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Chicago daily tribune. [volume] (Chicago, Ill.) 1872-1963, November 16, 1881, Image 12

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First Day's Proceedings of tho
National Tariff Con
Address of Gov. Bullock, of
Georgia, the Temporary
Vt. McKlmlloy, of Ohio. Appoint
ed Permanent President
of the Body.
A Prolonged Plea for the Protection
of the American Mercantile
Protection Demanded Tor Every*
• thing Grown and IVltulo in
This Country.
J. B. Crinnell Wants to Know
Something About the Steel-
Rail Pool.
The National Tariff Convention mot In Fair
bank Hall shortly after II o'clock yesterday
morning, there being about one hundred dele
gates present at (be opening of the session.
The convention was called to order by Mr.
Avery M. W. Kingsley, President of the Indus
trial League or America, Tito llov. Dr. Noble,
of, Union Park Congregational Church, led In
The cull far tbe convention, which has already
been published In The TiiiiiliNK, was rend by J.
F, Scanlon, of Chicago, Secretary of tbo Execu
tive Committee.
Mr. Kingsley, 01* behalf of tho Industrial
League, welcomed the delegates to Chicago. Ho
bald tbo call fully set forth the objects of the
gathering, and without further preface the
league turned over tbe convention to tbo dele
gates. Me was Instructed to nominate ox-Gov.
Ktilus 11. llullnek, of Georgia,' us temporary
Chairman, Tho motion prevailed, und tho Chair
appointed Messrs. Osborn of New York, Mason
of Chicago, and Adams of Cleveland to conduct
Mr. Bollock to the platform.
ex-gov. mtr.LooK,
on taking tbo choir, was received with applause,
and said:
Gksti.kmen op the Convcntion: 1 thank you
for ibis murk of your favor and courtesy. 1 ac
cept it us your recognition of tho new Smith, am)
i also accept It with full appreciation of tbo
frrent Interests committed to your deliberations
mu! wltn full eonlldenco Hint groat good to our
common country will How tram your action.
The assembling of this convention la this great
Western muimpolU—this central city of tbo
Western world—murks an era in tbo progressive
movement which now sweeps its resistless way
over our country. Those of us who have
so widely dillered in tbo past, and have
so', fervently argued our theories on
questions of public policy, are now
mare earnestly striving to exeel each
mbor in tbo strife for supremacy In practical
results. Visionary theories are disappearing
before tbo substantial advance or accomplished
fiiets. Here tbo Knat, the West, the .South
meet together with a common purpose and a
common Interest to foster and encourage such
legislation us will by its protective features
build up tbo mechanical Industries whereby wo
can fabricate within the, borders of our own
country tho natural products of our soil, our
mines, and of our forests, and thereby secure
ml enhanced prosperity by making sections and
communities more homogeneous and less do
pondentupon artltlolnl menus of uaosporiatlon.
it Is a trite saying, but none the less true, that
tho larmcr needs the mechanic to consume Ids
surplus of pruvitMon*. and tho mechanic needs
th<e larmur to consume his surplus of fabrics.
1 have said this gathering marks an era. It
Is.witbfn the memory of tbo youngest man hero
that corn bus been burned as fuel in thUsecllon
when underlying tbo fields upon which that corn
was grown were
And 1 regret to say that In my section wo nro
today wearing out ttio points of plows—not
nimlv nt home—by dragging them through tlio
Inm-nre that. lift uinm our hillsides, and tlio
startling iniornintiun Is now before u* that the
cotton tucuirs of Memphis ore sending away lor
sdvetsor inln-ndled Iron to use hi tho place of
bagging for baling compressed eotlim.
.This h a gathering of men who Imve cornu to*
petherlinpellod by u desire to serve tho bust In*
torestof themselves ami thoir people—men who
put behind thorn till bitterness. nil prejudice—to
calmly consider if It 1a not lor tbu beat Interests
even of» purely agricultural people to fitvor
prideetimi by National legislation of our borne
Industrie* man mlnoiis foreign competition,
und u Is assembled In tho very heart of tho
world'* granerv.
Another Important mark to Indicate a prow*
tag sentiment In favor of this trim,American
pulley bad lately been made In my own State,
ohly n few weeks npo thu International Cotton
Exposition win formnlly opened. During tho
opening exercises we were addressed by the dla*
tmgnlsfced. chivalrous, and eloipient Sen*
utur from Indiana. In tho course of
bis admirable oration he boldly ropu*
illn'ed tho mistaken policy of “ tar
iff for revemio only." When a Senator repre
senting a Western State, stnndlnp In the cotton*
Holds of a Southorn Stine, surrounded by an au
dience of planters, has tho eourape of his con
victions and bolds tho lutcresta of his people
la higher repiml than the behests of his party,
wo may well take faith, and hops that public
Bontlmcr.t, oven In tho West and South, Is tend*
lap In therlpht direction, and that this cm of
peace, prosperity, and plenty shall not ho cheeked
by trie adoption of a I also policy upon tho vital
question ot domestic protection.
1 will nut futlpiio this tmcllipent assembly by
presenting argument!! or statistic* on u subject
with which yon nro doubtless much more tainll*
lar than myself. Hut wo shall not, 1 am sine,
lose sluht of tho facts In our own history which
dAto the dawn of mir material prosperity from
the adoption of the protective policy after tho
close ol tho war of 18b’, nor forgot that tho
cheokK and disasters that have fallen upon our
pfopress havu Invariably been the outpimvth of
mistaken legislation iu repurd to the turitf.
.It Is not probable that thu Bouth will over
Spain unite In demanding
and at the same time utiempt to nnlllfylawa for
the protection ol textile fabrics. May wo not
then nope that the men of tho West will be con
vinced that thoir Holds of prain, ns wo
nnr Helds of cotton, will be more vain*
able to us If- the mechanic, tho artisan, and
the manufacturers are encouraged to locate
Jii our midst. Let us demond that tho high
•Undahl of the public credit be maintained
by liberal revenue* from a propely-mljnsied tar
iff lor protection: that liberal util bo granted by
the puneral (Joveriinient tor the opening and
muintenanoe of our great means of natural
transportation through nnr river* and harbors;
und that Inquisitorial omi onerous direct taxa
tion bu uuMllilod. If we adhere to this policy
with orpimUed elfort and persistence, and with
mu compnmilsu tor the sake of partisan suc
cess, even tlio oldest of us will live to partici
pate In the blessings of an Independent, self-re
liant, prosperous und united Nation—a people
united In heart and hi hand by that etronucsl
of tics—mutual dependence on and mutual In
l«reu In thu welfare of each other.
ueinlvmen of the convention, i await your
further order.
wore elected as follows: John F. bcnnlon, Chi
cago; .1. W, Barker, New York; E. 11. Talbott,
*On motion of Mr. Hubboll the Chair appointed
os a tommUioo nn Credential* tne followings C.
K. Hnhbult, Syracuse, N. V.: \V. H. 11. Htowell,
yf Uounslu: 11. 11. Adams, Cleveland, O.; O. T. 1..
O'Cuunor, LaHullo, HI.; W. A. Harrison, Colum
bus, O.s J. M, Westeott, Ulchmond. 1ml.; bumucl
Edwards, Bun Fruuuiseo.
On motion of Mr. Buck tbo Chair appointed a
Committee on I'ermuncnt Organization, as fol
lows; A. B. Burk, Tucumsuh. Alu.; 8.0.0 -
Item, Now York; Louis T. Hawley, Syracuse,
N. Y.: If. J. Morrell, Johnstown, fa.; Horace J,
Smith, Bunta Barbara. Cal.; F. \V. Nickerson,
Boston; O. W, Butter, Chicago; Milton Uomley,
lowa City, la.; A. J. fuller, Maine; Eliza Bust,
Michigan; Taylor Grouse. Delaware.
' Tho bccretary rend u telegraph dispatch to the
effect that the Hon, J. B. Urlmiull, of Orlnnolt.
In., opjadmed us a delegate by Uuv. Goar of
that btate, was on bis way to tbu convention.
It was suggested that in order to expedite
business the roll of delegates In the bands uf
tho Hccrctsry should bo accepted us the roll ot
the convention, hut as it appeared this was not
perfect the inoitou was withdrawn and the con
vention took a recess until <1 p. m.
\ The convention was culled to order at SJ;‘JO p.
si. by Chairman Uulleck, and tbo Committee uu
Permanent Organisation reported, us fellows:
For President—William MuKlndley, ol Ohio.
: Vice-Presidents— W. It. iiurt, Fast dagiuaw,
Mich.; Joseph H. brown. Yuuugstuwu. U.t A. J.
Fuller, Maine; K. A. Huristrom, Troy, N. Y.;
o. VY, Putter, Chicago; Willard Wanner, Tu*
oumseb. Ala.; J. ti. Ncgloy, plitsburg, Pa.; John
H. Adams, Wilmington, Dob; I). 11. Miller, Hal*
Jones. Nevada; J. J. Huger*
yunl I. to wlndwud ofiSlM; V,* v i Hell lISn
whll, Ul« Welt.tier ly Ku« LlvefSS ’
U I. Ju.l tlm.ii InucwaUa jSiioh 11 Ww.
111, uiMt ttucrcd rl,Ll. or out “juai" ,
that are slowly bpt surely p»*“ uv «'Vj*iuubi».*h.,
Uoaaluii el this alleged itepuL
J. W, Llppert, Providence. H. I.: Senator Sam
dors, Nebraska.
Secretaries—Van Huron 11. Denslow, Chicago:
John J. Hoanlon, Chicago; A. W. Jerome, I'lt.x*
ton, 111.
The committee also recommended the appoint
ment of a committee or nine 011 resolutions.
The report was adopted iimtnlmonsl.v. and Mr.
MeKliulloy.mi taking ilieehmr as permanent pre
siding oilleer of tho convention, said tho honor
was entirely unexpected, as >lO wan In no sense
an official representative of any manuracturmg
Industry of the United Slates that was socking
relief at tbo hand ol this convention. Hut ho
was a thorough tariff man [applause] because
be believed In protection for tbo sake of
protection. [Applause]. Ho did not be
lieve In a tariff for revenue only, with
Incidental protection, hut believed In a tariff for
protection, and, IT there wits to ho any incident
nbunt It, ho would have It a tariff for protection
with Incidental revenue. [Loud npulause.J As
long ns tho groat growing Industries of the
United States demanded protection at tbo bands
of tbo Congress of tbo United States, ho behoved
It ought to be voted to them, and then not
splggardly. That was tho position ho had always
taken Unon tills question. lie wan educated in
tho school of tariff, to which his friend Mr.
Morrill belonged, whom he hud long known, not
personally, but by reputation, us one of tbo
great leaders In tho tariff thought of tho United
states. [Applause.]
On motion of Mr. Klngsland, tbo Committee
on Hcsolullons was constituted ns follows: I). J.
Morrell, Johnstown. Ha.: William A. Sweet.
Syracuse, N. V,; C. M. Hawley, I). If. Mason, and
John S, Norton. Chicago: H. (I. Hlcbblns, De
troit; 11. 11. Adams, Cleveland. O.t 11. S. Osborn,
Now York: W. ll.Htnwell, Appleton, Win.
On motion of Mr. Osborn, New Vork. resolu
tions were now declared In order, and It was
agreed that tbo same bo rend and referred to
tbo Committee on Resolutions witbout debate.
Mr. J. W. Hinton, of Milwaukee, said that
every gentleman present would agree (hut be
fore they departed to their several homes scute
expression should be given in graiolul memory
of a man who was ever the iinillncbtng, clear,
concise, honest, able advocate of protection to
American industries—a man who had given tho
best definition of American Industry that wo
hud ever hud. who In that description said: “It
Is not only to tho plow that furrows the land, but
It is to tbo ship that plows the ocean," Homo
who bad lor many years sailed under tbo Hag
remembered with pride the grand condition of
wont used to be the American niereaniUu navy
They thought of Us condition today wltb sor
row oud somewhat of shame. That man gave
birth to the grandest saying about labor ever
tittered on tula or nny other continent—” It is
mir glory (hut tho American laborer is more in
telligent ami better paid than bis foreign com
petitor ” [applause]—and that sentiment of
Jnines A. Gariield touched deeply the hearts of
every workingman of America, [bond ap
plause.] They responded nobly, and they prin
cipally put him m the Presidential clmir. This
convention ought not to separate without a
public expression of their sorrow, not alone at
lien. Garfield's death, but at tbo terrible manner
in which It occurred. They would remember bow
be told them in the convention in .which ho
was nominated In ibis city of tbo abject condi
tion In which tbe country wu j placed before tliu
Republican party came into power, mid how he
told them that It threw its uruiecUng arm
around uitr enfeebled industries, und tbcysturl
ed Into new life. There was one thing not so
generally known us it might be, ami (hut was
that the very last public uol of Uen. Garfield's
life was to read the proof of Ills own report ml
vacating tho retention of tho duty on wool. lie
noptd tbolr agricultural friends would not fur-
get tlfp.
The Chairman usked If tbo gentleman had
prepared a resolution on tho subject.
Mr. Hinton said ho would leave tbe form of
tbo resolution to the committees.
Mr. H. 11. Adams, of Cleveland, thou offered a
set ut resolutions, us follows:
Whereas, Tbe present depressed condition of
tbo American carrying trade on tbc ocean is one
of tho must important (|tiosilons dciiiunulng tbo
attention of Congress ami of our people today:
Wiikueah, That condition, which grow out of
our long and bloody Civil War, Is not duo to our
want ot natural resources or ut üblli-
ty to build ships at homo nor gut
tu tho lust cost of tho ships, but
rather to tiie higher cost of capital and labor in
this country uuu to burdens of taxation, which'
together miiKo It Impossible for us to own mid
run ships In competition with the cheaper capi
tal and Inhur of lurelgu nations, and
WHEUtAs, Tbo ship on tbo oeoan is similar tu
tbo factory on tbo land, auu should bo given tbo
same measure of protection tu render competi
tion equal; tburotore,
Umiu'cJ, That this convention urge upon
Congress tbo importance of taxing Immediately
(men wise legislative action us tuis great Na
tional interest demands tu bring it again to that
position which Is due to our Nation on tbo sea.
That our foreign currying trade should uo
built up through the adoption by this Govern
ment of a policy similar to that by wbleb Ku
gland and other Doropemi Governments buvo
built up tbetr merchant marine—a policy bruml,
comprehensive, uud equitable—sueu as will in
duce the investment ot capital In ships built In
American shipyards by American labor.
Tout us there is no instance in tbo history .of
tbn world of a great maritime people continuing
to bo u great maritime ueuple without being
shipbuilders, this Nation must build Its own
ships In order to become u great ship-owning
nation: and that tbo foreign carrying undo is
not to bo revived by repealing our .Navigation
laws oud going abroad to buy ships, but by giv
ing legitimate encouragement to Induuu our
merchants tu build auu own ships; tbo sumo
policy us that by which ait our Industries have
been built up.
That tho American labor which is employed
In tbo shipyard and In tbo. ship on tbo ocean is
entitled tu exactly tbo same protection accorded
tu American labor employed in any other in
dustry. That this Government should treat Its
mall-currieri on the sea, gomg to foreign ports,
exactly us it dues Us mall-earners on the land,
making no distinction between a ship in tho
foreign trade, and a railroad car, or a coast
That tho ury for free ships does outcome from
Americans who want to buy ships, but is a plea
fur a false remedy, and Is not In tho interest of
this country or Its Industrial development, and
should tie condemned by tho American people.
That thu natural necessity for naval defense
of our const ami commerce cun best bo met In
part by the building of u merchant marine of
great speed, easily adapted to naval use In case
of emergency, coating the Nation nothing in
tlmout peace.
That these resolution* be n part of thoso to ho
BubmlUca to Congress by u committee ot this
Mr. John C. Dorfi, of Chicago, offered tho fol
lowing resolution:
Jtouilcrd, That all National Internal taxes
should bu reduced, und that all National Inter
nal tuxes, except thu taxes on spirits, tobacco,
fermented liquor*, und tho circulation of Na
tional hunks, should bo abolished.
I'ttorKcnoN fob i:vi:itrniiN<i amdevehy-
Mr. David 11. Mason, Chicago, offered the fol
WtiKtiKAß, All tho hard times, without excep
tion, suffered by the American people, from
17bU to 1 Ml—the wbolu period during which any
tariff for revenue only has been In operation—
have been under the null-protective system of
duties on Import*; and
WimtUAH, all the prosperity enjoyed by the
American people-übsolutcty nil of it, without
any exceiKlun whatever—from tho beginning of
thu Union until now, has been under the rule of
tariff protection: and
Wiikukas, It is nn Indisputable fact that
when there I* work for the band* of men there
Is food lor their months, clothes for their bodies,
shelter fur thoir beads, fuel for their warmth.
Instruction for their minds, oomlnrt for their
fain tiles, and progress for their condition; and
W iikiikas, Thu sum of snulul misery among a
people can be measured by their Inability to ob
tain wages; and regular employment and labor
fully compensated aro the fruitful parents of
general thrift, content, and cheerfulness; and
WmntKAM, I'owurio protect homo labor and
capital was put in the Constitution by Us
founders In pursuance of a set purpose to put It
there, conformably to thu demand of thu peo
ple, so that tlm only sort of tariff on Import*
which compiles with both the letter anil tbo
spirit of thu fundamental law Is u protective
tariff; and
WmntKAH, "A tariff for revenue only,” by
leaving altogether out of view the purpose In*
eorpurnted lit tbu Constitution—by requiring
that tho trust iherclu shall remain unexecuted
and bo made a frustrated und nuiiilled provis
ion—ls a kind of tariff never designed nor con
templated by tbo great builders ul our political
structure, uud must therefore bu unconstitu
tional; and
Wiikuha*, There (son foot n combined elfort
of tho enemies of American industry lobring
about such a reduction of duties on imports us
must bu either harmful or ruinous to every
branch of production in the United Htates; belt,
ilcmiivct, That wo demand of Congress an tin*
lllnubhig und umnUiuknhluadherence In Us acts
or legislation to tbo protective purpose in the
Constitution, embracing agriculture, nmimfutT
ures, mining, shipping, navigation, and labor In
their divers brauthes.
ifrsoiccil, Thu; s "tariff for revenue only" Is a
system of Uußfton imitoris based on the falsa
oud ruinous Idea that thu Uovurunient will look
out for Itself, und tho people must look out for
thum*elve», that homo Industry will thrive most
when it is least cared for in the laws, und that It
is expedient to hire foreigners to produce man
ufactures lor our use. while tuns of thousands
of our workmen are deprived of employment,
and our own good raw materials bo neglected to
make room tor Importations—u system which
has always ended In prostrating our Industry, In
reducing multitudes to Idleness, In disordering
tbu currency by forcing the Importation of
specie to liquidate our ad verso baluucoof trade,
In bankrupting the country In controlling tbo
National revenue until tho (lovenimcnt has
been compelled to resort to expensive loans to
help pay its ordinary expenses fit times of pro
tuuud peace, und iu spreading privation uud
misery throughout tho land, evils which con
tinued to grow worso until tne pressure of
necessity forced a return to tarßT protection,
which brought buck prosperity.
iUtulitd, That we denounce British free trade
as a scheme to protect British manufactures In
our own market against the eomiHrmlonof our
own manufacturers; as a schema to enable
British capital and labor to deprive Amur
lean capital and labor uf tbs Just pro
tection of our laws: as a scheme to dupe
it* Into producing articles which contain much
material ami Httln work tor be exchanged abroad
for articles which roniiiln much work nml Httlo
material, and gcciernllv as a *OllOlllO to ninko
England tliu workshop or the wftrid, so us to
compel nil other nations In compete for tho sale
of their raw materials m her market with tho
cited ul’atntlilimr her to (1* the prices or what
she buys, and to compel nil other nations to
compete for tho purchase or mnmilnuturcs In
her market with the cited of cnnhilntr her to tlx
tho prices of what she sells.
Ifesalml. That we favor tho policy of tariff
protection because It multiplies the establish
ments which plvo employment to labor ami cap
ital ut home: because It secures a fair nay’s pay
for an honest day's work: because It creates a
demand rural! tho dlllorcnt nptUudos, endow
ments, talents, and capabilities nmomr our peo
ple whereby production, whether mental or ma
terial, is largest In ipmntity and highest in qual-
Ky, cneh particular eapneltv being thou occu
pied with us appropriate work, ami available for
its inmost.contribution to 1)10 aggregate result:
because It nltlmatoiy leaves nobody idlo who
seeks wages: because It lilts tho country with
prosperity, tho homes of the lolling millions
with comfort, and tbo coffers of tho Govern
ment with abundance: and because It enables
tbo Nation, as 11 separate and distinct organism,
to provide effectually for Its own safely, wel
fare, happiness, development, strength, and ex
ttmrm.. .
Hiu'ilr*/, That tariff protection, while mini
missing tho destructive manifestations nf for
eign rivalry, secures tho muxlmunr amount of
wholesome competition: for. if tbo tarlfflmr
rler be too n.ueb reduced, foreign competition,
Hooding In according to Hs own pleasure, will
prostrate and rum our homo establishments,
whereupon all the competition loft will consist
of that pel ween foreigners lor the possession of
mir market, but If we raise tho tariff barrier to
tho protect Ivo point, dumoshe Industry will re
vive, and competition will bo Increased by that
between our home producers, thus Insuring 11
threefold competition, moving in legitimate
olnmnels, and noting with maximum of com
bined force to reduce prices to consumers.
HrrulmJ, That tUeie Is no greater falsity than
tho doctrine that whenever a duty Is Imposed
tbo amount of duty Is milled to the price, not
only of tbo foreign article Imported, but of the
similar article manufactured In this country,
the fact being that tho tariff barrier merely
shields and permits the natural price, which
varies in different countries according to tho
variation of Its component elements. Just ns the
natural price of wheat la tho United States Is
made up of cheaper components limn
the price of wheat in England, and Just
as tho natural price of pig-lren in Knginnd Is
made up of cheaper coiniumeiils than too price
of plg-lron in the United .States. Our wheat c.m
undersell the English wheat, bonce tbo ruinous
effectof mir tree competition upon English
agriculture. On the other hand. English plg
lron can undersell our plg-lron. hence tbo ruin
ous effect or her competition, when not re
strained, upon our mamifneturo. The only way
to preserve tbo natural price from destructive
encroachment Is to erect tho tariff barrier, be
hind which competition, skill, and Invention will
coTiporato to bring down tho articles to tho low
est point at. which 0 protit can bn made.
L’tsolml, That It Is an obligation which Con
gress owes to tho people in be vigilant and reso
lute hi providing legislation which shall sustain
and build up every brunch of domestic indus
try; that to this end such changes should be at
oneu made In tbo tariff ns will secure full pro
tection to the manufacturing Interests damaged
by the court decisions and (bo Treasury rulings
In recent years: that as soon as It becomes mani
fest (but any form of productive enterprise on
mir soil Is not sufficiently defended against
foreign competition tbo duty or unties
relating thereto should be so reamtngod
as to provide tbc needful protection:
and that appropriate measures should
bo speedily enacted for tho purpose of
naturalizing In this country entirely new Indus
tries, biieh as tho mamifneturo of tin pinto, of
linen guuds, of the highest grades of cotton ami
woolens, and of otht'r useful articles, by which
additional employment would bo provided for
American capital and labor,
ifcsoltvd, That public officials arc only tbo
servants, not the masters, of tho people, and
that It Is a gross offense ngalnsljsuuml National
pulley to reinin In office men wbo habitually
have exhibited an inclination to ad
vance foreign at tbo expense of
American interests; that It is unpatriotic and
dlsgraeelul to use the customs service as a shel
ter for any smeeurist, who devotes himself to
writing pamphlets and nowspaporttrUeles which
denounce us robbery tho laws ho Is supposed to
bo assisting to enforce, and which assail tho
right of homo capital and homo lubur to bo nro
tcctud against Injury trum abroad: and that wo
ask tbo eoilpcnttlou of our Senators and Repre
sentatives In Congress to secure tho removal of
these unfaithful incumbents who stand ns ob
stinate and dangerous Impediments to tbo
growth and prosperity of our muiuifaoturos.
Mr. Q. It. Slobblus, Detroit, ottered tbo follow
WiiEitEAS, A National Convention of repre
sentatives of tho agricultural, manufacturing,
and commercial Interests of tbo country Is tu bo
held in New York Nov. IW and lid, for tbu pur
pose of considering.and recommending such
Congressional action us will promote domestic
and foreign commerce, and alum! adequate pro
tection to American industry: therefore,
Kiwi ml, That such wise uud patriotic action
as that emivontlon may take. Inspired by fidelity
to tho idea of Just protection to our homo Indus
try as wu think It will bo, will meet mir hourly
aupruval and support, and wo hereby express
our hope that its deliberations may help to
maintain our Industrial ami tlnanclal Inde
pendence and to enlarge our vast Internal com
merce mid our foreign carrying trade.
Itcaoh'ed, That of all tbo misstatements of
free-trade advocates nouo Is more gross than
tho Impudent uud .repeated falsehood that “a
tarllT is a tux " added to the cost both of tho Im
ported article audof tbo like article made or pur
chased in this country—a tax ou tbo pcoplo for
tbo benefit of ao-ealled monopolists—tbo fuot
being that tbo building up of borne manu
factures under fair protection always creates a
competition which brings prices below what
they aru when foreign monopolies have tho mo
nopoly of our markets.
Jft’solea/, That while oor Industrial prosperity
under our present customs duties shows that
there is no pressing need of a revision of our
turlif, yet. IJ such revision is to be made, wo
consider tbo appointment by tbo President of
tbo United Htates of a commission of ropro
soutallvo men of practical experience in under
take tbo work in a comprehensive manner uud
fur tho best interests and just protection of
American industry, and to report their doings
tu Congress as a basis of action by that body, us
worthy of commendation and support.
Mr. J. I). (Jrliincil, of lowa, otfered tho fol
WiimiEAS, It Is assorted and generally admit
ted tbut there is a close combination of Interests
In thu use of the Bessemer patent in tbu maim
lecture of steel rails, which limit* tun producers
to Kitolt nu extent us to unreasonably unhaneu
the use of rail*, bringing a burden on the agri
cultural Interests of tho country: thorofore,
NfMolred, That we, as proteotionists, ask an
explanatory statement as to any limitations, and
tho reasons therefor, to Justify tho protection
acceded to the makers of Hteol rails.
Mr. Hartshorn, of New York, offered tbo fol
lUwh'ol, That unsubstantial benefit could bo
derived by reducing American wages to tho
present level of European or Asiatic countries.
Mr. J. U. Norton read tbo following letter ad
dressed to Mr. Murry Nelson, of this olty, on the
decline ot (ho American commercial marine:
Nr.W Yokk, Out. ill.—. Burn/ A'chmii, Wai/.
Dn.vit Blit: Having had tbo pleasure of making
your acquaintance on board tho steamship
(Jullln on our homeward passage, and hav
ing hud some conversation with yon upon
thu subject of tho commerce und snipping
of our country, 1 beg leave to laku tho
liberty lu pul u few facts before you, show
ing the reason* why our foreign carrying trade
has been thrown almost into the hands of for
eigners, and our merchant marine gradually
driven from tho ocean.
Today Hnglund boasts of having M per emit of
tlio earrylug trudo of the world. Now you unit
llm cause ui llilti. Tho answer 1b that our Uov*
omnium him douu nothing toward re
pealing those obnoxious laws which tram*
mol our shipping. which ought to hnvo
liocu repealed years ago, but it him
ilimu everything It could to place our carry*
Ing imuo hi tlio bund* of foreigners. An
was nuld to mo a fnwdays slnco In London by u
large owner of steamships, “ Vour (Juvcriimeiu
la tlio beat friend we have, as It could do nothing
mom thuu It bua douo to throw the
mid he ndUed! “You fellows over there must
be a tame lot, compared with your forefathers,
or you would not stand It." I could answer this
mini only with the blush of luuulllailon, for what
ho fluid witH but too tmu. Another gentle*
mun In London said to mo: “Some
twenty-livo years uko u groat muuy of
iho largest und Hurst clipper ships that
Glowed the occult bore the Amorlcun Hug,
ut now It Ifl niruly to bo seen." Uur Govern*
meui, lu adhering to those laws which protect
tlm few to the detriment of the many, Ims been
the menus of drlvluir our Hag from thuooeiiu.
We tire the only Nation under the beuvens but
wimt allows its cltuuna lo purchase or build
their ships wherever they can do so the cheap*
est, mid thou put them under their own Hag.
Then, mniin, wu uro tbo only Nation hut what
will allow Its ships'crews to ho puliiulf in for*
oimt ports without paying three nuniihs' extra
wages. It matters nut how nmllnuus or useless
the nuiti be. or of what nationality, If ho
Is once shipped on board of mi Amor*
lean ship be cannot be paid olf In u foreign
port without the three mouths' extra par. Then
again, although uur Consuls lu foreign ports nru
salaried moo, tho fees which our ships have to
pay them uro nt least double the amount ships
of other nations
You may go Into any of our largo seaports to
day unit ship I,OUU sailors, and out of tbo I.UUO
there will not be teu Amnrluuus; yet those
men cannot bu discharged In a foreign port
without tbreu mouths' extra pay. Are not
these laws too ridiculous for any mao of
brains or ordinary common senso to think of
In these days of foreign iron steamships? Our
sailing ships hnvo been und are disappearing so
fast there Is no Inducement fur young men tu
tuku to the sea for a profession, us wo cannot,
owing to our laws, compote with foreigners in
Iron steamships, and some line day wo will Hud
ourselves with a foreign war on our bands, and
uu sailors to man our navy, provided we have
Now, you will naturally ask. What shall wo do
to remedy (ho evil which has become no
and Increase our merchant murine, and got back
n fair proportion of tno hurrying trade? Some
thing must tie dene besides repealing those laws,
and for this reason: England and oilier nations
have twenty-live years tbo start of os In Iron
steamship building, and they are Hooding the
oceans with them, and, If our laws arc repealed,
wu must bnvo a differential duty of at least K)
Sor cent 011 all goods brought to the United
tates In foreign ships from countries other
than thalr own—that Is, If an English ship brings
goods from England or her colonics, lot It come
In (ho same ns U It were brought lit mi American
ship; but If nit English ship brings goods from
Holland, or nny other country than her own,
let It
than If It canto In mi American ship, under tho
United States Hag. This can bo Hone without
interfering with treaties, and Is tho only thing
that will induce mir cnpltnlistn to pul money
Into ships, and thereby bring back our murcbuut
marine, and establish tbo Stars and Stripes on
tho ocean, where It wan before tho Inauguration
of mm steamship building in foreign countries.
If tbo law wbleb prohibits us from building and
buying ships in foreign countries were to
be repented now, It would do tts little
or no guod without tbo deferential duty I
apeak of, and tor this reason: England ami nil
other nations have already got 11 groat many
Iron steamships built ut u low cost, and If wo
now bad tbo privilege to go to England and build
Iron steamships, of course they would put tho
price right up on us, so wo could not compete
with them and others without tho differential
duty to help us to a start. If tho only tbreo
iron shipbuilding establishments lit tho
United Slates,Atrbleh have already made colos
sal fortunes In building what few coastwise
Iron steamers wu have, together with tho
four little Iron steamships which carry the
American Hag across tho Atlantic must be pro
tected, ns they have been, to tbo deadly detri
ment of tbo many shipowners and capitalists,
thou let that law remain mid repeal tho laws
which com pul American ships to protect foreign
sailors and ourown ships pay snub heavy con
sul’s feus, and
which will he Just, and benefit tho small ns well
ns tho largo shipowner: whereas, If tho Gov
ernment wore to grant subsidies to a few lines
of steamships It would bo of 110 bunofft. but an
Injury to a large majority ot the few ship
owners now left In tbo business.
Lvery lino of business In tbe United States ex
cept tho shipowner bits more or loss protection:
but the ship seems to bo open plunder for every
body. Resides paying taxes on ships as personal
property to their Dill value, wo pay a yearly tax
to tho Government of !W cents per ton; whereas
lit other countries tho shipowners only pay a
local (ax on tho net earnings nf thoir ships.
Now. how tiro wu Americans, under tbo present
statu of aff airs, going to compute wltb other
nations? Foreigners have not only takun
about all of tbo Atlantic, i’aolHo. and In
dian Ocean trades from us, but they
have come dowa to our own doors and
almost Into our own waters, wltb tbolr steam
ships, taking most of tbe Cuba mid West India
trade from mir small vessels. Olvo us tbodlffcr
cntUU duty 1 ask for. and It will
our shipping. You may ask, Will not other na
tions retaliate? Lot them do so. and they can
not hurt us npc-tenth part as much ns tbo dif
ferential duty will do us good, its onr ships carry
but little merchandise from one foreign country
tomiottior. Occasionally (buy carry a cargo of
sugar or rice, but tbo comparison is so
small, compared with what foreign ships
bring to tho United States from countries other
than tbolr own, that it is hardly worth consider
ing. Twenty years ago (Hi percent of till our ox-
f torts and Imports were carried In ships owned
n this country and under tho American Hag,
but today only about IT per cunt of it Is done by
American ships, as statistics will show.
Trusting that 1 bnvo not trespassed too long
on your putleuca, and that you will havo the
kindness, ns well ns tho Interest of our common
country at hoarr. enough, to try and get Con
f;ress to take this- matter Into consideration at
ts next sitting, 1 am yours.
James U. Winchester,
J. 11. Winchester A Co.
Mr. 11. H. Walers.of Chicago, olTorcd tbo fol
lowing resolution: -
lu view of tho fuel that n Tow of tlto railroad
magnates of ilio conuiry, by combinations, bv
bribery, by Intimidation* and by delhineo of all
law, havosccured.sueh control of tbo Internal
carrying trade of tbla country as to seriously
endanger tbo best IntorosiH of tiiu people
of all sections by tbo exercise of
arbitrary power, therefore no demand
of our members of Congress ilio exercise of tbo
greatest watchfulness over tbo great lines of
transportation: tho strict enforcement of ox*
Ntlng statutes, and tho enactment of snob new
laws regarding transportation ns will eauso tbo
managers of tbo railway service to become tbo
servants and not tho musters of the
people. In sheet, wo demand that
tbo laws relating to transportation
shall bo enforced to tbo letter, and not uo openly
and continually dolled, as is now tbo caso, and
the railroad lines tboreuy become a National in*
stead of a family Institution.
On motion of a dolomite from Now York tbo
convention then adjourned until lOt'JO o’clock
this morning. - •
Spitial Ditoateh to Thi Chicago TVibuni.
Davenport, la.. Nov. 16.—At a meeting of tho
Hennepin Canal Central Conimlttco of mis city,
held this uftonioon'r a permanent organization
was elfeutod, as follows: lloburt Krause, I'rosl
deiit of tho Hoard of Trade, was chosen Chair
man; L. [•’. Parker. Corresponding ffecroinry;
A. J. illrsohl, Iloonrdlug Secretary; ana the
Hon. J. B. Henry, Mayor of Davenport, Treas
urer. A llnance committee, composed of A. F.
Williams, .lulius tfobntt, and W. M.Clrussoii.
was appointed. The city will bo systematically
canvassed for funds to aid In pushing and ad
vertising tbo project. Tbo interest in tho move
ment Is growing rapidly stronger In this city.
Meetings of tho Control Committee will bo hold
regularly on each Tuesday.
Who Foots Clio Tar IIT IBllls,
Xuo York Timtt,
About thlrty-llvo yours ago. wbon tbo writer
was I.') years of agoj be made tho fallowing com
parison: His father was a mechanic, in tbo
family wore tbo father and mother and eleven
children. Tho father, mother, an older brother,
and the writer supported tbumselvos mid ninu
younger members of the family. Tho gross
earnings of the fonr productive members of tbo
family woro aboiiL fWXI. bluco everything was
purchased for tho support of tbo family, about
(6UO was paid out for articles tbo prlcu or which
was alTuutcd by the turllf. On somo articles tho
tarlll was 60 pop cont; on somo as low ns lupur
cent. Alow average would bo 20poreout. It
appeared to tbo writer that bis father’s family
paid SIOO to support tbo National Government;
that tbo four productive members of the family
paid >IOO, ot tjyi aplvoo to tho National Govern
ment. besides supporting themselves and tho ninu
non-prodneing members ot tho family. In tho
sumo town was a Htato Senator. Hu was worth,
In real estate and money loaned am, (110,000. His
family consisted of the father and mother, two
sons, who woro men, anti one young daughter.
One son assisted bis father In his legal business.
Iho other, was a toucher. Tho gross income
of tho family was at least (0,600. I hoard him
say that ho bought about (240 worth of articles,
each year, on which there was duly. It appeared
to tbo writer that tho Henalor’s family paid (60
to tho National Government or that tho four
productive mombers paid (12.60 am) supported
themselves and one non-produdlng member of
tbo family. Tho writer made thcsucompurisoim:
Our family, without one dollar of property, ex
cept household atulf and uloihlug, pay (luo Na
tional lax, Hunutur R.’s, with (dd.ouo, pay (60.
Each productive member of our family supports
himself and two and OMc-ipirter helpless per
sons and has no jiroperty to help in doing
it, and pays (26 National tax. Each produc
tive member of Senator 11.‘s family supports
himself and one-fourth of n helnluss person,
has tho fourth oMbu Income ofCiO.OJO to help
him do It, and Days (12.60 Nutlußiii tax. Is such
taxation Just and equal? Did tbo fact that In
our family more .were ninu helpless persons
render it our duty to pay twiou tho tax? Did
tbo fact that wo bad no property and Senator 11.
hud (hO.UNJ make Jt our duty to pay twice tho
tax tho Henator’s family paid? Is such taxation
Just and ennui) 1 1 remember another incident.
A prosperous neighbor, who was a hlgh-iarlif
man, was discussing tbo question with my
father, a free-trader. Father bad Just pur
chased a dress suit. Ho took a iionoll and pa
per and handed Mr.B. tbo following statement:
Cost of eloib in England (ID
Tariff,Miner cunt. .. 8
Importer s expenses undproUts.,,.,. 4
Total (28
'• Now." said ho, " 1 had to pay f 8 tariff on that
suit. 1 could have gut it for t&i with no tariff.
1 had to pay f 2B fur It. 1 can see easily what tho
tariff cost mo on that suit. Now, will you sot
down a like bill ol beimlits and show mu where
(he tariff returns to mu $8 or even 8 cents?"
Mr. B. begun to talk or protection to homo hi*
dustry, homo trade, home market, higher price
for home products, and higher wages, and In
creased prosperity; etc. "Mr. B.,”auUl father,
"setdown wlmt each Item would be without
tariff, wlmt It Is now under tariff, show
tbo amount each Is Increased; prove your
llgures to tm facts, not fancies—that
they uro as undeniable us mine. Then, when
yon have done that, prove that myself, or any
other laboring man, or ordinary farmer, ur .me*
chanlu Is bcucllted 10 corns hi a your by • prelec
tion,’ as you cull It. Olvo mo tho fuels and tig*
urus, nut assertions, theories, and loose declama
tion." " Well," said Mr. H., " have you any ob
jection to supporting the Government?" "No."
replied father. " 1 huvu nou 1 want burdens to
bo cipml. 1 pay fltw tariff,.and support my
large family out of my wages and the wages of
my wife and two sons. You pay about fA) and
nave a good property, and your family aro all
producers. Is It Just? I still want to know If I
did not pay |8 bounty out of my (wicket lu
American manufacturers? 1 want to know why
I should do it. and what I get fur It?" I have
never heard bis queries answered. Can you
do It? . C. li.
Another Candidate,
lly a large majority tho imoule of tho United
Btutes have declare i their faith In Klducy-Wort
us a remedy fur all tbo diseases of the kidneys
and liver: some, however, huvu disliked the
trouble of preparing It from the dry form. Fur
such a new osndldsto appears in tbo shape of
Kidney-Wort in liquid form. It la very con
centrated, Is easily taken, and Is equally effi
cient as the dry. Try It.—i-ouhvllU /W.
Report of the Special Committee
to the Citizens' Associa
The Reasons for Its Adoption Suc
cinctly and Clearly Estab
Municipal Government Oll'erH tho
Host Field i'or Us Work-
Its Opponents Those Who Have
Stolen the Power of Appoint*
Tho special committuu appointed by tbo Citi
zens’ Association to Investigate and report upon
tbo subject of civil-service reform, and consist
ing of (Jcargo F. Harding, E. (I. Keltb, U. S.
Waller, Monroe Heath, Francis 11. I’cabudy, J.
11. Clough, and W. 0. McCormick, yesterday
completed thole labors and submitted a lengthy
report to tbo Citizens' Association, of which tho
following Is mi abstract: N
Tbc Incoming Oarffcld Administration was
overwhelmed with applications for office, and
tbe National Senate gave Itself up for tm cnllro
session to a party wrangle over tho potty spoils
of tbo Executive offices of that body.
What shall bo tbo effect upuu tho country of
tbo mighty struggle for place as tho prizes In
crease, and wo must carry tho pivotal States of
Indiana mid Louisiana, with tbolr ’~M.000.000 of
people, when tho army of politicians and their
dependents arc lighting each other with all the
crooked and dishonest votes that cim bo manu
factured and mußtored into service?
“No otto Is now so blind ns not to sob that
thin Intense party spirit, • tho mortal foe of re
publics.’ Is tanned Into this Hame by tbo pres
entspoils system, that It Is this which dentes to
tboelii/.uti the right of Independent Judgment,
commands that he vote for the party right or
wrong, and follows him when elected to tho Hrst
office of tbo Hrst nation In (bo world wltb its
demands that bo shall serve the party alone,
and surrender, at peril of character and life If
bo refuses, bis constitutional power of appoint
ment to tbo tyranny ossnbHsbod by tbo party
chiefs under tho name of the 'Courtesy of tbo
Semite.’ Thu nssasm of our lamented Presi
dent was tho true representative of this system
and carried its principles to tbolr butt but nat
ural result."
Tho commlttco believe that tbo blood of Onr-
Held will prove tbo seed of reform, ana tho
question, of reform has In bis death passed
from tbo stage ut ridicule.
Experience shows that reform finds Its best
Held la imtnlolpnl government.
" This city Is a monetary corporation In many
of Its functions, expending S4,UOO.Ux) a year In
tho enru of streets, sowers, public buildings,
courts, waiter, tire, schools, library, health, otc.
•• Why should policemen, firemen, teachers,
and clerks bu compelled to become partisans to
keep in place and clmngo with the shirting ma
jority tit popular clutloos? Tbo public has tho
right to hitvo tho subordinate offices Piled by
those who will make tho bust return lit services
fur tho money paid thorn: mid no Governor, no
Mayor, no chief of department has tho right to
puy, for political services rendered him. by tbo
public olliues, no more than by tho public mon
eys. lie can as safely discriminate on political
grounds In levying or collecting taxes, in award
ing contracts, or m putting ballots In the ballol
box. Tho appointing power Is a trust to bo
usml only In tbo interests of tbo Government;
und tbo great source of tbo abuses In our civil
service is that tho ollleus arc treated not us
trusts, but ns mote pcrcjulslls ot tbo appointing
power, and In uoiiscqnuneu are Idled not by
those best Piled to HR them, but by tbn favorlts
and partisans of tbo party In power, und with
out reference to fitness."
No applicant should bn appointed to nnolllco
In tbo gift of tbo municipality, unless bo bo nor*
feotly competent: and In order to secure abac*
Into elllclcney ho should begin at tbo bottom.
Tbo solo tenure of olllco should bo ollluluney,
and promotions should not bo mndo except fur
good eauso mid after tong service. If tbo term
be llxcd. reappointment should follow con*
tinned olllclency.
Thu illness of tbo applicant should bo deter*
mined niter nn examination conducted by a
permanent eommlßsinn composed of, say, live
of the best men of tho several political parlies
ns Independent in position ns are tho Judges.
Tho rules ot examination should resoluble those
adopted by tho National Civll-Sorvico Commis
sion appointed under tbo not of Congress of
“This system, although suspended from pan*
cral uso In 1874 by tbo neglect of Congress to
make annual appropriation for Its support, bus
boon In* full ooorutloa In tbo ciisioni-houao nt
New Voric fur many years, and bns boon fnr
some yours more or loss ful.y In operation In
iho post-offloo ami naval olllou tit Nov York, ami
In tbo Interior Department In Washington, and
tbo results bnvo been iiiilforiiily bcnollolul to
tbo service. In a marked degree, through a
series of years and under successive adminis
of the most practical nation In iho work!, of tho
nation having the most complex.and nllllnult
civil service that over existed—has shown that
uttainmniits and capacity lor tbo real work of
tho offices con bo tested by examination and
probation; this reformed system Is tboroac
cepted by oil political parties, and In the lan-
But John llrlght ihoo lettnr to Eaton
’s Clvll-Servlou Reform, p. 4.T1), •It would
bo Impoßslblo to go buck to tho oldsystum.*
“France more than half a century ago adopt
ed the now system of appointment and proba
tion in her consular and ulplomatlo service; and
has retained It unchanged since sbo bcoamo a
“ Resides, your committee submit that this re
form is simply tbo resumption by tbo people of
tbo right of Sttlf-guvurmnont: from which, In
losing tbo control of their civil service, they
have been ousted by rings of politicians. It is a
return to tbo practice of tbo Fathers of tbo Re
public; it is the old sound principle of our early
civil service, when our President know tbo man
lie appointed and know him to lie lit, and tbo
man was sought for and did not sock tbo place.
“There wore no removals worth mentioning—
less than 100 in all—up to 1820. Then was passed
tho net of 1820, which lixcd tbo term of minor
olliccs at four years for tbo very purpose of
creating party spoils by relation In adieu.”
Tbo principle of this reform is simply applying
business rules to tbo greatest of business Inter
ests—tbo science of good government.
to the Introduction of sound business rules to
tbo tilling of offices, and ask: Howls the party
to be maintained?
Tboro Is material enough loft for tbo support
of tbo party, because tbo reform does not touch
tbo vast number of officers elected by tbo
“ When Gladstone defeated Roaconsflold, oftor
tbo most bitter and determined party struggle
ot modern times, less than fifty officers changed
places. Under this system parties are main
tained in England, Franco, and Switzerland.
Who shall suy our pooplo so lack public spirit
thutTboy will nut give tbolr service to tbo tituto
on tbo sumo terms us tbo citizens of this mon
archy nr that republic? That an Amurlean lucks
patriotism and must bo bribed by office and
spoils tn sorvu bis country? That parties can
not bo maintained on tbo merit of tbolr udmln-
Istrntion, but will full to pieces unless tbe party
malingers cun keep tip party spirit by giving
away tho public offices lor partisan purposes?
Tho pulitlulans In making this objection uncon
sciously betray themselves; they aro popularly
bulluvudtodo nothing for principle— to work
for tbo ulllces and spoils. Rut R is u huso slander
upon tbo American people: and for one mer
cenary partisan wo should havon hundred do
cent men, lovers of their country, working for it
from patriotic sentiments, for honor and the
country's glorj*, for their children's future,"
Tbo cry time civil service will cronto a bureau*
oraoy has uo foundation. Under It tbo poorest
hoy stands an equal chance with nil others, and
will tuko tbo place bo Is boat (Hied to till. Tbo
cumulus of this now system uro tbuso corrupt
Units or politicians—the real aristocrats and
placo-holdcra of the Uepubllo—dunlurs in petty
patronage, Bonalora who, lu tho name of Heim*
lorlnl courtesy, have stolen tbo power of ap*
polntmont. Hbnll wo build up this privileged
class here, while Lapland, tbo land of uristoora
uy and privilege, bus broken down tbo ring,
opens the rucu for merit, tree to ally
There Is no reason to four that the commission
will name favorlts and partisans. Their Judicial
character and Independence, tno publicity which
attends their actions (the examinations aro pub*
lie, the (|uestlons ore the same fur all, ami the
answers mo preserved open fur Inspection at all
times), are safeguards against Injustice. The
experience of England for twcnty*tlve years
shows that such fears are groundless.
ibo result of the olvll-aurvico system would
"The effect produced In tho onergy and olll*
clenoy of the service Is easily scon, and Is ae*
knowledge) wherever (he new system has been
applied, lletter men are lu bo bud for places
made honorable by being won and retained by
merit, uod bettor work la to had for steady am*
® incut at the same salary. The pressure Is
u away to Increase expenditures by addlug
to tho number and pay of unices, and thoro Is n
great saving of time in dealing with lbe con
stant applications for place.
hovo been steadily dlsuppearliighi Great llritaln
us corruption bus disappeared from her politics.
Imndun Is a fair example of the whole country.
In Loudon, Firth says lu bis "Municipal Lm»
don, I8T8," P* till. "Crime Is on the decrease, not
merely proportionately, but actually." Tho
number of crimes and criminal arrests ore aot*
uallv loss In Loudon than lu Now York, which
nus but a third of the population of Loudon.
Arrests In London In IbCv, TAWI; In 1870,
and they have since decreased. Arrests In Now
Vork In IHTO were 75,CW; lu 1871. 81.601; In 1875,
(•• Union’d Uivil Horvlco," p. 00.)
••Tltnlrl olllcors, under till* system, do their
duty, and oven iho bad dare not violate the law,
for they must look to dm people Instead or to
din politicians—to the people for ttiii vmvald of
honest service, Imlenil of to din politicians lor
tho reward of personal dishonesty and low
•• Tito party magnates no longer dure to Icnvo
crime unpnlilshod lo ndvnncn tho Interests ol
their factions: tho whole tnachlnnry or city Ilfo
In to this extent disentangled from this most
dangerous clement—party spirit—and from
alternate sacrifices of law and order hy each
party as Ittannus in powers and tho whom oily
service becomes a city service Indeed, conducted
for its own best Internals.
k ,ri 1,3 unii vvfli ■■■ it.-, i;a,o.
“ Kqimlly striking is tbo advantage under tho
reformed system, in nlty sanitary regulations,
ami this sanitary administration Is the best
measure of tbo ability and Iblellty of tho city
oillclnln. Of New York it Is tbo boast, at least
of her citizens, that tho health administration
surpassed In ellleloney any other In this country.
Yet the ollleluls oh London, chosen under their
new methods, Imvo, In spite of Us fearful slums,
reduced Its ratio of disease und death below Umt
of New York; and under tho same system tue
death rate of llomlmy, ••breeding pla.*e of
plagues, cholera, and lonrosles." Is reduced bo«
low that of HiilUmoro and lllchimmd.—ib."
in tbo merit syetem, ns ndulnlstcred In Lngland,
Is the stimulus It gives to commnn-sehoul edu
cation. The nUoiulaiH-o on tho public bclkhils
bas wonderfully Inurcnsud, and the example has
given now vitality to tho higher schools and
even tho universities.
Tho problem how to loud tho citizen to toko
personal interest in (bo common welfare of his
city, In tho canons and convenUon, and In Iho
court* mom, will ho advanced toward solution
when tho mercenary men now In charge of all
this Und their capital and their motives for cor
ruption taken away; tho goodwill enter where
tho bud are shut out: and patriotism, love of
order, and tho higher sentlmontß will loud to
tho front a batter ulnss of men, now powerless.
Today our olllcers uro 100 often nomhmtcil and
then elected by tbo centres of crime—by the
gambling and dance bouses and tbo low saloons;
tho citizen may be misted to stop this when not
overwhelmed and handicapped by the regular
troops of crime which now tue fed by tho tmbliu
treasury; by this groat corrupUim fund pro
vided by tbo spoils avstem—the control of tho
olllcers of tho municipal government. These
enemies of society live upon tho political par
ties. who are compelled to use or to be defeated
bv these forces, which wo allow lo bo wrested
from tbo public use to support factions and
Uion crime.
Tho time Is ripe for action. The citizen may
bo sure that no one will do this duty for him, ho
must do it personally nr It will remain undone:
and tho reform which could be secured, ns suou
ns (bo necessary legislation cun be hud, by
united and persistent effort, will bo postponed
lor ninny years If we leave It to Its natural
enemies—tbo politicians. An educated public
sentiment which shall demand tills reform will
pot bo refused; for this popular feeling Is the
very source of political power; but It must be
outspoken, zealous, deeply Interested and deter
mined, und thon It Is irresistible.
The llootU Family.
7b the Kill (or oj The Chicago I'ribant.
Rloi.n, 111., Nov. 15.—Please let tue Know In
yuur next issue (1) If tho elder Mrs. J. li. Ilooth
is alive, and whore? (i!j Is Agues Uooth wife of
J. It. ilooth Jr.? Ui.oinitb.
jAmieer—(l) Yes. Ilaltlmoro. (2) Yes.
Tlio School Question.
7b tht Editor o/ Tht Chicago Tribune.
Chicago, Nov. IB.—Your correspondent “M.
H." manages very carefully not to touch tho
school question nt nil which Ift being discussed
la Tub Tiihiunc,. Tho writer scorns to think
tbiu tho question Is tho reduction of tho num
her of children in n room. Sixty youngsters,
nho thinks, is too many. lint suppose the num
ber wus reduced Jo forty fur each school inarm;
this would throw 1-,000 to IB.INX) out of doors for
luck of school rooms. A practical toucher may
not care anything for that, but parents tie. The
issue, however, Is somethin# else. It Is on tho
repressions perpetrated upon pupils by the
"graded system,” which keeps down and holds
back tho clover, bright, go-ahead pupils to the
mental puce of (be sluggish, dull, careless pu
pils. The (traded system may bo likened to a
routined, whoso feet all movo at the same
sliced. Tho question, then, Is not about tho
number of children in a room, but tho reform
of tho handicap system. Hindi children exhibit
in# tin aptitude In any study be allowed to push
ahead lu It, leaving tho slower scholars of its
clast behind? Will tho Hcbool Hoard unfetter
tho brighter children In any study or brunch
and let thorn move along. or is tho old bull and
chain question to be continued tor tho case and
convculuuco of teachers who ore rooted in
routine? ?
Tho United State* Treasury Scandal.
'ib (h< XMltor of Tht CMcaoo THbmtf.
Chicago, Nov. It.—lt is an ungrateful task to
comment upon tho Treasury Department scan
dal. Jt Is bad enotnrh to be compelled to assent
to the proposition that 111-paid clerks lu tho de
partments at Washington are likely to fall into
habits of petty peculation, lint to be told that
tho hood of a department—a great man, a man
who has spout a lifetime in high positions in tho
public service—to be told that such u man has
been lured from tho path of strict raomude, se
duced Into tho company of these cheap pecu
lators of ponholdors, stationery, ourpots, wril
hig-doaks. and lunches Is humiliating indeed.
The obarpo apulnat Senator Sherman Is degrad
ing, and it must be presumed to possess some
color of truth, since It is not met by a prompt
and Indignant vcncrnl denial.
it may bo said In defense of tho ox-Socrotary
that the clique of rascals In tho Treasury De
partment deceived him; that they wished to
cover their own moral delinquencies by
making Mr. Sherman a party to them,
and that In pursuance of this pur
pose they caused Government‘.employes to
servo him In various ways without his knowl
edpe. lint, if this ho admitted to bo true, It la a
confession In behalf of tho Secretary that nut
he but a colerlo of hla subordinates conducted
tho affairs of tho department: that ho know so
little of tho business under his charge that tho
revenues of tho Government were actually
diverted, under his very eyes, from tho public
service to his own pursonut use without his
knowledge. This Is’a very lumo excuse, and
will not curve. liesldes, It Is assorted that cer
tain trusted subordinates of Mr. Sherman were
deputed by him to tho duty of superintending
bis personal affairs. For this transtemmeo of a
service duo entirely to the public to bis personal
interest it is impossible to frame any excuse
whatever.. It opens tho dour to tho very pecula
tions which aro alleged to have beeu committed:
fur tho department subordinate detailed to tho
personal service of tho Secretary might well
argue that, It bis service paid for by tho
Government was diverted by direction to
tho usu of tho Secretary, tho serv
ices of cabinetmakers and carpenters
might with equal propriety bo devoted to
tho building ami furnishing of tho Secretary's
houses, It goes without saying that If it Is right
for tho Secretary of tho Treasury to divert too
lime and service of a Government omplnyfi to
his own personal use, it Is equally right for this
particular subordinate to secure from the Gov
ernment anything and everything upon whleb
he can lay Ida hands lathe way of peculation.
On this false theory it is plain that but a brief
time would be required to corrupt tho entire
public service, and .It makes little difference
whether tho corrupt practices proceed down
ward from tho head nr upward from tho foot.
There in a disposition to treat tho alleged of
fense of Mr. Sherman with groat leniency, and I
confess to sharing this disposition. • liul It is
Idlo to Ignore It, and It is equally Idle to deny
that It Is nu offense of tho gravest character. It
la out of those little otfouaos that groat
offenses spring. To say that potty pilfering
In tho departments at Washington I* of small
consequence because tho sums of money In
volved are small is to disregard tho philosophy
of pilfering. To say that this class of pilfering
Is inevitable, that It cannot be stopped, is to say
that groat robberies of tho revenue cannot bo
stopped. In unearthing tho whisky frauds ac
complices were found In tho public service: ho
of thuatar-nmlu frauds. Once corrupt a Gov
ernment employe to tho extent of a dollar, and
the way Is opened to great conspiracies for the
robbery of tho revenue. With faithful service
lu the Treasury Department tho whisky frauds
would have been Impossible. With like faithful
service la tbo I’osi-Gllleo Department tho star
routo frauds would nave been Impossible. In a
word, tho Government uunnut bo robbed lo any
considerable extent without the consent of Us
trusted employes. And the germ of every grout
revenue robbery I* planted when tho Cblorof a
department winks at some Inslgullleuut act of
Tho old moral maxim—“To steal a pin Is as
great a sin,” etc.—applies to this subject with
us much force us to mtv other overy-duy busi
ness event. Tbo custodian of department-prop
erty lu the Treasury dealing uut articles paid
for by tbo Government to employes as gilts was
u moral leper polsenlug nil with whom bo came
In vuntaet. lie was laying tbo foundations for
great frauds Involving millions of the public
revenue. 110 was offering n premium uu ras
cality: for where It Is the rule to accent gifts nt
tho hands of a man who is disposing of property
which does not belong to bun, ho who declines
tho proffered bounty ts regarded with suspicion.
It duel net. oven now, seem possible that Mr.
Hhermuu could have lent himself knowingly to
this disgraceful system of corrupting tho pnbllo
service. 1 sincerely hope be will bo ..blu to show
conclusively that bo has boon gruddy slandered.
The Vcmolhioii ve, The People.
'ib IA» H'lllor at 'I'M Chicago Ithuiifc
CmcAno, Nov. 11.—lu im editorial of Tub
TitmaNt: of Nov, ID ft It stated that the tug and
vessobownora are organism? to ttgbt that Im*
portual (|rUlimiuo of the ony wblob requires
tbe bridges to be cloned for ud boor each uiuru*
tog aod oveutug, and that tbla opposition la •• un»
reasonable, seltlsb beyond degree, and menu
spirited.” As one Interested lu vessels I dwdro
to say that your imputations are unjust. Wbat
tbs veMßlmuu Uoslro and propose I.
rights respectively or the city aim or ml. 1 th »
shall ho dually determined. hellevinu '
bout Interests of budi imrilcs win i,7,, l,tl «
thereby. Tito viMsaUnieresi is not ot.ii?!' nntl> ' l
the fuel that dioyand their Inienuq.'
nlono to bo consulted, imt cun m>u no . ar ',' fl " 1
win why they should ho injured mini.™ rt ' 11 '
That they are Bclllsh, unreasoimhu.
spirited In lUoIr propo.wj notion I, not h,
by tho foots, and I cannot believe that™ o*’ 0 *’" 1
Journal nn Tim TniniMß wool,! make I!'! 11
statement upon duo consideration. Uc " *
Wbaturo tho facts?
On llio (inoillon or rnlrnc,., Imt*™,,
lion, mj-lnit nolltlnir or kwni rlithi,, | C . .
at It: “ s wk
Tho ordlnaucoß require oil briit™. .
closedono hour In tho morning to I*
•vrnlng. I, tlioro nor tit-oil ,ir ™, K" «»
lowlmrtbnt a portion of the brldm-V L,* ’. ,l *
closed? Docs the piddle kV? I1 * u V ~,J lo
Unit nil tho bridges on tho North Urm.?h 1 e L nal| J
remain closed for n l ull hour 2 Then, u S|,U “U
iy no such necessity hi tho <>usc or tho e. , . ,Qln ‘
Indlnnii Ntrccl hrid)ms. Why U'L 1 , 1 e ,t* rk *M
road bridges on Kln/.10 and at Slxh-<-i!thV! r<ll,
or Iho Kln/.10 street bridge proper ioiV.i’i„ r .^ l ‘-
for n full hour? Would not liitcmiunr*.
tlftcon minutes on-over nil die piirnosp» ~r,
who uso those bridges fur enlsiS \vfc ,b,N «
Iho great nocesally lor eloiing air ti.« fc’ H
Huittii of Van Huron street inra r,i ®, ri,| *M
each end of die day? As It now stuiid* o’ ,|f . at
Is up tho Houlh Itraneh above Huh .j
tho bridges nro so low that B n o <l ' n «
got down tho river, hut nuist m uv W
until tho hour expires if tlion«* U V 6 ** l
a soul to use the bridge or ‘. 01
to cross It. If she could get past the low mm* B ’ B
tho lug might make her wav
uncß lo tho luku. mid prolltaldy oenmv h?.2.i 8
and economize her expenses, in plan-nf » n *
compelled to Inaction, Certainly m Ull ,oW
gard the ordlnmico Is iinrousnindiiu unii tini.Vl
to dm dig interest In demandingnlM ««
IgnUon snail come to an und during ii“im« h,
whonaurolltuhlo ponton of the (it c•rf l |,l?l ,,
Riven tliom mineral Injury i*
inrmt. Wuultl It rail quite it, well ,ii-cnnimjjl!:
the elnm wlm uro ixnlnjf In non Irani ihi-ir m.Vi,
If llio DrlUuus wore chuml (nr lllltoi,
minutes, or oven halt an hour daring ih« fi. y
when that class of people most net® Shi S'
pedltlous In their movements? utt »*
The real question. In atl fulrness Is. h, nw «.»
the bridges bo opened and closed sohsp U:.?
tho least damage to any, and tho giWteo iL.'
etlt In nil of tho Interests nl tho eliv ns a wtuni
Certainly tho enforced closing or ,ki | )r J/‘ 0 '
for an hour tat a time (sun umiceessarysninn
reasonable lux upon that portion of tho i.iu nJJ!
of Chicago connected with Its commerce wan
out n corresponding hunellli to other
la, thon, tho onUnanco requiring it rrn«.np. i.
and Just ? Wo say not, and' It Is nei. "vK«
nllll assert that dm Interest which Is Injured »
It is unruusoniibly solll-h beyond degree ani
mean-spirited In duimimllng that u cham»
Bbould be Inaugurated ? **
It Ik acknowledged that tho rapid growth mm
extension of tho city demand-* greater fuellii h
of communication between Itsdlirurent »eciim.
hut this should not bo sought In tho entmiina Z
destruction of that branch of bnslneii tam
mcrcc, which Is In fact one of tho nm-n poiniL
If not tho prime factor of the city's dbvi>i<m
incut. Uuw shall it bu done? Common
would answer, by multiplying tho ehantirls oi
communlcaUon. This caiiii(it.be done ibreusD
Increasing tbo iiumucr of budges, and wehm«
left only tbo resource of tunnels, or tbaia
tbero Bbould bu not less than two for teams snJ
three for fool passengers between
iaiko street and tho mouth of tbs
river, and us an Immediate necessity
one more for ■ teams and two fur
foot passengers across tbo Smith llram-li. do.
pononts will say Umt tho city has net tho money
to build those. Then she must obtain it. .Vo
ono will assort that this cannot bednne, umlli
all tho elements which contribute to hergrmnt
and advancement are lo bo lostcred sad pa-.
Hervml, It nniNt bu dono speedily, mid while tan
Is hi progress It Is the bight of follv tui rlpp!#
any industry to nn undue or umiucesniry extem.
Tho tug mid vessel inteivst will not bo foun l
I'aclloiiK. sclllsh.orum cnsoimblo in its demands
and will Hike Its reasonable slnuoef the uni
voidable Inconvenience to which all muu be
subjected, but It can scarcely lit? asked of tbera
Unit they should allow tbomselves to be victim-
Izcd or unnecessarily oppressed for ibe
public good. if It be m-ccsinry to
close certain bridges for more (ban
tun minutes 'at any tiuio to accum
niodnto tho laboring olusse*, cannot this In
done nt fixed hours for tlftcvn or twenty min
utes morning and evening without ohisiDxeiu-b
ns have no oxtntpfdiimry demands npun them,
and which tbo vessol Interest can inakn proilia
blouse of? It Is against mi arbitrary, npiim
slve, and selllsh view of this question as iippllol
’ to tbomselves that the vessel and tug itacita
propose to take huimn, and they will rvnmla
content xvltb such un adjustment of tho filia
tion as shall be .oipiltabiu and Just to otocn n
well os thomsolv'es.'': • Vkshri. Istkuest.
C •
ra yff
E /Mrues
la a Pogltivo Caro
Mr all ttoiaPalalkl CompUlow J
aocomtnon toourhcet fewnlo populatw*
Itwtllcura entirely the wont forniuf:l«e“J ■"*
plaints, all ovarian troabl«, Inflammation and vwr*
tJoa, Foiling and Waplaceiiieat*, and It® coai*q««
Bplaal Weakness, and It particularly adapted w w
C lt^STland rip»\ turner® from th* D, *^* ,a
an early ilagoof dovelonncnt. tendency
eeroua humors there la cheeked TfryfpecdllyVr i
It removes falnlneee, flatulency. dertroyeoU «•«*
for atlmulanta, and relieves weakncea
It cum Bloating, Headache., Kareooi froitnjj.
General Debility, fllooplee*nc«, Depreul-n and ia«-
feeling cf bearing down, enuring
and backache, la always permanently cured tr
It will at all times and under all cin-umitan«i*rtt»
bannony with tbolawathat govern
For the core of Kidney Complaint, of either m
Compound la unaurpntacd. roM»
POUND i. pr.p.t,a ottn nod *a lyllll i
Ljilii.lluj. Prtco,l. »l,botlwfor,l
In Uw fora of pUD, «l*o Inlli. fora 0,1 “ SJi,
neolpt of prlco, «1 P«rbo« for cUtor.
fraljuimoriOlWunof loqulip. Iw
let, Addraaa aa above. Xmtlon thii JVi***
»ofamily rtwmld bo wIUaaabUTDIAB.
UV£U VUJA They euro courtlpallon, t»uwu»*»-v
and torpidity of (bolivar, a cent* (*t bo*.
FOB BAT,H 11V AX y TtigTTQlllßTßt_
cjwta Oil ijfXijiiiXT’
The World’s Groat Healing Remedy.
Tanilla Giiocolaie,
Iko nil our cljocjWMi *•
mnlwilU tlu* «•"*
0n.1.U ofo»uj.crlor‘l iaU J |ll|
cocoa nnJ nugar, jp»
luro vaullla Irau.
rtuk or cnteo dry • kl
BoMbr U'“’"'"'TcO
jjvr<h**t* r » M* 9 **

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