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Chicago daily tribune. [volume] (Chicago, Ill.) 1872-1963, July 17, 1879, Image 4

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Subscribers going Into the country or Intending to be
absent from the city for any length of ttmo can have
,Thb Tainußa mailed to any address, postpaid, for St
per month.
For the greater convenience of those wishing to avoid
the necessity of atrip to TtiE-TninuNE office, arrange
ments have been perfected for receiving small adver
tisements by telephone. This office It-supplied with
both the Dell and the Edison Instrument*, and responsi
ble panics can tend their advertisements at any hoar
from Btol3 o. m. by telephone direct to this office.
Order* for the delivery of Tn a TninuKX at Evanston,
Englewood, and Hyde Park left In the couuUnß*room
will receive prompt at tontlon.
Ilooley’ii Theatre.
Randolph street, beaten Clark nnd LaSalle. Ea-
Itgement of Emerson's Mcgathcrlsn MlrutrcU.
McVlckop'a Theatre.
Madison street, Dctwecn Dearborn and State. "En
gaged." '
IltwrrJy'a Theatre.
Dearborn street, comer of Monroe. Engagement
of the Chicago Church Choir Company. "11. U. 8.
pinafore.*' .
CttlcAnO COMMANDERY. NO. 19. K. T.—Atten
tion. Sir Knights! Vo litre hereby notified to appear
at the sylum this (Thursday) morning at lu o'clock
sharp, for the purpose of attending tho funeral of our
lair t>lr Knight Thomas llastlo. Canto Rose HIU. Ur
order of tho K, C.
, CHARLES d. Wright, Recorder.
tho Illinois St. Andrew's Society are rrqnested to at
tenet the funeral of Iho late Thomas IJa»t|e. from the
Scutch Church, comer of Sangamon and West Adams
*U., to-dty, till o'clock*, tn. Cars to Rose Hill.
D. R. CAMERON, President.
THURSDAY, JULY 17, 1879.
They had a taste of what a cyclone is like
in Now'England yesterday,, and didn't at all
enjoy* the experience. The furious storm
created general havoc on land, and was espe
cially destructive to, the shipping in Boston
Boy, whore a number of persons were
drowned. ■ ■ -
Diphtheria is raging as a terrible'epidemic
In Bessarabia, and a dispatch from Berlin
announces that the Asiatic cholera has made
its appearance in Smolensk; so that what
with tho Nihilists and tho evils resulting
from nn almost bankrupt treasury, Russia is
having more than her share of afflictions.. ■.
Tho example of the lowa Prohibitionists
is commended to tho attention and imita
tion of temperance reformers all over the
country. They mot in State Convention,
adopted a platform sotting forth their prin
oiplos, and then voted that it was unwise,
and in xpediont to nominate a State Prohi-
It may bo considered settled that there
will be no elevated railway on North Wells
street. The property-owners along that
thoroughfare are virtually a unit in opposi
tion to tho scheme, and oven if it were possi*
bio to boy np Aldermen enough to'vote the
franchise, which is very unlikely, it would
not be possible to build tho rood in tho face
of such determined hostility os that which Is
manifesto! by tho citizens at tho anti-ole
voted railway meetings.
Reports from tho southern parts of Illi
nois, Indiana, cud Ohio show a condition of
extraordinary prosperity among the formers.
Their crops of wheat are the largest known
for years, ond the good price offered for the
product has induced a volume of shipments
which: strain' tho -utmost conying ca
pacity of tho railroads. A continuation
of the, present dry and favorable ripening
and harvesting weather will insure an equal
degree of sucocss to tho agricultural districts
further north in those States; while tho
same ts true of tho spring-whoat regions of
tho Northwest, where iuir weather only is
needed to insure a rich harvest and bettor
times for everybody.
The battle-cry of tho Pennsylvania Democ
racy is one which ought to win if there were
any battle to cry about But It is a more
waste of breath to go on denying, what no
body ever thought of assorting, “the right
of . tho Federal Administration to keep on
foot ot the general expense a standing army
to Invade the States for political purposes
without regard to constitutional restric
tions, control tbe people at tho polls,
to protect and encourage fraudulent
counts of votes, or to inaugurate
candidates rejected by tho majority.”
Equally a matter of course, and a superflu
ous declaration in any political platform,
that the ballot should bo protected against
coercion by “a host of hireling officials ”
and the presence of a regular military force.
These “ Imperial methods ” have not and
never hod an existence in the United States.
The Pennsylvania Democrats might with
equal fofee and consistency declare that they
deny, as the Democratic party bos over
denied, the right of the President of tho
United Slates to order tho massacre of a
dozen Senators and Representatives every
morning before breakfast.
■Bo for as can be Judged from tho state*
meats of both parties, the strike yesterday
of cabinetmakers is the consequence of a
refusal by tbeir employers to submit to an
arbitrary requirement that no person in the
factory shall be permitted to work more than
eight boon. The proprietors are willing
that the strikers, who aro piece-workers,
shall reduce their hours of labor and conse
quently their earnings 20 percent, since this
Is a matter which concerns nobody but tbe
workman himself—and his family, if ho
have one; . bat they aro not willing
to limit to eight hours any man who is
anxious to wonc tcu hours and earn corre
•ponding wages. On this point the strike
has occurred. If it succeeds, and the sink*
ers return to their benches, It will be tbe
triumph of a principle which, followed to
its natural and 'inevitable conclusion, would
not stop at restricting the number of hours
a man may work, bat would prohibit the
skilled and rapid mechanic from performing
more work in a given space of time than his
slow and clumsy neighbor at tbo adjoining
bench. When tbs eight-honr system is
applied to piece-work it amounts to a
tyranny more odious and unendurable than
any which even Damns Kearney himself
complains of at tbo hands of the despotic
Considerable Democratic perturbation bos
been caused bj the publication with com
tnents in the Northern press of the an
nouncement in the Klngitree (8. 0.) Star
-that if the colored Republican Swails
should return to bis boms and his property
in that place be would do so at bis peril.
This open threat to drive out of the country
a man whose only offense is that of be
ing a Republican with a black skiu
bos alarmed some of the more prudent
of the Democratic advisors, and has moved
the Charleston Jfew» and Courier to beseech
the Btar not to talk so loudly and so plainly;
for, says the more cautious organ, there was
too much of this bulldozing and intimida
tion in 1670, and, while it was a necessity
then, it is so no longer, and if
yon really intend to put Swatls in
peril of bis life, in Heaven's name keep
still about it, and don't imperil the success
of the Democracy at the North by making
throats in advance. The concern of the
and Courier is not that there ebnll
actually be peace, protection, and equal
rights for colored Republicans In South Car
olina, but that the true state of things shall
not bo imprudently exposed to the people of
the North.
Ono of tho ablest practical farmers of En
gland, and ono who bat devoted many years
to tho study of ogrioullnro, recently deliv
ered an address to tho farmers of Hertford
shire in answer to tho question, "Is higher
farming a remedy for low price??” Tain
gentleman, Mr. Lawes, answered the ques
tion in the negative. Higher farming in
England is that system which scobs to pro
duce the greatest possible yield of grain by
rotation of crops and extensive manuring.
Tho ordinary four-course rotation of crops in
Great Britain may be thus explained s (1) Tur
nips, which are fed to sheep on tho field;
(2) barley; (ft) clover or beans; and (4)
wheat. The wheat crop is tho object sought,
and tho other crops ora merely preparatory.
There in, therefore, but ono crop of wheat
every fourth year. During each of these
years tho land has to bo extensively and ex
pensively manured. Tho cost of manuring
necessarily forms a largo item in tho cost of
production. The result to which Mr. Lawes
arrives is, that tho productiveness or yield of
tho land cannot bo pushed boyoud a certain
limit, or that beyond a certain limit the in*
crease of tho crop boors no proportion to
tho increase in tho amount of manure op*
plied. Consequently tho "higher” yon
farm beyond a certain limit, tho less is the
increase of crop in proportion to tho expend
iture. Nor is this improved by stock-feed*
ing. Oattlo-food has to bo purchased, and
Mr. Lawks demonstrates that tho cost of nn
animal stall-fed will as a rule cost more than
the moat produced will sell for. The result
of a thorough review of the whole subject is:
"It is a somewhat humiliating adratmlon to
make, though to far it has proved to be too true,
that tho virgin tolls and clams of the United States
and Canada esn prodace uud tend to tbla country
corn and meat cheaper than they can be produced
onotlr own soils at honjo with’ nil our boasted
skill nhd science. The opinion expressed by some
that we shall again become exporters of corn
(meaning wheat) is altogether chimerical,”
In tho Nineteenth Century Mr. Vernon
Smith presents to tho English people a
sketch of tho wheat-fields of tho United
States and Canada which utterly shuts out
all hope of Great Britain ever again recover
ing her position os a bread-raising country,
and shows how utterly impotent will bo the
efforts of tenant-farmers in that coanlry.to
compote with the now fields of America,
which are destined to supply the world with
This area of territory which ho points out
aa the faturo empire of wheat production is
in that port of British America beginning
at Lake Winnipeg ; it extends over the val
leys of the Upper and Lower Saskatchewan,
extending respectively 1,0i>4 and 1,093 miles
westward to the Rocky Mountains; both of
those rivert ore navigable, and, with the As
siuiboine, Red River, and others, empty
into Lake Winnipeg. The twoSaskatchowans
drain what is known as tho “ fertile bolt,”
containing not loss than 90,000,000 of acres
of the finest wheat laud. These rivers and
their tributaries are 10,000 miles in length,
and aro navigable 4,000 miles. Lake Win*
nipog empties through Nelson's River into
Hudson's Ray, and the writer looks forward
to the time when vessels will leave Winnipeg
bearing the wheat of that country to Europe.
This immense region, lying just north of tho
American Hue, includes 2,084,000 square
miles of territory, while the area- of the
whole United States is put down at 2,033,000
square miles. Including the older portions
of Quebec, Ontario, and tho other Dominion
Provinces, Canada measures 8,310,000 square
miles, whilst oil Europe contains 8,900,000.
This wheat region, which is yet almost
unknown, it is claimed, has a soil ns adapted
to wheat and os fertile as that of Minnesota,
and its capacity for production is almost nil
limited. Once peopled and put under culti
vation, it will bo able to produce wheat in
snob quantities and of such quality as will
render wheat cultivation in Europe as un
profitable os it has Already become in En
gland, and os it is rapidly becoming In
France and the other Western nations of
Europe. This estimate of tho wheat-fields
of British America, and of their magni
tude and productiveness, loaves out
of view altogether the wheat-growing
districts of tho United States. Wheat-rais
ing will of coarse cease to bo profitable in
all the States east of the Alleghenies; West
ern wheat will be sold there cheaper than it
can bo produced in New York dr Ponusyl
vanla. Indeed, Ohio already finds it more
profitable to put the land to other produc
tions. The wheat-producing field in the
United States Is moving westward, and in a
brief time will bo confined to the States of
Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Kansas, part
of Missouri, Nebraska, Minnesota, Dakota,
with portions of Montana and Wyoming,
not Including tho States on the Pacific. The
groat area of British America, whose drain
age fulls into Lake Winnipeg, will, however,
eventually become the wheat-growing region,
capable of supplying the world with bread.
The picture of this territory and of its
fertility, and of Its adaptation to wheat, Is
not overdrawn.
The drawback to that country, however, Is
tbe want of transportation. The outlet
through Hudson's Day will not ever amount
to much, tbe season of navigation being so
short. Tho Canadians naturally will seek an
outlet through Lake Superior, and thence by
way of the SU Lawrence to Europe. lu the
meantime all this wheat might find a market
in tho United States, giving business to our
railroads ami lake shipping, wore it not for
tho tariff which imposes a duty of 20 cents
per bushel on foreign wheat. Amorl
can railroads run through tho lied
River Volley to tho British boundary,
and they might readily bring all
wheat grown in that region to our markets
wore it not that we prohibit the Irndo and
the profit by our tariff, which, while U in
nowise “ protects" American producers,
simply takes that much business from onr
transportation companies and merchants.
Oar tariff on wheat really servos to cut off
onr own nose to spito our own face. The
revolution in whcat-produollon which has al
ready wrought such a complication in agri
cultural and land-owning affairs in Great
Britain Is only in tho beginning. American
wheat and American beef have rendered
farming unprofitable In Groat Britain, and by
so doing has taken from the owners of
farm lands tbo great source of in
come. The rents of farm lands must
of necessity fall to such n point that
tho tenant can produce and soil at a profit.
It is not probable that oven with a reduction
of rents wheat-growing will over again bo a
profitable business in England. The fields
of America, with their wide extent nod pro
ductiveness, have probably determined that
question forever. In Franco tho name ques
tion is becoming more and more important;
tho importation of breadstuff* from America
is increasing annnalty, and gradually it is be
coming more certain that wheat can bo im
ported from this country cheaper than it can
bo grown in Franco. Germany, with strange
infatuation, socks to avert tbo inevitable law
by seeking to exclude American bread, and
in duo time Germany will be agitated, as
England was thirty years ago, by the demand
for tbo repeal of the Corn laws and for cheap
In tho meantime from the United Stales
will go on tho business of supplying Europe
with meat ns well as bread. England cau
no longer feed cattle and got as much for the
moat as is paid for tbo cattle-food. The
same revolution will extend to other conn
trios in ‘Western Europe, which will alt have
to look to this Continent for moot as well ns
broad. If tbo struggle for tbo homo pro
duction of moat be continued, it can only bo
maintained by learning tho value of Ameri
can corn to fatten cattle and hogs. This
seems to have boon entirely overlooked so
far by tbo meat-producers of Europe. Whan
they find that they have neglected this
cheapest of all meat-producing food, this
country will furnish all tho corn they can
consume, and tho corn-producing districts
of tho country have not by any moans boon
yet placed under the plow.
, Tho HAUntsoN-BeNKEn controversy took on
a sensational aipoct yesterday by tho sudden
and unexpected resignation of the reinstated
Fire-Marshal. Benner's letter of resigna
tion and Harrison's letter accepting it will
bo found in the local report of the affair. A
good many people will bo inclined to think
that Harrison wrote both letters,—especially
the one signed by Benner, as it is more in
Harrison’s vein than that which bears his
own signature. At all events, the letter of
resignation has a certain obsequious tone
which bis Magnificence the Mayor would
dictate in satisfaction to his wounded vanity.
There aro two theories about Benner’s
resignation. One is that ho enmo to tho con
elusion that bi%managemont of the Depart
ment would bo -harassed ’ by Hardison, that
be would not bo reappointed at tho end of
bis term a couple of weeks hence, and that
Harrison might trnmp up soma pretext
meanwhile to remove him; this theory
is based on tho assumption that
Benner’s resignation indicates a bona
fids and final retirement from tho po
sition. Tho other theory is that It has been
prearranged between the two that Benner's
resignation now, couched in terms that will
pass for an apology, shall bo rewarded with
i a reappointment Aug. 1, when tho present
term expires. Tho latter theory seems to be
generally accepted os the trno version of tho
nffain If it is so, then there is some com
pensation for the shilly-shallying in tho pros
pect that nr. Benner will continue to bo
Chief of tho Fire Department daring another
term; of course tho value of such service
will depend upon Benner's adhering to his
past policy. At tho same time tho compact
by which this ontcomo has boon reached is
not particularly creditable to either Harrison
or Benner. The public will not think any
thing more of Benner personally for pam
pering hisTtlogniflcenco, and Harrison has
simply insisted upon n very silly recognition
of his own exaggerated sense of his own
Titanic greatness.
Tbe personal features of this controversy
have boon exalted far beyond tho public con
cern. Tho Council supported Mr. Benner
because it believed him to bo a capable aud
trustworthy officer, who bad been removed
without cause. His reinstatement by a two
thirds vote was not intended os a personal
triumph over Mr. lUnnisoN, but to secure
his services ns Fire-Marshal. If Benner had
no intention to continue in the service of the
city, he should hove said so, and thus averted
the unnecessary delay and confusion of re
instatement, resignation, now appointment,
etc. Ho had been reinvested with the pow
ers of the office only about twenty-four
hours when ho resigned, aud it is not reason
able to suppose that bo discovered within
that short time any obstacles to bis continu
ance in office whiob was not known to him
before. Consequently ho would have shown
more regard for the publlo welfare
by saving tho Council tho more formality of
reinstating him. As to hU Magnificence
tho Mayor, tho people of Chicago will not be
ony better satisfied with him for insisting
upon this new sign that ho is tho Tycoon of
this part of the coautry, ond that everybody
must bow to the ground before him. It is
exasperating to think that tho public business
must be made to hang upon tho vanity of one
of the publlo servants, aud it Is a menace to
thepublip welfare when the most important
branch of tho public service must bo manipu
lated to suit tbe assumed lordly prerogative
of a more agent The people of Chicago
have begun to fool very tired of running this
city as a tender to Mr. Carter Harrison's
personality, aud be may overreach himself If
he airs bis Individual importance very much
longer. Pnblio business and private business
alike demand the subordination of personal
vanity to tho interests of the corporation.
It seems that tbe Communists and dema
gogues in tbe City Council passed two reso
lutions—one on tbe 80lh of June and the
other on tho ttd of July—directing the Mayor
and Hoard of Public Works to make eight
hours a legal day's work for all employes of
said Department, and poy eight-boor la
borers . laying water-mains 75 cents a day
more than tbe regular rates for ton bouts'
work, and all others ton hours' pay for eight
hoars' work. The Law Department has ad
vised tbe Commissioner of Publlo Works
that the Council has nol Iho authority to
compel tho city to pay ton hours' wages for
eight hours' work, anil tint it has no power
to (uko (axes out of (ho Trrt u-ttry and donate
them to city laborers ns a toward for
two hours' idleness each • day; nor
has it a right to Appropriate) public
money to meu when they nro rendering no
Borneo to tho city. It was time to call a
ballon this species of municipal abstraction
of oily funds, only one degree removed from
embezzlement or robbery. It la perfectly
astonishing bow free nnd liberal with other
people’s money tho Honorable gents of the
Common Council can bo. And the Mayor
seems to have signed those illegal resolutions,
—at least I* did not veto them, ns he should
have done. If city employes are to bo paid ton
hoars’ compensation for eight hours' work,
tho people who pay tho taxes will have to
work ten hours for eight hours' wages to
procure the money. If one man is to
receive pay for two honrs each day
after ho quits work, another man must
work two hours extra without pay to raise
the funds to make (he donation. The tax
payers should look n litllo closer after (heir
roprouontnlivcs iu tho Council who ore play
ing demagogue and confiscating their hard
earned taxes in this dishonest and unjust
manner. City laborers should bo paid tho
some ns other laborers for similar work per
hour, and no more. If they choose to work
but eight hours per day, while other men
not in tho city's employ work ten hours,
then lot them receive eight-tenths ns much
wages, nnd not a cent more. Any other rate
of payment is at once illegal and dishonest.
It makes no sort of difference what red-flag
'anarchists, confiscation's, and alien dema
gogues may preach to tho contrary, hut it is
wrong, as well os illegal, to pay over the
people's (axes to men in tho city's employ
for idle time. No work, no wages; when
work stops, pay must stop.
Tho Brigadiers of ilia late Congress said
they would noror—no, never—pass the
necessary appropriations without the Demo
cratic caucus riders. If that was revolution,
the Republican party and the country might
make the most of it They would sit in
Washington not only through the dog-days
of 1870, bat tho dog-days of 1680, down to
the 4th of March, 16311 Bat they didn't.
They passed the appropriations without cru
cus riders, and—wont homo wiser if not bat
ter men. Mr. Carter H. Harrison, tho
man who proclaimed that he would make
“tho best Mayor that Chicago over had,"
ought to have learned a lesson from his
friends, the Congressional Brigadiers. But
ho didn't; and tho result is, that, meta
phorically speaking, he lies flat on his book,
not the great Mayor, bat tho great defeated I
Mr. Harrison was chosen Mayor by a very
largo majority. A greater political misfor
tune could hardly have happened to him.
Mr. Harrison does not need “puffing";
ho is so constituted, indeed, that
“ pulling" throws him quite off his
mental balance. Riding a popular
wave is a difficult feat; it requires a steadi
ness which recant events show to bo entirely
locking in Mr. Harrison's intellectual and
moral composition. Ho seems to have as
sumed on tho strength of bis popular ma
jority that the people of Chicago, reposing
implicit confidence in him, would trust him
to manage all departments of tho Municipal
Government without regard to tho instru
ments used. Straightway he became dicta
torial oud dogmatic. I ,*,’With a wave of bis
hand ho silenced advisors, saying, “ 1 am
responsible I" He took offense at Marshal
Benner because that official did not lay bis
resignation at his feet. Ha became cool
towards tho Marshal, and seized the first pro
text for a quarrel. Shouting “Insubordina
tion!" ho cutoff Benner's official head oj
coolly ns ho would have dischnrg.d n porter.
The act produced deep disgust, (here was a
universal protest, and tho Council reinstated
tho decapitated official. But this .is
not all. Mr. Harrison has rudely
shaken tho confidence ropcsod in
him. He has ■ shown a fatal
want of judgment. Tho removal of Benner
was a huge political blunder, since it shows
that tho Mayor was ignorant of tho Marshal's
strong hold upon popular esteem, or that ho
, was himself indifferent to popular sympathy
; and support. But it was more than a polit
ical blunder. It was trifling with the dear
est interests of tho city at the dictation of a
mere caprice, and this was a violation of his
oath of office. Suppose Qou. Grant hod
suspended Gen. Sherman in tho midst of his
triumphant march to tho sea, replacing him
with an untried man ? Tho exact parallel of
such a supposed absurd act is found in tho
removal of the Marshal by tho Mayor. Mr.
Harrison has paid dearly for his temerity.
By a single false step ho has dissipated the
goueral confidence in Us practical common
souse ability as a man, destroyed bis pres,
tigo as a politician, alienated tho Re
publicans who voted for him,—aud
they numbered thousands, —placed him
self in violent antagonism to both
political parties in tho Council, and
divided tho Domooratio party into factious.
Tho danger is that tho desperate condition
of Mr. Harrison’s fortunes as Mayor will
render him tho pliant tool of tho Democratic
managers of local politic. At tho outset he
undertook to act independently,—that is to
say, to conduct tho Domooratio political ma
chine for his own exclusive benefit, without
regard to his associate chiefs. In imagina
tion ho saw himself stepping from tho May
oralty into tho Gubernatorial office, alone
and unaided. He has stepped, instead, into u
hornets' nest, and it is a question whether ho
is not already stuug to death politically. At
this conjuncture, Mr. Goody, Judges Tmm
hull and Otis, Mr. Fuller, Mr. Kern, Mr,
Hynes, and tho rest of tho Democratic
managers of Chicago, appear to •take
tho erring Mayor in charge. Doubtless the
rumor is true that they advise him to re
nominate Benner. It is quite plain that this
is tho most honorable way out of tho diffi
culty. Bat it is nevertheless as pronounced
a retreat ns the Brigadiers were compelled to
beat lately in Washington. The proposed
retreat may help the Domooratio party out
of tho morass into which it has been plunged
by Mr. Harrison ; bat it won't help Mr.
Harrison to tho Governorship of Illinois I
There's the rub] la admitting that ho has
blundered ogregioasly os the representative
of the local Democracy, Mr. Harrison ad
mits, in effect, that ho is not best fitted
to lead (he Democracy of the Stole to victo
ry in 1880. . *
In renominating Benner Mr. Harrison can
scarcely help being painfully conscious that
ho surrenders to hls ossoolato party managers,
iu which event they, not ho, will dictate tho
State Convention delegation of 1880. A
humorous fellow once queried whether any
body was over knowu to die in thirty days.
He did not refer to political death. Political
fortunes ore easily wrecked. A little more
than ninety days ago Mr. Habsison was
chosen Mavor by an overwh.lmimr majority;
if ho wore to come up for re-election to
morrow ho could scarcely poll 10,000 voles.
Harrison may well cav with Wolset s
“I have ventured,
Like lliito wanton boys that swim on bladders,
This many summers. In a tea of glory:
Uni far beyond tny depths nr hltfh-nlmvn pride
At icnath broke under mo; non now Uss led me,
Weary and old with service, to tho mercy
Of a rude stream, tnat must forever hide me.”
Sir. Haruison's ou.lo is not, however, so
utterly hopeless. He will do well to not
upon the advice of his associates, tho Demo
cratic managers, in tho matter of the reap
pointment of Rrnner, and stop there.
Tbetr later counsel is likely to bo eo wise.
They will want him to conduct tho Oily
Government with a view to their benefit, not
bis own, in tbo State and National con
test of 1880. Lot him then fling away no
ambition which can by no possibility re
dound to h!s personal honor, and coufluo
himself to tho administration of municipal
affairs with n single oye to tho well-being of
Chicago. By this course and this only can
he recover tho place he baa lost in the esti
mation of tho Chicago public.
So far o« the temporatnre goes, the Gov
ernment weather reports are utterly decep
tive and untrustworthy. The system of
thermal measurement is all, wrong. Ob
servations are taken at the highest attainable
points. As a result, a warmer stratum of
air is noted in winter and a cooler condition
in summer, but in neither case Is indicated
the Atmosphere within a few foot of the
snrfaco of the earth whoro man and beast
actually live. In any extreme degreo of
heat or any extreme degree of cold, tho
temperature is tho most universal matter of
interest and tho most absorbing topic of
conversation. For two or three days pre
ceding yesterday, people devoted ell tho time
they could spare to speculations regarding the
comparative heat of tho earth wo inhabit and
that typical region of oxtromest heat in
which Bob Inoersom. doesn't believe. But
Gen. Mika's Bureau does not give the act
ual degree of temperature from either local
ity. Ha soars up into the cooler atmos
phere of tho clouds, swings his thermome
ter from a pole on tho top of the highest
house ho can find, and merely informs us
how warm or cool it is at an elevation which
tho toiling masses never reach in this life.
Some instances of tho misleading character
of tho Government reports of the tempera
ture may bo cited to illustrate tho cause of
complaint Tho Government report of
Tuesday morning recorded 82 degrees for St.
Louis, oud most people accepted the re
port as tho average temperature of
(hat torrid zone for the preceding day. As
a matter of fact, however, the local observa
tions showed the prevailing temperature dur
ing tho working hours of the day to be 90
degrees,—a difference of 14 degrees. The
Government report of yesterday sot down
St. Louis at 85 degrees for Tuesday, while
the thermometer at that point actually stood
at 98 degrees daring four long mortal hours.
At Mllwankoo the prevailing heat of tho day
was marked at 91 degrees, while tho Govern
ment report made it 81 degrees. At Yank
ton, D. T., tho thermometer went up to 100
degrees m tho abode on Monday; yet Gen.
Minn's Bureau reported only 82 degrees for
the same day. The local thermometer in
Detroit registered os high oslos in tho shade
on Tuesday, hut tho Government report fixed
it at only 62 degrees. Instances might easily
bo multiplied, but those are enough to show
the universal disagreement between tho local
and tho Government reports.
Tho reason why tho Government and local
reports vary so much is because the latter
indicate the average temperature of the
shade daring tho heat of the day, while tho
former chronicle tho temperature between
10 o'clock and 13 o'clock in tho night at a
; bight of about 100 feet above tho surface
of tho on.-th. Thus, at 10:18 p. m. on Tues
day, the Government observation at Chicago
showed 90 degrees, when the actual living
temperature was about 92. At tho same
time tho report from Madison, Wls,, chron
icled 77 degrees. Tits inference from a
comparison of the two would be that, wh'lo
people at Chicago wore sweltering with heat
throughout Tuesday, the Madison people
were enjoying a delightfully cool day. As a
matter cf fact, it was much warmer at
Madison during the day than It was In Chi
cago, but Madison got the benefit of
the cold wave from tho north a few
hoars earlier Tuesday night than Chi
cago, and hence Urn reported differ,
enoe. If Gen. Mibb would have his reports
of temperature of any interest or value
in making comparisons, ho should order that
observations be taken at, say, 11 o'clock in
tho day in ordinary shade, such oa a forest
tree affords, and within a few feet of the
surface of the earth whoro humanity moves
and breathes. In this way tho comparative
Influence of sand or day soil, of limestone or
other formation of tho earth, would bo noted,
and it would be possible to. form some cor
rect idea from tho daily reports as to tho
relative temperature, and corresponding com
fort or discomfort, at tho various points from
which these reports come. Gen. Mika's
Bureau costs tho people a good deal of
money, and in many respects it is of value
to the country; but it will continue to ha of
no service, so far as its information about
tho temperature goes, until ho shall have
adopted a now system for his thermal ob
Probably the most unfavorable sanitary
condition of the city is the Chicago River.
It was fondly hoped that the turning of the
current Into the Illinois & Michigan Canal,
by (ho expensive deepening process some
years ago, would wash out the bod of the
river with the waters of the lake, and thus
rid the city of the nauseating and disease
breeding filth that pours into the riyor from
the sowers. The trouble about this is that
the deepening of the canol has not changed
the current permanently, and, at the very
aeneous of the year when it is most neces
sary that the sewage of the city should bo
carried off, the river docs not run one way or
the other, but becomes a stationary and
stagnant ditch. The Superintendent of the
Canal reports that the discharge of water
at Lookport is at the rate of 45,000 cubic
feet per minute, but that thoro is no
sowago in it. This fact simply shows
that the natural drainage on both sides
of the conal for a distance of thirty miles be
tween Bridgeport and Lockport, together
with the percolation of the water from the
Desplaincs River, is sufficient to supply the
current ond exhaust the capacity of the
canal. The consequence is that no water is
drawn from the mam body or the South
Branch of the river. Tins is always the con
dition subsequent to heavy ruins, and it is
only on exceptional fall of water that is suf
ficient to give the Chicago River sufficient
impulse to carry Us ipopbitio water into the
lake. During the winter, the complaint
comes from the people living along the line
of the canal that they are burdened with the
stagnant nod ma oJorous aewngo of thin oily,
and the rcmnnairancos nod threats of last
winter make U probable that tho inhabitant*
of that region will taka summary measure'
for (heir own protection if they shall suffer
as much in the future.
Those conditions show that somethin;
more must be done to relieve tho Chicago
River from tho mass of impurities which tin
city contribute) to it from all sides. Apian
was suggested ten years ago, when the deep
ening of the cannl was undertaken, which
would have added comparatively little to th.
cost of that work, but which would hnvt
completed tho system of drainage. Thl
plan may still bo carried out at a cost which
in trifling whan compared with the sanitary
advantages it will bring to tho city. At n
point about where Twenty-sixth street would
intersect Ashland avenue there is a litth
branch of the river running south, which bar
been extended by the building of a slip down
to the Btpck-Yords. This slip is turued of!
eastward at Thirty-ninth street. To enlarge
this slip running eastward, and extend it to
to tho lake, or, in case of serious objections
.to n canal running across the avenues, to
make a tunnel-after the manner of tho Ful
lerton avenue conduit, would supply nn outlet
to the lake. Tho river would then bo connected
with the lake at tho mouth and also at the
lako-ond of Thirty-ninth street. At the
point whore the little arm of tho river
reaches out from tho South Branch, a
turbine wheel could be placed which would
servo to turn the water either way,—that is,
either into the lake through the* Thirty*
ninth-street canal and tunnel, or back
through the South Branch and main body of
tho river, and so Into tho loke. When the
Illinois »fc Michigan Conal is supplied with
water from the contiguous laud and tho
Desplaines River, and the rains have given
thA Chicago River a natural current into
the lake at tho month, then lake water could
bo drown in at Thirty*n!nth street, and the
current of tho river increased by that volnmp.
When the Illinois & Michigan Canal is draw
ing upon tho water of tho Chicogo River,
then thtf current in that direction could be
increased by tho wheel’s forcing tho river
water through the Thirty-nintb-street tunnel.
Tho discharge at the end of Thirty-ninth
street would bo several miles from the crib,
where the water is taken for drlnklug pur
poses, and it would only bo in case of an
exceptionally strong southwest wind that tho
discharge from Thirty-ninth street coaid be
carried anywhore near the crib; oven In this
cose the distance is so largo that tho im
purities of tho discharge would bo lost in
tho volume of lake water.
This single addition to tbo sewerage sys
tem of Chicago would probably make it per
fect. The North Broach relieved by the
Fullerton avenue conduit, tbo South Branch
by the Thirty-ninth street conduit, and tin*
entire river at certain seasons by the Illinois
Michigan Canal, there is no reason why
the sewerage should not bo carried off
promptly and effectively at all times. There
would then be tbo requisite facilities for
washing out tho Chicago Iliver with pure
lake water, drawn in cither o' tho mouth and
discharged at Thirty-ninth street, or vice
verm. Snob facilities would contribute be
yond oil o-timato to the health and comfort
of Chicago, and would servo tho mill ou
people of this city a few years henco as well
as the half million of the present day.
Wo hayb read with much pleasure tho New
York Jlera'd't article on “Turning the Course
of the River Oxu*." Tbo last two columns,
concerning tho Russian expeditions nml explora
tions, betray an intimate acquaintance with the
rail Afa I Gazette of Oct. 81. 1879. Wo olso
observe with Joy and pridu that on Interesting
letter from the St. Louis O obe-JJemocraVs
Niagara Falls correspondent about “Niagara
Sudsatlons ”is having a wldoclrculation. Some
passages aro singularly like extracts from an
article In the London Teeyraph In May last. In
deed, we havo rarely observed a more singular
coso of literary coincidence than this:
Lnrdon TfUgraoh, I SI. Lnutt Olobt'Dfmperat.
There 1b a well-known] There UawoU-aalhcn
iitory timtiitilmltanOhief'tlcateci story of an radian
wfis once cuuulit in nls Chief who was once
canoe while paddling caught iu his canoe while
across the rapids above paddling across toe mold
tin* Falls, and before he river above the Falls, and
was aware of It the vor- before he wild aware ol it
lex of tho dose nd'ngtbevoriexofihooescend
stream sucked miu In. Imr streatn sucked him
Koldlmr his arms with In. Folding his arm*
the characteristic fmpor- with the charactcrlsilc
lurhablluy of his race, ho Imperturbability of Ids
was carried over the race, bo was carried over
brink, and bit dead body tho Drink, ami his dead
wus picked up In the body was picked up tu
whirlpool, some two or tnewhirlpoi leuniolwoor
three miles boiow, where turce miles below, wnero
the nvur Is twisted nt the river Is twisted at
right angles In Its hurried rlv.it angles In Its hurried
course towards I.auo On- course toward Lake On
tario. Tho canoe m tarlo. Tho canoo In
which tho hapless Sachem wntch the bspless Sachem
inado the plnnve was lorn made the phings was torn
Into a thousand frag- Into a thousand frag
ments. attesting tbo irru- incuts, attcsiimrthe Irre
slalible force unit furr of slstiblo force end fury of
the cataract, which has the cataract, which has
often lomptud men weary often tempted men weary
of life to tilungo into Urn of life tu plunge Into tho
devouring abyss, as a devouring abyss as a
mcansof coaumtllngeul- means of commiUlns
cldo, suicide.
There have of late been In England a terrible in
dustrial depression and nut n few strikes and lock
outs, Hut In almost every case tio dispute there
between labor and capital has ended in some form
or mutual arbitration, while the Fall River manu
facturers have been unwilling lu concede arbitra
tion at all. One reason of this dliToronco Is that
tho market nf England Is the open and competitive
market of the wand, and the English manufacturer
bus been afraid to bo too dictatorial towaru his
workman fur rear that foreigners might oust him
from his lodgment In China, Japan, and South
America. Hut the American mipiiifacturor, be
cause or tho tariff, foots sure, at least, of the homo
market, and gains Irosh courage tu cocrco tbo
■truer.—. Vein York Putt.
Workingmen aro the greatest sufferers hy a
protective tariff for more reasons than one.
The burden of a bad fiscal system always falls
on labor in tho end, because thu cost of it must
be paid in one way or another by new produc
tion, and tins involves the expenditure of more
labor to accomplish a given end tbau would
otherwise be necessary, it ought not to bo dif
ficult to convince Intelligent workingmen that
unnecessary labor Is a thing to be avoided, if
possible. A protective tariff adds to the cost of
living all around, and docs not increase the
wealth of tbo country. It is also true, as tho
Post points out, that die workingmen, bv sup
porting a protective tariff and giving their em
ployers control of the domestic markets, rcallv
create a class of monopolists, who can afford to
employ labor or not for o comparatively long
period. A protective tariff never prevents com
petition with pauper-labor, for tbu employers
themselves can introduce pauoor-labor when
ever it seems profitable for them to do so.
The Liberal who- can remain a Liberal when
bo views the conduct of the late Democratic
Congress, and reflects upon the countless
tokens it gave of an unregrnorate heart and
devotion to the Lost Cause, must be a very
free-and-easy patriot. Some of the results of
the Democratic victory, as for as It has gone,
are the following} (I) The filling of both balls
of Congress with ex-Confederates; f 3) the prac
tical disfranchisement of the colored men at the
South; (8) au attempt to destroy the army;
(4) au effort to remove oil safeguards from the
ballot-boxes, and to make fraud easy; (6) a new
birth of the Slate-rights doctrine; (0) the re
naissance of Jsvr Davis and his admiring
friends. So bad begins' and worse remains be
Llmo-Jalco has become of late years a very
popular drink m London, owing in part to the
stones of the dreadful sufferings of Arctic ex
peditions which bad not a sufficient suppiyof 1U
Public-houses, eating-houses, and gin-shops sro
compelled to keep on Land several varieties of
Ilme-Julrc beverages. Tho lower dais of mib
licnns have nUcmotcd to discourage the Intro*
(itiuilim of tin so new drinks, tearing, no doubt
with reason, that they will diminish tliu sain of
entrltuous and malt liquors, on which there Is a
larger profit; hut, uo to tins efforts
have been fruitless. The London Lnnctt test!*
fins to the wholesomeness of lime-juice, cine
dally In hot. weather. Wo arc clad to observe
that lemonade, made pare before the eyes of
the consumer, Is becoming a very common
drink In this country. Stands (or the Sale of
this beverage arc springing up in all parts
of the city, and some of those In the business
.quarters are doing a driving business, keeotng
half a dozen attendants constantly busv. These
lomonadC'Stands are tcmoeranco institutions.
Thcr deserve encouragement. It would bs 'a
blessing to the community If they should be*
come as plenty as soda-fountains ami beer*
shops. They furnish a very pure and healthful
summer-drink at merely a nominal price.
There was a man to our town
Whose foremen name was Cameo,
And. when he was elected Hobs,
Matt lIEKNcn he toon after;
Out Matt was out so much afraid
Of wnai was goto? to haopen.
And, with tho Council nl bts back,
Poor C'AtvrKn was cauaht napping.
How C'AnTf.n aweura If all his plans
Arc going to miscarry,
Ills ofilce, 100, may go to grass,
And in U ho won't tarry.
Ho longer will ho wave aloft
Tho ombk-m of his power.
But jeweled crown he will lay down,
Though face bemoans the boar.
“Alas! olosl" ouotli nil the folk,
•• What should wo do without blmt
How could we ran this great machine
Without that crowd about him!
Tbovery devh would bo to pay—
The eagle would quit screaming,
And grass would grow in nil tho streets
That now with life arq teeming;
The water in tho creek would stick,
With all Drldgeport's addition.
And even the water that wo drink
Might gel In bad condition.
We pray the man may not resign,
But serve this grateful city:
We may not sec his like again.
And that would be a pity.”
A new treat; regulating the immigration of
Chlncao into Cuba has been negotiated between
Snatn and China. It binds both parties to pro*
hlblt Immigration by contract, and accords to
Chinamen who shall hereafter enter Cuba the
same treatment os that enjoyed b; foreigners
of the most favored nation. It gives a
fair promise for the future in all re
spects; hut it docs not provide on ad
equate remedy for the wrongs the China
men have Buffered in the post, nor does It re
lievo those who are now serving out contracts
in a condition of semi-slavery in Cuba. All
those whose “contracts ” are unezoired must
fulfill them. lliese contracts, It is well known,
are specious pretexts for holding Chinamen in
slavery. When the original term Is served Uie
contract Is extended bv way of penalty for vari
ous allcccd misdemeanors, and tile Chinaman
who fulfills his agreement to the satisfaction of
his employer is fortunate Indeed. t The Great
Powers of Europe ought to take the most
Christian Government of Spain by the throat and
shako some of the cruelty out of her the next
time there Is a revolt in Cuba. If the Powers la
Europe will not do It, the United States proba
bly will. .
A Washington dispatch of yesterday save:
Tno beat yesterday. Im nlgbt. and to-rtov bM
been and is Intense. Mil night at midnight the
mercury marked I).** deg.; at S: o'clock itlma only
fallen to BHdog.. and tats morning at 8 o'clock it
again abowed 00 deg.
Wo venture tno guess that “Old Probs*"
thermometer, when it Is hung suspended in tho
air sixty or eighty feel above the surface of tho
ground, did not report tho Washington midnight
heat which Hie Inhabitants suffered by ten de
grees. The way Old Probs takes ami records bis
thermal observations render them utterly value
less as Indications ot the actual state of tho
weather on the surface of the earth, where flesh
ami blond mores, and breathes, amt bos Its he*
tug. 'What possible difference docs it make to
people whether tho thermometer hung on the
top of a flag-stall marks 70or 80 deg*, at 10:1S
p. m.l What pcnulo want to know is, what is the
heat about lour or five feet above ‘ho surface of
the ground about 3p. m. and 11 p. m. Such
reports would possess some public interest, but
those Ola Probs is telegraphing to the press
throughout the Union at Government expense
arc not worth tho space they occupy in the
Tut Chicago TntncKr comforts Itself with tbo
belief that, “In case of free coinage, tho price of
silver bullion would bo ol once tbo same us silver
dollars, less tho cost of coining.*'— Xew York
htfnina Pott.
Well, don't you think bo tool tiupoote Ger
many adopted the bl-metolllo system with free
coinage, and suppose this country did likewise.
Franco in that case would restore free coinage
of silver. How lone after that docs thu Pott
think it would be beforo silver bullion would be
at uar wltb coined dollarat The Post Is a goldllo
monomaniac, and don't want stiver extended or
retained as mouev. It desires gold to do the
exclusive metallic currency of this country In
order to have dear money. Tho creator the
purchasing power of the dollar and the less the
value of propertv, tho better for the Eastern
rooacv-londcr. thinks tho Post, and It caters for
that class only, and considers no other Interest
of any consequence.
We believe that in fact Is tho very
strongest Republican candidate yet brought for
ward la Pennsylvania. All thu gn*at strength of
tho Camrruns Is o'n til* side: ami, apart from them,
wo bollcvo ho ha* many more aupporters (ban
Grant and a Third Term.—A’eu> Yarn Sun,
fIAivnUNPT has virtually declared himself
foy Sherman, ami. If it is true that thu Cam
erons have done the same, the State of Fcnusvl*
vanla Is as good as secured to him. It la o re
markable fact that thu Pennsylvania delegation
(n ftie Republican Convention nominated both
Lincoln and Hates. Grant wus not iu o tight
place in either of his Conventions, and did not
need the help of Pennsylvania.
An attempt has been made to procure the
pardon of William C. Gilman, tho “genteel*’
forcer of New York, but Gov. Rooinsom has
rufused on the following grounds, serol-ofllclal
ly reported iu {ho Albany Argus:
The Executive la declared to have sijld that Oil
man had neither the excuse of Ignorance, exigen
cy, or bad (raining. He bad added to the life of a
hypocrite,the vocation of a felon, and his sin was
against light, knowledge, confluence. and his own
moral and social pretentions. Tho Statu will re
tain the services ol Mr. Gilman to tbo end of hjs
term. .
Tbo Cincinnati Enqulrtr says no United States
Senator wus ever elected President. History shows
that Jackson was fiwlcejn Senator from Tennessee;
Van lluiixn a Senator from Now Ynrk; Hahhison
a Senator from Onto; Trucn a Senator from Vir
ginia; ITxitcx a Senator from New Hamosblre:
ituriiANAN a Senator from Pennsylvania; and
Johnson a Senator from Tennessee.— Indianapolis
History also shows that Monroh was a Sen
ator from Virginia, and John Qoincy Adams a
Senator from Massachusetts.
Cspt. Eads observes bhndly that he U under
contract to keen tins Jetties lu repair (or twenty
years, tuid be will leave a small (orco of men at
the Boulb Pass for that purpose. The pay lor
this service Is something like SIOO,OOO. per an
num, and the cost of *lt about $5,000. Mean
while the Southwest Pass, where CapU EiOS
has done no work at all, continues to be the
favorite with ocean-going vessels.
Tom BuroiiD may save his neck, which so
richly deserves to be stretched for the billing of
Judge Elliott, The cose Is being tried by a
Jury of iniucomnoops. It Is noieworthy, how
ever, that Uuvoud will only get off by proving
that be and thu members of bis family generally
are a worse lot of ulucompoo|« than the Jury.
Oath's" letter to the Philadelphia Pro*
about Mr. Ciiiutea A. Dana. Is a very interest
ing one, but wo did nut until now that
Mr. Dana Applied for the New York Collector
ship “under Quant, while editor of the Am*."'
Mr. Dana’s letter of application was written at
Chicago, on the lUlb of January, ISQfI, to Prest-

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