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Alililt. — Tbe legal rate of interest in eight per cent, In unnofts ceotracta, the principal with out any inters* Mv be recovered. .... Arkansas.— When no rale i« mentioned, it u six per cent. Parties may contract for any rale net ex ceeding tan per cent. Usurious contracts are void. —Ark. Digest, p. 613, et California. —Where there is no express con tract vn writing, fixing a different rate, interest shall he allowed at the rate of ten per cent, per annum, for ill monies after they become due on any bond, bill, promissory note or other instrument of writing, or any judgment recovered before any court of tbisatale, for money lent, for money due tn the settlement of ac «eßnt», from the day ou which the balance is a seer \ained, smd for monev received to the use of another. Parties may agree in w.iiing for the |»ymeat of thy rate of interest whatever, on money due, or to become doe, on any contract. Any judgment render ed on such contract, shall conform thereto, and shall hear the iuierest agreed upon by tbe parties, and which shall be specified in (lie judgment. The parties may in any contract in writing, where by any debt is secured to be paid, agree that if the interest on such debt is not punctually paid, it shall become a part of the principal, and thereafter liear the same rate of iutercst as the princqml debt.— State Cal. Connecticut. —Six per cent. In usurious con tracts, the princip.il can lie recovered without the interest. Persons guilty ot taking usury, forfeit the whole of the interest—one half to him who shall proseute to effect, one half to State Treasury.— Rev. Stat. of 1348, Public Acte of 1849, p. 47. Dei. awake. —Six per cent. Whoever exacts more is liable to forfeit the whole debt—one half to the Slate, and one half to the prosecutor. Fdkida.—Eight per cent, by agreement; if no rale be *|w*rified, then six per cent. The person re serving a higher rate shall foifcil the entire interest. —Thompson's Digest, p. 34. Georgia. —By the statute of 1845,the legal rate of interest, which previous to that time had been eight per cent., was reduced to seven per cent., and the penally for usury made a forfeiture of the whole intere-t, legal as well as usurious.— See Pamphlet Act of 1843, pp. 33 and 36. This act took effect 17th December, 1845. All Contracts previous to that date,eight per cent. Inter est up to the time of payment, although not discharg ed until soliseqnently to the aliove mentioned act. Illinois.—Six per cent., where no rate is speci fied. By contract parties may go as high as ten per cent. lie who reserves a higher rate than ten per cent., shall forfeit three times the amount of the en tire interest reserved. Indiana. —Six per cent. Usurious interest can not be recovered; and if paid, may lie recovered back at any time within a year alter the |Kiyment. Any persons receiving illegal interest shall, upon convio tion, be fined d'tubfe the excess of interest so taken. -—Revised Laws of Indiana, png** 588, 583. lowa.— When no agreement is made respecting interest, the legal rale is six per cent. The Legisla ture 1851, passed an act abolishing all usury laws. Kentucky. —Six percent. The agreement for usurious excess is void. Louisiana.—Five per cent.; but parties may •gree on any sum as high as eight per ccut. Usuri ous contracts are void. Maine Six per cent. If more be agreed to lie taken, the debt or claim is forfeited. Usurious inter est mav be recovered. M A ryland. —Six per cent. Contracts where more is agreed for or reserved, are not void, except to the excess. Massachusetts. — Six per cent. When the de fence for usury is established, the defendant shall re cover his full costs, and the plaintiff shall foifeit threefold the amount of the interest unlawfully reserv ed or Liken. The party paying usurious interest may recover threefold the amount of the unlawful interest so paid.— Supplement of 1846, page 388. Michigan. —Seven .per cent., with permission to agree upon any rate not higher than ten percent., for a loan of money. Conti acts are not void for usury beyond the usurious excess. Mississippi. — Eight per cent, for a luma fide use of money; six |ier cent, upon other contracts. The penalty for usury is the loss of the eulire interest.— Jfntc/unson'e Aims. Code, page 741. Missouri. —Six per cent. If plea of usury be sus tained, the w hole interest to go to the use of common. schools. A usurer may be presented by an informant and the whole interest set oft'to common schools. New Hampshire. —Six per cent., and if more be taken, the par:y forfeits three times the amount un lawfully taken. New Jersey. —Six per cent., and contracts fiir a higher rate are void. Persons taking a higher rate forfeit the whole value of the subject matter of the contract; one half to the State, one half to the prosecutor. —Statutes of New Jersey, p. 765. New York. Seven per cent.—all contracts whereby a higher rate is reserved, are void. Cor porations cannot ret up tl e defence of usury. North Carolina. —Six per cent. All contracts whereby a greater rate is reserved, are void, and the party exacting it is liable to forfeit double the amount ol the debt ; one half to the State, and the other | half to the person suing for the same, by action of dcl>t, iu any Court ol Record.— Revised Statutes, ch. 117. Ohm.—Six per rout. Oil written ajpeminent any rate u* liigfi as ten per cent. If mure be reserved, the excess is void. Pennsylvania. —Six per rent., and ifa greater rate is attempted to be secured, the party may recov er the actual sum loaned with legal interest thereon, and a qui tam action must be instituted within one year from the commission of the offence, when a for feiture is sought. When any railroad or canal company haslrorrowed money and given a bond, or other evidence of in debtedness in a larger sum than the amount actually received, such transaction shall not be deemed usuri ous. Rhode Island.—Six per cent. In an action brought upon an ususurioiis contract, the plaintiff can recover the principal, with legal interest and costs of Suit. South Carolina.—Seven per cent. The party reserving more, forfeits the entire interest, and must pav the costs. Tennessee. —Six per cent., and the person ex acting more, is liable to a fine of not less than the amount usurioiisly taken. TEXAS.—Eight per cent. Parties may agree up on any rate sis high as twelve |cr cent. Any viola tion of this statute incurs a foifeitiire of all the inter •st.—Laws of Jan. 1840, i ol. 4, p. 8. Vermont. —Six per cent,, and interest paid be yond that rate may l»e recovered back, with costs.— Rev. Stat. of Vt.,p. 366. Virginia. —Six per cent. All usurious contracts are void, with the penalty of forfeiture of twice the amount of the debt. W iscon SlN.— Seven per cent. Persons may agree upon any rale as high as twelve, such agreement to be in writing. Any agreement for more forfeits the whole debt. —Act of 1841. Well Said. Tbe Silver Creek Gazette having been accused of being wanting in deference, in its remaiks upon the three thousand clei gymen who petitioned Congress upon a political question, lately replies: We plead guilty to the indictment. The Gazette is professedly political in its character, and contains some political articles, in which we venture to criti •ipe both politicians and political measures. It is our right and privilege so to do. To those who dep recate our oottrt? toward* the clergy, we Cftu only re ply by a varn. A minister was once riding through a section of the State of South Carolina, where custom forbade inn-keepers to take pay Irom the clergy who stayed with them. The minister in question took sup|ier without “grace,” drank wine, retired to rest without pv*yer, and ate his breakfast without prayer or “grace,” and was about taking lijs departure, when he was presented by “mine host” with his bill. “Ah, sir,” said he, “1 am a clergyman.” (•That may be,” responded BoiiJt.ee, “ hut you CMM here, smoked like a sinner, and ate and drank like a sinner, and now, sir, you shall pay tike a sinner.** The moral of the story at once suggests itself. Mr, James Moore, a Revolutionary veteran, died on the 15th inst., at Metuchen, Middlesex Co., ia the 100th year of his age. His death was caused by an injury received by a fall on tbe ioe, in January last, previous to which time be was accustomed to WAlk twelve miles * day—so extraordinary, consider, log bis advanced age, was the vigor and elairticity of his frame* _ Paring ifin Revolutionary war he was employed in furnishing clothing for the American army; and be beheld, from the shores of Staten Is land, ia 1776. the English fleet, under Sir William H«wt, rater the batbor of New Yotk. ’PATTY PIONEER. SAINT PAUL: FRIDAT MORNING* MAI 20* lfis4* a GOODRICH, :::::::::::: EDITOR. TUX DAILY PIONEER, it published eirry week-day mor ning at the Office, Bench Street , Sain/ Paul. Minnesota, and furnished to Mail Subscribers for Six Dollars a Year, in Ad vance. City Subscribers, Fifteen Cents a H'erA. payable to the Carrier. THE WEEKLY PIONEER , printed at the tame office, is sent to Mail Subscribers at thefotlmciny rates: Single Copy, Iwo Dollars ; Five Copies, Eight Dollars; Eight Copies, Ten Dollars( Twelve Copies, Twelve Dollars. To take advantage of the Club rates, however, the subscription price must be paid in variably in Advance. TO CORRESPONDENTS. —Anonymous communications will receive no attention. All articles professing to state facts, must be accompanied by the Author’s name. mA for publica tion. but as a guarantee of the truth of the statements made. Voluntary Correspondence, containing important newt, or statistics of the condition ami growth if towns and settlements throughout the Northwest, is solicited. NOTICE TO BUSINESS MEN. AIA. persons having accounts against THE I’IOXERE OFFICE, dating since the Fiimt of May, 1853, are reques ted to present them at our Counting-Room FORTHWITH. News Items. Lynch law w as applied to a liquor seller in Glouces ter Massachusetts, on Thursday night last. His shop was demolished, and he was ordered to leave the town. The Grand Jury of Boston has just indicted forty nine tippling houses for violation of the Prohibitory Liquor Law. A “ Milllion Fund ” is being rnised in Massachu setts, to “put through” all rumsellers. The La Crosse Co. Democrat has been sold to Lord St Rodolph. By the lasi census, it appears that the whole man lier of insane and idiotic persons in the States and Territories was 31,494. The law prohihir.g the circulation of small notes iu Virginia, which is to go into effect on the first of next month, is very unfavorably received in some quarters, and some of the newspapers in the Stale predict from its enforcement the most direful conse quences. The trial of Mrs. Hayes for the murder of Dr. Lutener is concluded by a vet diet ol acquittal, the jury declaring that though they believed the deceased was murdered, there was no evidence to fix the guilt upon Mrs. Hayes. The work of adding eleven and a half acres to the New York Battery, the Journal says, is steadily go ing forward, with every prospect of being completed at the time stipulated iu the contract. The enormous bulk of the mails coining West may be judged by the statement of the Cleveland IMaindealer, that there arrived on Wednesday morn ing, at the Post Office iu that city, 510 bushels of mail matter for distribution. A Mr. Bayne is in Court at Petersburg, Va., charged by Mrs. Williams with having “black guarded her, viitified her reputation, and ruined her rhnractir and the front door of her dwelling .” The old tax law of Ohio lias been declared uncon stitutional. To obviate the difficulty, a new act has been under discussion in tbe Legislature. This, too, has just been defeated by a decisive Vote. Some thing else must lie proposed, or the State will be w ithout a revenue to meet her obligations. George Leonard, formerly of Dunkirk, N, Y., but »more recently ot Danbury, Ct., lias been taken to | Boston on an executive requisition, and committed to jail, on charge of obtaining £2,000 worth of goods by false pretences. .Mn Accounts from the East speak of a present and pros|>ective scarcity ot potatoes, owing to the preva lence of the potatoe rot, which is destroying a large proportion of the last year’s crop. Those who have the inclination to inquire into the facts in the case, may find something of which to take advantage. The Albany papers announce the death of Reu* be* Wilson, a young printer in the office of the ; Jlurnal. He was a member of the Fire Department, Printers’ Union, and other Associations,all of which unite in expressions of grief til his demise. Gov. Stevens, of Washington Territory, has written a letter to a merchant in New Bedford, re commending the new Territory, as the best place on the earth for the location of whaling business. Springfield, Massachusetts, through its Treasurer, I has advertised £25,009 to loan, there being at pres ent, no requirement for it by the corporation of that new city. Robbery at Burlington. —The Jewelry store of J. M. Fox, at Bui|ington, lowa, was entered on Finlay night and gold watches, chains, jewelry, &c., stolen to the amount of £3,000. No clue yet to the scoundrel that did the deed. Philosophy does not regard pedigree: she did not receive Plato as a noble, but she made him so.— Sen cca. Resigned. —lt is said that Hon. Thompson Cam PBELL, formerly of Illinois, has resigned the office of Land Commissioner in California. Well done for St. Louis. The citizens of St. Louis city and county voted on Tuesday, by a majority of 3,151, in favor of authori sing the county court to subscribe £1,200,009 to the stock of the Pacific Railroad. The Intelligencer is in high glee at the public spirit manifested by this vote. It says: “ The world knows our opinion and our purposes. St. Louis declares her ability to build her roads and her deterinitiation to build them. Let the world wag on, and the stock market rise or kill. St. Louis is independent of them.” Spoken like a true Western journal, say we. The star of the Mound City is now clearly in the ascend ant. When a vote of six to one is given hy the peo ple in favor of a direct tax of over a million dollars, to be paid on short time, it shows that ihe'interest of their city and their cwn are identical, and that they arc liberal minded enough to perceive it. We hope the citizens of Peoria will take from the signal action of the voters of St, Louis, and whenever R question of subscription for a road that is to pom wealth into our lap comes before them, decide it in ail equally creditable manner.— Peoria Rrp. The trial of Clara Hays, a young and interesting woman, wife of a member of the New York bar charged with the murder of Dr. Lutener, by shooting him in his office, on Broadway, is now occupying the Court of Oyer and Terminer. The proceedings aro painfully interesting, and as the facts arc involved in mystery, the evidence, which is entirely circumstan tial, may perhaps devolope something like a romance of real life. Mrs. Hays, who has been suffering mentally and bodily for some months past, was so much overcome yesterday in court that she was obliged to withdraw from the bar, and was placed in a couch near an open window, w here she remained all day in a state of apparent stii|ie foci ion, After the adjournment of the court, she was removed, by the consent of the District Attorney, to the Irving House tindf r the surveii'aucc of officers Knight and Lett*. The Eclipse* Today, as has been already announced, there is to be one of the “grandest eclipses” of the Sun that ever occurred. It is called an annular eclipse from the fact, that the period of the greatest obscuration, the moon eclipses the center of the Sun, having a complete ring — (annulus) —exposing about one tenth of the Sun. According to the N. Y. Evening Post , the places where this ring can be seen are in a tract from one hundred and ten to one hun dred and thirty miles in breadth, the middle of which passes through Portsmouth,.N.H., com ing from the northwest across the southern part of New Hampshire, the middle part of Vermout, the northern part of N. York and West Canada. Iu the middle of thi3 tract the ring will be perfect, and about a thirtieth part of the Sun’s diameter iu breadth. The shadow of the moon coming across the Pacific, first reaches the coast of California near Sau Francisco, at about half-past two in the afternoon, by Washington time, or at about half past eleven in the morning, by the time of San Francisco ; and in two hours will have covered nearly the whole continent of North America, with its southern limit iu the south ern part of Mexico, and its northern limit be yond the northern pole. It will continue on the whole of the United States nearly an hour and a half, when, first ending on the Pacific coast, it will pass from the w hole country in less than fifty minutes. The eclipse will not. therefore, be seen in all its beauty in St. Paul, for the ring is perfect only within the space above referred to. It will commence here at about half-past three o’clock in the afternoon, and end about quar ter past four. It is, probably, not unknown to many of our readers, that in a period of about eighteen years, called the Chaldean period, or the lunar cycle, eclipses go through an order of perform ances which arc repeated, with but slight va riations, again and again; but that in the course of time these variations amount to great changes, so that from time to time some old eclipse will be dropped out, and some new one taken up in the eighteen year programme.— This subject is finely discussed iu Ferguson’s Astronomy, and a history of the returns of the coming eclipse is given as an example. The approaching eclipse first appeared on the list about the thirteenth century, and will continue to return till about a thousand years after its first appearance, when, having gradu ally passed off the earth, the shadow, at the corresponding returns of new moon, will con tinue for more than ten thousand years to sweep by the earth without touching it, and then will again return to entertain or terrify, perhaps, a new race of men. The Minnesota Valley. Although the Minnesota river has been unu sually low until within a few days, the settle ments in the valley of the Minnesota have in creased beyond the expectations of the most sanguine. The class of immigrants, too, have been sueh as to insure the permanent prosperity of that interesting por tion of our Territory. But few are to be found among them to come to the Territory w ith the expectation of gaining a living by speculating upon the industry of the “toiling millions,” — they are generally hard fisted farmers, who have sought our Territory with the determina tion of building homes for themselves and fam ilies, in a region where they will be freed from those bilious diseases peculiar to the other por tions of the west, and consequently, in a region whore a homo can be enjoyed. In no other portion of the Minnesota valley has the settlements increased in as great a de gree, as those in the vicinity of Shakopec, some thirty miles up the river. This is not entirely owing to the superiority of that section of the country, over all others, although the land is good, with plenty of timber and excellent wa ter, but that it has lieen the “head of naviga tion” during the greater portion of the season, and many who came to the Territory with the intention of locating higher up the Minnesota, have preferred locating in that vicinity to en during the toils and difficulties which they be came satisfied would result from an attempt to pursue their journey to the point at which they originally contemplated locating. Many, however, have disregarded all imped iments, and ha>v reached and located at points higher up the river, and m«ny have come tliro’ with their teams and families by land. In fact every settlement on the river, from Eureka to the mouth, have already received a large in crease of population. There is no doubt but there are a thousand families who have located in the Minnesota valley, the present spring, who will open farms next year, and many of them will plant a sufficiency the present season for their support during the coming winter. We believe there is no portion of our Terri tory which at this time affords greater induce ments for the agriculturist, than the Minnesota valley, The laud can not be surpassed in fer tility the climate is healthy, and the farmer can see a market west of him which will insure a price for his produce equal to the price of transportation on the rivers, over and above the price paid at points on the Mississippi, M hile the demand for produce for the sup ply of the troops and Indians arc required on the head waters of the Minnesota, farmers do well to select their locations in the valley of that river. This is generally understood by the immigrants, and we doubt not but the val ley of tbo Minnesota, which last fall was an un inhabited wilderness, will contain a population of ten thousand souls before the first of Octo ber next. ladiah Killed * Mr. A. Bully, of Wabashaw, informs us that on Wednesday morning, Mr. Jas. Rock, of that place shot an Indian of the Sioux tribe who attempted to stab Rock w ith a knife.— The Indian was drunk and quarreling w ith an* other thdian at Rock House, and his exertions to stop the quarrel led to the attnek on Rock which caused the death of the Indian. The steamer Editor, arrived here yesterday morning. She brought up a large load of pac- ! sengers aud freight. lowa Items. Thf. attempted Mcrder is Hatidin Coun ty.-McComas, the young man who shot JohnDiough in Hnidin County, has not yet been arrested.— The lowa City Republican gives the following partic ulars of the tragedy: Drotigh says that he and Mc- Cotnas, who was temporarily a clerk in the stoie of Foster k Hess, were riding through Hardin county. They had a span of horses and a buggy from Van fleet’s stable, and McComas complaining of being tired, a*ked him to drive. He took the reins and was leanit.g forward in the buggy, when McComas probably took the pistol Iron) his pocket and shot him through the bushes and came in sight of a house. A boy gave the alarm to some men who were near by, and they met McComas as he was returning to plun der his victim after hitching his horses in the brush. The stirptise was so sudden that he was obliged to leave horses, buggy Drotigh and all, and attend par tieularly to himself. Heavy Robbery.—The jewelry store of Mr. J. M. Fox, in the Barret House, Third street, Burling ton, was entered from the rear, on Friday night last, between 9 and 10 o’clock, and robbed of fifteen gold and thirteen hunting case silver watches, twenty-sev en gold chains, ami a large amount of jewelry—the whole valued at some £3,000. Police officers wete immediately informed of the fact, and at once entered upon the task of ferreting out the thief—but up to the lime of going to press no discoveries bad been made, nor the slightest elite obtained as to the perpetrator |of the robltcry. The event has excited much sym pathy among our citizens, as Mr. F. is a new coiner 1 among us, and had just commenced business under the most promising auspices. lowa City appears to he infested with incendiaries , and thieves. Oil Tuesday and Wednesday nights of last week, a haystack, a shed and a barn were sever ally tired by some unknown person and consumed, and j on Thursday night following, a large brink house bc -1 longing to Mr. Victor was likewise destroyed. About the same time a store was broken open, and a small sum of money stolen, while several horses had been stolen. The current expenses of the city of Dubuque for the last year, amount to £41,415, while the receipts were £38,953. Six physicians of Keokuk certify that at no time has there been “any serious or alanning visitation of tiny malignant disease” in that citv. At Hardin, Alamakec rounty, on the 11th ultimo, Miss Jane Piesrott was poisoned by eating wild pars nips. &he lived about one hour. She was sixteen y ears of age. Terrible Murder. ONE man killed and two shot. Aliout 3 o’clock yesterday morning, a difficulty took ! place at a German wedding patty, held in I*. Kezz ler’s house, near Skates’ distillery, near the corpoin tion line, in Storrs’ township, the result <*f which was the murder of a man named Caspar Dresher; anti the wounding of two other persons, named Au gustus Sieger and UlizalK-lli Pope. The particulars, as we learn them, sire these: Dresher and a man named Robert Thompson got into a quarrel alsout a partner, which the former claimed as being the one to w hom he was engaged to dance. Thu Isulv dtci ded in favor of Thompson. A quarrel ensued, and Dresher taunted Thompson, and rcpcsitedly threaten ed to strike him. The latter caught hold of the former and attempt ed to eject him from the room, and finally succeeded. Diesher went to his home, but soon returned, aud again commenced ti|)on Thompson, who turned ami fired a revolver. The first shot missed Dresher,and the bull struck Sieger on the head, indicting a severe wound. The second shot also missed Dresher, but struck F.lizulxtli Pope on the left arm. Dresh' r then ran to the head of the stairs crying“murder !” when i Thompson fired three times mote, the balls entering | in the vicinity of the abdomen of Dresher, who fi ll i and rolled down the long flight of stairs. When | picked up he was found to lie dead. Thompson jumped through a side window and made his escape, and had not been heard of up to 12 j o’clock yesterday. Coroner Noble held an inquest I yesterday, and the jury returned n verdict, “came to his death by lieiug shot by Robert Thompson.”— Dresher leaves a wife and three children. Magis trate l.ieb, of Storr’s township, has issued n warrant for the arrest ol Thompson, aud all due diligence is being used to cause his arrest. The alfiwy has crea ted much feeling in the immediate neighlNirhood, all parties Itcing well known in that township,—CVraetn* nati pnjxr. "Walker and his Party. The annexed leiter gives the latest intelligence from Walker aud his party: San Diego, Monday, April 3, 1854. “I shall confide my present communication to the latest news from Lower California, as derived from creditable persons who have at rived heie from St. Thomas. “\\ alkcr and his band left La Calentura, a ranrho belonging to Thomas Warner, and situated about 15 miles south east of San Vincente, on or about the 16th of last month, hound for the Rio Colotado, from w lienee they intend to go,us some say, to Texas,and aecotding to others, to the town of Alter, in Sonora. I'heir force consists of atiout 70 men, comprising 50 officers and 20 privates, and they took with them a brass field piece, (a four-pounder,) fifty extra stands of arms, fifteen mule loads of ammunition; provisions, such as corn lieef, &c., sufficient to last them a month, aliout sixty In ad of cattle, and all the gentle and wild horses and mules belonging to Thomas Warner, Au gustin Mancilta, Eugenio Murrillo, Jese Alvarez, Manuel Diaz aud others,amounting together to about four hundred animals. Six mule loads of dry goods, the property of Don Manuel Iletes, the present Al calde of the District of Frontiers, and all the gold and silver vases and ornaments, images, &e., of the church ol St. Thomas; they likewise took with them, with the intention, it is said, to dispose of these ar ticles to the Yuma, Apache and Papago Indians, in liat ter for cattle, horses and provisions. J. W. Smith, who was lately appointed by Walker Govern or of Lower California and Cominander-in-Chief of tne Army of Occupation of the Peninsula, was left at St. Vincente, the picsent capiirl, with a regiment of twenty men, commanded by Cant. Steele, who was honored with the commission of Judge of First In stance and Constitutional Alcade. On or aliout the 20th of last month, a Mexican arrived at St. Vicente, from St. Ignacio aud informed Smith that a force of 200 Mexican volunteers had reached the latter place from Mttlege, and were about continuing their march toward St. Vicente when the informant left. Upon hearing this probably not very agreeable intelligence, the Governor or Coinmander-iu-Cbief held a review of his army, and gave speedy orders to secure all the horses and saddles that could conveniently be laid hands on—ns soon as the regiment was mounted, (which, by the way, did not take more than ten min utes,) the command, ‘Forward march!’ was issued by the valiant Grneial, who on that occasion, it is said, assumed a very martial air, and gave ample proof of his high knowledge of military tactics.- They have likewise made for the Colorado River, and will proliably overtake Walker. Thus ends Walker’s piiatieal career in the Peninsula of Lower Caltfor nia.” The New York Courier of the 9th, quotes City Bonds ns follows: Baltimore 6 per rent, which reeentlv commanded a fair premium, have declined to 99(KIOO. Brooklyn, Cineineinnati, 974<5>984. Chicago, 91® 92J, Louisville, 82i®5, New Orleans, 92(594, Pitts burgh, 854®76, St. Louis, 88£tS89i. A Polish physician at Kalefat has made a curious and important discovery of a species of camera, or optical telegraph, by which a perfect reconnoisanee could lie effected at an incredible distance. It could be used on horseback, and the Turks had as many as 100 person* employed in this way about them. Westward Course of Empire. It is well known by all who are in any degree fam iliar with the history of civilization, that the pro gress of civilization, of science and art, and every thing which is supposed to have a tendency to elevate society above the scale of savage barbarism, is from the east towards the west; so obvious, indeed, is this that the poet’s line, ‘-Westward the course of empire takes its wavy’ has been installed as one of the proverbs of the day. But perhaps the philosophy of this tendency to grav • itate westward has not been so generally apprehended;. I and it may not be uninstruclive to our readers if we ! spend a few moments in throwing out a few- thoughts on the subject. The valley of the Euphrates is supposed to have been the cradle of the human race. Here is supposed | to have been located the garden of Eden, and from this point migrated the progenitors of all the existing races of man. The race is radiating from this point as a center, w ould of course lie governed in its migra tions by the configuration, the temperature and pecu liarities of the climate, the productiveness of the soil and the facilities for intercourse wiih distant people. The emigrant who moved eastward must traverse a vast extent of country broken by mountains and dcs- 1 ert w astes of barren sand. Comtneree, if engaged in 1 must lie carried on by the slow and expensive medi um of caravans; and there was little to encourage concentration of industry, which is essential to in crease in wealth and the advancement of civilization. In the valley of the Euphrates and the Tigris, howrv cr, mighty empires rose and ruled all the then civil ized world; but their inheient vitality lieeame ex hausted, and they crumbled into ruins. They had sent colonies to the four quarters of the earth; but those only who migrated westward found facilities for exercising the arts of soeial life, and developing a taste for the peaceful pursuits of industry and gain. Around the shores of the Mediterranean were fertile fields for new conquests, anil everything calculated to call out a spirit of adventure, which must eventuate in producing a state of society more and more exalted alwve the liailiarism of the nomadic tribes of the east. When new colonies were to lie propagated, they must of course go westward, in a path between ihc Sahara of Africa and the snows of ihe north ; and the Mediterranean would form an admirable channel to convey the swarming colonies from -the east along their westward course. Like a flic on our praties, it could not go backwards for the track over which it had already progressed was already com paratively exhausted, while everything was inviting forward. It crowded on until it came to the shores of the Atlantic, and this for ages funned the Western : barrier. Art sprung up in Greece and Rome, and I produced a great tide-wave, which moved westward, j and expired in the roar of the Atlantic’s waves, j Architecture worked its way from the Grecian penin sula to the Atlantic and then stayed iis course. Mar ble statutes were born in Italy, and then travelled to I’aiis and hailed to take breath, j But ihe Atlantic la gan to Ik- viewed with suspicion, and many liegan to be curious to know what treasures its blue expanse concealed, but none dared to go be yond its vestibule to see, until a Genoese push'-d boldly over the waves and icvealed to the eastern world a new continent. Possessing, as it was found to do, every qualification for tlie abode of a powerful anti civilized people, it was not strange that men | should wish to quit the despotisms under which tliev j had lived, and escape to a region where they might , be free to achieve fortune aud power, and give f.ee | play to tl:c spirit of adventure inborn in their breasts, j \\ hen the co.ist of the Atlantic had become peopled, ; emigration move.l westward by a law as natuial as : that by which water runs down hill. It is, comparatively but a few years since the first ! States of the Union, weie formed upon the shores of I the Atlantic. \\ ith a rapidity only co-equal with the demonstrated “fastness” of this age, States mult!- J plied upon the holders of the original thirtren, and were speedily populated by emigiants from the East. But we have gone beyond the now oid-fa-h --ioued proverb, ‘•Westward the course of empire takes its wav," and are doing things up in a little more modern style "As every State in new. unci n-emits prime. Jumps like the Pbo-nix from the tires ol' Time," is almost yearly demonstrated in the addition of Stiles and Territories, all peopled and plowed. This westward movement is destined to progress until it shall have encompassed the glolie. The day tony not lie distant when the passenger may look out from tlie window of the rail car ti|>on Horeh, and wonder if that Could really In* the spot where the Decalogue was proclaimed to mankind; and look as j they approach the extremity of the Red Sea fi»r the exact spot where the childrcn of Israel crossed llie sea on dry land. The course of empire has as yet finished but one half of its journey tiround the glolie in the six thousand years that have past J but the rap id strides it has taken for the last three centuries, j tempts us to prophecy that the remainder of its rev-* olulioii will lie accomplished in a far briefer |iciiod of j time.— Ing. TRI MAX M. SMITH, Justice of the Peace, Notary Public, Collector and J General Agent. HAS removed his olliee to the Itrick Block opposite the Post Odire, corner of Third mid Minnesota streets, where he will fie found ready to attend to the collection of debts, purchasing and selling real estate, payment of taxes, locating Land Warrants, Ar. Hav ing been in the business for some lime past, and being provided with maps of all the surveyed portion of the Territory and of the cities on the St. Peters, he Hatters himself that he will he able to give satisfac tion to all who may give him a rail. N. IS. Town Lots in St. Paul, St. Anthony and all the tow ns on the St. Peters for sale ut reasonable prices. Also, Farms in the country, with or without improve ments. Lost. IX S'. Paul, on Thursday. May 25, 1854. a note of hand in favor of the under-igned, for eight dollar*. signed by Emanuel Pultay; ami nl*o an order from Gov. tionnan for one yoke of Oxen, directed to Major Murphy. Sioux Agent. • Any person finding said papers, or either of them, will he liberally rewarded upon de|msiting the same at thi* of lice, or delivering them to the subserils-r. oppo-ite S . Paul. mayg-tt HENRY BELLAND, Money 10 Lend. VFEW Thousand IV,liars on short date*. may2fi 2w A. VANCE PROWS'. Ilnr. —Keil Wing lame, liy tlie single or liuieimt url*, j from the lame h<at of P. 8. Fi*h k l'o., at the Up per l-anding. in:iy‘J6-1t XVAXTKD. TWO Females that can do all kind* of housework. One will Ik-employed in the family of the Chaplain, ami one In that of ('apt. Munroo, at Fort Saellfng. may 26 tf BOARD WANTED, V YOUNG MAN' is desirous of obtaining board in a private family—within easy walk of the Post Office— where he can enjoy tlie advantage of a quiet home. Ap ply soon, personally or by letter, to -• E. G. 8.," at this office. may 24—tf MONEY' TO LOAN. TEX thousand dollars to loan on Real Estate security on 3, C, 9 and 12 month.*’ time. Call at the office of AMES k VAX ETTEX, may 25 tf St. Paul. Minnesota. BAR TO LET. THE Bar of tlie Upper St. Paul House, Third street, can !h- rented cheap, by applying on the premises, may 23 3t rates of exchange. For Gold and our certificate*. Currency. On New York and St. I/iui*, * per ot premium for Eastern Draft*; t!? » a * rum*. SHIRTS! SHIRTS! 50 do*, superlue Linen Bosoms warranted Grass Bleached, at the WORLD’S FAIR. st. Patti ample. MINNESOTA RIVER OUTFIT I WHOI.ESALK AND RETAIL. Third Street, between Robert » and Minnesota. BPREBLEY, ha* just returned from below with ai • extensive assortment of Groceries and Provisions, and al*oa large stock of Fancy Articles to he exhibited iri the Fancy store, next door, and ready for sale. His Groceries and Provisions consist in part of thu fol lowing, viz: HAOOV. MALAffiB. 5 Idols country Hams, 10 brls Belch’s SH in hfsarn 5 “ sugar cured do. quarters, 4 “ shoulder*. ft “ Golden syrup. 3 “ clear sides, 20 kegs do. 3 casks do. Beef. nsn. TV 's. 2 casks Codfish. 5 chests Y. Ilysen, 20 brls Mackerel, in hfs am 5 “ Imperial, qrs. Xos. 1. 2. and 3; 5 “ Gitnpowder. a brls Herring; Also, a variety of }' lb. 1 3 -‘ fresh rove Ovslers lb, 2,3, and fi lh. boxes. 20 doz. small bo.; sardines. COFFEE. FKRSEKVIX IS r.I.AR*. 20 -.neks Rio. Peaches. Quinces. Pears -10 “ Government Java, Strawberry. Raspberry ’ am! 5 “ I-aguayra. Currant Jelly " St Pickles of all kinds. ; 12 lilids Xew Orleans, Caxiileh and MMr I 3 lilids prime, do. Fifty boxes star Candle*- !50 b l * of A and B clarified, “ »• ft pressed q o \ jlO “ erystalized, 2 boxe* solar eperm. ’ I 10 “ crushed. pork axii fuu k. 10“ powdered, Fifty brls Mess Pork; s*• loaf. -• •• Jasper Mill Flour; | “ “ Sinsiuawa do. MISCELLANEOUS FAMILY GROCERIES, llomiuy, Corn meal. Rice. Beans, bag salt, lux do. ale ratlin, soda and acid. Yeast powders. Chocolate. Cocoa ant Itroma. Corn starch, css. Coffee, ground Coffee. Matches Brooms, Brushes and Mops with handles. Clothes Un.-s Bed Cord*, stove Blacking and Gimp Wicking. Cider Vim gar. I rail apple - and Peaches. Buckwheat Flour and Rvt do. Pepper sauce, Walnut Catsup, Tomato do, and Lemot syrup. WOOD AND WILLOW WARE. Painted Tub*. Cedar do; Ladies’ Rolling Pina anil 7.inr Wadi hoard*. Dippers; Knife Ttavs; Dipper*. Keelers; Potato Mashing Boxe* Choppm*!rays and Bowls; Buckets, Axe hefivvs t-poons, Butter knives; Market Baskets- Clothes Baskets. CIGARS AND TOBACCO. 1 1.1 !‘ av ‘“ "r !U * , ‘ '"-t Stock, which cna. l»!e* us to sell lower than anyone d o in the P j lv i In ‘‘V "oi-.l—my stock includes everything in the Or., cei l Line, winch w ill be sold cheaper titan the du-aix-t j iin,i 1 JJ-pwlfully inform all my friends and the public generally that whatever they mar wish in mv line „f busi liess can Ik* obtained either at wholesale nr retail St. Paul. May 20. ,954. " MAKKLEY A KER.V, DF.ALF.RS IN HARDWARE TOOLS AND CL’TLt’RV_ I On St. Anthony st., near the American House, j LD call the attention of the citizens of 8t Pad V f and vicinity, to their new, large ;,n l well a-«.,rte<j 1 stock of house furniture. j Pitch a* Nail*. Iss ks in all their variety. Wrought, ra*, Parliament and strop hinge*. IVlts. shutter* Fa-teners brads. Lock*, screws. Faithe*. Pell pull-: n Rapper-] MECHANIC’S Toni s. Hand. Buck. mill. X. Back and Ripsaw- Hatchet* -ix e*. broad and pitching Adz.*; spoke shave*, drawing kni.'e*, former, socket, turning <>r |mring Chisel*; Augur-, brace*. Trowel-; .lack, smoothing and Fine 1 lanes; plow and l.ea.i Gtinge*, boring machine*. Hatchet*. Hammer* Fl it round and saw File*, two and four fold Rule*. At; Hit UI.TI UAL IM ITEM ENTS. ! _ forks. Rake*. Scythes, scythe snaths. Hoc*, curi-v combs, j Trace, hack, Brcu-t. Timber and I*<ck Chains: Drub lb*-* j and Picks. | HOUSE FURNISHING. T.iays. Looking Glasses, Kr ires and Forks, -peon; n |i,ie assortment of silver plated. Krittnnia and Japan Ware | Boiler*. Kettle*. Eire-dogs. Shove* and Guinge*. Wall!* Iron*. Coffee Burner*. Patent enamelled | r ,»n Kettles, la dles. Skimmer*, gridiron*, Coffee mill*. Flat Iron*. Butch er. ( ook and Curving knives. They haveal-oa fine assortment of Saddlerv. stirrup*. Hitts. Buckets; with Chain Pump*, d.*.,- -erai er j torn Mill*. Patent Hal. nice* and Counter Seal'* St. Paul. May 18. 1951. w _, f BOSTON CLOTHING & FURNISHING STORE. WHOLESALE and RET.. 11, Go. I RkWlll.ll ha* just Opened i:i T A Mill RTS liltlt'K BLOCK on 3d street, under the Miune-otian tifficp. Ten Thousand I . liar* worth of HEADY MALE CLOTHING, and GENT’S |TRN'I.~H,M; GOODS. Comprising the largest and best selected assortment of goods of the kind, ever offered in tlii* citv or Teriiton The good* and clothing are all new. and of tl e LATENT SPRING SI YLKs. j selected with great care from the I.rge-t and m. *t fashion j aide bou-es in Boston. He ha* also anc\ton-.v a **, rum t t '•* I IIATS axii ('APS | of every description. Person* in w; n! of am < f the al on- g.ad* will find t j to their advantage to examine tin's sleek before makii • j their purchase*. The stock will lie sold at WH<>LKS.\I K or RLPAIL to uit puich.i; crs. and at the I.‘»W|>T f .\*|| <*. Gl;l. W< LD. May 11—<1 A w— i r . CIG IR AND TOBACCO HEADQUART ERS. YI'ILUAM VON HAMM, has taken the room in the V? I’n*t Office Building* recently occupied h, Mr. Le Ptv. u an olliee. and iia* opened a line stix-k ol the best IMPORTED CIGAIIS. t hewing T< h-icco ot ail kinds, every variety of snuff*, and' in slant nil article- mauufaetiired or produced from the staple weed. He will keep constantly on hand the ierv lM'-t qualities of these commodities, and hopes to rereiie a liberal supfiort from the smoking and eheuing public. He i* hound to please all taste.* that mav giie him a call H. Paul. V; y 19. 1554. ; ' M AIITIN D K LW, MAN't'EAdTRER of all kind* aud quality of Saddles, Harness, Collar*. Trunk*. Valice.*, Hv nets. Ac kr —AIX1— Carriage Trimming. All kind* of repairing in lii« line, dope in the shortest jHissible time. Third Street. In-tween Minnesota mid Roberts, St. Paul. Minnesota Territoii i Mav 8. tf. ' NEW ARRIVALS. JEST RECEIVED a luge addition to mv stuck of BOOKS AND STATIONERY. Call and see W. S. COMBS. ,n .' 1 L2tt Near American I louse. I)' »t i\El K.MV'kN, A large a--on neut ot -upeimr 1 ircket ( ntlery. Roger*. 1\ «M>scnli*dins and Ameri j can manufactory. Sold cheap at COMBS’ POCKET BOOKS. A large ami beautiful assortment «t COMB*’ Book Store. SCI It h )|, lit MtKS ot eicry de-criptioii u-el in the Terri - ••)! COMBS' B -ok Store I>H’H RIS. A few lii atiii il'iil Frewch lithoprapha in fritmt-*. Slid at COMBS’ BikA Store. STATIONERY of every description at COMBS' Store. Near American House. I, WISHING TACKLE—A complete assortment for snle low »* COMBS' Bookstore. COM Iks More. KM Ml SI( . A large stix-k of new Piano and (luitnr Ay music. ju*t received by COMBS. CfHiARS. A lew tlmuMd extra, at ~ , COMBS’ Store. MARBLE WORKS. The undersigned lias IK-en appoirr ted agent for Kent k Fuller's celebrated marble manufactory, w hercliy be is enabled to fill all orders for Grave Stone*.Monuments. Busts and Mantles, at the regu lar St. Ix>ui* prices. Call anil .*ec specimen*. „ , M*. S. COMBS. _>fay 12,f. Near American House. SIIULTZ SI»JATIIES, MERC II AN T TAILORS. TIIIRIt. VFAK MIXXmoTA STRUT. HAVE just received a large assortment of Cloths. C.is si meres. Vesting*, fce., kc.. which they are pre wired to make up ,o order in tlie U st stvle and on the shortest notice. They have also on hand a splendid as sortment of Ready made Clothing of the latest stvle. and well adapted to this market. All of which mav is- had at low prices nnd aceomniodntiing term*. Cali and ex amine their stock before purchasing elsewhere. NOTICE. VLIXE is now formed complete so that traveller* car* go from here to Chicago In three days hv the Rock Island Railroad, and avoid stage routes and delays at public houses. The steamer - connected with this line are of the first class. 23-dlvv BASB BORUP A CO., Agents. ARRIVAL A DEPARTURE OF MAILS. HT PAUL AND GALEN A—Leaves St. Paul, Mon da>s ami Fridays, at 6, A. M—-Arrives at St.Paul,Tuea> days and -Saturdays, at I,P. M. Through mail to Dubuque D.P.O.Js closed on Thurs day evenings at 7 o’clock, and on Monday Mornings at tt o’clock. ST. PAUL AND ST. CROIX FALl.r*—F.euvew Saint I aiil, Mondays, Wednesilays and Fridays, at fi, A- M »U V pM Pa-ttl, Tuesdays,Thirrsdav s and Saturdays, BT. PAUL AND FORT RfPLEY—Leaves S*. Paid, every Monday at 7, A. Al.—Arrives at St. Paul Satur day, at 4, P. M. ST. PAUL AND FORT SNELLINO—Arrives at St. Paul, Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, at 10, A. M. —Leaves Saint Pan!, same days, at 3, P. M. The Mails for Ft. Ridgeley and Mankato,are made up at Fort Snellinf, and leaves that place every Mondav.at >O, A. M.