difficulty. The
Constltntlon wu ordained and established by tbo
oeoplo of the United Stolen for themselves, for
(heir own Government, and not for tho Government
of the Individual Statea. Each Slate established a
Conaillntlon for Itaolf and, In that fconslUulion
provided aach limttoilona and reatrictionson the
powers of Ha particular Government aalto Jador*
ment dictated. The people of the United Btatea
framed anen a Government for the United States aa
ther supposed beat adapted to their situation
and beat calculated to promote their In*
toresta. The powera they conferred on this
Government were to bo exercised by Itself: and
the limitations on power, if expressed In general
terms, ara naturally, and we think necessarily,
applicable to the Government created by tha In*
strumont Itself. They are limitations of power
granted in the Instrument Itself, not of'distinct
Governments framed by different persons and for
different purposes.”
Farther on iu his opinion, in staling the
olroumatanooß which gave rise to those amend
ments, ho uses this emphatic language t
**Uut it is universally understood, it Is a part of
the history of tho day, that tho great revolution
which established the Constitution of tbs United
States was not effected without Immense opposl*
tfon. Serious fears wore extensively entertained
that these powers which tho patriot statesmen,
who then watched over the Interests of our coun
try, deemed essential .to union, and to (he attain
ment of those Invaluable objects for which union
was sought, might bo exorcised In a manner dan
gerous to liberty. In almost every Convention by
which the Consintion was adopted amendments to
guard against the abase of power were recom
mended. Theso amendments demanded security
against tha apprehended encroachments of the
General Oovernment,~not against those of the
local Governments. In compliance with a senti
ment thus generally expressed, to quiet fears thus
extensively entertained, amendments wero'pro*
posed by the required majority in Congress, and
adopted by tho States. There amendments contain
no expression indicating an intentiontoapplytbem
to State Governments. This Court cannot so ao*
ply them."
It will be observed tho language hero used
refers to and embraces oil the ten amend
ments.
In the ease of Twitohel vs. The Com
monwealth (7 Wallace, 821), where the right
of a State to pass laws in contravention of
the Fifth and Sixth Amendments was raised,
Obiof-Jnstico Chase quotes at length from
the foregoing opinion, and saysj
"This Judgment has since been frequently re*
Iterated, and always without dissent. , , , In
the views thus stated and supported we entirely
concur."
These cases wore dismissed by iho Court
for want of jurisdiction, and we havo no
doubt snoh would be the determination of
any case taken there to tost tho constitution
ality of the Militia law. They certainly
show that the purpose which tho enemies of
the Militia law claim for this Second Amend
ment Is the very opposite of that for which
tho States demanded it. They wore appre
hensive lost tho General Government be
hold to have solo authority in the matter of
the militia and military, and, unwilling to
yield oven to a doubtful interpretation on
this point, sought and secured a limitation
on tho power of the National Government
in this particular, and preserved to them
selves without question tho right to maintain
“ a well-regulated militia," and which in
their recent struggle they bad so certainly
found “necessary to the security of a free
State.”
A Tribune reporter interviewed Mr. Sam
Goldwater, President of the Communist
Tradcs-Councll, In regard to the rumored eight
hour strike, as follows:
Ileporter— •* What is roar present Intention?"
Goldwater—'' Oor object this month is simply to
proclaim to the world that the end we desire to
reach la the shortening of tho hoars of labor. In
otherworda, wo want tho eight-hour system." ■
Ileporter— "But why do you so strongly do
plena.tUlsV"
anidwater—" Wo. as laboring men, sir, feelita
moral duty Incorobent upon us to sco to It that our
brother laborers are supplied with work. There
are many oat of employment who have nothing or
little to do. We want to see them cared for, and
wo aro willing to sacrldco a portion of oar Incomes
that our brethren may bo given employment, lor
the Hhorteulneof the hoars mast necessarily en
force Uio employment of more men to perform the
present given amoont of labor."
Mr. Goi.dwateu docs not sneak for bis asso
ciates when be says they are willing to sacrifice
a portion of their Income for tho sake of secur
ing the eight-hour scale. If the journeymen
bad proposed to their employers to reduce their
wages In proportion to the reduction of work,
tho short-hour idea would bays been tried long
ago on a pretty largo scale. But a reduction of
pay to correspond with tho redaction of work
has been steadily resisted from tho first In
ception of the scheme to the present time. Tho
demand has been ton hours’ psyfor elghthours*
work, ami the employers havo replied: “We
are unable to pay for idle time. When yon aro
earning nothing, neither are wo; It la absurd
for you to ask pay lor two hours 1 time when
you are oil attending to your own business;
such ademand can never be complied with, as
It would speedily bankrupt every employer.”
The workmen have answered: “Butwe cannot
support ourselves aud families on 75 per cent
of our present wages; while we don’t want to
produce for more than eight hours a day, still
wc need, and must have, wages eijual to ten
hours’ production.” “ liow can we pay you lor
ten hours' production if you only produce for
eight hours! Why should we give you some
thing for nothing! Why do you demand a
gratuity from us of 25 per cent!” Bo Ute un
reasonable and Impossible demand of tho jour
neyman has drifted along from year to year, and
will continue to drift to all eternity, unless the
workmen reduce their demand to eight hour*'
pay for eight hours' work.
A correspondent at Mattoon, 111., writes that
the Mayor of that Interesting city. Mr. J. B.
lixNßrisL, is a match lor “Our Garish." The
proof of it lies lo the following Fourth of July
proclamation:
When, in the coarse of bnmsa events (to wit:
Jnly 4. 1770), It became necessary for one people
to dissolve the political bands which bod connected
them with another, and to assume among the
uowors of thu earth the separate and equal station
to which the lawe of Nature and of Nature's God
entitled ilium, s decent respect to the opinions of
mankind required that they declare the causes
which Impelled them to the'separation. And
when (hat brave nnd ltberty*luvmg people set forth
those acts of oppression or which they complained
in writing so ulalu that no tyrant or monarch on
earth could misunderstand Ilium, And with a sub*
llmo courage hurled them m the teeth of their
oppressors and thou flew to arme. and at the point
of the bayonet achieved their liberty, and npon
the free soil of America erected a Government at
once the admiration of the world and the asylum of
the opuressud ofovrtb, and through that Govern*
mem transmuted to ne ino inestimable boon of
liberty. It becomes us, worthy sous of worthy sires,
upon this, the one hundred and third anniversary
of that Immortal deed ofouranceslors, to lav down ■
our implements of toll and Industry, end for one
day rest from all labor, and. assembling ourselves
together, forgetting all else than that we are broth*
ere, sons of that immortal band through whose
blood and heroism we ere free aad bapny cltUcns
of the best Government of earth, Join our hearts m
adorstlon and our voices in songs of Jov, and to*
Bother raise o shout which shall cause the Kings and
tyrants of earth to rear and tremble I Hip I Hip I
The correspondent adds: “Won't you want to
Doy him, ami m&kc a team I”
Oho rcaeon Riven for tho Germans leaving the
Republican parly and Joining the Socialists Is
tiiub Stdnbt Mtbkb absorbed the deposits of
the Beehive Bank eighteen months ago and the
Republican natty has not pantsbod hlml The
Republican party can't be held responsible for
Miu Mtaus* politics 5 ho did not belong to their
political church. He was originally a Democrat
and then ho Joined tho Greenback Fiatlats, and
still belonged to them wheu lost heard from.
Tho Socialists will have to look to the Fiatiils.
Let them call on Judge Fklcu, John F. Scan*
to n, Auou'u Stbupbi. ami outer lights of that
gaseous organization. Mtbus practiced ibe
fiat doctrine of banking on the “faith and re*
sources of thu Nation." And all bis followers
need to do Is to have faith ttiat bis bank is
sound and solvent, and go on depositing their
money in bis Beehive.
Claubnob Kino, Director of tho Consolidated
Survey, baa proposed to Secretary tiouuiu a
division of the work hi the Turrltorlee between
himself In charge of a corps of mining engineers
and tho Superintendent of tho Const Surrey at
Uie bead of the topographical work. A Wash*
Ingion correspondent says In regard to this
proposition:
Secretary Srntmx, while not unfavorable to tho
plan, expresses some doubt as to his authority to
mako tho proponed transfer, as the law nlaces
these surveys under direction of tho Interior
Department, and makes the Secretary responsible.
Ho says the const survey being under the direction
of the Secretory or the Treasury, ha would then
have no amhoritv over the inland surveys of this
character. Mr. Kino, in making these surges*
tions, desires to be relieved of the details of topo*
graphical work in order that he mar devote bis at*
loutton principally to the development rf the min*
ing resources of the country through an exact Mr*
vey and geological Inquiry into the extent and
richness of the precious metol*bearlng regions of
the Western country.
The Secretory should wrflch this surrey care*
fully. The Academy of Sciences, as It does not
foot the bills, should not be permitted to carry
on operations on too extensive a scale.
Qborob H. Arnold, Democratic Assembly
man from Cortlandt County, N. Y., has avowed
his intention of returning to tbo Republican
party, with which he once acted. He was a
Union soldier, and tho Confederate Congress
was top much for him. The New York Trtbunt
says» ;, ' J *
If Mr. AnKOLowero a man of poor repute, or
bad been disappointed in seeking ofilce, the Inci
dent would not bo worth mentioning. Hut his
high character, and the fact that he has bad office
and coaid have it again at the hands of the Demo
crats,, give this real conversion great significance,
Tbo Hon. T. D. Tiucnßn, editor of tho Law
rence Journal, delivered a thoughtful address
before tbo Editors’ and Publishers’ Association
of Kansas, June 12, on "The Mission of tba
Press,” which we seclsdcsenrcdty praised by the
editorial fraternity iu Hint State. The Topeka
CommonuvaM says: “Whether aa a speaker or
writer, Mr. Thacker bos few equals In Kan
sas."
We observe that the llrm of Howell & Clark,
which publishes the excellent Oate-Ciiu of Keo
kuk, has been strengthened by the admission of
another Howell,—Jesse D..—who has lor sev
eral years been business manager of the paper,
and will continue to be so. The' younger Mr.
Howell has done much to bring the paper to
its present prosperous condition.
To the Editor of the B\tn— Sms In proportion
to their numbers, many more whites than negroes
are availing themselves of the advantages which
the Western States and Territories offer. Batwa
do not bear much of the white ezodas.
Caucasian.
Because nobody Is trying to prevent the white
exodus.
J. F. Edmands, the last Boston forger, who
has gone about SBO,OOO to tho bad, had most re
spectable connections. They raised $40,000 to
bolp him out, and It was only when they discov
ered twice this amount could bo recovered, that
the attempts to hush the matter up were aban
doned.
Cor. Pillsdurt is a candidate for re-cico
tlon in Mlnucssota, and Gov. Smith Id Wlscoo
aln. Bahsby in Minnesota and Ludinoton In
Wisconsin—former Governors—wouldn’t object
to taking the office again. It seems to be better
worth while to bo Governor now than in war
times. •
Senator Faulet Is said to bo much discour
aged by tho disintegration of bis party In Cali
fornia. The Democrats seem hopelessly In tho
minority, and, unless there Is an unforeseen
change between now and election day, they
will be a bad third In the race.
A London physician writes to tho Herald to
inquire why American cream cannot bo shipped
to Europe. lie says there would bo a good
market for It. If this is so, It ought to bo
possible easily to arrange the shipment In seated
cans.
The Confederates of coarse wore anxious to
get out of Washington before tho Fourth of
July. The National holiday has no significance
'for them, and they would rather not be In tho
National Capital when it Is celebrated.
There bus been no sale of “nigger-chasers**
In the South this year. It seems to be gener
ally agreed down there Unit the “niggers’*
don’t need any more chasing. They seemed
disposed to run without It.
The Sun says President Oates’ lost “Impu
tations” would not be tolerated by any Con
gress possessed of courage and a sense of duty.
The £un evidently doesn't think of the Demo
cratic Congress.
It Is said that Mr. Dana’b paper will declare
a second dividend of U 0 per cent title year,
making 60 per cent In all, on a par valuation of
$850,000. It evidently pays to call names la
New York.
Miss Lillie Doer, who was lately on trial for
the murder of her school-friend, has written a
romance. It Miss Dukn has sense enough to
write & good romance, she ought to bo banged
for murder.
The London Tima says that the Quartermas
ter-General violated orders la sending tho Frlncb
Imperial out on a hazardous expedition, and It
Is probable there will bo a court-martial.
Ciiastihb Cor, who killed Mrs. Hull ami
confessed the crime, baa entered a plea of not
guilty. Why should not confessions count for
something in law!
The Chinese in Canton announced Goa. Grant
as the “ King of America.” This was very rock:
leu for Chinamen.
A Smoke-Consumers’ League has boon organ*
feed iu Cincinnati. No city should be without
one.
PERSONALS.
' To tho Khedive: Please pay that doHol
you owe us.
To England t Como and help as celebrate.
All will be forgiven.
Congress is gone, but not, 01 not forever.
And that Is why wo are sad.
Mr. Dona baa started for Europe, and now
where will Europe atari for t
Tho Fourth of July Is a groat dsy, bat on
the whole we prefer the Clb.
Truth is so mighty that tbe prudent citizen
of Louisiana always keeps out of lu way
A now novel is entitled “ How Did I Qoi
Ilf" We don't know. Probably you atote It.
Tho North Pole might as well como out
and give himself np. Jim Bennett is after him la
earnest.
Mr. E. D. Woalibnrno has gone to spend the
summer at tbe old Waibburno residence, at New
Livermore, Me, *
The Now York Herald advises Senator Lo- .
gaa to cut his hair, evidently wishing to have him j
where its abort.
Cotowayo is anxious for peace, probably
being dligoiled with a war In which be bae to do
all ibe fighting.
; This is the day we celebrate. Ik is also the
dsy wo gat oar fingers blown off and oar faces
blown full of powder.
As Mr. Oox is a colored gentleman, < the/
policemen of Mew York can use tbelr dabs 14 good
edect only on his shim. 7
Proctor Knott will visit Dalatb this sum*
mer. Pat Bonin's speech on Dalatb onee made
Ur. Knott quite fsmoue.
A man in Colorado has dreamed three times
that Got. McClellan,le to be the next PreildcaU
We can already hear the Governor begin to boom.
Women missionaries are at work in Oeor- ■
gta, and are said to have made many converts.
Their eacccee would be iremendoua if they could
reclaim Den 11111.
Mrs. Jennio Smith, of Now Jersey, la of
the opinion that a rope around tbe neck ia no part
of a tasteful lady's toilet, and that stretching tbo
neck fa vulgar aa well as painful.
The Detroit Frte I'reu contemplates an
Invention to nuke overcoat buttons of slice*
cucumbers, dome of the buttons, however would*
be rather too dose to tbe stomach. - , 1

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