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Chicago daily tribune. [volume] (Chicago, Ill.) 1872-1963, August 23, 1879, Image 16

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16
ENGLISH OBTUOGBAFY.
A Strong Plea Tor the Ris
ing Generation.
Overmastering Necesity for Re
formed Speling.
Address of Prof. F. A. IRtireli Before
ibe Fllolojrlonl Association.
/Vest* tkt Traniidlfnt f'f Ihf A'rrrlran iMtiuttnf /ft-
(Silent Mors which are nitorly nscW ore dropt
.In speling this Addres to sure space and ahnwiut
a great degree of slmpllllcniioa mile bo adopted At
any ttmc.j
Wc havnlwnvahadspellngrcformcrs. The mix
ture of Anglo-Saxon mid Morman.whleh craw Into
Metallic four centuries fololng the Norman
■ tobqucst, was at first n despised mid miculfl
rated dialect, almost exactly like our Pennsvl
vanla Dutch. In those tong generations of tur
moil and strife everybody ulkt according to bl«
Whim, and explolud himself with his sword. As
soon as literature began to be produced In the
sew speech, the authors began to wory at the
scribes for Hieir speling.
“AdamScrlvsnor,” says Chaucer, *Mf ever U tbcc
bolallo
Reece or Trollns for to write newo.
Under thy long locks Hum nmlnt have Hie scalle
But after my making thou write mure iruc.”
The mixture ol French mid Anglo-Haxou words,
almost al of them mangled in the uttcranc, was
enoueb to giv ativ scribe such olsgust, and eon*
tempt, and distres, as no poor render of the Fo
utile Aries or primer of fondle manu
script can nowadays fairly attain to.
When printing was begun by Caxtoo, In
1474. It was with a tone of Dutch printers, who
sot up the English manuscripts as best they
coud, after their Dutch fashion, with many an
objurgation of our cramarlcs lung. Out In Hie
freat printing offices, rules, or habits equivalent
to rules, soon began to gro up. More or less
illcut e’s mite be used lo space out the tines,
bat aside from this we seldom find a word spelt
In mure than five or sit diferent wu\s in a wel
orlated book of the time of Elizabeth, mid Hie
number of Hu so variations gradual? ulmlalslu.
Som editions of the English Bible wer rerv care
,'uly spelt, and finuly Dr. Johnson cave Hie
damp of authority to Hie prevalent habits of Hie
London printers, and wc arrived at a standard
miiogrnfy. „ _ .
Not without protest, however. Dr. Johnson
gas no scholar mid no rciormcr. but a literacy
man, an extreme cooservutlv mid n violent
Tory. There wer many attacks on him in En
eland, but the printers tonic his side, so lur
is spelfug Is comcrnd. and since Iris day
books ar not primed by the spelmg of me
author, bnt by the speling of the prlntmg-nlhe.
ThluLß went somewhat dlfcrentlv in America.
Tin- old Torv’s name did not recomend his nook
an this side ihe water. Our ancestors rejoiced
lu liorno Tooko's expomre ol ids ignoranc, mm
mm of them rhot we had beier nav uu American
language, os we wer to liav mi American nation.
Dr. FrankLn mid Noah Webster ur ihe beat
toon promoters of this movmeut. Tbovfnvori
thoro reform of Hie Imigmiuc on a fonetie basts.
Tins was the (lawn of scientific comon-bciis In
Die realm oflanguage, but the printers proved
100 strotigfor them.
Webster's Dictionary has Indeed In name
mperteded Johnson’s as a popular glde: but,
except In me endings or ami c, the later editions
of Webster bar forgoten, or remember
with fulnt prase, tlie reformd soul mgs
by which ho set such store. Alter the Revo
lutionary ardor past, the literary ems timid with
'cncwd affection nml delmt to tlie old countrv,
Jie old home. Ilaov was he who trrew up in a
hous where there wer copies of Shaksperc and
llllton, ot Addison and Locke, I’upc and Dry
den, and Burke mid duntus. An old folio of
Bon Jonson, Spenser, Chaucer, Tiers I’lowmnti,
or otic of Gervoso Markham’s les stately quar
tos, with a gr.tmifaih>r’& name un it, made a
-nan led as rhu ho had bluu blood In his veins,
flm very paper and bind nr, and the spcl.ng,
*cr sweet and venerable to him. Brand by
irose Bir Walter Scott ami Byron, Wordsworth
tad Coleridge, amt ul the host of that wonder
ful veneration, The talk ot an American lan
ruago past nwur or retired to the backwoods.
Amt whenever schemes oi reformd speling wer
bruucht, all they wer now and then, the
literary elas took them os a kind of
personal Insult, und uverwnelmd the re
formers with immesurable reproach and In
sxitnguisbablc laftur. Within the Inst lift/
years, however, a complete revolution lias
taken place In mu ideals and purposes ot the
scholarly clou. Thu blest words of thu old
scholars wer cu'lurc ami lulu. Tiny taut tu
mold themselves Into butlful characters. They
sunt to Owe! with huttfttl objects. They wer
fond of saying that bitty is Its own excuse lor
being, that a thing of billy is a joy forever.
Thu hicst words of thu new scholars ar
pnt'jrtt and puutrf new truth they want, und
new fruit every Uav In the improvmcnt of the
statu of man. Culture turns Irani lleiiuii to
fact, iron) poetry tu science, Linguistic study
shares me spirit ot thu ace. It bus turnd
from drenmmtr over old lovo stories to me
. itudv ot nations ami of limit us recorded In
language. Thu biologist rivals thu ireologlst
In reading the records of the race In the lusils
of lanuuagc. Ho Is u historian of thu tunes
before history. Hu gtvs us the pedigree
ot nation# whoso ti.uno and place no modern
man cuud gcs. And he wishes to do somUimg
fur ids lelos, to bear his part in improving tlie
condition of tno race, and nuturaiy In Improving
language. The luiiudatiun of the mnciui ot
language is hdd In thu bclciiu of vocal sounds.
Every student of the muueru seletic studies
looologv. Thu means of representing sutindß
by vistulu signs ar also part ol Ids study, mid the
ipellngof the English language, among other
things. And so me. spehng ot tlie Engilnh
language has beeom the opprobrium of English
icholars. The greatest scholars wer uuturuly
tlie first to speak out boldly. The greutcsi
genius among uramununs, dumb Grim, but
a few years ago congratulated the other
Europeans that tne English hud nut made thu
Hseovur.v that a whimsical, autuiuated urlbog
•afy food lu the way of the universal nccunt
• meu of me language. Now wecuitd 111 a volum
with exposition ami objurgation ul the unui>-
pruaclmblo baclnes of our speilng, Irom thu pens
oi eminent Englishmen and Americans.
Bishop Thlrtwull, the llluslrlas author of the
“History ot Greece," says:
louK upon tlie e&luhllsht system ofspcling
(if on acciJuncul custom' may btlso eaticu) us u
mas ol anomalies, the groth ul fguorauu und
ebane, equulv repugnant to good lutto mid to
cumuti-setis. But lam uwaru that the public
chug to these anomalies with a tenacity propor
tioned to their nbßurdiiy, mid ar Jelns ol al en
croachment un ground consecrated bv prcscrljt
lion to the free play of blind caprice.”
Prof. Max Muller, among a hundred other
good ihlneiof the sumo kind, speaks of "the
unlilstoneal,. unsystematic, umutebgibio, un
teachable, out by no means utiaiiidUUaUle, spel
lug now curent tn England."
Lord Lvtlou says:
“A more lying, roundabout, puzzle-headed
delusion than that by which wu confuse mo
clear Instincts ol truth lu our accursed system
ol spuiing was never concocted by the lamer of
lulsbood, , . , How cun a system of educa
tion Uurtkh Unit becuis by so muuutrus u fuis
hood, which the sous of hearing sutUcos to con
tradict!"
Prof. Hadley says:
“It cannot he denied that the English lan
guage U snocUingly spcled."
Trof. Wuitucv suyat
“ There ur few in our comunUv deicrvlng the
name of scholar who do not conies that a his
torical tpelmg Is In phuclolu indefensible, time
It nan uusupurtsuvo lu our customs and preju
dices."
Dr, J. Hammond Trumbull says:
“ The popular mind seems awakens never be
fore to appreciation ul thu ddleuitles, eccen
tricities, and absurdttieaof the present standard-
English cfteograly,"
While this movmcnt was going on among the
icholars, atioihcr stream ul itilluunc took its
rise among teachers. Few changes of thu lust
century ar greater than those m the treatment
of children. The methods of disclplin und of
teaching, und thu apparatus lor Hum, ur ul
changed. Tne main apparatus used to bo the
rod. And there wer hardly unv books speclaly
adapted to the capacity and needs of the yung.
ibai able men, great men, should moke a study
ol them, luvent methods of iustrucilon, mo
books, make al an und nature tributary tu
tiiHr enjoyment unit Impruvmeut, Is a wuoly
uiodcrn utluir. Happy ar the yu»h of tne
yresem generation, im yhavthu world at tbclr
leet. lout sum way must I * found of teaching
reading wh bout tears was plain.
Nor is louderues lor our culidreo al. Wo hav
come to recognise mu n ie of manhood, and
sotu of us of womanhood, to a voic tu Uio gov
ernment. We trust ourselves to the mines.
Han the mascs mu>t be educated, 'ihey
must learn lu read oulckly und easily.
Iguuraoc Is ollnd und oad, but wu had s..'iud,bdo
coniesl mitcrates al our last census ul me
United diutea. The prutilem ot ithtuaev has
long been lumlliar to Americans as one uf me
most limurtuut ul social seiciic. It baa lately
come up lre>h and tearful In England. A K-w
years aau ihey exteuded the sitfiage, mid they
said, “Wo must educate uur masters." They
estnblisht for the first time a svstom of nubile
schools. The blest point attempted In Hicncw
schools was Hml the pupil should be able to rend
with tolerable erne and expreslun n pasture from
n newspaper, mid spel the sntno with tolerable
accuracy. 'l'hcy turn out nbout 20J,000 aimiiHly
wlio Imv been thru the course. Ninety tier cent
<il these levc without reaching (ho si.milardjusc
nicmioncd. TTioro nr five grades loer.
K.trhtv per cent fol abort of the filth
grade! umt sixty per cunt fol short
u( (lie fourth. The bulk of -the
children, therefore, pas thru Hie Government
s. hinds without learning to rend mid spel toler
ably. It Is calculated Hint the cuniry pavs for
Ims atmuuly $1),51X1,000. The lime mid the
money winch wer to hav educated the new
masters of England nr wasted in n vain nllemot
to tench ihcm to read mid spel. It is loir
recognized that ihotruhla lies In the Incgular
and unreasouablc speling of English.
Dr. .Mured, Her Majesty’s Inspector of
Schools, suys:.
“Tim main dlflcultr of reading English
arises Irani ilin iulriusle Irregularity of ihe En
glish language. A confusion of Ideas sols in
In me mind of the child respecting ihe powers
of the leiers, which Is vervmoly mid verv |unn
fulv eloard up by ehauc, habit, or cxperleoc,
and I.ls cnonclty to knu words Is gulud by an
immense scries ol (eniallv elforts. ... It
appears Umt out of 1,07*J (allures in (be Civil
Service examinations, I,WW emiillilates wer
t-luckt lor speling; tlmt Is, eigliteon
uut of every nineteen who lalld, (add
Inspcllng. it Is certain umt the car is no ghle
in Urn spellngoi 1 English, rather i im: rovers, and
that it la almost ticccsary to form a personal nc
(|uniut»iiti witli each Individual want. It wood.
In fact, require a study ol I.mm, French, mid
Anglo-Saxon, to enable a person to spel with
lauitics accuracy, but this, in must eases, is Im
poslble.”
Welsh boys pick tip Welsh, and German burs
German, without formal teaching of spel.ng.
They read rite uiT as soon os they learn their
leiers. How turemuv this dlllcully and how to
reform EngtHi speling, 1« ect ng to be fuly rec
ognized in Engl.>ml os a great problem of so
cial setunc and of stnlesnimiioilp. Memlien of
Fiirlement and diL'iiiinri'-s of Hie Universities
Civ It minus (hot. In 1970 the National Hulun of
Elementary Ti-adicrs, representing some 10.00 J
teachers of England and Wales, past
almost munhuusiy a motion In favor
ui a Rural Comlsion to Inquire Into
me rubje/t of English spolng, with a
vcw to reforming mid simplify.ng iu The
School Hoard for Loudon took up Hie mater,
mid i*sUc»i a circular nskuig u tiers to utikcin
an adores lu me Education Department m luvor
ui it. The Liverpool mid iirudiurd Hoards hud
acted before, .uid more tnau u hundred oJier
Hoaros returml tavurablc replies.
Un 'Tusday, May liU, 1977, n confcrcnc was
held In Imiiduu. ut wlueo me Hcv. A. H. Sayte,
ITulcsur ol Filulogy, Oxlonl, presided, mid
m winch Uie President of mo Filolog
icul boflety, 11. Sweet, Km., the Vice-
President, J. il. Murray, LL. D., mid ex*
Presidents took port, us wel as numartt* dl/-
niluiles of Ctiurch and Stale, lead.ng school
musters mid eminent reformers, Including Mr.
1. Pluumi and Mr. Kids, mey spent a duv mid
eveumg in hunnuniuH dlseuMun. mid In listen
ing to snui t uddresee, uud adopted a viuorus
series of resuluHuiis, which Uiev up
pmnted a comltco to present to tlie
Department of Education. i'lic Con
veiuion was a great euee-s, mid ealed forth sc-
Hus arnelcs m me Lomioa T-mm, foluwd, of
cur,e, waen not preceded, by articles iu the
whole periodical pres of Great Britain. The
deputations waited un the Lord President of the
Council, Jan. 19, 1975, uud receivd a favorable
reply-
Tlie dlsturbd etato of Europe has prevented
Government uc.lon, but mu reformers imv of
leeted u permanent organization, and ar bard at
worlc. tne praerleal “workers," os they de
lite to cot themselves, have a permanent bate of
oporauons In me pnntimr and puolish ng buns
oi Isaac I’n man, the ramus Inventor of our to
netie stenograiv, who uses h;s resurees also to
support loneuu printing. His Xuuetc ./ur.ml
has u weekly eireuiuilon of sum 11.0‘Jd copies,
and uses un Ingenius uliabet of thirty-eight let*
ers, conforming very nearly with ihu principles
of the biologists.
They count much on help from America.
Tlie same two stream* uf inliuune Imv mot tn
America tu dm action ol the American Filo
logical Association.
j here hav long been knot) to oar teachers a
numbrroi mure or les Ingetdu* Improvinenia
ou the old meituids of tcach.ng to read. There
nr thu lonetlu method, mu lonic memod, the
word imHnnd, the word picture mctuol. An
article has been coated lu tlie educational
junmls lately, advocating the last. No alien
non at nl U paid to ihe sounds of lutturs.it
says. Inc word ta vewd ns the picture of un
idea, mid the pupils ur taut lu loux on lolera na
parts ot u plciure, nut us repruscntultvs ol
sounds. Tcachaig to mots leaching to draw
pictures. This system H taut by sum advanced
proicMirs at bchool institutes. Ula impohliJu
to Imug.tt u more i znrceiv and ctmclusiv urn
uemaiam ol our spelmg. ii this system must be
u»ed, we urlttr behind the Ciiiiiuae; lor ion
bldetered us pictures, their signs nr fur easier
ttmn uurs tu make and remember. Wu nuv
rounded ihc cycle of civilization and come back
to Cathay, in the strugglo for Hie wa hav
reverted tu a pnor-TBaitg-kio period. But It
cannot be unite so bmi ns Hmt. Unrskllfuiy
arranged primiTJ, and chaits. and blocks, with
itii-ir unlittil ami apt olctonul Illustration*, Imv
contributed much tu ous> learning. But me
best nelp has comp Irom me Pronouncing Alfa
bet ot Dr. Edwin Leigh. This patriot scholar,
whose cumprehensiv studies of illiteracy giv
him a claim to ad the name of lllosufcr tu that
of artist, lists devised a scries o> modiiled leters
by which thu irnn.dclon from a fondleuirnbet to
the standard spell.ng is ulfected wlm lulo labor.
Thu testimony seems ample that two to three
year* ut school Hie nr oaved by this invention,
mid there seems hope uf fur.iier timplillca
lion and gain by it. With all there
helps, however, onr school superintendents and
other siuucnib ol education ar perplext cun
tliutaly by ttie speilng problem. All there con
trivances ul leters and melnods or complicated
mueiimery to teach an initeudniblc, wtilmsical
mas of anomalies; they ur poor shifts tu wined
wu ur driven bv the want of a proper ulfubot
and reasonable uncling.
in l5«To mo ITesident of Ibe American Fllo
loglcal Association lu Urn annual nddres spoke
of I be relorm uf speilng as one which students
uf language ot tu iiromule. On Hmt hint, up
poreutlv. appeals wer pourd in upon (lie Asso
ciation to take action to direct a popular mov
mcnt fur reform. It was brot before the Asso
ciation again, in 187(1. by the President, J. Ham
inond Ttumuull. A comitce was appointed. In
me word* ol me resolution, of "the reuresunt
atlva of our great universities and of Inigmstle
science," tu whom Mm matter was reierd.
'the ComUeo consisted of ITuf. W. D.
Wnltncy, of Vale College; Ur. J. Hum*
tnuml Trumbull, of Vtt'c College: ITof. K
.1. Child, of Harvard University; I’rot. F. A.
March, of Lafayette College, mid ITof. 8, 8.
Huldcmaii, of me University of Pennsylvania.
At the annual meeting, in 18T0, at .New York,
rrof. W. D. Whitney, Citainmm of (be Comltcu,
presented a iop j.ru It cundems historical spul
mg. The scholars want no etymology iiresei vd
In that way. It comlcma pictunul uifanuts. It
coudems ibn ullempi to buy Jeters lor every
dutmguiuhunlu variation of sound; individual
and local prinmneiamms sliouJ nut hav special
characters to record them. It describes an
ideal alfabcn as having dub sign, and only one,
lor each elementary sound. And tlnaiv it de
clares Unit *• me Human alUbct Is so widely and
(Irmly establish; lo use among mu leading civ
ilized nations (hat it cannot bo displaced: in
adapting It to Improved use fur English,
Hie eilorts of seiiulars ahuiid b« directed
towards Its use with uniformity, and in
eoulormltv with oilier nations." Tills report
was widely pubhsht mid eomunlcd upon, uml
assented to. Hut there was a loud cull fur
more. A delink application of thesu principles
to English spelmg was wanted. This was thu
eentcinai year. Au iniernadonul convention
lor the amendment of English urthograty met
at Philadelphia in August, wuleh called on the
Fdologicul Association fur tnuru light and mure
Uellmt direction. It also organized a permanent
bpellmg Uclorm Assoeiallun, and this Associa
tion chose members of thu Kilological Associa
tion us Its ComUeo on New Bpelmgi.
Accordingly, in 1B<», an additional report was
made, which gave a Homan altabut tor English
use; not ported, but considerably nearer per
fection tnuu most of wiiut ar called well-snult
languages, very much ou the same plan us rc
lonud German and Hpanisli. it tixes
Die old Jeters In their Homan ami
Analo-fiuxoo powers as nearly as may
be, accepts ilm dlgral consonants In A,
(h, eh. «A, etc., and declares it necessary
to huv three new letters for elementary vowels
winch were unkuon to the early Humans, those
in fat, nut, but. Fur these it augestud mould
cations ot a, o, and u. A diacritical murk la
added, wnen great accuracy Is needed, lodeuole
a long vowel sound.
Tuis aliabet was set forth, not with any hope
of its Immediate adoption, but as a side in mak
ing minor changes. It is a iiecesury preliminary
to any iuteligeut change. Could (a a standing
example of unparduuaulo epclmg; the (is sheer
blunder, (lie oil has u rung sound, filial wu rue
cud, um/, kuU, limJ, ctuU, or what I licloru wo
can tui, we must tlx our Ideal EnglUu aliabet.
Tlicto ur soiu reformers wuu ihiuk it
best to make uo compromise, but to begin at
once with perlect lonctlc spcimg. They can take
this alfabet, und go right to work wtm al their
uilhl In tui hutmuuy with the Aasucisnuu and
wun the scholars ol ul eounUles. Hut thu
Comileo did uut stop with tvl.ng wtiat wu wuut;
tncy tried to giv sum helps lor the transition
stanu by wnicii wu ar to resell it. These consist
(I) la thu approval of Dr. Leigh’s plan of nota
tion, uud uiu recumcudalkiu ol a tew muddied
TIE CHICAGO TRIBUNE i SATURDAY. AUGUST 2:
letters which seem to bo best suited to aid In the
transition.
03) Suggestions ar made as to the order In which
gradual changes may most nulls* bu made.
“ New letcrs can ho endcst Introduced bv
using ibem onlr lor the old Icier* wnteli Mtev
resemble in form. Long words bear change
best, and vowels nr more easily changed Umn
consonants, which project more ahov mid beto
the line. Dropmg liiml silent t is the easiest
Tills report was adopted by the filnloglcal
Association without dissent, mid the Coiultce
eonticned another year.
The nnuiii meeting of the Spelling Reform
Asso.uiiun was held In duly, and the
coniiieo on new snoHnus, Prof*. V. A.
March, 8. 8. Ilnlrlemnn, ami W.
]). Wliilnov. made n final report on Hie sehemes
of new leiers and new apelings rvferd to Hnun,
winch recited the ucilon of the Fllologlnil Asso*
UH’ioii, mid reported for general use uni lor ihe
pnulk'Hllonauf Hie Ansoela:ion Hie mf-ibet there
lit sut forth; and re 'Oinended Hie attempt to
bring It Into (mediate use In Hie manur set forth
In the final angjosiUms of the ropdh.
This report was adopted, no one disrating.
The Comitecof Publication proceeded to prepare
a bulclln, acting tortli ami Illustrating titVae re
porta, mvmg forms of enpitnls mid script letnrs
umt directions to primers to mutate the new
lolera »y cut.ng .uni Inverting common types.
There was long noisy in preparing new types
mid script plates, partly from Hie dtllcnltv of
Hie work, mid pnrtlr Irom the lines mid nbsone
of oiu* luird-wurkt Secreturr. Once marled,
we liav used our type* llberutv accord ug to our
means. Four llulollus liar been issued and cir
culated by tpoiibimls. Spelmg Retoriu station
ery, paper mid envelopes with Suelmg Reform
hedmgs. and varlus subtler circulars, hav al«o
been sent uut. tjiurterlv meet nga hav been
held at New York, St. Louis, Chicago, and Hus
ton.
That at St. Louis was a general convention,
Introduced to Hie public bv able articles in the
tending papers, and uddrest by Vlcc-ITesl
dent the lion. W. T. Harris, mid Mr. T. 11. Vick
roy, hi papers which hav been printed.
The dlfcuilons wer reported at length.
The Convention finuly fonnd Itself into a per
manent branch of Hie Spelmg llciorm Associa
tion, winch wil hold monthly ineet.ngs. .there
was no great nssoiitolugo or sueeclt-making at
me meetings in New Vork mid [fusion.
it mar be worth while to men.ion a few facts
to giv un Idea ol what is co.ug on outside the
olli.-ial action of the Spelmg Rciorm Assoela
non.
The American Fllological Association bar
issued “ i tie Proceedings ” of the July meet tu.',
containing the report at the "Comltee on New
Bpel.ngß,” also au nustruct ol a paner on “A*-
Biu.Ui.iojj.” b .Mr. W'leiltmau. IheAssocladou
hay had two louts 01 ne now tyoes cut to inalen
loose used In .no “Proceedings" mill In me
“Transactions,” and uapuri wd bo printed in
botli in an.’ spelmg wuien authors of each may
adopt In ImrmoDV witn ilie reports, 'the new
volume cuniains such capers. In the month
ot August, 1377, at Cuicasro. 111., tne
Adams, Biackmvr A: Lron Publish ug Com*
pany, O. C. Ulnckmer, President, begat) to m*
truJueo tlie aif.iboi of me Buelmg Reform
Association into their widely-circulated peri
odical, u.e t/Ue VuUu the tutors war in
troduced grudualy in encccsly monins. It now
announces mat It cumulus all the new Icters,
amt claims that thev enibarns no one. nut usist
In pronunciation. If this claim shall pror to be
wel founded, we ace the t)"gm.ng of mu end oi
the ula spelnig. the publishers liar hud an ad*
rerlismuut, printed with die new Does, Inserted
in several newspapers. They dispose of largo
amounts of Sod ng Reform stu lonurv. Mr.
Ulackmer uas accepted me post ion of Uirecmr
for the Non.mcjt, and has issued ne Comltee's
reports, md o ner valuable muter In h mduoin
and eoureniunt circulars witn his now tvoes.
Uesolui.luns In (aror of retorm Imv been past,
and coimleesappointed upon It by ihc National
Educational Associa ion. the State Teachers’
Associations of New Vonc, Peimstlvonla, O.ilo,
New Jersey, Illinois, uud by many o.iicr eraaler
Tuacbers’ Assoeiaiions.
The last quarterly period has been mnrkt oy
special activity la -he pres und In legisluttv ac
tion. New periodicals in 'be interest of >he re
turn! hav been begun by Mrs. E. U. Burns. Now
Von:, and .sir. A. Louglcv, St. Louis; hpelmg
reinnn departments hav been newlv announced
in the Xtio JJu,'/mid .hufiiui uf Education nml In
the Kdiuatiuna. Weeky of Chicago; imoortanl
new books by Mr. Sweet, President of itiu ITlo
logical Society ot London, and bv Mr. J. U.
Gladstone, Imv been imblUht by Macmillan &
Co., and many articles havupocard lu the maga
zines.
ihc legislature of Wisconsin lias cppolnted
W. C. Wnltlord, .SiiDcriiiteiulont uf Fabhc In
strueiluii: U. E. Davis, uf Dane Countv: George
H. Haul, uf Milwaukee: George 8.- Aluue, ot
Wltmeuago Conntv; ami John B. Qubuoy, of
Sauk Conntv, a cutnlslou “to imtuiru
and dclurralti whether any of the promised re
forma in English ortlmgrafy now under conald
erailun by luglslutiv bodies, ur pracust In anv
of tlie public HCtiouls, or contended and approved
uy associations ol scholars and experienced
teachers in this enntry, or Europe, can be prop
erly and cxpedltiusly adopted, ur otherwise
promoted ami encouraged, in the public
school#, or in the Duplication uf the odlelal doc
uments of this State, or otherwise."
In March, ISH), concurrent resolutions past
both Houses of thu I’-emisvlvama Legislature,
authorizing the Governor to aopolni a coinmls
lon uf six competent persons to repo t upon an
amended orthugrafy for the public documents.
No opposition, and some guua remarks from
Senators Fisher and Allen.
March 0, Senator it. M. Haines introduced a
similar resolution ln«o Die fionulu of lowa,
wnleh nasi without opposition, bat too iatu fur
tliu oilier House.
Senator W. W. Fowler, Chairman of the Con*
nect.cut Leglalatlv Commission. which consists
fur.her of Frols, Whitney uml Trumbull of
Vale, Hart of Trinity, and Van Henscluiten of
Wcideynn University, with ilm Hem. IJ. G.
Nurlliron, Secretary of Kuentlon, Is preparing u
volume on ibesnbject for publication in advanc
ol thu next kcmuii of the Legislature. Next
winter many mure of the Stated flhoiid lie moved
to action. Sodhoiul Congress; and to Unit end
memorials huv been prepared, and shoud bo
widely Biiruil this summer bv teachers at their
conventions, and by al frond* of ilio reform.
From what bus now been said, sum just judg
ment may bo turmd ot what wo may wisii to
do.
The Spell'll; Reform Association wishes to act
as a literary ultra to provide lecturers and in*
formation, and to mnku lib Secretary’s olllvo a
repository for procuring uml disseminating Slid
ing Uuiurm literature. Orders may be sent
to it lor new tv pcs and lor any
printed muter of this kind. It wishes also to
rour.pt from thu volumes of great authors, siten
parts us bear on 'bo subject. Subscriptions are
solicited lor the rcpubllca.lon In thu form of
extra buieHns of such pastures from the works
of ITof. \V. I), Wlntnuy, ITof. James Hadley,
Dr. Hammond Trumbull, md o tiers. It in*
viius autnorb of pumllcts, articles in periodicals
or newspapers, nr of reform mater in any shape,
to send copies to the repository for eonsulta lon
and distribution. It furdier solicits subscrip
tions tor reform A-H-C nooks, charts, blocks,
readers, ami other school books.
Wu wish to circulate Information about this
reform til every one In thu cimiry knows about
l(, to put buletlus, letcr-beads, placards, euiry
wiicro. Wu wish newspapers to print in me
alfuuut ami about It. Wu w.alt to huv teachers’
associations indorse It uml use It; and with
them oilier learned bodies, Slate legis
latures and Conurcs; and most of al, three and
four times most Important of al, wu want teach
er* to use tlu.- new soeling in 'heir schools. Wo
ur to have A-U-U books, renders, charts, letter
blocks, and every oilier apparatus of help, and
wu want ibu teachers to us^ibein.
At this meeting wu hope a comUeo may ho
appointed to prepare and sign a memorial to
(Jongrcs, and to co-operate in behalf of the re
form. Wo hope al the members will sign our
memorial to Centres, each tor himself and her
self. Wo nope many will join onr Association
mid giv t heir permanent supurt to t he cutis.
The folong is mu Memorial, headed bv Presi
dents of the Philological Association ami wul
and widely slgud.
MBMORUh
To the Honorable the Sennit and lloutt of Rep
retenlal ui of t/mled Slant In Uonortt a«•
untied:
Till* memorial of the undersigned, member* of
the American l-'lloloificul Aisucmuon. ana oilier*,
respeciiuly represents luul li la currently stated by
leaning educator* that ebe irreguiar speiinir of the
Uuvlish language cause* a lo,< of three to four
year* of the school time of each child, uuJ Isa
ouln cau»o ot the alarming illiteracy of our poo*
)de; that it invol'S an expens of hundred* of mill
ion* of uoiir* annually for isacnor* and for rltimr
and printing siipurdun* lutvra: and tom It Is nu ob
stacle In many other wavs lo the nrorres of educa
tion muon* tno*u spending the Kmthsh l*ni!ua;'e,
and to the sprud of the language among other na
tions.
It further ronrcsonia that leading educators,
amoiiit whom arc munr teachers of omen pract.cil
experienc, and associations oi Icrned scholar*, de
clare it poMble to reform our spellng, aud buy
proposed schemea of reform.
The prayer of vonr memoriallats therefore Is,
timl ynr bunuraole body may see iu to appoint a
comtshm iu eiamln and report how far auen a re
form is dC4lraule,and what umeudmon s la urilmg
ruty, If any, may be wisely Iniroiiiead Into toe
pubuc document* and tne scuoois of tne District
of Columbia, and accepted iu oxaiuiiiailjns for ilu
Civil fterv.ee. and whether it i» uipi-dient to mov
tue Uovermuuat uf Ureat Uritaln iu imiio in con
stituting a joiotcommision to conaidcrsuch amend
menu.
And yoar memorialists, as lu duty bound, will
ever pray, etc.
It would hardly bo rite, in presenting tho
present prospect uf the Bpcling Uelorm, to for
tret ihut (hero ur ouitaclea tuna oroirres. Out*
uf the worst of these Is despair. Men say, great
men, who cun do almost unything, “The sp^l
ing It nionsirus, Is wicked. lam redv to to-dify
nirnhw It. Hut uoto.ug can bo don." Bom
iiiuc* Hits despair is an Illusion, gro ug out of
not (Hat itgulsh ug language proper from Hie
slims by which It is recorded. Language proper,
speech, Isa hiuliiv complex organism, like man
himself. Words, Hie elements of it. have a two
fold nature,'—on the otio fide ilml, on Hie o Iht
hide sound. 'I he laws according to which words
nr burn, gro, mid die, ar based parti« In mao’s
plivsical constitution, part I v In his mind, partly
in bis Mirruundmgs. and Hiey nr among (lie most
subtle mid complex ol si laws.
Almost none of mem nav vet been so clearly
mnl quHiititnlivly formulated that they can lie
applied to predict Hie future. The beat, knon
serv ra'bcr as topic* for 111 list nil Dm in lectures,
flic law of least. elTorl, for example, according
to which all changes in language mov from
sounds requiring mure eltort to those requiring
less, so that In Hie. siruglo fur life among Hie
vocables those requiring least eltort survive,
Is accepted ns n law oaralcl with gravi
tation in the material world, mid may
bo illustrated hy examples without number
In ibe history of words. Rut man can
make an etfon when he ulcers, mid Hie condi
tions of his good plcstirenr too subtle lobe pre
dicted. The piles of eoiifonnnts In many words
of form languages so alTriglit our eves Hint wo
balk at Hie attempt to prommneo them.
“Snexe three times mid saysA* ” Is Hie old di
rection for starting a man In Polish.
Ami the speeches of many savage tribes ar
made up of such beaus of frits mid clucks mid
snorlM and hisses mid wheezes, that the utter
ances of them must he teats of vocal gvmias
lies as nrodigius as taum of the Chinese Jug
lors. There Is but one man in civilized sociotr
who can do ihesu feats. Catch our Irend, Prof.
Ilnldeiuai),—he is Hie nrnr.,—mil make a r<ng
about him, and cot him to giv you a lew speci
mens, and then tci mo how they coud hav
arisen accord mg to Ihe law of least cllort.
Hie tact Is, it Is fan to make a nols. The
heithy nclmal rejoices In these Fonh-of-duly
explosions and orations mid cheers and tigers':
and the tenderer inouds Imv their own
dclihl la the murmurs- and crooning* mid
whispers of a suiuer evening. There I* o!av in
language In which ufiMrt does not count. The
old word for knj'e (mi/) was k.i /'. That the k
should be dropt is amirduig to the law of least
effort: but why change i to Hie lung dlftbong
ai /.oml was h ml : the/its dropt acord.ngto
Hie law of least effort, but who can luvo pre
dicted Hie rise ot the dllthungt;u{(m)f Ibe
tact Is, that the peculiar change* of s.ngle words
ar tnuktby whim, and me great changes by
which the suomls uf a< whole language ar
moved, or brut about or modified by causes
wurk.ng oftcu on the physical constitution of
whole nations, which we it no little of. mul with
which wo could do little If wo did kno them.
We may well despair, therefore, of cunirolmg
•ue history of ihu spoken language. Rut the
sncLmr, uio men speech, Is a dilferctit mater
alioL'O tier; tlmt U only a euntrivune,
u set of tools, machinery, to record
mid eomunlcato the speech. It lies paralol
with coins, or weights uml inesures. mid me im
uroviueiuol it Is like belgipruviiu-utof weights
and inesures, or, Indeed, of telegrafs, sewuig
sow.ng-machines, reap ng-tnaehmes, nr anv la
bor sav ng iihieumcrv. Let n lunguajo bo given,
lie problem ut record tig and emiiumcaiiiig it is
a piub.eiu In thu luveiitiun of labur-suvmg ma
chinery. rhem'jstuaiuraleoutrivan.' was fudiii
leaJv-niodo lu inuu blnibclf, that microcosm of
hiveudoiis. The vibrailona of the voice tlmt ea
ter .its car make a p- riuuueiit modification iu
nlui, ns in ibe tinfoil of me fonograf, so ilmt he
cun repent Hie s,muds at pleasure. Mud Is, lu
short, a fonograf.
I lie llrst records of speech wer rondo by callng
in witnesoa to dear and repent tlie language It
was desired to record; deeds of land, nchevc
moots ol Kings, sacred rituals, great poems,
illudi, UeowtUis, wer tints recorded and trans
mitted. (Jluies of men wer set apart for
fonografe. Sot man is a cosily machine,
.md verv perishable, md always get ng out of
order. Cn.-uuer, trustieiv r und more durable
lonograls wer wanted; and thev were not to be
had, lor tho iherc was profccy of an Edison In
me drst reeorduut moditieaifons of the brain,
the coin ng man was not lo get to New Jersey
for sum thousiiids of year**
't hey tried records on wood and stnnc, pict
ures, then signs of words and sylaUlcs, and
(limiy alfnbellu rlting was. invented,—: he most
important mveiulou, It has often iicen said bv
IhosouhiTs, that man has ever made.—bv which
die memory of twos.-ore signs mid sounds
takes the place of that ot thousands of signs of
tluigs. > <
iSiuc the Invention of letters, Itnprovmrnts
hav been made year byyenriti ihcir fonns to
adapt- mem better to letfbdltr, speed, and
tm'.y. A page ot Homan ttpu Is one of me ob
jects into whieu most-' labor has con.
i lie typo-cuter of 10-davi Is eir of a) the
ages wmm he works on ihe Homan typos. A
new Seicr has a poor chanc'to rival ne oul. A 1
lids, however, bus pm on lodenondenily of tlie
changes in hpeocn. It would hav gon on taster,
if speech had never chanffod. None ot tlie
m.story of the changes or pronunciation at
tacncs to It. The dlllcultios which prevent tlie
change of types ar like those which attend (he
change of wales and aimurcs. llic IniroJuc
lUm of new speling is like the introduction of
the ao.ng-macnine. Everybody Kuos Hie old
wav, mid nobody knus tins new. One genera
lion must imv a deal of (ruble. We want to
tlud some powerful das whose Interest in i lie
enuugc is such that it is bust for mem to tako
the treble, in tlie new spell.ng, this elus ar
the teachers, whose mostincsom labors will bo
liteud, mid the publishers, woo will hope to win
In me new Held ol adventure in nooits. Let
tlie teachers start us, and we shall al tlud hart.
Ano her bcrma hliulrunc nowadii.s, while we
ar Just poised to the stun,' is found m the com
ical or ridicules side of the changes,
It has impend (hat un author whoso scholarly
eonsdene compcld him (nohlcsm oblige) to
make the change, when the- proof-sheets came,
has found their queer louk- uml ihcir rldicuius
associations quite too much - fur him. We may
strengthen ourselves by rejecting, after Emcr
huh, that nature has no covenant with us mat
wu shul never tie ridiculing or with Hurkc, that
.no man ever bad a point ot weuKiies that did
nut sum tune scrv ids turn; or with many un
awkward lover, that ud things, made taimlliar in
fun, ar by and by chosen in ernesl. Tlie world
Inftut tSUakespere for years, ns out of uil the
rules of ul the Greens and Frenemnon. They
Juft at him, they luft with him. they .vopt with
him, they loved him; til one day u
gumns turnd critic said, “ Why laf at
mm for bc.ng unlike them? Let us laf at
them lor being unlike him Ff And ui the world
agreed—sloly. Who Kuos but tlie good tune
may bo near when it shsl suum rldicuius to rite
duuijh fur do, mid phlhUie toy lisle f
O tier obstacles ansa from want of agroment
among die eruest reformers. vVe hav tried
hard and lung to agree. We hav held conven
tions, national, iiuurnsllun.il; appointed coin
ituus, waited years tor Ueiiboratloiisund reports,
.md accepted mem. Wo tuv gon inruai the
motions; but after al wo do uotagrue. New
converts ar made every day, ami every uuu
makes u new scheme. Converted on Saturday,
they treubato Sunday, and print on Monday,
l licu there ar the veterans,-Ellis, Human. Hark
imrst, Luagley, Jones, each u tenth legion, an
old gurd, mat never surenders. Sum cannot
accept any new letter. Sum wll take no lus
limn ilftceu. Sum wantdigiais, sum diacritical
Inaras. Their stand against itiu world tnelmes
mem to reject ul authority and ul compromise.
Kulormers titiuU fur memselves and act lor iliom
sulves more tmm odier men. Wo shul eum
logo ucr only us we approach our comon goal.
Hut ul tli-ngs wund be m luvor of us to day, If
wc had niuiiy mid workers; inuny, ot curse, but,
moat ot ul, ucliv men. ’the reform is aro.it in
Its backing of great names. No reform ullVct
mg great veiled interests has com mded a more
general assent Irom eminent scholars and edu
cators. Hui, Irom ihe nature of me case, their
snpurt cannot go much iunher than assent and
advice. To bo uu eminent scholar in these days
implies mature, geueraly advanced age, a Ihu
devoted mainly to sum special held ul original
reserch, Meaes to the world and to puhhmicrs
uf lur.ncr n-serchcs in me same Held, mid, must
likely, poverty, or a p[ego ul ul available ruuuy
to carry out lung-chcnsht plans.
al me world as br.ugmg me accumulated knot
ego and sagacity of a lifetime to his wuik on
Sanskrit. Al me world wouu cry uni If Uu wer
to giv u up m urderto devote his days and int.-s
to pasiimg the Spclmg Itcfurm. So uf our
eruut master of the Aigunxm languages, Dr.
Trumbull. A n«w cause needs new men. And
Uds cuus needs vnng men, men of action. To
rls im leaciiers who look to be Normal School
prolesurs, or supermteiulents of instruction,
not uno ng but tncy may sum time lui Into poli
tics and gel to Washington at last, and who
need to store up piesant memories 10 cheer mu
gloom of a Sunatuisnip or Hiesidcney, to ul me
hundreds ol uipirmg yung men who would
gladly lind a good cans to work in, mere is nun
that oilers butter promts thun the Spcd.ug He
lorm.
Charles Sumner said (ho year before he died,
“'Hie English lanuuuxu hns ua immense suture.
Hut mere must be liurmuuy between Uiv men
aud spoaen word, lu uelpmg tula rulurm you ar
u benefactor.”
I lie crout acholai-Btatesinaa of England, Glad*
stum*, says Unit nu wood gladly lead it,t( Hu iver
i anger, and haa sum tbaiga oil Ins tiauus,
umau.ng, wo |imy suupuau, mu Iliad, and Uic
Hope, and mu Turn, and mo Jew. Wc want u
Gladstone fur mo Unlivd Mates, an eminent
man ul action and scuularaulp, to ued uur re*
imin, sum hap.er bumucr, sum Horace .Uuiui.
Wo waut one tor every Slate In the Uurted
States. We want a vihure Gladstone sur ever/
towu. Non such stral real informs.
ClntU-Aiiulturntlnii lu Orest Britain,
//‘onreinirtts: “Tnocxtont to which adulters
lluu ul cloth Is practiced received u uotewutiuy
S 3. If>7n —SIXTEEN PAGES.
illustration hi Urn Skcptim County Court Into*v,
wlikpo n cla m for won; done in sizing warns was
opposed on Mm* ground Hint tin* p'aintlff had
boon ordered to put from tOJ to 115 per cent
* weight ’ Into them, mill had not complied. i'he
•Indue rail'd tins defendant soundly, comj.urcil
the notion to one b.-ougbt by one blghwavmnn
against hiio hertorecover hid share of tlm booty,
nmi declared Hint there was ‘very little honest
mult In ttie* eountry except that winch came
from America.’ ”
THE FIELD AND STABLE.
Veterinary llraltmai LXXtV—The Influence
of Summer upon the llrntlli of Dmnosll
eitud Anlm.iU—lnltumioatlun of Uto
Lymphatics.
from Otir Oien Camirnndrnt,
CnuiAOO. Am. 23.—During (be summer the
temperature of tfie atmosphere reached its high
est decree; but the air in dryer, mul the wen her
Is morn nettled, nr less subject to sudden
changes limn In the serine: rain-storms, often
rer.v violent In tbo latter reason, are less fre
quent, mid the nights—ln many parts of the
country at least—are nearly as warm as the days.
In tbu fore par', of the summer, especially If the
rain-fall is sulDclent, tbo vegetation la luxuri
ant, and the food for herbivorous animals is
plenty mid good, and the latter are thriv
ing and doing well. Spring-diseases that may
Imooen to exist usually disappear at (lie be
ginning of summer, because the nnltnils have
become accustomed to green food and out
door life, and the Hidden changes of woaHicr
(temperature mur lumiulliv) prevalent dar.ng
Hie spring have disappeared. The fore part of
summer, as a general rule, may therefore be
considered as Hie healthiest season of the
year, as far ns domesticated auitnals are con
cerned. BHII, Hie summer too, but especially
Its second half, Is productive of many
peculiar conditions and Influences decided
ly Injurious to the health of live stock.
Towards me middle of summer the rainfall
verr often becomes Insultio'eiic: and, ns the
temperatuie of Hie atmosphere increases. Hie
vegetation is apt to sulfer from drought, md Hie
grass and herbage of Hie Holds and pastures,
continually exposed to Hie rays of Hie suu, and
uot able to draw much moisture from Hie hard
mid dry soil, become parched mid dcllclcnt In
soluble constituents, mid mar even wl her and
die. The same therefore nlford food that Is, at
best, poor In nutritious elements, and rich In
Idigeaiible woody fibre. This value in food de
creases tin! more Hie dryer mid hotter Hie sea
son. Built food, ot course, Is not calculated to
produce cruwtu mid to promote health and
vigor. Fur Jut, If ilmweiulicr Is continual!
dry amt lint, live-stock, especially In Hie West,
have to sulfer very uitcu fur want of good mid
drinkable water, or have to quench their thirst
with water Iron) stagnant pools.—frequently
verv dirty, foul, ami slinking, uiui full ot de
compile ng organic substances, md i'-w-orgonixed
organic grow th of u puruaiilc and not seldom
very injurious character. Malignant diseases ol
a tvpnuid or cachectic character, and eren
anthrax, are Irequent results. If such a want
of lood sulllelemk neb lu soluble constituents
md nutritious demon's, and of good mid
drinkable water. Is followed suddenly by a time
of plenty, in wnieh an abundance of young,
rank, mid jnlcy food Is nvallnolc, as is o:teu int
ense immediately niter harvest, Hie conse
quences are frequently very serious. Imme
diately alter Hie small gram has been harvested,
Hie stubble-fields are otten used as pastures.
The same urc usunllv coated with a luxuriant
growi n ofVecds, grasses, clover, voung grain,
etc., notch grew or was produced while
shaded by the grains, and more or los*
deprived of sunlight, and is, therefore, rank,
wutcrv, and deficient In those stim
ulating qualities of good and Wholesome food
which excite Hie digestive apparatus to proper
activity, and prevent thereby a mere decompo
sition of the lood while under (ho Influence of
warmth and moisture In ilic stoinaca mid In
testines. lienee, sucli a change of pasturage—
from a pasture with div mid parched grasses to
a stuoblc-Uubl with a rank mid lulcy vegetation
—is often productive of dlgesilvo disorders,
such as diarrhea, Indigestion, constipation, tym
panitis or limit,ng, >md various other diseases
of a more or less serious character.
[•'nr her, ilie hightemoeratureol the Rummer
season nrclerales nil processes ufdecomuusldon
anil putrefaction, ami promotes the develop
ment and propagation ot all lower or com
paratlvelvs mole forms of organic life, animal
as wall ai vegetable,—from the comparatively
high doss of Insects down to the lowest forms
of vegetable life and the minutest protista,—
und constitutes thereby tlie indirect cause of a
great many irritating and aunuvmg disorders,
und several very dangerous and even epizootic
diseases, because some of these lower torms ol
organic life irritate our domesticated animals
almost bevond endurance; o tiers arc parasitic,
and cause various disorders; and still
ethers,. especially those classlllcd In
modern times ns protista, constitute the cause
of some verv fatal, epizootic, und infectious dis
eases. To eo into details os to tho Irrltatmg
und parasitic forms of organic life (Insects, onto
jtoa, etc.) would lead 100 far; umi, concerning
Die protista, it may FUlllce to men ion bacillus
mulirucls, tlie cause of anthrax diseases, and
bacillus sills, the cause of swine-plague.
Finally, the high temperature nod the glaring
sunlight uf midsummer become sometimes In
jurious m a direct wav, bv causing sunstroke,
us nus been mentioned more fully in a previous
article.
As to the measures to be employed to prevent
those diseases or disorders caused by the pecu
liar conditions und tntluences brought about or
promoted by the summer, or by i lie hot season
of me year, but little needs lobe sutd. The
main point Is io remove or to destroy tin* In
jurious influences, if possible; to oroeuro voter
from a well,—the deeper the bettor,—where the
animals cannot cot any good mid clear water in
ilieir pasture; to drain mid lay dry ail stagnant
pools and sloughs: to make all Important
changes of loud or pasture whenever the
same are necessary or eifnuut be avoided, us
gradually as possible; mid dually, to keep
siaules and yards, etc., clean and free from de
composing or rotting organic substances. If a
period oi starvation, caused by drought and a
parched and withered condition of toe grass In
the pasture. Is anticipated, ttie same may be
prevented iiy u cultivation of such food-plants
as are coniDarutlvoly littleallectcd by a droughty
season ami by high temperature.
INFLAMMATION or TUB LYMPHATICS.
FAnixsvitLß, Kqb., Auv. 10.— “Vetjsiuna
iuas’": 1 have a mule 8 years old. and last alarcn
tits left luml log Lo.'un to swell, until h was four
times as large as it ouital to bo. Tne swelling run
up into tau slicaih. and Is now irum (he hock
miwn. lie has never uccn lamo. but u blue slid,
from tbu Hwelhinr. lie was a little sick fur tarco
(lays at tne Urst. lie will run and Dlay, amt
duemi’t favor it, only from the bigness. 1 huvu
tried lUo hu*t veterinarians that I canid gut. with
out unv success. Somo say snake-bite; sumo, olg
leg; some, dropsy; some, imik-lcg, 1 dhlnT
know that u horse-mule would luwo Uio milk-leg.
It runs clour water all the time, and has from tnu
(■ret, which Is alkali. I call it a skm disease. 1
would like lo learn of a remedy, lu “Too Field
and Stable" column of TUETiiinu.NR.
W. L. Jackson.
Ansu>er—‘ The swelling of the leg of your
mule, it seems, was caused by uu iullaiiimutlou
of thu lynipnaues, which Interfered with the
circulation and absorption of the lymph, ami
caused the latter lobe duoosited In the con
ueelivn tissue. Bucli a swelling usually ap
pears suddenly, oilen during nights, anil van
he removed only II properly attended to lu
lime,—at me beginning. Whore it is of several
months* stHiding, aa lu your ease, It may yet he
somewhat reduced, If you exercise the uni iml
during the day, and apply u bandage every even
ing to be removed in the murnnig when ilm ex
ercise commences. Thu diet must be light,—
Hint is. the food must bo easvof digestion, mid
not contain anv more nutriment than is neces
sary to prevent emaciation. The swelling that
cannot be removed will not seriously interfere
with ilm usutulnois of (lie animal, provided
great care is taken, especially in Hie winter and
in mu spr.ng, to deali iheswoilud leg thorough
ly every muru.ng. If proper cleaumg la neg
lected, sores, cracks, and ulcers are apt to
make their appearance. Vutuuinaliun.
HOPE.
’Tls Sunday night, and I’m thinking
Of hours ol anguish end pain.
Of pleasures tint, uUidoeil, uro tinkles
■il.u mo mist Hint still clings to my brain—
A mist tuat seems slowly to imcucii:
hut a star m tnu distance appears,
Thai cau»es my puiscs to qmcKvn.
Ana struggles to banish all fears—
A star that In Heaven la shining
To uuulo o'er Life'a turumciit wave.
Do still. in/ pour heart! ceas ■ toy pmtogt
Til a alar la all powerful to «uvo.
I’ll luuk lu thla »lar that ia uo.uumirs
AltnouuU U may faue with inuin'a light,
I Uuow loat it over i« gleaming—
At muruimti at uouu, piiaut ouhu
0 Hope! Mis manifest ever—
’ l is pleasure. ami peace, and level
The ilarltesi clouds u will sever,
Ana sumo in iu beam/ aueve.
I’ll cease Mils pining «ud sorrow:
Attuouau are u lung. Ueaib u High;
But. n itsauuiaseeitme to-morrow,
With ilviii ’twill be Pleasure to die.
Cascaufi, la., Aug, 1. Uox-Vivanr.
Wbcn we reflect that a power of endurance can
bo Imparted lu the Pram. aud that wea* mla-s
Pave oauu restored to s>reudia by o‘ollo./s’ c’o o*
pouua Syru|iot UvpojUusptdlvs, wo cannot Pat
conclude mat the subtle power is really pooJorau.e
matter. Persous who eiudy hard sUojiJ preserve
their balance ul power by urlug the S'rua.
LIGHTMIMG* SEWER
Is wonderful In Its conception, tin*
procodontod for doing a largo rango of
sowing In textile fabrics and leather. Its
motions aro continuous, admitting of an
extraordinary rato of spood, either by
slonm or foot power. Every motion of the
treadle makes six stitches, thus produc
ing about ono-third more work In a day
than other Sowing Machines. It has no
stop motions, and tightens the stitch with
the noodle out of the fabric. It uses the
well-known Wilson Compound Food on both sides of the noodle. It
has two-thirds loss parts than any other first-class Sowing Machine.
Itsarm is fully eight and one-half inches long and five and ono-half
inches high, and the whole Machine Is very compactly and scien
tifically constructed in proportions, elegance, design and appear
ance.. Its sample, powerful and perfect mechanism places it as far
in advance of all other Sowing Machines as the telephone Is superior
to tile tin speaking tube. The WILSON MENDING ATTACHMENT,
for repairing all kinds of textile fabrics WITHOUT PATCHING, fur
nished FREE with all WILSON SEWING MACHINES, together with
a Tucker, Rufflor, Cordor, Set of Hommoro, Binder, etc. Prices fur
nished with freight charges prepaid, and machines furnished on
trial to responsible parties, to bo used with steam-power, In places
whore wo have no agonts. Send for Illustrated Catalogue and Price
List, No. 230.
J a.C3-3E3Kr i n?S
Address WILSDM,SEWING MACHINE CO.
CHICAGO, XM.IMOIS. V. 8. A.
mcm.\ES SOLD ON easy monthly payments
AT
Corner State, and Madison-sts.
ONLY ONE LESSON REQUIRE!),
iCALEt. ft
THE m
OF THE WORLD.
PRICESREDUOED
From 30 to CO Per Cent,
■WAGON SCALES
FOR
Day, Grain, coal, siocK, anon, and Merchandise,
Now told foroao’iblrd former pylcoa.
2-Ton Wntnm Bprlm ?(Q
l“Ton W’uuon Sculen SIIO
Other sites In proportion. All fieales ma le of tb" best
in tcrlal. witu Iron l.*rcr, Binel o orlntt. llrim
beam .aid Doom Uo; luclui <l. Kvcrr Salj wa rant*
mlper ic. nd t> pvp m h at'ilon. ujrm •cb n e*t
onnnnJ save tmm v. Any iuorma.lon furnished
ortnll Prloj List io.it u annual uioo.
Aldres* CtIIJAtJO SJ.tLE CO.,
MACHINERY.
f-Aw NEW & BEOOND
HAND
ki EK&INES.
m BAILEES,
.'Mt PUMPS
' * ro j* oo d - Work -
Lathes. Plsneny
Hurl aeon. Molding ami
fWsS&iSSft tcmmlngMaclilneii.Scrul.
WJ®S»K® n|, ' , l 5 *” 11 Hnw«, liUhW
T r twy raajfl 14 uU<‘r Kmery wheeb
lid Afnchlncrv, Plow
r« mi l KxliMiaton.l'nrt
able Fowl ;dill*. hcale*.
Portable i, . .c«, ...inTiior.H. |*(t»o and Finlay, Pipe
Tool*. Hamer*. nlisiftliisr. Coupling'', Pulley*. Hcltlnc,
Hubber and riemp racking, power 1 * Pat. Lubricator*,
etc.
3VT- F. PERRY,
■lll HuiiMi ( nni>l-»t.. rhtrngo.
AIV.M.VGS, TUNT.S, Lie.
BOUTON & MIL.
231 EAST KI.NZIf-.51T.
iHmioracfurcrs of TENTS, Awnings,
Poulins, Stack Covers, Ilngrjyy Tops, and
English Flexible UAIKPIIODF COVEUS,
superior to all others.
HOOTS AND SiaOllb.
Dipt!, Bassett & Hills Go.
llanuftcturen and Jobbers of
Boots and Slices,
LAKE AND WABASH,
aKcia-A.a-0-
STOVES AND IIANUKii.
COLLINS & BURGIE
MANUFACTUUE
STOVES AND RANGES,
Dotcb Ovens, Sinks, Crete, ail Stalls Fillings.
Also, make (’aarlni;* from wood pattern*, ami do fluo
Iron Caning lu geuer*l.
SCI Noutli Clluton-sl.
VINU<*AU.
PRUSSIHG’S
CELEURATCD TfißS/h
¥iiiE©&i
ATT AnHOI.LTEJ.V PI'IIH AHTICI.E.
Warranted to keep pickle* fur year*.
Thirty-one year* lu market.
CunMiiner* »iiuuld l«n*t upon teeing onr broad
on ibo barrel* a lien bu lni.’.
(SLAVING .lUCIDINLIS.
Don’t Imy a »ewing luacuiue uuid you
the LlgUMtumdng
It will cont you tmlhliiK to try It. bend in* yon*
iJdrr*»,aod we will m* 1 yon our price* amt circular*
describing our plan of Heading nurUtnre for trial.
We waut active ageui* In all unoccupied territory.
Addrea*. JOIINKOV. Cb.UiK «k CO..
Udtf Btato Bt., Chicago, Ills.
SCWIftU itIACJIIINKS*
THE NEW WILSON
Oscillating Shuttle
SEWING MACHINE
IfIATTKESSESf*
l/v Yo wrJjjfG
/«/. /3 SPENT IN BED.
A Realty Good
Woven Wire Mattress
Is the Best Bed in Use,
Many CHEAPLY-MADE ones aro boiaj
sold at almost any ptioo, bat they often
prove unsatisfactory.
To be sure you have the Best, see that
my name Is on the frame,
J. E. WHITTLESEY,
POXB'H LXXItAIJT.
Poufs Extract.
Tie Yeptalile Pain Destroyer.
INVALUABLE FOB
Inflammation & Hemorrhage.
Piles, Sprains, Lameness, Burns, Scalds, Itrulm,
Soreness, Itheninatlsni, Holla, Ulcers, Old Sorts,
Wounds, etc. Also, for Toothaclio, Headache, Sort
Throat, Asthma, Hoarseness, Neuralgia, Catarrh,
Colic, Diarrhea, and all Hemorrhiffrs, etc.
It Is acknowledged by Physician* of all schools tint
Pmnl’n Extract has nuru woudcrfiU curative proi>*
crtlcs than any other remedy. >o form of Itilmm
mutinti, Pant, Muri'Ri'st. or IlhreUmti but It will
?nro, Si nce will not admit of naming *ll the disced
for which It Is n speclOoi out we will send a iitstnry of
its ui-s by mall on application. The pleasing n-snhs of
iinliu; the Extract as a toilet requisite has induced us
to prepare muJlQed forms of the Bvtract in a Tolh t
(500 a liosofO cakcsi, a Toilet (.'ream for
•oftcnlmr and beautifying the skin 111.00 a biallc), a
tlumtlricu (Sue/, a Llpriutve (die).
For icmltlvv and. scrcre cases of Catarrh, our
Calami UuriMT.lci, used with our Nmml ."tyring#
I'.'lc), is a radical cure. Uur Inhaler for Lung
.mil Tnruat IllNimaes and internal bleeding, Is in*
valuable. Our Ointment (iOu/ for Mirua. Piles,
Ac., should be kept In every family. Oar Pla.teis
uxccl ull others. - Use uur .dedicated Paper to pru*
vent Slid cure Piles and Ctmliiiff.
Tlie bate of all our Toilet ami Medicinal preparation
Is Poqil’m Extract, which Is a guarantee that they
are atijicrlor, and deierve the confidence of the publ.c.
ou<d by all Druggists.
X’ItKIVUtRD ONLY DT
POND’S JUXTUACT COMPANY,
New York and London.
(KILA.N STKA.tINfIiIPN.
OMiV DIRECT I.IKIS TO FRANCE.
(.i-nerul 'iTHiiMuiluime Lotumioy.
Detwecu New York'and Havre. I'lcr 42, N. Ib. foot
of Mortmi-at.
Travelers bvlhla Hue mold noth transit bylCnglHa
tallu-ny ami Uiu dUcomfortof crowing the Channel la
a small bout.
a ■lunii uuu.t
r'.iA.MJt, Trudelle......Wednesday, Aug. 27,2 p.m.
UANADs Fraimeu Weanealiy. t»upt. 3. omop. m.
I. IIM'II • :. r a Ijkii e'..VVe<lnr(ditV. hepU KX 12 n «n.
PRICE 0* PASSAGE (Including Wloej; TO IIAVItH
First Cabin, Slur him kwj hccuuu Cabin. * 3.
Ftucrage. tdd. Including vine, buiiuluz.and utcadl*.
Checks drawn ui Cieilti Lyunali ut purls in umuuut w
suit. CUUib DR tIRUIAN, Agent. M Uro-wwar.
uW. P. Will t K. u7Clarit-ir;, aim i Aecii.u tor
ALF.H.I) LAGKHUHh-5.48 b.CTurk-it . \ ChUago. _
AMERICAN LINE.
Philadelphia and Liverpool, calling at Queenstown.
Sailing regu'nriy every Saturday uml every aitcrnal*
U'oilnesday from I*hllituii;-hln, eurryl.ig cabin. Inter*
mediate, and steerage passenger*. aim (ho C. a. Malb
RBjD STAR. XjITJB,
earning the United Sinlos'and lloyul llelßlao Mall*.
i he only uirect Lino >o \ntwerp. In He gmm. i tlllor
every tenth day alternately from Philadelphia uoJ
Now Vorrf.
Fur Pawnee Tickets to or from Europe and Draft* oa
Great iirltaln amt iho Co .tltient npjly io
PEliilt WtuOllV is bOMi, General Agents.
W. K. LAWRENCE. Mana.er.
UP £»»t Uandolplftt., Chicago.
NO SITU Q£UIHAK EiM)YD.
Netv York .London Pari*.
Meamcri tall every Si'.nrdur Irutn New York hr
fonthunmton and l-remen. PoMeugers booked lor
t.otidon and Pari* at lowest rate*.
ItATKrt OF PA-oAOR-From Now York to South
ampton. London. Mavru, nndUrumao, first cabin, Bh*h
M-eeiul canto. *tiOi steerage, BMX Return tUfd »
mliimlralnt. 0.-.LIHCHb 4 CO., gliownnu Greco,
N. V. li. CI.AUM'IiNUJa A CO., i booth CUrk**i-
AgtUUlof Chicago -
STATE LINE
To nia'KOW, Liverpool. Dublin, Belfast- and London*
dcm. from N. V.. every Thursday. *lm Cnbi.veW
in »73 bucurdliiK to accommodation. becoud Cabin.
»<a tccraie, M. AU g Tl}ft uaLDWLS A CO.,
T.’llronJwar, N. V.. ami in*l cnicago-
JOHN Hl.r.ubN. We*tcnt Manager. .
ANCHOR LINE MAIL .STEMfiKS
New York and Oiaiiro<*
DBVONIA, Auk- CJ, vami
uuLIVIA, Auk. :to. op ml EriiMl'lA.ke.n. ja.spw
New York lo London direct.
VICTOHIA, auk. amiumu;Ai,ii- , HN'iA.t‘i'n.o. ,, »| a
Cautui KStotdU. Eacureton Ttckeia*rrcducedr*w»*
HESDEUSQN UUjVmK* m fed WailUnatoa-iy^
NATION Al. liliSK UP HT'KA.HHIIIi’rt.
Baling twice a week (rum New York to yuceunu* 0 *
Liverpool. and l.umiuu. _
Cabin i a*»aio trum fcW to *7O omrency. Excuriio*
Ticket* at reduced rale*, btevrage, |dd. DroJti w
Unal Britain and Ireland.. . .
k'urvallluK* uudturiticr Information apply to
ELECTRIGIIg
■MMMi-V ■ MWW-W U|4 , vw|k , lUt*
wm m mm > lery. vcucrniuiK *
Fl Lfl X powerful oum Li
Up I H ■ wblciicaabe aui' «f
DLL I ■ [srvSii!.'! 1 ""-
eml'ur local
the current bain* Incrcatedordlminiined at i'' ea
Klvuig a steady, oomlauoui clcetrlc burrtui. u
iilßliiorday, no lucouveuloucc, u “ l l IJ1 "f 1 “/iii lh*-
bausied uorvou* tyileut, relieving Uliouiiuii*ui. “> J f
lerlt. Neuralgia. .\p.ld.-*y. Mirvou* U/»p«n>*l». Lww«*
Manhood, (luiieral DnoLity. etc.
Wboieralo and roiall.ugciit*
UAit’i'LElT, Ul/i’.ilAN iV PAKIILIL
fti* SlulD*et„ Ctilcuuoi 111* ,
Manufacturer* of Tru*»e». tU*ilo snicking*.
auud for rruatUc mi Me deal fclcctrlclt). ——
bHOnQMockiai Bird M
mmo
T(1(J UJ

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