BILLINGS, MONTANA, SATURDAY, DECEMBER 13. 1884
Detent« U Congress... Martin Msgtnnl*, Helena
Qevernw.............„.J. Schuyler Crosby, Helena
.................-......John S. Tooker. Helena
TfOMUfCf...........................D. 11. Weston, Helena
Auditor..........................J. T. Wonlmnn, Helena
Chief J not lee..............„..Deems B. Wade, Helen»
* . . - . ( W. J. Galbraith
Associate Justice*...................\ JohM Coburn
District Attorney____A. F. Burleigh, Miles City.
Surveyor General........„.Johns. Harris, Helena
0. 8. Marshal..................Alex. C. Botkin, Helena
w f P. W. MoAdow
Members of the Legislature......] s. H. Erwin
Sheri IT......................................... James Ferguson
Treasurer........................ Jules Breuohaud
C'ierk and Recorder............——......... H. H. Bole
lMuuty Clerk District Court............John Tinkler
Jiidce of Probate........................John MeGinuess
------ . - .........................Robert Peters
Survey it ...................................... «. T. Lamport
PMvtnM .................. „ ........Walter Matheson
Superintendent of Schools..............AF^Shuart
Commissioners......-......................E- S. Tutt
(F. W. Leo
TOWN OF BILLINGS.
. .. , „ cj. p. Matheson
J «st ices of the Peace.............—• j Fred Sweetman
Constables__________„.J. H. Bloom, Henry V.elker
Road Supervisor..........................J- W. Wheatley
Fire Wardru........._.................. «V. H. VanSiudeu
•ß S. SCOTT, D. D. 8..
All work known to the profession carefully per
formed, Office adjoining T. R. -Wallon £ Co.'s
g B. KELLEY, M. D.
PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON.
OMce in Montana Lumber Co.'s Building. Office
hours 1 to 4 p. m. Telephone connecting office
J H. RINEHART, M. D.
PHYSICIAN and SURGEON.
IT. s. Examining Surgeon, Pension Bureau. Of
flea adjoining T R. .Wallon & Co.'s Meat Market.
M. TARKER, M. D.,
PHYSICIAN AND SURGEON.
County Physician, Local Surgeon N. P.
Beneficial Association, and Physician to Board
of Health. Office in H. 11. Bole A Co.'s Drugstore.
g M. HARWOOD,
Nffice three doors East of Bank, Montana Ave.
Billings, M. T.
Q F. GODDARD.
Montano Lumber Co.'s Building. Up Stairs.
OSes in Belknap Block, Montana Av. Billings.
J-^AMPORT & OLDAKER.
Civil Engineers and Surveyors.
Office over L. H. Fenske's Building.
Choice lunch !
Meals at all hours !
Board by the day or week!
P, YEGEN A CO., Props.
Wheat and Rye Bread, Rolls. Pies,
Cakes, Confectionery, etc
3F3t3SS3r BMEJkSEVES7 D-Û-TT
Campers and Freighters will find it
their advantage to give us a call.
8. W. SOULE,
— dealer is —
Cigars and Tobaccos,
Fruits, Confectionery, Etc.
BILLINGS, - MONTANA.
JLX XjOTxrest ZESa-tes !
CEO. X. BERKEY.
Lively, Feed ï Sale Stable
■ —Q ■ —
Oat« and Baled Hay in Quantity*
Best Horses and Turn-Outs in Town
SCO. MECKENRIDGE. Sept
TweDtr-BfctbStrect,. rear of Feneke'buihHng.
E. M. RICHARDSON, Prop.
BILLINGS, - MONTANA
The Merchants Hotel has
iast been Refitted and Re
furnished and is kept in
dr st-class style; is central
ly located and the travel
ing public will find it the
most pleasant hotel in the
Board by the day or week
on Reasonable Terms.
TClieyenne Saddles, Chaps and Cow Boy outfits
a specialty. Dealers in Collars, Whips. Lashes
Brushes, Combs, Etc.
Billings. - Montana.
33o Tour FALL maa.<A 'VTX2TTSB
Mrs. David Matheson's.
Millinery and Ready-Made Clothing
for Ladies and Children, all
fresh and at Low Prices.
BOOTS and SHOES !
Buy everything you need ready-
made and save sewing.
Lovely Navy Blue Velveteen only
$1.00 a yard.
Mrs. David Matheson,
CITY BEER HULL !
WILLIAM F. EILERS, Proprietor.
Fresh Beer Always on Tap.
The Bar is Supplied with tbs Fiaest
Wines, Liquors & Cigars
Good Lunch Can Always be Obtained.
J. C. BOND.
AND WAGON MAKER.
Horse shoeing, Wagon Repairing,
and all kinds of Blacksmithing
Promptly and Satisfactorily done.
27th Street North.
LUMBER, CEDAR SHINGLES,
Native Lumber in Abundance.
PRICES TO SUIT THE TIMES.
A. S. Douglass, Billings, M. T.
J. Ryan's Brick Building.
This is The Most Attractive
Place of Entertainment in Town,
THE CLUB ROOMS
Up Stairs are Furninhed in Ele
*gant Style, and
ITlie Billiard. TaToles
Are The Best to be Found in
JOS. RYAN, Proprietor.
First National Bank
— of —
(Successors to'StebbluR. Mund&.Co )
Authorized Capital $250,000
OFFICERS, STOCKHOLDERS AND DIRECTORS:
*V. R. STEBBIN8, Prest.
W. L. PECK. Vicc-l'rcHt
H. H. MUND, Cashier.
H. L. RICHARDSON. Asst-Cash
P W. McADOW,
JOHN R. KING.
G. A. GRIGGS,
J. W. COLLINS.
FREDERICK BILLINGS, N. Y, City,
W. G. REEVE. Peru, 111.,
8. J. ANTHONY, Denver, Col.
Trinsacta Ge ieral Balking Business
Collections promptly made and remitted for.
H. H. MUND, Cashier.
— Dealer in —
Stationery and Fruit.
'Latest, Publications at hand.
received fresh by every train.
more money than at anything else
by taking an agency for the best sell
ing book out. Beginners succeed
grandly. None fail. Terms, Free.
Hau. et * Co. Portland. Maine.
Three Blocks From Depot.
Worth ol Building« Erected m this Addition Last
Church, School House and Jail.
HIGH AND DRY.
Every Lot Can be Irrigated.
Abundance of Water.
Special Inducements to Parties
Who Will Build.
For Plats and Prices Appy to
FRED H. FOSTER,
With J. R. KING, Montana Ave.
L. H. FENSKE,
Wholesale Dealer in
FINEST BRANDS in the MARKET
Prices Equal to St. Paul or Chicago.
Freight Shipped at our Risk.
Agents for Val. Blatz' Milwaukee
^ AT THE *
Post Office building.
Christmas and Holiday Fancy Goods
In Endless Variety.
The Finest Stock of Candies Erer
Displayed in Billings.
Newspapers, Periodicals and Maga
zines. Ink, Notions and Can
dies. Cigars and Tobaccos.
Orders taken for Music and Musical
N. 1). MALCOLM.
In oases or dys,
and ague, liver
tivity of the 'kid
neys and bladders,
other organic mal
Stomach Bitters is
a tried remedy, to
which the medioaJ
lent their profee
and which as a
specific for disord
ers of the stomach -
liver and bowels
has an unbounded
For sale by Druggists and Dealers, to whom
apply tot Host-rtter's Almanac for MP5.
THOUGHTS OP THU HOUR.
A MAD POET.
Ye fledgling bards, that faiu on downy
Would try with tougher quits to soar and
Young larks on whom the cage-door ne'er
To lock you in. '*all silent and all damned I 4 '
Those poets counted great in other days,
If writing now would have to mend their
They thought too much, and on their
With plain heroic coupletsjwere content.
• * * • *
If you've originality, disgnise it;
Be sure that Aristarch would despise it.
Kçep otf the grass! Remember poor old
Be insignificant and shun his fault.
Become sophisticate and ne'er reveal
Aught of emotion you may chance to feel;
'Tis execrable form, 'tis most ill-bred:
Songs come not from the heart, but from
Write Christmas verses in the month of
In January sing a summer time;
Chant elegies before the victims dead—
For magazines want verse six months ahead.
When, following my advice, you've con
Fail not to sign in full your middle name.
My lot in this regard was very sad:
I had no middle name—they thought me
— [Nat Lee in The Century.
8heep Rai ing in Montana.
The rapidity with which Mon
tana has come to the front in the
production of wool, has contribut
ed materially to its existing pros
Prior to 1873 there were practi
cally no sheep in the Territory.
There are now over 600,000. valued
at about $2,600,000. With the in
crease of this industry, there has
come a corresponding improvement
in the character of the sheep raised,
and both quality and quantity of
the wool clip have improved. Mon
tana wool now ranks next to the
highest class of wool raised in the
United States. The winter as a gen
eral rule being remarkable for ab
sence of severe snow storms, neith
er shelter nor winter-feeding is often
required, and it needs no argument
to prove that the high and dry
ranges of the Northwest form the
natural home of the sheep, it being i
next to imposible to originate dis
ease among them where, as in Mon
tana, they have the benefit of a sun
bath almost every day in the year.
There is no moisture to saturate the
hoof and produce foot-rot, or wet
the fleece and invite scab and other
skin diseases. Browsing on ranges
that are never muddy the fleece
never gets dirty or matted, and
though the animals are rarely
washed previous to being sheared,
the wool is as clear as that which is
washed in many of the States.
Profits on wool growing are esti
mated by many as greater than on
cattle raising, and even the more
conservative breeders figure a profit
of from 25 to 35 per cent, per an
num upon all capital invested, and
all agree that the wool clip will pay
every item of expense, leaving the
increase a clear gain. The loss from
all causes is estimated at from 2 to
3 per cent. The annual increase of
flocks is placed at 48 per cent., and
the increase of 1,000 ewes, 2 years
old and upwards, from 80 to 150
per cent., probably averaging 90
per cent. Sheep sell readily at
from $3 to $3.50 per head. One
herder can take care of 2.000 head.
Sheep raising is emphatically the
poor man's industry in Mon ana,
for, having a free range, timber at
hand for construction of sheds and
corrals, and in fact no capital need
ed for running expenses after the
first season, he is master of the sit
uation if he can command any
sum from $540 upwards for the pur
chase of a small flock.
As an instance of the profits that
have been made, may he mentioned
the experience of Governor Potts,
who invested $12,000 in 4,000 sheep
and held them long enough to se
cure one clip of wool and a year's
increase (2,700 head), sold out and
exhibited a profit of nearly $10,000
inside of 12 months.—[Montana
Stock and Mining Journal.
Cattle at Mew Orleans.
The live stock quarters are un
usually ample, and are situated in
the northwestern portion of the
park, towards St. Charles avenue.
There are six distinct buildings for
horses and two for cattle, with stall
room for 1,000 horses and 500 cattle.
The buildings for horses will be the
two paralelled ro\Vs indicated on
the plan of the grounds. Each will
be 368 feet long by 60 feet wide and
24 feet high, and have stalls on ei
ther side permitting the heads of
the animals to face outward, there
by leaving a broad paßsage way
through the middle of the building.
The buildings for the cattle stand
at either end of the buildings men
tioned and at right angles with
them. They arc 378 feet feet long
by 72 feet wide and 24 feet high.
In addition to the structures for
live stock, a regulation half-mile
track is laid out adjoining the line
The track and space enclosed will
also be used as an area for the dis
play of live stock. These areas
combined contain 2,080x780 feet,
the stock exhibition covering 37
acres of ground.
Over $125,000 has been appropri
ated by the management for premi
ums and the necessary expenses of
making the livestock display. This
is by far a larger sum than has ev
er before been devoted to a similar
enterprise. The object of the man
agement in making this princely
grant of money is to secure the 1 1
presence of the best examples of all
classes of live stock to be found on
Cattle Branding; Must be Stopped.
[Chicago Shoe and Leather Review.]
It is a matter of congratulation
that the recent St. Louis conven
tion of cattle raisers, tanners and
hide dealers took so pronounced a
position on the subject of branding
hides. This evil—for it should be
characterized by no milder term—
has grown to such gigantic propor
tions that the indignant and manly
protest entered by tanners, hide
and leather dealers, ruade a deep
and we believe lasting impression
upon the cattle growers. It is a
case where the argument is exclus
ively affirmative. There is no neg
ative side to the question. The
tanners and leather men said to the
cattlemen: "You are, by adhering
to your practice of branding, throw
ing away millions of dollars every
year. These millions, instead of
going into your pockets, are liter
allv burned and exterminated by
your branding irons."
To this indictment lîie cattle
growers could make no defense.
J. S. Medary, of the firm of Davis,
Medary & Platz, tanners, of La
Crosse, Wisconsin, makes an inter
esting and significant statement in
this connection. Briefly, it is this:
At the convention a committee of
the hide men was appointed to
meet a committee of the leather
men. During the conference which
ensued, A. Rumsey & Co., of Buffa
lo, exhibited three sides of sole
leather. One bore no brand; a sec
ond wa? marked by a small brand ;
the third, to use Mr. Medary's
words, "was branded all over the
side." When the cattle men looked
upon these sides and were made to
understand the loss entailed by the
branding, they promptly acknow
ledged that the practice was one
which involved useless waste of
money. Many of them admitted
that it was the first time they had
seen evidence that branding as,
now practiced, was a needless sacri
fice of money.
The three sides alluded to were
then prominently displayed in the
auditorium of the Exposition
building. Over the side which
bore no brand—the "X" or prime,
was the inscription:
"The value of the hide from
which this side of leather is made
was 12 cents per pound, making the
value of this leather 30 cents per
The No. 1 or hutt-hranded hide
was valued at 10 cents per pound,
and the leather at 26 cents. Sur
mounting the side which was
"branded all over" was this legend:
"The value of the hide from
which this side of leather is made
was 8 cents per pound, making the
value of this leather 20 cents per
These figures showed the relative
difference caused by the brands in
the value of the hides. The differ
ence between the butt brand and
the heavy side brand is at least two
cents per pou»d. Texas sole leath
er hides average about 68 pounds,
making a difference of $1.36 in the
value of he hide.
Of the humane phase of the sub
ject of branding, we have nothing
to offer in this article. With the
cattle-growers it is "a matter of coin,
not sentiment." They have been
convinced that the existing system
wipes out at least two millions of
dollars yearly, which would other
wise go into their pockets. Some
means must he devised to stop this
waste, and in the interim let tan
ners and leather men continue the
agitation of the question. They
should lose no opportunity to pro
test against side branding, and to
regulate prices accordingly. When
cattle-growers fully realize the im
portance of the material intirests
involved, they will work out the
problem of ownership in some other
Judging of Distance.
It is very difficult to judge of dis
tances at sea. Refraction always
changes the apparent place of an
object, so that we seem to see the
sun after it has gone below the hori
zon. A more striking but lesi fre
quent phenomenon of refraction is
that known as mirage. Refraction
also affects the color of an object.
The media through which the light
passes has more or less effect upon
the ray. In a fog objects arc dimly
seen, the effect resembling that due
to distance ; hence objects look
larger, for the eye judges of the size
of an object by multiplying the
size of the image or impression re
ceived by the square of the dis
tance, while the'latter is estimated
from the indistinctness of the ob
ject. In the fog the apparent dis
tance is increased, but the eye in
terprets it as due to the opposite
cause. On looking at the photo
graph of a tree, a church, a monu
ument or a pyramid, it is not pos
sihle to form a correct idea of its
size unless a man or animal is seen
in the same view with which to
compare it. In nature, especially
on land, the intervening objects
that lead up to it give the data
on which to calculate the distance.
Where none intervene, as in look
ing from peak to peak, the eye
must depend on distinctness, and
where the air is very clear and
transparent, as in Colorado, dis
tances seem less than they are. If
the object is seen through transpar
ent but colored media, the form re
mains true, but the colors are
changed. Ât sea, on a clear day,
distances may he calculated ap
proximately by the proportion of
an object which appears above the
horizon line. The horizon is about
ten miles distant when seen from
the deck of an ocean steamer, con
sequently another steamer which is
"hull down" will be distant from
the observer some twenty miles.
With care distances can be thus
quite accurately calculated.
To Fatted a Poor Horse.
Many good horse3 devour large
quantities of grain or hay, and still
continue thin and poor; the food
eaten is not properly assimilated«
If the usual feed has been un-»
ground grain and hay, nothing but
a change wifi effect any desirible
alteration in the appearance of the
animal. In case oil meal cannot
be obtained readily, mingle a
bushel of flaxseed with a bushel of
barley, one of oats, and another
bushel of Indian corn, and let it he
ground into a fine meal. This will
he a fair proportion for all his fee l.
Or the meal, or the barley, oats and
corn, in equal quanties, may first
be procured, and one-fourth part of
oil cake mingled with it when the
meal is sprinkled on cut feed.
Feed two or three quarts of the
mixture three times a day, mingled
with a peck of cut hay and straw.
If the horse will eat that greedily,
let the quantity be gradually in
creased until he will eat four or six
quarts at every fefding three
times a day. So long as the
animal will eat this allöwdrtce,
the quantity may be increased a lit
tle every day. But avoid the prac
tice of allowing a horse to stand at
a rack well filled with hay. In
order to fatten a horse that has run
down in flesh, the groom should be
very particular to feed the animal
no more than he will eat up clean
and lick his manger for more«—Ex.
Swindling the Church.
"Yes " said Gus De Smith, "these
saloons should be closed on Sun
day. They do more to break down!
the churches than -everything else
"How is that?"
"Well, now for instance, that sa
loonkeeper on the comer near the
church in which I worship swin
dles my poov pastor out of fifteen
cents every Sunday. It's a sin and
"Yes, but how does he do it?"
"You see, he keeps open Sunday
morning when I go to church, and/
as he has no confidence in church
people, I have to pay cash; so he
gets away with the fifteen cents I'ye
put in my pocket for the contribu
tion box. That saloon keeper robs
the church funds of that much
every Sunday. He ought to be rid
den out of town on a rail."
"I'll tell vou how you can head
him off When you go to church
take the street above. There is no
saloon on that street."
"Yes; but if there ain't any saloon
on the street to church, it will hard
ly be worth while for me to go to
church at all."—[Texas Siftings.
Origin of Fruit Canning.
It is a singular fact that we arc
indebted to Pompeii for the great
industry of canning fruit. Years
ago, when the excavations were just
beginning, a party of Cincinnatians
found in what had been the pantry
j of a house, many jars of preserved
figs. One was opened and they
were found to be fresh and good.
Investigation showed that the figs
had been put into jars in a heated
state, an aperture left for the steam
to escape, and then sealed with
wax. The hint was taken, and the
next year canning fruit was intro
duced into the United States, the
process being identical with that in
vogue in Pompeii twenty centuries
ago. The old ladies in America
who can tomatoes and peaches, do
not realize that they are indebted
for this art to a people who were
literally ashes hut a few years after
A Bird in the Hand.
" Well," he said to the minister
at the conclusion of the ceremony,
"how much do I owe you?"
"Oh! I'll leave that to you," wa3
the reply, "you can better estimate
the value of the service rendered."
Suppose we postpone! settlement
then, say for a year. By that time
I will know whether i ought to
give you $100 or nothing."
"No—no," said the clergyman,
who is a married man himself,
"make it $4 now."
The merino is unquestionably
the king of the range sheep, ancl
must for years to come supply the
world with wool. For small nocks
on high-priced land, with mutton
as a necessary consideration, it may
never be developed to equal the
English breeds; but for oheap pas
tures, large herding, and exposure,
it certainly stands alone. The
greater the size, the more nearly it
combines the choice qualities of
both extremes of the wool and mut
ton breeds. An enterprising man
supplies himself with choice stock
when prices are low. This practice
is perfectly applicable to the pres
ent condition of sheep for wool.
The man who puts up his wool
honestly and raises the best quality,
is not forced to go from home to
sell it. It is true, also, that large,
ripe muttons are not obliged to seek
a buyer. There i3 more room for
progressive breeders than ever be
fore, because the demand for quali
ty exceeds the demand for quantity ,.
New York raises annually five
bushels of Indian corn for eaoh of
her inhabitants, six and a half
bushels of potatoes, over two bush
els of wheat, a half bushel of rye,
seven and a half bushels of oats amt
a ton of hay. She supplies each
person with nearly two pounds of
cheese and twenty-two pounds of
butter annually, and a pint of milk,
every day in the year from hoc
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