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The Billings Gazette.
Gazette Printing Company, Publishers E. H. BECKER. Editor. Official City and County Paper. Subscription Rates. One year, in adance............$3.00 Six months...................... 1.50 Single copies.................. .05 DAILY GAZETTE. Per Year, by mail, in advance.... $9.00 Per Month, by mail.............. .75 Per Month, by carrier.......... 1.00 FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 27, 1901. SWIFT AND SURE. Without leaving any ground for the possibility of censure for undue haste or infringment of the rights of the defendant, and without manifesting ought that could be construed as vin dictiveness, the court at Buffalo which tried Czolgosz made it evident that it would not tolerate or permit any of the disgraceful proceedings that made the Guiteau trial a disgrace to the American judiciary. Placed into the dock last Monday morning, Czolgosz on the following afternoon heard the verdict announced which consigns him to the electric chair. For once justice was done in haste and so far as lies within the power of the law the wrong which was committed has been righted. Sentence will be pro nounced today and it is safe to as sume that the time which will'elapse between its imposition and execution will not be any longer than is permit ted by decency and the minimum fixed by law. The refusal of the defendant to do or say anything that would have been of assistance to his attorneys greatly simplified and expedited the trial. What his motive was for maintaining silence when above all other times it was to be expected he would give speech is not known. But the supposi tion is that he did so for the purpose of raising a doubt as to his sanity and consequent responsibility for the crime he committed. If such was really the case, he played a foolish game. The experts wxho examined him as to his mental condition pro nounced him sane and his plea of guilty, although withdrawn by his at torneys, made under the pretense of not having understood the question failed to help him, if it was made with the hope that it would be accepted as evidence of a weak mind. So far justice has moved with light ning speed. Let it not retard its movements or rest until the final act in the terrible tragedy shall have closed with the assassin sitting dead in the chair awaiting him. To Justice White and all connected with the case the thanks of the nation are due for not having permitted any of the trav esties which found place in the trial of the assassin Guiteau. Although he came to the end which he merited, it was only after one of the most dis graceful and sickening exhibitions ever enacted in any court in the civ ilized world. WOMAN'S NEW SPHERE. While it has become the custom in Montana to elect women to the posi tion of county superintendents, the election of members of the gentler sex as trustees of schools is still so un common that when a case of that kind occurs it is worthy of comment. Up in Gallatin county the people of the Chesnut school district became tired of the lax manner in which the successive trustees that they elected conducted the affairs of the school and they decided upon an innovation and at the last election gave the posi tions to three women. It required only a short time to demonstrate thie wisdom of the change. Under masct: line administrations the school house had been permitted jo go to ruin. while such a thing as a fence had never been deemed necessary in the economics of the various boards. As soon as the ladies took charge they had the building repaired, painted and kalsomined, a fence was built and other improvements made that so changed the appearance of things gen erally that the oldest inhabitant had to stop and look twice before he could recognize the school. But they did more; they caused a partition to be constructed which divided the old barn like building into two rooms and instead of employing one teacher for the large number of children who go there to learn the "three R's," they se suced the services of two, a man and a woman, both good ones, and sup plied them with all the necessary par aphernalia of modern teaching and placed the school on a plane of useful ness which the old fellows who had ': been acuesteomed to act as trustees o*. er tbo~p t possible. Ge. n -: . tlyb the term of one of- the lad a d these who were op s: 0 lotdoat rule" tthzed in buI bht he declined to modern, progressive methods of his two colleagues on the board and they are "running things" in the same en :i htened, sensible manner that mark ed the inauguration of their term and the people say'it will be the last time that a man shall have the honor to serve as a member of the school board of Chesnut. As the female vote in the district is large it looks very much as though the threat, or whatever one may wish to call it, will be carried out. IS MONUMENT TO M'KINLEY. Although he was not permitted to live long enough to see the final triumph of his policy in regard to China, the name of McKinley will be ever associated with the successful efforts put forth by the United States to prevent dismemberment of the empire at a time when the land hun gry nations of Europe were unsheath ing their swords and preparing to swoop down upon a helpless people and parcel their territory out among themselves. Only through his loyalty to his own country and his regard for the rights of others and his broad humanitarian views were made possi ble the events which transpired in Pekin last week. The dispatches have briefly told of the evacuation of Pekin by the for eign forces and the return of the Chin ese imperial soldiery. Robed in their Oriental costumes of brilliant hues and costly fabrics hundreds of Chinese officials were present when the sold idrs of America and Japan were drawn up at the inner gates to re ceive the rightful representatives of the nation whose capital for over a year had been in the possession and keeping of foreigners. The governor of Pekin warmly thanked the Ameti cans and Japanese for the manner in which they had protected the palace and the foreigners marched out, leav ing the Chinese in possession. The im perial standard again floated over the walls from which it had been displac ed to give way to the standards of other nations and the government of China was once more in control of its own. Simple as was the ceremony it meant mnch for the Chinese. It was notice to the world that as a nation they had been rehabilitated and that from now on China would again gov ern itself and have standing as an independent and untrammeled power in the family of nations. Had it not been for William McKinley the events which occurred at Pekin last week would have been impossible. It was his love for justice and his humanity and jealous regard fa- the rights and privileges of his own nation that caus ed the United States to take the stand it did and check the rapacity of the Europeans. Not until Washington had spoken did they hold their hands and stop their plans for adding to their holdings at the expense of the Chin ese. The warning given that America had interests in China which would be guarded and which must be re spected stopped those who already saw their domains extended beyond the limits which had erstwhile marked the territorial boundaries of the Chin ese empire and the world was spared the spectacle of the strong enrichen themselves at the expense of the weak. No wonder that among the truest mourners at the death of McKinley were the Chinese. They realized what his friendship for them had meant and what it had accomplished for them. While insisting for the main tcna::cc of our own, he was not blind to the rights of others and the record which his wise and generous states manship made for the United States in connection with affairs in China during the parlous times of last year will stand forall timeas a monument to the man who instituted America's policy and successfully maintained it to the end. The United States was China's friend because William McKinley was president and willed it should be so. The policy to which he committed the country in regard to its interests in the Orient will be ad. hered to in the future and because he was president China has much to be grateful for. PURSUING RIGHT COURSE. The outburst of popular indignation against yellow journalism which suc seeded immediately after the assassin ation of President McKinley contin ues and is marked by the utmost sin cerity and promises to be produc tive of good results. A commendable and encouraging feature in connection with the matter is the fact that the public shows no inclination to let up and that its anger is not merely di rected against the publications them selves but is also visited upon those responsible for them. This is as it should be. Were the peopli content with simply carrying on a crusade against the papers which have arous ed. their indignation and permit the publishers and owners to go without being maie to personally feel the con tempt in which they are held by those who have regard for decency and re spectability much of the good effect would be lost. The treatment which the man Hearst, who above all others has permitted his various publications to descend to depths which even the bawd and trull would hesitate to em brace, is receiving from those with whom he erstwhile associated is cal culated to cause him and others like him to think long and earnestly be fore they again assume to outrage public opinion and manifest contempt for public decency. Not only have his different sheets been placed under the ban by respectable people, but he himself has been made to feel that he is considered as unfit to go where law abidding men congregate. From San Francisco. his home, comes the report of his expulsion in dis grace from the social clubs of which he was a member. He is beginning to learn the results which may be ex pected when men "coin conscience into dollars" as the venerable Abram Hewitt aptly expressed it. It is to be sincerely hoped that the application of the remedy adopted will continue and that those who are applying it will not relent and permit pity and compassion to swerve them from the line they have marked out for themselves in connection with the treatment to be given to the creatures Who have earned the contempt and disgust of every reasonable, respect able person. Continued to its legiti mate end, the course adopted will speedily obliterate the last vestige of the yellow from American journalism and free the profession and nation from the stain and disgrace which it is to both. Social ostracism and with drawal of patronage are the most ef fective weapons which can be em ployed against the vultures and ver min who, secure in the safety which they take behind the plea of freedom of the press, urge those of weaker minds and lower standing into the commission of crimes. The law can be made to render protection against the other anarchists and criminals and by combining the good effects of both, anarchy and instigation to anar chy can be greatly lessened. But the two remedies must be applied without mercy and without showing the slight est inclination to cessation. AGAIN THE CANTEEN. As the time approaches for the con vening of congress the much debated army canteen question is preparing for another appearance on the stage. Poth the pro and antis are fortifying themselves with ammunition for the campaign and feeling is gradually as sum;ing the same intensity that mark ed it when the matter came up for the first time. Those who are determined to regulate the morals of the soldiers by legal enactment are showing the same spirit of intolerance that char acterizes all who believe in absolute prohibition and say all sorts of ugly things about those who dare to differ from them. Down at Chicago a minister of an aristrocratic Humboldt Park church was compelled to resign, the dispatch es say, because he would not go con trary to his convictions and say that the canteen is not calculated to make for temperance and good discipline in the army. His congregation, of course. is composed' of people who are "fern ist" the canteen and consider all who hold the contrary view as sinful and utterly depraved. In New York a special committee of Methodist minis has increased among the soldiers and lie to say that since the canteen has been abolished as one of the in stitutions of the army intemperance has incraesed among the soldiers. The committee bases its report upon observations said to have been made in the posts in New York and vicin ity. The dispatches fail to say wheth er the committee extended its inquiry and research any further, but it is reasonable to suppose that it did not. Had it gone away from home and made inquiry of those competent to give information as to the workings of the anti-canteen law as it applies to the army posts in the west and elsewhere outside of the narrow field of its research the committee, if its members are fair and honest men, might have learned some things which it probably failed to learn in its in vestigations at home. If the preponderance of opinion as expressed by those who above, all others' are qualified to speak on the subject-the army officers-is to be considered as worthy of consideration, then the antis apparently are holding the small end of the stick. With but a very few exceptions, so few as to be notable, the officers of the army, both of high and subordinate rank, are on record as favoring restoration of the canteen by law. Although they may be depended upon to continue their mouthings against the laws, the anarchists of Chicago who were arrested for com plicity in the assassination of Presi dent McKinley away down in the bot tom of their black hearts must be thankful for the existence of the de spised creature. Only for the fact that laws do exist and are respected by the majority of the people those reptiles would now be numbered among the other poisonous things which have been killed for the safety of mankind. 18 IT CONSCIENCE? The Butte Miner hastens to endorse the decision arrived at by Judge Tall man of Seattle, who says: "Any for eigner or alien .applying to my court for citizenship papers ,woh in any way acknowledges that he favors anar chism, is friendly to anarchists, or has any leaning toward anarchistic beliefs will be denied citizenship by me." In its comments on. the declaration of Judge Tallman the Miner says it is true that many men who are un worthy of the trust are made citizens by the ccurts of the land, and that too citcn the caminaticn cf appli carts for citizership is .f a most pcr furctcry character. "Tbey ga intc ocuit," srys the Mirc~, '.vith two wit'ic ;es who swear that the appli cart is of go " moral characctr, and the ic, m is r ." bed thtcugh with often times without the a1"en getting any thirg like a just epprecition cf what he has made oath tc. Then some of the witnesses who swear to the for eignel's moral character should, judg ing from their appearance. be corn pellcd to bring certificafes cf moral rectitude on their own behalf before being considered as reliable and trust woithy witnesses." Coming from such a source the com ment is as remarkable as it is just, nevertheless. The Miner certainly is qualified to speak as an expert on the subject of unworthy naturalization. It is published in a city where more unncrthy and wrongful citizenship applications have been and are. con stantly being granted than any place known, unless it be some of the larg er cities, such as New York and Chi cago. But what gives remarkableness to the comment is the fact that the Miner is supposedly an organ of the party which has always been the gainer by such questionable naturali zations and the very perfunctoriness o" which it complains is to a large ex tent responsible for some of the many democratic victories in Butte which it has given the Miner pleasure to chronicle and crow over. Can it be that the Miner in its old age is becoming ungrateful, or has it had an awakening of conscience and proposes to be really good and vir tues during the rest of its days? The Gazette extends its sincere sympathy to the Anaconda Standard in the misfortune which befell it last Monday night, and also congratulates its contemporary that the extent of the misfortune was no greater. Through the prompt and neighborly tender by the Butte Inter Mountain of the use of its plant the Standard was enabled to make its appearance Tues day morning the same as usual, al though in a somewhat abbreviated form: In view of the wicked political career which the Standard has per sisted in following ever since its es tablishment, notwithstanding the earnest manner in which The Gazette, Yellowstone Journal and other really good and moral newspapers of the state have reasoned with it upon the folly of its course, it is hoped that none of the faithful will be unkind enough to intimate that the scorching which it has received is intended as a hint of what to expect in the reg ions beyond unless it mends its ways. While Seth Low may not be the most popular man in Greater New York, his nomination for mayor by both the republicans andl the anti Tammanyites of the democratic party is a high testimonial to his .tanding as an honest man and as one who is regarded as having both t!.e ability End desire to give the city a clean and honest government. But that he is al so so regarded by. the henchmen of the Crokers and the others who are at present in control of the city ad ministration and are responsible for the corruption and vice which make the name of New York one of re proach, is very evident from the man ner in which his candidacy is arous ing opposition in all quarters where Tammany has any footing. Even away out here in Montana the demo cratic newspapers are beginning to speak slightingly of President Low and declare his election an impossi bility. Edward Tobin, who last Fourth of July at Butte killed Harry Foster, alias Hank Brady, as he was known in this city, has been found guilty of murder in the second degree. Tobin stabbed Brady in the back several times with a butcher knife during an altercation over some flags that Tob in was putting up as decorations. For the defense it was claimed that the murdered man was armed with a razor and had sought to use it on Tobin. It is to be hoped that-the move ments begun in various party of the country will not withdraw in favor of the one begun in New York. The coun try, still has vivid recollections of the manner in which the New Yorkers managed the Grant monument busi ness. A loyal and patriotic nation is truly grateful that among the things which are not is the fact that one John P. Altgelt just now is not gdvernor of New York state. Another British dream of competi tion with the United States has been doomed to go up in smoke. The American .Tobacco trust has just bought out the leading tobacco com pany of England. INTEROCEANIC CANAL QUESTION. Omaha Bee: President Roosevelt is not only in favor of an inter oceanic canal,, but as authoritatively stated he approves the negotiations in progress for a treaty with Eng land relative to the proposed canal. It had been reported that there was disagreement between the' president and the secretary of state in regard to this. The report has been denied by Secretary Hay and the fact that he is to remain in the cabinet is evi dence that there is no disagreement, but on the contrary, as stated by the secretary of state, complete harmony and agreement upon every question of foreign policy now before the con sideration of the government. The influence of the administration, therefore, will be exerted for the rati fication of whatever treaty is negoti ated between the two governments and it is the anticipation that the ne gotiations will result in an agreement which will be satisfactory to congress. It is the understanding that a number of senators who were adverse to the neutralization provision of the IIay Pauncefote treaty have changed their view, while it is also understood that the British government will reliquish some of its conditions, though insist 'ing upon a neutral canal. There seems to be no doubt that Great Britain is entirely willing to abandon all claimI to joint control of a transisthmian canal and to leave it entirely in the control and management of the Unit ed Sta;cs ii this government will sim ply agree to its neutralization. That appears to be the only point at issue and its amicable and satisfactory set tlement is regarded as probable, if not absolutely assured. Our government has recognized the claim of Great Britain that the Cldyton-Bulwer con vention is in full force and effect. That was done in the negotiation of a treaty to replace the old one and in the ac tion taken by the senate upon that treaty. This is a matter, therefore, that is no longer in controversy, though it is of course to be expected that it will be proposed in congress to legislate for the construction of the :'Ticaragua canal regardless of the treaty. The filial report of the Isthmian canal commission is about ready for submission to the president, but it probably will not be made public be fore the meeting of congress. Nothing definite is known in regard to the rec ommendations the commission will make, but the expectation is that they will favor the Nicaragua route. Mean while the Panama interests appear not to be idle and there have been reports from Paris that if this govern ment desires the Panama route it can purchase the property and the rights from the canal company for about $50,000,000. This, it is stated, is only about one-third of the amount that has been expended in the construction of the canal. A Washington dispatch says it is conceded that this govern ment will not consider any proposition with regard to the Panama canal that would connect it in any way with the French concern. The only proposi tion that would receive consideration would be one for absolute purchase and control. If this could be secured for $50,000,000 the cost of completing the Panama canal would undoubtedly be less than that of constructing the proposed Nicaragua canal, but the re port of the commission may show other important considerations mak ing the latter the preferable route. THINGS ARE MOVING. Yellowstone Journal: A few weeks ago the Helena Independent had the Billings Gazette and the Yellowstone Journal "on the carpet" because the former had suggested to the attorney general the propriety of enforcing the plain statute against the so-called "boxing matches" which every one knows are prize fights, and because the latter sought to call the attorney general's attention to the existence of race-track gambling, the most perni cious of all kinds of gambling, while it lasts. Practically and actually, the papers named were told by the Inde pendent to "shut up" and mind their own local affairs; that the attorney general was at that time leisurely en gaged in the pursuit of the "tiger" and did not care to have his attention diverted from this absorbing sport. Recent occurrences in Butte and Ana conda, would seem, however, to indi cate that there are others who hold the same opinions as those expressed by thei Gazette and Journal, and weary of waiting for the lead of the attorney general in the directions suggested, -the local authorities of these places have led off for themselves. At Butte, County Attorney Breen has declared that a large majority of the "pugi lists" harbored by Butte are "plug uglies" pure and simple, and that -the "boxing matches" at the saucer track are nothing more nor less than prize fights, and, having arrived at these conclusions, that he will permit no more "boxing matches" and that the "plug-uglies" must show himthatthey have some lawful method of getting a living or pull out. At Anaconda notice is given of the introduction at the next meeting of the city council of an ordinance against pool selling and its passage is assured. Thus it will be seen that while General Donovan has seen fit to ignore these matters even when brought to his attention by the public press, and while the Helena Independent acting as the general's file-closer, by covering up his rear from attack, has used its mighty pow er to flout and ridicule the efforts of the "2x4 press" to right these matters those in whose behalf we labored. seem to have awakened to the neces sity of their own protection from the evils that General Donovan could not see, even while looking at them. Of course the Independent will say as before, that the attorney-general did not'agree to act for every county and city attorney in the state, and in reply we will claim that inasmuch as he did invade these offices and assume these duties in certain known in stances, he should not refuse to do so in others. And in any event he ought to have something done for his eyes. NEVER WITHOUT A PRESIDENT. Chicago Inter Ocean: Several cor respondents have asked the Inter Ocean when. Theodore Roosevelt be came president---whcther immediately upon the death of President McKinley or not until he took the oath-and if not until he took the oath, whether theUnited Sta:es was without a pres ident for sosme thirteen hours. While these questions are purely technical and of little practical importance, they are of some interest. The constitution provides that "in case of the removal of the president from office, or his death, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve upon the vice president." Putting the natural construction upcn these words it would seem clear that from the moment William McKinlcy died Theo dore Roosevelt became pi esident. But there is another constitutional provision which says: "Before he (the president) enter upon the execu tion of his office he shall take the fol lowing oath or affirmation," which is then given. Putting the natural con struction upon these words, it would seem that Mr. Roosevelt did not be come president until he took the oath. Here.is an apparent contradiction, and yet there is really none in fact. From 2;15 a. m. on September 14 on ward Mr. Roosevelt possessed the 1 right to be and actually was president. But not until 3:22 p. m. on that day, when he took the oath, could he ex ercise that right. The facts and their distinction may be illustrated from everyday experience. Suppose a man whose only heir is his son dies in possession of a piece of land. From the moment of his father's death the son owns the land. Yet the son cannot sell the land and give a good ltle until his father's death be legally proved and certain formalities complied with. The son has a perfccl and absolute right to the land, but he c'nnot exercise the powers that light confers until cer tain things are done. ecnce it will be seen that the Unit ed States was never for a moment without a l.,esidert by right. For a few hours, erd until he had taken the oath, the president was unable to exe cute his office. A similar situation ex isis every day in the year. When the president is asleep he ca noct perform his duties unless' he wakes or some one wakes him. Yet no one imagines for a noment that the nation is then without a prreident. Nor is there now ,one chance in a million for the United Statest to be without a president This was not al ways so. Had G' eeral Arthur died after P esidert Garfield's death, and before congress could meet, we would then have been actually, without a president. As the law then stood, the president pro tempore of the senate and the speaker of the house were the only legal successors in case of death, re moval, or disability of both president and vice president. Neither successor then existed, the senate not having chosen one to succeed Senator Thur man on his retirement, and the new house not having met. These were the facts that caused General Arthur to take the oath as soon as Garfield died. Arthur's life alone stood be tween the nation and a presidential vacancy. Since then the law has been chang ed, and now seven members of the cabinet are designated successors to the presidency. As fast as those above him die or ere p'rmanently disabled the next man on the list becomes pres ident by right. And as soon as the successor takes the oath, which may be taken anywhere and before any person qualified to administer oaths, he becomes vested with all the pres Ident's, power. Already president de lure, he then becomes president de facto. But we are never without a president.