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The Billings gazette. [volume] (Billings, Mont.) 1896-1919, February 26, 1907, Image 7

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THE POSSIBILITIES OF
DRY LAND FARMING
Address Delivered by Dr. Sudduth Before
the Farmers' Institute.
Among the interesting and valuable
addresses delivered at the recent
farmers' institute in this city was one
by Dr. W. X. Sudduth, who spoke on
"Dry Farming," a subject he is pe
culiarly well qualified to handle be
cause of his practical experience in
that kind of agriculture. At the re
quest of The Gazette, the doctor kindly
filled out the notes from which he
spoke and through his courtesy its pub
lication complete is made possible.
Dr. Sudduth's Address.
The subject is one of so much im
portance to the people of tihe state,
and especially to our own city, that it
cannot be too forcibly brought 'to the
attention of our citizens. When we
stop to think that for every acre of
land now under ditch or that ever can
be brought under irrigation in this
state, there are 25 acres that will al
ways lie above the ditch, we are im
pressed with the need of investigating
any and all methods that promise suc
cess in tilling these lands.
Within a radius of 100 miles of Bill
irns there are over one million acres
of good farming lands, all of which
vast territory will in a very few years
be settled and look to Billings for its
supplies. I say this cautiously, after
having spent almost the entire year of
1906 in investigating so-called "dry
farming methods in the Trans-Mis
souri states.
Experimenting for Past Five Years
I have been watching the efforts
beings made in this direction very
caretLlly for the past 25 years ani
have done quite a little experiment
ing myself during the past five years
at Fairview. The results of my own
labcrs during this time have con
vinced me that with suitable imple
ments and the employment of the
latest scientific methods, looking to
the conservation of moisture, that
many props could be successfully
grown in the Lake Basin country, ly
ing to the north of Billings.
I have successfully raised both fall
and spring wheat, barley, speltz, oats.
flax and alfalfa, and last season had
a good garden in which too had nice,
succulent vegetables for our table,
consisting of peas, beets, onions, rad
ishes and summer squash. Our pota
toes were of excellent quality, a.
though not making a very large yield;
still they turned out better than po
tatoes we had under the ditch on the
Musselshell river; last year for some
reason did not prove to b-I a good
potato year in this section of the
country.
Sugar Beets a Surprise to Everyone.
A half acre of sugar beets were a
complete surprise to everyone. The
yield was estimated at 15 tons per
acre and analysis showed 18.22 per
cent sugar, with 79 per cent purity.
We had beets that weighed from
five to six pounds. The land wa
broken the fall before and left 11
until March, when it was thoroughly
disked and harrowed. Then in April
it was subsoiled 14 inches deep ano
worked down with the Acme harrow
into a fine tilth. 'Then the beets
were sown by hand and thinned with
the hoe and frequently surface culti
vated with a walking cultivator.
Had Only One-Half Inch Rain.
Although we only had three days
of rain during the entire growing
season, the beets never showed the
least sign of wilting, nor did any of
the other garden truck. In the fall
the ground was moist down for over
three feet and post holes could be
dug without the use of the crow-bar,
while on the adjoining wild grass
sod the ground was hard and dry
and the bar had to be used in digging
holes for fencing the garden.
The yields of grain on the summer
fallowed land last year were very
satisfactory, despite the fact that
there was only one rain that fell
during the growing season, as above
stated. We attribute this to the fact
that we drilled these grains in the
previous fall, during the first week
of November. They were put in late,
in order that they might come up
with the first moisture from melting
snows in the spring, and thus get
from two to three weeks the start of
spring sown grains. We have follow
ed this practice for several years,
with marked success. The only fail
ure we have had was with some Gal
'latin valley soft wheat that failed to
germinate in the spring, although the.
land was in fine condition, as was
proven by the fact that we put in
alfalfa on this same plat and got a
fine stand, much better in fact than
that 'we got under the ditch on tht
Musselshell river the same season.
Dry Land Good for Alfalfa,
We have several plats of alfalfa at
the Broadview experiment station
that have been in one, two, three and'
four years, and all are doing very,
nicely Las: year one plat cut a tonI
of hay and the second crop was left
stand for seed. The seed pods were
well filled and the seed fully matured.
The first c.n cu another plat was
left for seed, and I never saw pods
better filled. They were not thresh
ed, so that no data as to yield can
be given.
The land above the ditch is now
producing the bulk of the alfalfa seed
grown in this country. Vast stretches
of land in western Kansas are produ
ing the finest quality of alfalfa seed,
and netting the farmers in that sec
tion from $25 to $30 per acre an
nually for seed alone, besides giving
them the straw for roughness for
livestock.
The valleys of Utah are also pro
ducing the very finest seed without
irrigation, and now Colorado is en
tering the field and will :n the near
future be producing. alfalfa seed by
the ton. There is no reason why
the bench lands of Montana may not
do the same. It is a well known fact
that alfalfa in order to produce seed
does not want to be irrigated.
Flax was sown on some spring
plowing at Fairview and while the
straw was short the yield of seed
was satisfactory. The same was true
of a plat of maccaroni wheat, the
estimated yield of which was 35 bush
els per acre. The fall sown Russian
red wheat was fully 25 bushels a.ad
the spring rye 15 bushels.
Quite extensive operations are
planned for the season of 1907 and
are now well under way. Disks ant
harrows are running this week pre
paring the summer tilled land: of
last year and lat s mmer's bro.lking
for tlje season's -,op The extentc of
the work this year can be seen by
the a:ccompanyi.,, :able.
10 ACRES 8 ACRES 20 ACRES 20 ACRES
U) Russian 0
O0 Red Speltz Oats U)
- =
Z Wheat "
Alfalfa
- Cr
T 20 Acres Beets
O Blue Stemn Wheat 0
0 40 Acres Fall Plowed
RHulless Barley
Millet
? Spelt R T PT a GR A I
X RM A S N GRAINS
-I p
EXPERIMENT PLAT SPRING GRAINS
The Broadview experiment station
has been in existence since 1900, that
is, we have been carrying on the
work (personally. IThe expense is
considerable and has deterred me
from entering into it on any very
extended scale.
This year, however, we have the
promise of assistance from the Bill
ings chamber of commerce, which is
a step in the right direction.
If the business men of Billings will
turn in and help settle the country,
the country will make the city and
no fear. It is proposed to run auto
mobile excursions out to Fairview
the coming summer, in order to show
what can be done in the Lake Basin
country. Next year the Burlington
road will run excursions into the
very heart of what promises to be
the wheat belt of Montana. One rea
son why we have not gone into farm
ing on a more extensive scale has
been the lack of transportation fa
cili'ies, but with the completion of
I hel Billings & Northern and the Chi
cago, Milwaukee & St. Paul through
our country, we believe that the time
has come for the transformation of
our crazing lands into farm lands
and are fully convinced that it will
show excellent commercial results.
Maccaroni Wheat Sheet Anchor of
the Dry Farm.
iWhile we have known for y.,nr.
that, these lands would raise profit
able crops under the so-called "Camp
bell system," we have hesitated go
ing into it because of the lack of
transportation facilities. but more es
pecially because of lack of assurance
that our local mills would handle our
grains, especially maccaroni wheat,
which is the sheet anchor of the dry
farm. We are, however, now assur
ed that our local mills will take care
of all we can raise, and no excuse
exists for not going into it on a
large scale. Even if our own mills
cannot handle the crop, there is a
growing export demand, and one of
the duties of the new chamber of
comnmerce will be to see that freight
rates are secured that will enable us
to get our grains to the seaboard.
It is now less than 10 years since
the department of agriculture im
ported 1,000 bushels of durum oi mac
caroni wheat, as it is more commonly
called.
Durum wheat has come to the front
as one of the future great crops for
semi-arid lands. It is estimated that
the crop for 1906 approximates 55,
000,000 bushels. The future is so
brilliant that a company of experi
.nced farmers has purchased a trar;
of 60,000 acres in Texas and w
Ioin? the entire crea to duru; wi:rat.
The department of agriculture has
found a market for all the durum
wheat our country can produce. It
goes to Europe for the manufacture
of macaroni and for flour to make
different food products. The deal
ers in all sections are anxious to get
the grain to handle. It brings good
returns to the farmer and supplies a
new shipping product for the buyer.
Every district where dry farming can
be practiced offers a field for the
production of durum. It makes possi
ble the cultivation of acreage once
regarded as worthless.
Large tracts of land in Colorado
and Utah have been purchased, in
order to go into the raising of this
latest of cereals which has been ad.
dod to the list of mortgage lifters in
this country.
My object at this time is not so
much to tell of what we are going
to do as to show what others havd
'tone. Montana is fully 25 years be
hind the times in the matter of
dry farming in this country, and un
less an active effort is made to in
terest settlers in this line of agricul
ture the other trans-Missouri states
will reap the immigration crop and
Montana will be left to hold the bag.
For the past 25 years the very best
class of settlers has been going right
through Billings and on to the coast
and we have done nothing to stop the
tide of immigration when had we but
known it our country offers far better
conditions for successful dry farming
than eastern Washington or Oregon.
We have a better climate, more rain
fall and what is better our precipita
tion is during the growing season,
while theirs is during the winter
months. We are free from the hot
winds which prevail in the ereat
wheat belts of Washington and Ore
gon and our lands at the close of the
harvest season, if properly handled,
can be fall plowed and got into 'shape
for next season's crop; while theirs
are so dry and hard that they cannot
plow until after the winter rains set
in. They, consequently, lose a large
percentage of the residual moisture
that we can retain to help out suc
ceeding crops. By disking our stub
ble lands right after harvest and
then plowing and harrowing them
during August the land can be turn
ed over as mellow as an onion bed
and fully 25 per cent of the moisture
otherwise lost retained for next year's
crop, which should be an intertilled
one.
Intertillage Crops Save One Year's
Labor in Three.
It has been found that by intro
ducing tilled crops like beets, corn,
peas or soy beans that two good
crops out of three years can be har
vested. This mode of culture has
been in vogue in Russia for over a
hundred years and even three fals
crops out of four years can some
times be obtained.
Undoubtedly much is to be learned
in the future in regard to scientific
f-irming which will be of interest not
only to the man who farms above
the ditch. bu~ to the farmer on Irri
gated lands for as time gocr by and
the demand for water increases the
farmer under the ditch will look to
the dry farmer for methods to sup
plement his failing water supply and
thus good will come to all. While
right here at Billings we have been
slow in adopting dry farming meth
ods our neighbors to the north and
west have made considerable pro
gress in this direction. One had only
to go to our own state fair to see
most excellent exhibits made by
modern methods of farming so-called
dry lands.
Fergus County.
Fergus county's exhibit was solely
an exhibit of what is to be accom.
plished through "dry land" farming,
and in all fairness.it should be stated
that the showing was little short of
remarkable. The exhibit was in
charge of N. J. Little and consisted
of such handsome speciments of
grasses and grains, such as red top,
timothy, clovers, blue joint, alfalfa,
wheat, oats, rye, barley and' the like,
that It seemed incredible they could
be raised without moisture other than
that of nature.
Cascade County.
Cascade county had one of the most
attractive, diversified and largest ex
hibits in the main hall. Contained
therein was the dry land exhibit of
P. Curlin, consisting of all manner
of root crops, grains and grasses,
grown on bench lands without the
aid of water. Among the articles ex
hibited by Cascade county were flax,
wheat, oats, barley, hays, alfalfa,
sugar beets, turnips, carrots, potatoes,
cabbage, pumpkins, squashes, corn,
black walnuts, apples, musk melons,
and in fact, everything contained in
Burbridge's catalogue. Among the
more notable contributors to b"e
Cascade exhibit was W. V. Talbott
of Armington. -S. S. Hawkins was
in general charge of the exhibit,
which from its point of vantage, to.
gether with its splendid array, at
tracted not a little attention from
visitors .
Oregon.
Twenty-five years ago I visited
eastern Oregon .looking for' a cattle
range and took a 500-mile trip, going
south from Pendleton to the Camas
prairie and over the Blue mountains
to the Grand Round valley and into
the Snake river country, thence up
through the Palouse coutnry to Spo
kane and thence to Lake Coeur d'
Alene. At that time very little farm
ing was being done, and what was,
was not a success. I turned the
country down as a range proposition
and would not have given 25 cents
for the whole country. Last summer
I went over the same territory and
found it one waving grain field and
the lands I could have had for the
taking 25 years ago selling readily at
from $50 to $75 per acre. Improved
methods of harvesting, greater care
of land in plowing and cultivation
and more intelligent methods in farm
ing in general, especially in the selec
tion of seeds suitable to this dry re
gion have made a properous country.
The town of Pendleton, with not
more than half the population of
Billings had on June 30, before the
season's crop had been harvested,
two and one-half million dollars wheat
money on deposit in its three banks.
'Ah,' I said, when told these facts,
'some of that must belong to stock
men.' 'No,' they said, 'the livestock
interest are not depositors, they are
all borrowers.'
Are Saying Nothing About It.
One of the peculiar things about
the situation is that they are saying
nothing about their prosperity. If
a farmer wants to sell his farm, all
he has to do is to let it be known
locally and his neighbor has tha
money in the bank and stands ready
to take his land at from $50 to $73
per acre, depending upon its location
and a, cessibility to the railroad. Im
prov.ements do not count, as they gen
erally consist of a two barbed wire
around the land. The land owners
live in small towns along the streams
.nd liha, water as far as 10 or 15
uile fotr teams and engines, whi'e
plowing, cultivating and harvesting
the wheat crop. When asked ab::t
the possibility of irrigating these
lands they invariably said, "I do not
want anything to do with irrigated
crops, there is too much hard work
connected with that kind of farming,"
and on this point I might say right
here that the bench lands in the
Gallatin valley above the ditch find
readier sale and bring more money
than do the lands under the ditch,
when improvements are taken into
consideration, and the same will be
the case in this country.
I cannot close without calling at
tention to the recent "Dry Farming
Congress," which helds its first ses
sion in Denver in January of this
year. It was the biggest thing of its
kind ever held in this country.
Over 800 delegates were in attend
ance, representing the entire trans
Missouri country.
Methods by which the so-called arid
regions of the west are to be trans
formed from worthless stretches to
productive and valuable acquisitions
in the agricultural world underwent
scientific discussion and practical
demonstration at the meetin.
Intense interest was aroused among
the farmers and agriculturista
throughout the west in the first gath
ering of the kind in the history of ,he
United States and believed to be :he
first one of its kind in the history of
the world. Delegates from practical
iv '!l portions of the west were thenre.
The attendance was much larger
than was anticipated by those in
chiarge of the preliminary arrang:
ments for the congress, and as a re
Sult the seating capacity of the as
sembly hall at the Albany was found
to be inadequate to accommodate the
crowd. It is estimated that over 800
delegates and others interested in
the dry farming question crowded
into the hall. Hundreds of them
were compelled to stand.
The attendance at the afternoon
session was so large that it was found
necessary to secure more commo
dious quarters, and the. night meet
ing was held at the First Baptist
church, on Stout street, between Six
teenth and Seventeenth streets.
It was the most enthusiastic con.
vention I ever attehded and the con
servative members had to throw cold
water on it from time to time to keep
if from taking fire from auto-cimbus
tion.
Need of Model Farms.
Said the Hon. J. M. Carey of Chey
enne, Wyo.:
"If dry farming is going to be a
success we want to know it.
"If all these quarter sections in the
west are crowded. with farmers most
of them will be failures. I can think
of no greater calamity to Colorado
and Wyoming than for 4,000 or 5,000
settlers to take up places in the semi
arid tracts in these states during the
next year. The failures would have
such an effect that the two states
would not recover for five or ten
years.
"All those who wish to try the dry
farming methods should be taught to
do so. They must be shown how to
do the work, with which they are
unfamiliar."
Prof. H. W. Campbell of Bethany,
Neb., who has been experimenting
with soil culture for the last 18 years,
and who is looked upon as an au
thority, followed Mr. Carey.
"I want to indorse what Mr. Carey
says," said Mr. Campbell. "We
should have model farms in every
county for the purpose of instructing
the farmers how to cultivate the soil.
"Thousands of acres of land in th;
sami-arid areas of New Mexico are
being taken up. This is being done
on the strength of results obtained
in eastern Colorado during the past
year. The conditions in eastern Col
orado, Kansas and Nebraska during
the season were ideal. Much moist
ure fell during the fall of 1905. This
moisture soaked into the soil. The.
farmers sowed their crops, and be
fore the dry, hot season of the follow
ing year occurred, the plants had, oi
course, risen above the surface. The
rain during the season fell just when
it was needed by the plants, and to
these facts the excellent crops are
mainly due.
"I think that a plan by which bet
ter average crops than they have in
Illinois can be grown has been for
mulated. If this plan can be followed
out eastern Colorado will have better
crops than Illinois, because there is
too much rain there.
"The weather bureaus are predict
ing a dry summer this year and I
tremble' for it, for the farmers are
not prepared for it. It may mean
the failure of many crops.
"I think a revolution in the handl
ing our level prairie soils is coming."
Prof. Campbell went into details
about tilling, fallowing, etc., and
when and how they should be done.
Dry Farmers Do Not Decry Irrigation.
'The dry land farmer propaganda
should be, use all the water you can
get, but do not give up because the
ditch goes dry. Supplement. irriga
tion with scientific methods of culti
vation and conservation of natural
precipitation and residual moisture.
What Mead Had to Say About Dry
Farming.
"Believing that irrigation is one of
the essential factors in making tne
most of these lands, in making them
support the largest number of people,
and giving to settlers the greatest
measure of home comfort, I wish to
explain the work which the United
States office of experiment stations
is now carrying on to show how the
limited water supplies, found in the
dry-farming region, can be utilized in
irrigation, and the methods by which
these water supplies can be of a more
substantial cvharacter. The dry-farm
area has moved westward in this
slate, until there is now no line which
seuarates the irrigated and the dry
farm territory. 'There is no neutral
zone now separating the arid and the
semi-arid regions. Granting that in
years of well-distributed or abundant
rainfall crops can be grown on the
western border of the semi-arid re
gion without irrigation, there will be
years when even with the best meth
ods of tillage the failure of the dry
farm will be almost complete. Fur
thermore, on the western border of
the semi-arid region, irrigation is as
yet a necessity for the growing of
many crops. Summer fallowing ana
thorough tillage will serve to grow
wheat and drouth resistant crops, but
it will not always answer for trees,
and on much land it will ont answer
for alfalfa. The dry farm provides
no method of protecting the orchard
or perennial crops from the season
when a dry winter is followed by a
dry spring, during which the per
centage of soil moisture falls below
the needs of plant life.
Two Phases Being Gone Into as an
Experiment.
"The office of experiment stations
is now studying two phases of this
question: First, cost and methods of
providing a water supply, and, sec
ond, the tools and methods for the
distribution of the watef and the cul
tivation of the soil to secure its eco
nomical use.' Bulletins giving prac
tical advice along these lines will. be
published from time to time as ex- I
periments and investigations bring
definite results.
"The foregoing fully emphasizes r
the reason which led to the location t
of demonstration farms throughout z
the central district.
"In order to prosecute these studies e
three farms have been established s
throughout the central district, one r
at Newcastle, Wyo., in the northeast
ern corner of that state; one at Chey
enne, Wyo., in the southeastern sec
tion, and one fit Eads, in the eastern
central portion of Colorado. These
stations will be under practically sim
ilar- conditions and crops as well as
general studies will be the same."
Mr. Chilcott followed Elmer Mead
and with the aid of a collection of
charts and maps on the wall vack of
the speakers' platform, explained ┬Âis
portion of the government's agricul
tural experiments.
"I have been 25 years in the west,
experimenting with all kinds of
drought-resisting grains," he said, "and
while my residence is, Washington,
D. C., I want to say that the agricul
tural experts there are in sympathy
with the west and that the only reason
they live there is that they are given
the facilities to work for the west's
greater benefit."
Mr. Chilcott proceeded from this
point to describe the great plains
area, which is 1,100 miles long and
about 300 wide, where his experi
ments had been carried on. He stat
ed that he had charted every show
er that had taken place at a number
of different stations located in the
area for the past 20 years, and told
how a number of young men raised
in the west and familiar with the ag
ricultural conditions, had been select
ed to take charge of the stations and
carry out the work which he himself
and his associates had started.
The farmers present listened with
the most careful attention while he
told of the different systems of ro
tation in crops which are being
tried, and of the precautions taken to
see that the experiments are carried
on under all sorts of conditions, in
order that the final deductions will
strike an average that will be cor
rect. He explained the charts which
showed the three-year rotation of
wheat, corn and oats; the four-year
rotation, in which brome grass or
alfalfa are introduced for one sea
son, and a number of other systems
which are being tried on parallel
plots of ground in order to observe
the effects of the same conditions on
different systems.
Mr. Carletpn in his address dwelt
to a large extent on the various kinds
of cereals and soils and said that all
soil; cannot be treated alike any
more than all people con be treated
alike.
In speaking of the different kinds
of wheat that are raised he said that
much of the flour produced in Amer
ica is shipped abroad, but that Japan,
which depends largely on America for
its breadstuffs, has found that wheat
raised in California, Utah and other
western states is not as rich in food
products as wheat raised further
east, and it is therefore up to the
shippers for the Pacific coast to find
some other outlet for the western
raised wheat. Mr. Carleton spoke to
some extent on raising cereals plant
ed in the fall as much as possible.
He closed his address by showing
several stereopticon views which he
has collected throughout the United
States in his experiments and re
searches.
e I Harry B. Henderson of Cheyenne,
n spoke of the dry farming experiments
in that section of the country and
t closed his instructive paper by saying
a that the granaries of the world are at
d the westerner's very doors if they
s will only take advantage of them.
e The idea, to. some extent exists,
e that the government officials are op
n posed to dry farming, but when it
h is known that the government has
e 15 dry farm stations in North and
n South Dakota, eastern Colorado, west
3 ern Kansas, Oklahoma and the Pan
i handle of Texas, it will be seen that
such is not the case. The following
l list of government and college men
e who were actually in attendance at
a the Denver convention is proof of the
above assertion.
e Some of the officials and promi
nent agronomists who are playing
e prominent parts in Trans-Missouri
dry farming:
C. C. Williams, Chairman publicity
committee.
Fisher Harris, secretary Salt Lake
City Commercial club.
J. L. Donahue, president Campbell
dry farming system.
t W. F. R. Mill, chairman executive
committee.
Dr. J. L. Briggs, physicist United
Staets bureau of soils.
Prof. W. P. Snyder, director Nebras
ka experiment station.
E. G. Montgomery, agronomist Ne
braska Agricultural college.
E. A. Burnett, dean Nebraska Ag
ricultural college.
A. Atkinson, agronomist University
of Montana.
Arthur A. Briggs, secretary Cali
fronia state board of trade.
Mark A. Carleton, cerealist United 1
States department of agriculture.
W. H. Olin, agronomist Colorado
Agricultural college.
E. C. Chilcott, United States de
partment of agriculture, in charge of
dry land agriculture.
Prof. E. E. Elliott, Washington Ag
ticultural college.
Secretary Arthur Williams.
Many others sent in papers to be
read and the tone of the whole body
of scientific men present was opti
mistic but not too enthusiastic.
This Is the general attitude of train
ed minds in all lines of research and
should not be taken to be antago
nistic.
Dr. Riesland, the optical specialit,
who comes here regularly, grinding
all glasses, will be at Hotel Northern
again March 7 to 11.
(First Pub. Jan. 22,-S. W. 6T)
Notice of Meeting of Stockholders of
Basin Cattle Co.
A special meeting of the stoekhold
ers.of the Basin Cattle company, is by
the undersigned directors of said com
pany called to meet at the office of
said company, at First National bank
in the city of Billings, State of Mont-'
ana, on the 7th day of March, 1907, at
the hour of ten o'clock a. m. for the
object and purpose of increasing the
capital stock of said company to the
sum of sixty thousand dollars, ($60,.
000).
Dated at Billings, Montana, Jan. 19
1907.
M. A. ARNOLD,
T. A. SNIDOW,
JOHN H. BOOZ,
Directors Basin Cattle Co.
(First Pub. Feb. 22, 1907.-9weeks-ei)
(-357.)
Timber Land, Act June 3, 1878.
Notice for Publication.
United States Commissioner's Office,
Musselshell, Montana, Feb. 11, 1907.
Notice is hereby given that in com
pliance with the provisions of the act
of congress of June 3,1878, entitled
"An act for the sale of timber lands
in the states of California, Oregon,
Nevada and Washington territory,"
as extended to all the public land
states by act of August 4, 1892, Wil
liam S. Thompson, of Roundup, county
of Yellowstone, state of Montana, has
this day filed in this office his sworn
statement No. 246, for the purchase of
the E1/ NW%/ NW} NE/4 of section
No. 20, township 7 north, range 25 E.,
M. M., and will offer proof to show
that the land sought is more valuable
for its timber or stone than for agri
cultural purposes, and to establish his
claim to said land before Fred H.
Foster, clerk of the district court at
Billings, Mont., on Friday, the 10th day
of May, 1907.
He has as witnesses: Cliff L. Roots
of Roundup, Montana; Thomas Hurley
of ?ecundup, Montana; Gus Rehder of
Fattig, Montana; Jacob Keller of
Fattig, Montana.
Any and all persons claiming ad
versely the above described lands are
requested to file their claims in this
office on or before said 10th day of
May, 1907.
C. E. McKOIN,
Register.
(First Publication Jan. 29, 1907)
NOTICE FOR PUBLICATION.
Department of the Interior, Land
Office at Lewistown, Montana, January
25, 1907.-Notice is hereby given that
, the following-named settler has filed
r notice of his intention to make final
Lt commutation proof in support of his
r claim, and that said proof will be
d made before Fred W. Handel, U. S.
r commissioner, at Musselshell, Mont.,
e on Friday, March 8, 1907, viz.,
d ELLA LYKE,
n who made H. E. 3807 March 20, 1905,
0 for the N?% NWW{4, W~/ NE'1/, section
t- 20, township 9 north, range 29 E.,
He names the following witnesses to
g prove his continuous residence upon
e and cultivation of said land, viz: M.
d Willard Stockwell, Charles W. Mc
Lean, George A. Davis, Charles M.
Jacobs, all of Musselshell, Montana.
C. E. McKOIN,
Register.
(First Pub. Tuesday, Feb. 19, 1907.-4)
CONTEST NOTICE.
Department of the Interior, United
States Land Office, Billings, Montatia,
Feb. 14, 1907.-A sufficient contest
affidavit having been filed in this of
fice by Ernest F. Kruger, of Billings,
iontana, contestant, against home
s stead entry No. 3858, made February
19, 1901, at Bozeman, Montana, for
NE'E4 SE'/,: section 21, W/2 SW'a:
section 22, and NW/4 NW'/: section
27, township 1 north, range 27 E., M.
P. M., by Alma M. Hammond, con
1 testee, in which it is alleged that the
t said Alma M. Hammond has aband
3 oned said land; that he never estab
lished his residence thereon; that he
has not been residing thereon for more
than six months last past; that said
land is not cultivated as provided
by law; that the abandonment afore
said has continued for more than six
months last past; and that said al
leged absence from the said land was
not due to his employment in the
army, navy or marine corps of the
United States during time of war:
said parties are hereby notified to ap
pear, respond and offer evidence
touching said allegations at 10 o'clock
a. m. on March 20, 1907, before Reg
ister and receiver and that final hear.
ing will be held at 10 o'clock a. m. on
March 30, 1907, before the Register
and Receiver at the United States
Land office in Billings, Montana.
The said contestant having, in a
proper affidavit, filed February 7, 1907,
set forth facts which show that after
due diligence personal service of this
notice cannot be made, it is hereby
ordered and directed that such notice
be given by due and proper publication.
E. E. ESSELSTYN,
Register.
hzavestood the test for over en years,
and are still in the lead. Thler absolute
certainty of growth, their uncommonly
large yields of delicous vegetables and
beautiful flowers, make them t:e most
reliable aRid the most popular every
where. Sold by all delers, lgfl
Seed Anaaal free on request
' D. M. FERRY & CO..
Oatroit, Much.

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