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Ti E BILLINGS (AZETTIE!" """
4. • Gazette Printing Company, Publishers 4 + + The + I .+ Semi - Weekly Gazette + Issued Semi-Weekly + contains all the live + Tuesdays and Fridays + news of the great Yel- + + lowstone valley in par- + - - - ---- ---+ ticular and the world + SUBSCRIPTION RATES: + in general, and as a + One year. In advance ............. ......................$3.00 + newspaper is the "best + Six months ...................................... ............$1.50 + in the Northwest." + Monolith Bldg.. I Eastern Representatives Marquette Bldg., + 4 45 West 34th St. Chicago. • + New York LA COSTE & MAXWELL, Phone Central 5234 Entered at the Billings Postofice as Second Class Matter + + f • + Another Pure Food Discussion Since the agitation of the pure food question, the public has ,been educated to the methods of those who prepanre much of the foodstuffs of the nation. While it. is required that the bottle or ,an containing any article of food shall be em blazoned with information as to the contents, the law does not require the method of preparation shall be made known. In a general way, for example, it is comnmon knowledge that conditions ;ire bettr than than they used to be. In this day of ,lose prices and keen competition, men not only Adopt labor-saving methods but, if we are to be lieve the ,tatements of some, absolutely cut out the labor by leaving the work to chemical agents. An article has just coime to light bearing on the mnet+hods of some canneries, in which it is alleged that, in inStances at least, peaches are first stewed in lye and then canned-the caustic soda bath being for the purpose of removing the skins, and hence saving the cost of peeling them. We reprint. the statement without COiinlIenit. for what it is worth: "The pure food agitation which hal been prin cipaldy over the question of beinzoate of soda has now taken a new turn and renewed interest will doubtless be aroused over this question. "'It is said that in most of the canneries of the country peache. are stewed in red-hot caustic soda to eat away the skins and thereby save the cost of kmnife-peeling, .the difference in cost amounting to a cent and a half or two cents per can. "In the process of this lye stewing almost all the flavor of the peach disappears and doubtless a little caustic soda is left on each piece of fruit as a memento of its trip through the cannery. "'Caustic soda strong enough to eat away the skin of an unripe peach must be anything but socothing to the inner man or child. The full sig nificance of thhi, is best understood in connection with the fact that caustic soda is used in making many kinds of soap; in fact, it is the dirt-eating part of soap. "It is said that the great majority of the can nleries use the lye process in place of the. knife ,peeling method. Attempts have been made for msome time to get the department of agriculture to msake a ruling on this question which would conm pel the canners who use this method to say so on the labels of their goods. It looks now as if the question will be passed up to congress for a specific law covering this phase of the pure food agitation. "The use of caustic soda is impossible with ripe fruit sbecause it discolors a ripe peach so that it will not pass lumister with the users of high-grade canned fruits. In consequence this process is pos sible only with unripe fruit. and green fruit is purposely gathered for canning.llll. "'Owing to the absence of any marks on the ,a-s to indic:ate the ue of caustic sodla. the only way the customer can tell if he has purchased a lye-process can of fruit is by taste. Open a can if peaehe,, wash away the syrup from a piece of lhe fruit. Then taste it. If it is void of flavor. ,voody and pulpy, and has a soapy appearance, it is undoubtedly the lye-peeled variety." !f? x x Wr Let's Forget 'Em Zelava insists that he is still president of Nica ragua and that he only provisionally turned over the government, of his country to Judge Madriz. It, will be rinWmbered that one Castro thought sme such a thing and after he had waited until he thought the clouds had rolled by attempted to return to the scene of his triumphs only to run up against the restraining will of the powers. Senor Zelaya will probably be all right so long as he lives the life of a wealthy but retired gentle man in Mexico, but the chances are that if he attempts to start somxetning he will receive a bump ing that will make the experience of Castro appear :tA mild as swinging in a hammock at a Sunday school picnic. With Zelaya ,afely out of the country and with Madriz showing a disposition to come to terms with the Estrada faction, it would look as though the Nicaraguan should now be drol)ped by the press and public and he should be allowed to joiln f'.stro and I)r. Cook in the limbo of the forgotten. The "Never Again " club will meet January 1. e hlu e thu i -:l:d. :I the -- t .h Nuil' -ed. Fortunate Circumstance While there might have been some sort of satis faction had Zelaya, recent dictator of Nicaragua, fallen into the hands of the soldiers of Estrada it is, after all, a fortunate thing that the seamen of the United States were not called upon to make good the bluff of Secretary Knox, to seize and hold to an accountability for the death of Cannon and Groce the former president of the Central Amer ican repIublic. It is probable that a decidedly good eniect was had uplon the people of Nicaragua through the forcible message sent by the secretary of state to the Nicaraguan charge d'affaires, and doubtless this was as far as Secretary Knox ever expected the matter to go, but one cannot but wonder what would have happened if things had so shaped themselves that. it was necessary to make good, and Zelaya had been captured by an American force either upon Nicaraguan soil or upon the high seas. There is no question of the fact that the position of this government, as defined by the state depart ment. was entirely untenable. There is not a nation on earth that would tamely submit to an attempt to put into force a doctrine that one gov ernmetnt could individually hold responsible for his official acts the ruler of another. To admit of sIuch a thing would mean that indelpendence had been rendered an impossibility. Had Zelaya been a private citizen of Nicaragua, and had he committed a crime in Nicaragua for which he might have been called to acco'"at. or having been arrested had been exonerated, how monstrous would be the doctrine that some other nation might seize his person and try himn Sup pose, for instance, that John Smith should be attacked by a Mexican in Billings, and that in the melee Smith should kill the man from the south. Now, suppose that. Smith should attempt to go to Hawaii and the Mexican government should station a gunboat off our coast and should seize the Billings man and should try him for a kill ing which occurred in the United States. How long would it be before an American fleet would be thundering at the ports of Mexico? It was doubtless a splendid bluff that Secretary Knox worked upon Zelava, for undoubtedly it had not a little to do with the resignation of tldat gentleman, but for all that it was fortunate that the ('entral American got. "cold feet." and failed to call the bluff. Prevention, not Palliation While the movement inaugurated by the Red ('ross,. and backed by the miners' organization and the state of Illinois for the alleviation of the distress incident to the horrible disaster at Cherry is most meritorious and worthy of every encour agement. still sight should not be lost of the fact that in the usual run of such incidents these dis asters could have been avoided and the need for relief measitres could have been guarded against. It i, a notorious fact that the loss of life in American coal mines is infinitely greater than is the case in Europe. The percentage of accidents in the collieries of the old world has been greatly lessened as years have gone by, while in this coun try the opposite is the case. States have enacted legislation looking toward the safeguarding of life and limb underground. but experience has shown that this legislation is totally inadequate. There is not a shadow of a doubt that had there been a well-equipped bureau of mines under the control of the federal government in operation at the time, the Cherry horror could not have oc curredl. The power of the federal government emlployed to find out how the risks of life and limb incident to employment underground could be minimized would have found out how to avert such a horror, while the power of a governmental bureau. backed up by adequate legislation and a sufficiency of funds, could have seen that the pro tective measures were put into effect. The efforts being made in the present congress for the creation of a bureau of mines should be crowned with -uccess. It does not matter whether such a bureau is attached to the department of conmmerce and labor or the department of the interior, just -o the bureau is created and it is adequately supported by legislation which will for ever render unmnecessary appeals to the public to succor the widows and orl)phans of men who go down into the bowels of the earth there to die amid-t fire. smoke and deadly gases. ReprimandsRoad For Not Paying Twenty Cents SASHINGTON, D. C., Dec. 29.-In a decision by the interstate com merce commission handed down today involving a claim of 20 per cent in an overcharge on freight made against the Aberdeen & Ashboro rail way company and other lines, rail roads generally are severely repri manded for their delay in adjusting claims where there has been a pal pable overcharge. The railway had admitted the over charge but did not settle with the shipper until the latter had exhausted ordinary methods of collection and finally had filed a formal complaint with the commission. If carriers persist in this delay, the commission intimates it may be under the necessity of calling the attention of congress to the matter. Commissioner Harlan, in writing the report of the commission, says: "From shippers in all parts of the country and from local traffic asso ciations which are making earnest attempts to secure settlements from the carriers, many complaints have been received in the last year from the inattention of carriers to plain overcharge claims and of their delay in adjusting them. And a survey of the complaints has led us to the con clusion that this practice, or rather lack of practice, among carriers is open to severe criticism. "A substantial portion of the time and labor of this commission is given to secure through informal corre spondence the settlement of claims of this character, and it is a burden from which we ought to be relieved by car riers. On the other hand, from the shippers' point of view, nothing in connection with transportation is more vexing and irritating than the labor and delay incident to the fol lowing up of an overcharge claim and securing its repayment." The commission expresses the opin ion that an ordinary claim of this character should ,be adjusted and paid by the carriers within 30 days and in special'ises that no more than 60 days should be required for settle ment and adds that it "will expect the cordial cooperation of all carriers in our request that the claims depart ment be so organized as to give prompt results." In another case, decided today, orig inating in Chicago, the complainant had died before his claims had been adjusted and the commission ordered the Chicago-Great Western railroad to pay the amount of his claim to his estate. Graft a Part of Cost Of all Public Works TROY, N. Y., Dec. 28.-"The age of patriotism has yielded to the age of commercialism. Uppermost in the human mind today is not the stars and stripes, but the dollar mark." Such was the declaration of Su preme Court Justice Wesley O. How ard in an opinion handed down today reducing the compensation of mem hers of a commission appointed to appraise damages to property result ing from the construction of the Ashokan reservoir in Ulster county, which is to furnish a water supply for New York city. "While the commission furnishes the avenue for the reckless escape of many dollars, there are other chan nels of leakage and waste fully as appalling," said Justice Howard. "It is generally to be regretted that no public enterprise can be projected and consummated without this appall ing loss called 'graft.' Graft is un necessary wastefulness that charac terizes the construction of every pub lic venture. At least 40 per cent appropriated for public purposes is lost in graft. All things could be possible if the frightful leak could be stopped-roads, canals, libraries, asylums and hospitals. "Graft is as much of an element to be reckoned with in computing the cost of a public structure as is cement I or lumber. It has come to be a mat ter of course-this rakeoff-at least recognized by all who make estimates of cost in such cases. A public struc ture built honestly would be a freak." Planning Message on Interstate Commerce And Corporations WASHINGTON, Dec. 28.-President Taft discussed with members of his cabinet today the final de tails of the special message he will send to congress next week dealing with proposed amendments to the in terstate commerce and Sherman anti trust laws. Mr. Taft began work on the document today. At one time it was thought the president might in this, the first of his series of special messages to congress, deal only with the interstate com merce act, leaving 'his proposed dis cussion of the anti-trust law to some future date. He has decided, however, that as the two subjects are so closely related, .he will adhere to his originali intention of making his recommenda tions for changes in the two acts in one commlllnication. In this message he will also sub mit his recommendations for the fed eral licensing of corporations. The proposed license will be a voluntary one, to be taken advantage of by such corporations as decree to place thenm selves under federal jurisdiction. Madriz Government Asks Power to Exact War Funds From the People Will Also Investigate Accounts of Zelaya Administra} tion---Estrada Declares That Madriz Is Play ing the Revolutionary Faction False MANAGUA, Dec. 29.-The Nicaragua congress met in extraordinary session today and appointed a commissioner to consider the message of Minister General Baca, who has asked the government to grant him power to exact war contributions at his own discretion. President Madriz appointed an in vestigating committee of five, which is charged with the responsibility of ex amining the accounts of the Zelaya administration. The finance minister is made chairman of the committee, whose duties include working out a new system of finance, revision of va rious concessions of the government and determination of the legality of the recent act of the president in re voking grants of alcohol, tobacco and other monopolies. The governments of Honduras and Costa Rica today made formal ac knowledgement of the presidency of Madriz, expressing confidence in the stability of his administration and re newed the protestations of friendship for the republic of Nicaragua. Zelaya, who since his arrival in Mexico has announced himself as the head of the Nicaraguan government, is technically coirect. He surrendered his office for the rest of his term, but was permitted Ito retain the title of president that he might enjoy the im munity that the office provides. When this arrangement was made Zelaya had in mind rumors that the United State government would hold him in dividually responsible for the deaths of the Americans-Groce and Cannon. There 'was a lively debate in con gress before the commission to con sider the message of Minister General Baca was appointed. Deputy Gomez, a notorious Zelayist, was hooted in a speech in which he opposed authoriza tion of further war taxes. Deputy Matus, replying, declared that on oc casions of two previous forced loans certain intimates of Zelaya had not been assessed, and he suggested that they should now be made to pay their proportion of the expenses of the war. This covert reference to an earlier speaker was made with shouts of ap proval and enouraged a member to cry, "Gomez did not pay; we can soak him now for a million!" Congress promoted Generals To ledo, Castrillo and Calos Allegria to the rank of generals of divisions. Minister General Baca has invited Rear Admiral Kimball to land the United States marines on an island in Corinto harbor, Iwhere the men will have an opportunity to exercise and where sanitary arrangements will meet requirements. The father of Joaquin Passos, Ze laya's brother-in-law, who was ar rested and is now in prison on a charge of misappropriation of public funds, has made inquiries as to terms on which his son would be liberated, to whidh the authorities have replied that it 'would be necessary to furnish bail in cash to the amount of $1,000, 000 in gold. Operations to Continue. WASHINGTON, Dec. 29.-Doubting the sincerity of President Madriz, w~ho BIDDING FOR THE NEW MONTANA CLIP Denmand for All Classes of Wool Con. tinues Unusually Brisk On the Boston Market. BOSTON, .Mass., Dec. 28.--The de mand for all classes of wool on the local market continues unusually brisk for this season of the year. Inquiry runs through all grades and comes from both clothing and combing cus tomers. Quarterblood fleeces are in particular demand, both eastern and territory. Values hold steady in spite of the short supply. Bidding for the new clip is in full swing in the West, especially in Utah, Wyoming and eastern Montana. Scoured values: Texas-Fine, 12 months, 73@76c; fine, 6 to 8 months, 68@/a70c; fine fall, 60c; fall, free, 50Od,52c. California-Nortihern, 68t 70c; mid die country, 63e065c; fall, free, 50(R 52c. Oregon--Eastern No. 1, staple, 756t 7,c; eastern clothing, 70O,72c; valley, No. 1, 57@58c. Territory- Fine, staple, 77(~i80c; fine, medium staple, 70(,72c; fine clothing, 70@72c; fine, medium cloth ing, 66i 68c; half blood, 35(76c; three-eighths blood, 68r'd70c; quarter blood, 67t168c. Pulled-Extra, 72i75c; fine A, 68( 70c; A supers, 60@65c. RAILROAD CHANGES NAME. (Special to The Gazette.) MILES CITY, Dec. 28.-At a meet ing of the stockholders of the Mon tana, Wyoming & Southern railway, the projected line along Tongue river between Miles City and Sheridan, held recently, it was voted to change the name to the Yellowstone, Montana & Wyoming line. The first name has been adopted ,by a small line running from Wyoming into Carbon county in this state. The directors of the Tongue river line are R. II. Walsh, E. M. Holbrook, John S. Field. C. S. Robinson and Malcolm Moncreiffe, all of Sh,.ri'lan. Wyo.. except Mr. Fields. who is a Chicago man. has made representations to the revo lutionary army in Nicaragua with the establishment of peace as the osten sible object in view, General Estrada has declined to suspend hostilities and is determined to push his army on to ward Managua. A cable dispatch from Estrada, dated Bluefields, Dec. 29, received tonight by Dl)r. Castrillo, representative of the provisional government in Nicaragua, indicates the attitude of the revolu tionists toward the proposition made by the new president. Its text fol lows: "Madriz has asked me to suspend hostilities, but our military operations cannot be suspended 'because we know Madriz is making conscriptions of troops from the interior and is fo menting a division between the eastern and western sections of the republic. "You know that this procedure can only result in more bloodshed and the foundation of anarchy in our father land. (Signed) "ESTRAI)A." lMadrlz Not Recognized. WASHINGTON, Dec. 29.-As the state department has had much diffi culty in obtaining from Vice Consul Caldera at Managua details of recent CHAMP CLARK IS MUCH TROUBLED Declares That Present High Prices Are Now Here to Stay. DRIFT TOWARD CITIES At Present Rate in Twenty Years United States Will Cease To Be Importing Nation-Sixty Per Cent of Population in the Towns. WASHINGTON, Dec. 28.-"The present high prices for farm products have come to stay; the rural popula tion is playing out; the present cen sus if it classes the unincorporated villages as towns will show between 60 and 65 per cent of the population as living in towns." declared Repre sentative Champ Clark of Missouri, minority leader in the house, today. "At the present rate, in 20 years the United States will cease to be an im porting nation for a ricultural prod Ilcts. except as to cotton. "One of the princil,il c:ause.s of the high prices of farm lroduct is the world movement of people toward the towns and cities. Whiie a few people in towns and cities have gardens and raise chickens, and occasionally pigs. practically the entire town and city i population are non-producers of any thing to eat, but are consumers only. "Last year. for the first time. Argen tine heat us in exporting corn and Argentine and Brazil are now fighting to take the frozen meat trade from - ----+---- - COMMISSIONER STITH DEAD. (Special to The Gazette.) MILES CITY, Dec. 27.-Commis sioner J. W. Stith of this county and a prominent merchant of Terry, died at the hospital here this afternoon from a relapse succeeding an opera tion for paralysis of the intestines. COfIE TO BILLINGS XJE HAVE a bargain for you at the right price and on easy terms. Things are moving again, more sales in the past ten days than in six months,be fore. 1 his means an advance in values very soon and you cannot afford to de lay. Let us sell you some town lots, acre tracts, a home, business building or a farm. We are ruying and selling real estate for everybody all the time, adding value to your property and would like to have your business. Come in. NORTh INVES ENT COMPANY Opposite Court Houste Billings, Montana I --p important developments in the Nica raguan capital, it has been decided to send Consul O·livarez, now on leave in Washington, to Managua, to take charge of the consulate there. The department is inclined 'to at tribute Mr. CaOdera's unsatisfactory messages to the fact he is over-eco nomical in spending money for cable grams, the toll on which is 25 cents a word. A dispatch was received from Managua today that it was currently reported there that before he left Managua, Zelaya distributed 10,000 rifles among his followers. Military activity at Managua and on the west coast, it is said, continues. Another message says that Madriz has issued an order creating a tri bunal to invesitigatg the alleged frauds of the Ze:laya administration. Commenting today upon the fact that Admiral Kimball had visited Ma driz at Managua in full uniform and accompanied by his aide, Assistant Secretary Wilson said the visit was entirely without the knowledge of the state department and could not have any significance. Stories that this visit might be regarded as a prelim inary step to the recognition of Ma driz as president of Managua, are declared groundless. WOMAN 'MURDERED BY NEGRO THIEF Head Beaten to Pulp and Body was Thrown Into the Platte River. WAS SEEKING POLICE Plucky Woman Drove Off Marauder and, Seeking Protection, Met Death -Negro Returns and Robs House Lynching Prolbable If Caught. DENVER, Colo., Dec. 28.-The body of Mrs. Belle Rupp, the wife of a rail road employe, was found this morning in the Platte river. Her head had been smashed in by blows from a heavy piece of slag, wielded, it Is believed, by a negro who last night attempted to force his 'way into 'her house. The entire police force of the city is look ing for the negro and threats of lynch ing are being made. Last nignt, while her nusband was absent, a negro tried to force his way into 'the house. She fired through the door twice at him and he ran away. Tel'ling her children she was going to summon the police, Mrs. Rupp left the house and was not seen again until her mutilated body was found in the river. According to the children, the negro returned some time after Mrs. Rupp left and 'took $12 and everything else of value he could find in the house. It is 'believed this was done after he had slain the mother. -----+ - KILLED BY EXPLOSION. CENTRALTA, Ill., Dec. 28.-Four shot firers 'were killed in a dust ex plosion caused by a "windy" shot in mine No. 5, two miles south of here today. The explosion happened 200 feet from the cage landing at the 700 foot level. The track was torn away and the workings badly damaged.