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Will Repay the Settlers
WASHINGTON, D. C., Dec. 30. Under the plan of settlement devised by Secretary Ballinger, all settlers on government irrigation projects who assisted in building the same, and were paid off in water users' cer tiicates, will be repaid for their labor, if their certificates have not hereto fore been accepted as part payment for water rights. The fiscal agent on each project where these cooperative certificates were issued will immedi atly tbe authorized to pay, by govern ment check, all settlers who performed such work, the check to be equiva lent to the face value of the certifi cates presented. No such payment, however, will be made to speculators holding certificates. Their only re course will be to reach an understand ing with the settler whose certificates they bought at less than face value. The secretary of the interior issued the following statement explanatory of his refunding plan: "Secretary Ballinger has approved a tentative plan for the settlement of claims outstanding against the recla mation fund for work done under the cooperative agreements, whereby such certificates as do not show on their face that they have been assigned may be accepted as evidence that the holder performed the service or paid some one else to perform it for him, payments to be made on the project by check drawn by the local fiscal agent. "The method to be followed in mak ing such settlements contemplates the surrender of certificates ,by the water users' associations and all parties who have certificates or claims on account of work done or materials furnished, or the filing of claims for the work done where certificates have not been issued. Forests of United States WASHINGTON, Dec. 30.-"The For-i ests of the United States; Their Use," is the title of a pamphlet just issued by the forest serivice. It contains some food for thought; it also pre sents some ground for argument. The following extracts are made without comment: Our forests now cover 550,000,000 acres, or about one-fourth of the United States. The original forests covered not less than 850,000,000 acres. "Forests publicly owned contain one-fifth of all timber standing. Pri vately owned forests contain four fifths of the standing timber. The timber privately owned is generally more valuable than that owned by the government. The Pacific coast for ests probably contained originally 90, 000,000 acres with a stand of 1,400, 000,000,000 feet. The Rocky mountain forests covered about 110,600,000 acres with a stand of 400,000,000,000 feet. The Pacific forests now cover 80,000,000 acres, or 89 per cent of the original acreage; the Rocky Mountain forests cover 100,000,000 acres, or 91 per cent. Our industries which subsist wholly or mainly upon wood pay the wages of more than 1,500,000 men and women. The industries which use wood wholly or mainly in manufacture represent an investment of over $2,250,000,000 and yield each year a product worth $3.000,000,000. The national forests In the Rocky mountain and Pacific coast states af ford summer ranges to over 12 per cent of the cattle and 21 per cent of the sheep in the states in which they lie. "Forests publicly owned contain over 100,000,000 acres of merchantable timber, with a stand of 484,200,000,000 feet B. M., distributed as follows: Board feet. Nlational forests...... 390,000,000,000 National parks. ......1. 11,000,000,000 Unreserved public lands 14,000,000,000 Indian reservations.... 34,000,000,000 Military reservations .. 200,000,000 State forests .......... 35,000,000,000 484,20,000,000 Corporate holdings with the large individual holdings contain about 1,700,000,000,000 feet of timber. This is on the average, the most valuable timber in the United States. Forestry is practiced on less than 1 per cent of this area. "We take from our forests annu ally including waste in logging and in manafacture. 20,000,000,000 cubic feet of wood. We use in a normal year 90.000,000 cords of firewood. 40,000, hoard feet of lumber, 118,000,000 hewn ties, 1.50,000,000 staves, over 133,000, 000 sets of headings, nearly 500,000, 000 barrel hoops, 3,000.000 cords of native pulp wood, 165,000,000 cubic feet of mine timbers, and 1,250,000 cords of wood for distillation. "Forest fires burn over millions of :cres and destroy billions of feet of timber annually. The young growth destroyed by fire is worth far more than the merchantable timber burned. The loss in the mill is from one-third to two-thirds of the timber sawed. The loss in the mill product through seasoning and fitting for use is front one-seventh to one-fourth. Great dam age is done by insects to forests and forest product. An average of only 320 feet of lumber is used for each 1.000 feet which stood in the forest. "We take from our forests each year, not counting the loss by fire three times their yearly -growth. We take 36 cubic feet per acres for eadh 12 cubic feet grown; we take 230 cubic feet per capita while Germany uses 37 cubic feet and France 27 cubic feet. "The condition of the world supply of timber makes us already depend ent upon what we can produce. We send out of our country one and one half times as much timber as we bring in. Except for finishing woods rela tively insignificant in quantity, we must grow our own supply or go without. We have taken our dividends out of our forest capital, until we have greatly reduced the capital itself. We have 65.000,000 acres of cut-over and burned-oiver forest land, upon which actual Iplanting will be neces sary to iproduce a merchantable crop "Upon the receipt of such certifi cates, vouchers will be prepared on the usual forms in the name of the persons to receive payment for the amount found to be due, evidenced by attached cooperative certificates of various denominations; in case the lialbility is not represented by the certificates surrendered, the detail of work done or material furnished to be shown with unit rates in lieu thereof, with proper deductions for settlements previously made. These vouchers are to be certified to by the claimants, by the project engineer, and approved in the usual manner and submitted to the special fiscal agent for payment. "All certificates heretofore surren dered and filed in the department, but not wholly applied, will be forwarded to the project engineer and the credit yet remaining in favor of the persons surrendering them included in the vouchers presented. "Water users who desire may avail themselves of the opportunity afford ed by this plan for making settlement of construction, maintenance, and operation charges due the government. This may be done, on their request, by the payment of the amount due by two checks, one representing an amount equal to the charges for con struction, maintenance and operation, cte other covering the balance of the claims and the endorsement by the water user of the one check, which latter he will turn over to the fiscal agent or forward direct to the receiver of the local land office in settlement of his charges. It is estimated that about $381,000 worth of these cooperative certificates are outstanding. Supervising and project engineers will be fully advised as to the details of the above plan at an early date." of timber. Of the 9,500,000 acres of forest cut over each year, 1,000,000 acres is cleared for farms; 5 750,000 acres is restocked naturally, and 2,750,000 acres go to increase our na tional task in forest planting. "Douglas fir and yellow pine, now our chief source of supply, are going far quicker than they grow. Douglas fir cost 65 per cent more at the mill in 1907 than it did in 1900. "We invite by over-taxation the misuse of our forests under the gen eral property tax, 'a method of tax ation abandoned long ago .by every other great nation. The taxation of forest lands has been excessive and has led to 'waste by forcing the de structive logging of mature forests, as well as through the abandonment of cut-over lands for taxes. That this has not been more Igeneral is due to under-assessment, to lax administra tion of the law, but to no virtue of the law itself. "From now on the relation of tax ation to the permanent usefulness of the forests will be vital. Taxation of forest lands should be based either on the yield when out or on the earn ing power of the forest. The former would mean a tax on the land alone, plus a tax on the timber when har vested: the latter would mean an an nual tax on the capital value of the forest calculated upon the net re turns expected from it. The former method is well adapted to the actual c uiditions o forest investment and is practicable and certain. It 'would in sure a permanent revenue from the forest in the aggregate far greater than is now collected, and yet be less burdensome upon the state and the owner. It is better that the forest land should yield a moderate tax per manently than that it should yield an excessive tax temporarily and then cease to yield at all. "We have manufactured more lum ber than we require. We have es tablished a consumption per capita based not merely on actual need. but on a lavishness, a disregard for pos sible substitutes, and a scale of waste in the use of wood equaled in no otheri country. The cost of growing trees has always been left out. That there is, in the economic sense, overproduc tion of lumber is wholly true, be cause we manufacture more lumber than our forests can yield perman ently. "We pay generally less for lumber than it is worth, with a slight present gain to ourselves individually, and by so doing we discourage the, right use of the forests and greatly increase the cost of lumber to ourselves later on. and to those who come after us. We must recognize the actual value of timber now or pay an excessive price for it in the near future, and we have carried destruction so far that we shall probably have to do both. "On national forests which has been sold yearly for the last three years an average of about 25,000,000 feet of timber, the timber was sold at prices no lower than those paid for timber of the same kind and quality on pri eate forest lands. If lumbermen can with profit buy timber at .wh "t it is worth from the forest lands of the people and log it conservatively, they can do it at least as well with their own land. "If all the wood wanted In the man ,-facture of lumber from spruce, hem lock, poplar and cottonwood in 1907 had been used for paper masking it would have furnished all the paper made from wood in that year. "By reasonable thrift we can pro duce a constant timber supply be yond our present need and with it conserve the usefulness of our streams for irrigation, water supply, navigation and power. "We shall suffer for timber to meet our needs until our forests have had time to grow again. But if we act vig orously and at once we shall escape permanent timber scarcity." To save time of horsemen is the object of a Californian, who has pat ented a combined curry comb and brush, so arranged that one follows the other over the side of a horse. obviating the necessity of going o.er the animal twice. Insecticides and Fungicides At the last session of congress a bill was introduced in both the senate and house providing for the govern ment control of the purity of insecti cides and fungicides in much the same manner as the, purity of foods and drugs is now controlled. This bill was introduced at the instance of the As sociation of Economic Entomologists. With the increased use of manufac tured insecticides and fungicides, it has become very necessary that their quality should be standardized so that definite recommendations for their use may be made with accuracy and so that adulterated and inferior articles may not be imposed upon the farmer. In view of the fact that many states are enacting such legislation, the manufacturers are warmly in favor of a national law, which will govern interstate traffic and which will tend to secure greater uniformity of the state legislation. While the passage of such a national law would not pre vent state legislation, it would in most cases make special legislation by the states unnecessary, and where states desire to legislate they would tend to pass laws similar .to the national law. Several conferences of entomolo gists, agricultural chemists and man ufacturers have been held and prac tically all of the large manufacturers of insecticides and fungicides are heartily in favor of the measure which is drawn to protect the legitimate interests of 'both the consumer and the reputable manufacturer. The measure has again been intro duced at the present congress in the house( H. R. 2218) by Hon. E. A. Hayes of California and has been re ferred to the committee on interstate commerce. 'The bill will also be in troduced in the senate and an earnest effort will be made by the executive committee representing the entomolo-' gists, chemists and manufacturers to bring the measure to a vote before congress. Practically all the leading horticultural and agricultural organ-' izations of the country have endorsed the measure. 'It seems probable that the bill 'will be passed by congress if, the members of congress become con vinced that the people wish and need such legislation. At the last session of congress the bill was favorably re ported by the senate committee on agriculture, but this report was so late in the session that pressure of other business prevented a vote at the Armament Is the Price of Peace (Special to The Gazette.) NEW YORK, Dec. 30.-Former Sen ator James B. McCr.eary of Kentucky, president of the American Peace and Arbitration league, is in this city. He came on to bid goodbye to Ernest Beckman the noted Swedish liberal, who recently sailed for home. Senator McCreary is enthusiastic as to the prospects of the peace and ar aitration movement. He said to tne Publishers' Press: "I was much pleased to find that Hr. Beckman as well as other prom inent statesmen of other countries take a deep interest in the work of our league, the program of which has been approved by former President Roose velt, by President Taft, Admiral Dewey, Secretary Knox, former Secre tary of the Interior Cornelius N. Bliss, General Horace Porter, ex-ambassador to France, American delegate to the national Hague conference, United States Senators Clark, Daniels, Wil liam Alden Smith, Robert L. Taylor, and a number of other prominent men who have associated themselves with the work of the league, among whom may be mentioned Hon. Champ Clark. Henry Clews, Dr. E. Benjamin An Irews, Brig. Gen. George E. Davis, delegate to the second Hague confer ence, and others. "President Roosvelt declared that the formulation of this program was a new departure in the general peace movement which entitled its authors and advocates to the gratitude and support of the whole American people. This program is "adequate arma ment and effective arbitration, corre lative agencies for national security and justice and for international peace." "Wherein does this program differ from the programs of other peace so cieties? Some other societies favor national d'isarmament' or decreacing of armaments, while many people de clare that immense armaments are the best or even the only way to secure international peace. "The program of the league recog nizes the value of both national arma ment and international arbitration as agents for peace and Justice. It calls for adecr ate 'armament.' Hy this is meant such armament as will enable the nation to protect its rights and the rights of its citizens from forcible attacks by any government that will not recognize its rights in theory and respect them in practice. The United States came into existence through making war in order to secure certain rights for its people and when the existence of the union was threatened by the Civil war the nation made every sacrifice of men or monEox that was found necessary to preserve the union: by force of arms. In the light of this fact can this government for the mere sake of preserving peace be expected to allow any foreign nation to trample upon American rights that were se cured and then protected by great sac rifices unon the field of battle? "But the league is not willing to. look only to an armament plan for the preservation of national rights and of international peace, any more than for the preservation of individaual and state rights. The principles of law are due to the declaration or the con stitution ,and adjudication and enforce ment of these principles are required by the league as the chief means of preserving peace and the ,administra tion of justice, between the individual citizen and between the states of the American Union. "The learue requires that similar agencies of an international charac ter must be the main hope of preserv short session. In their report this committee stated as follows: "The bill was referred to the secre tary of agriculture with the request for his views thereon end the measure as amended is exactly in line with his recommendation. The legislation has the unanimous endorsement of practically all the organizations of practical growers in the country as well as the National Grange, the Na tional Apple Growers' Congress, the American Association of Economic Entmologists and in fact all the or Cganizations representing the con sumers. On the other hand prac tically all the leading manufacturers are heartily in favor of the measure. Your committee considers the legisla tion of vital interest to the fruit and truck growers of the country and rec ommends its enactment in a law." We hear very frequent complaint of imapure or ineffective insecticides. In many cases these complaints are unwarranted and lack of success is due to improper usage rather than poor quality, but there is no question that inferior goods are on the market as shown by the publication of analyses by some of the experiment stations. In the last Yearbook of the United States department of agricul ture it is stated that the Ibureau of chemistry has analyzed samples of arsenate of lead which were prac tically nothinfg but white arsenic. This would, of course, be quite in jurious to foliage. 'The sale of such an article is not only unfair to the consumer but hurts the sale of prop erly made arsenate of lead, than which there is no better arsenical in secticide. If the fruit and truck grow ers and farmers of the country desire such legislation for the control of the purity of insecticides and fungicides they should let their congressmen hear from them in favor of the pas sage of this measure (H. R. 2218) at once and make their position clear as to the need of such a law. If you are interested in this, write your congressmen at once, stating that the bill is before the committee on interstate commerce and you wish their influence toward favorable re port by the committee and prompt action by the house. Write at once as the matter is being pushed for speed, consideration. If every one in terested will thus show their interest the law can probably be passed. ing peace and the administering of justice among nations. "Certainly our men (both policemen and soldiers) are part of these agen cies of domestic law, order and peace but congress and courts are also and it may be truly said the more cus-' tomary means of securing justice and keeping the peace. "The United States government pro posed at the second Hague conference that a properly constituted interna tional congress and court of justice: be created as a means of securing in-' ternrational peace and justice. The other nations are unwilling to make at this time, the arrangement pro posed by the United States. This fact has led the American Peace and Arbi tration league to advocate for the present, such an arbitration program as will be most likely to win the ap proval of this and other governments pending the time when the nations will all consent to the creation of the most approved and modern machinery for peace and justice on an international scale and for international uses. "When proper arbitration treaties have been concluded between all na tions and when arbitration in this form has been sufficiently tried and found adequate for the protection of national rights the people of all na tions will see the safety of national' courts and congresses with ample power and jurisdiction. "The American Peace and Arbitra tion league invites all good citizens to assist in taking as long and rapid steps .as possible on this safe way to peace and justice and in the meantime to keep the United States adequately armed so as to protect America and American rights against any aggres sion that may manifest itself in 'any part of the world. "This program seems to be a prac tical one. Its promulgation w'aq a great step forward and its approval by the former and present presidents of the United States is of the utmost im portance. Proper support of finan cier, business men and the people gen erally will be another long step on the way of permanent international peace and security. "Preparing proper international or ganizations for securing national rights and for administering internia tional justice is absolutely necessary before it will be possible to relieve the people of the burden of arma ments, made necessary by the busi ness of such agencies for interna tional peace and justice. "The American Peace and Arbitra tion league expects to do its part in this good work. Its officers and di rectors hope this part will be a large one and that it will be worthily done considering the vast and vital interests involved." TARIFF JOKERS. No doubt those who are interested in the various trades affected know pretty well by this time how the new tariff operates. But the general pub lic is necessarily slower to discover the various tricks by which duties have been raised. A few days ago at tention was called in this column to the sneaking way in which the duty on structural steel had been lifted. Students of the measure have called attention to the raising of duties in the cotton schedule, notably on mer cerized cloth. Primarily, too, with the tax on lead imposed for the benefit of the smelting trust. We know how, by the maintenance of the old color class ification, it has been made impossible to import any sugar except that which the thieving sugar trust brings in to refine. And now it develops that the itax on sawed lumber has been greatly Woodmen to Spend Half Million on Consumptive F . .:i " ." ' "" ;:. : - '" . , . ' ' , " : . .i.. "". .~ 5 V t~4' .. .......... TDI. .. - te , . T.'BEII('I'I, OSIS ('AMI', MIODERNS WOOD MEN Oy' AMERIC'. Half a million dollars is the sum Swhich the Modern Woodmen of America will spend within the next few years in providing the order with a plermanent and practical weapon with which to wage the battle against tuberculosis among its 1,000,000 meni hers. Near Colorado Springs, Colo., the order has purchased an ideal site of 1,200 acres, where already it has provided accommodations for upward of 100 patients, at an initial expendi-. ture of more than $100,000. Plans for the institution have been drawn on a broad and comprehensive scale, and provision was made at the last head camp meeting for a permanent an nual income of $100,000 through a per capita tax of 10 cents a year. The site was selected to secure not only the undoubted beneficial effects of Colorado's curative climate, but with a view to its economic useful ness as well. The sanitarium has a most ,beautiful environment. Located in the foothills 10 miles north of and in direct communication with Colo rado Springs, the tract is a part of Monument Park, wihich with its curi ously shaped monumental rock form ations has long been one of the scenic attractions of the Pike's Peak region. Included in the tract are productive' farm lands, an apple orchard, a coal mine, and an excellent water sul)ply, I thus providing the sanitarium with much of its own supplies, fuel, water and power at a minimum cost. The buildings are located on a central plateau and are approached from the south and east by splendid drives through pines and crags. The institution represents a dis tinctive plan. It is being 'built on the unit system in order that it may never become unwieldy, no matter how increased, and again by a trick. The Dingley law provided that sawed lum ber, hewn, sided or squared, should pay a duty of 1 cent a cubic foot. The new law fixes this tax at '% a cent. But the senate added to. the words "hewn, sided or squared," the words "otherwise than by sawing." As most lumber is now squared by saw ing, the effect of these added words is to take this product out of the %-cent classification. Under just what classi fication it falls is not clear. In any event, the effect is to increase the tax by the addition of four apparently harmless words which operate to change the classification. So again we see how the scheme works. Under a pretense of reducing the duty from 1 cent to % cent a cubic foot the tax was actually increased. And this is the penalty that must be paid for sawing instead of hewing tim ber. It is an interesting case of "re sion downward." The point we make-and it is one that our English friends would do well to give some attention to-is that un der such a system as ours, which in vites men to seek and push for favors at the hands of the government, such tricks as this are almost inevitable. Indianapolis News. ONLY A GOVERNORI Governor Gilchrist of Florida, who was one of the many governors ac companying President Taft on his recent trip down the Mississippi, has discovered -a new definition which he will endeavor to have placed in all of the standard dictionaries. Here it Is: Governor-A small potato. "At Cape Girardeau I got off the St. Paul expecting to accompany Presi dent Taft to the State Normal school," he said. "A long line of automobiles was drawn up in the main street and I expected to ride in one of them. " 'Guess you can't.' said my escort, a member of the local reception com mittee. " 'Why?' I asked. "'Well,' he replied, 'you're only a governor. Those machines are for the president, the diplomats and the newspaper men.' "We walked."-Norman E. Mack's National Monthly. RAILROADER VIOLENTLY INSANE. PHILADELPHIA, Dec. 28.-Bernard Baile, second vice president and gen eral freight traffic manager of the Philadelphia & Reading company, be came violently insane today in his of fice in the Reading terminal, and after t struggle was removed to a hospital. It is believed overwork was the cause of Mr. Baile's breakdown. large it may grow to be. It is to consist of six (or more if needed) cottage tent colonies, each containing 60 tents. In the center of each col ony is a utility building, providing, with the exception of meals, for prac tically all the needs of the group, their nurses and la doctor. A large central building contains the dining hall and culinary departments, while for those patients unlable to 'be ul there is an infirmary with its own diet kitchen. On one side of the cen tral )uilding will be the amusement hall and on the other the medical buildings. With these buildings, con structed of rustic stone, standing at the head of the central plaza, the effect 'is most dignified and imposing. The tents 'are octagonal in shape, built on concrete bases with hard wood floors, green shingle roofs, win dows ,and doors, with closet and dresser built in the tent. Besides be ing cheaper than rooms in buildings, the tent cottages have the advantages of individual privacy end of provid ing the necessary fresh air combined with every comfort. At the. head of each bed is an electric bell, and a power plant 'will ultimately furnish electric light and steam heat. A steam laundry and ice plant are also to be a part of the equipment. The help are cared for in tent colonies of a different type. The physicians and aapartment heads have small cottages along the hills. Several years will be required to carry out the plans now made for the institution. Plans are so elastically made, however, that they permit the work of caring for the patients to progress during construction. One colony of 60 patients has been in oper ation since January, 1909, and con struction work on the second colony Windsor Castle Is Well Guarded Always The presence of King Manuel at Windsor castle has been the cause of considerable quiet energy at Scotland yard, and known anarchists have been watched for at the ports, and those whose presence is known in this coun try have been shadowed. The precau tions, however, taken for the safety of King Edward are so nearly perfect that little remains to be done in the actual guardianship of Windsor castle. For an unauthorized person to gain an entrance into one of the king's palances is nearly an impossibility. I; has been done, but the number of times could be almost counted on the fingers of a hand. Within the walls of Windsor castle are treasures of priceless value and even if the court is not in residence no one can enter without his presence being known to the police. Although the royal residences are so well guarded at all times the guard is strongest when a foreign sovereign pays a state visit to this country. Then almost every other man is a de tective within a mile or two of Wind sor castle, and no one who is not well known has the slightest chance of getting within esAsy reach of the royal apartments. When the king is in residence at Windsor the guards are doubled. In stead of one man marching up and down with bayonet fixed between sen try box and sentry box, there are two. Then there are the metropolitan policemen on duty at each gateway, as well as royal gatekeepers in scar let and gold livery. In addition to that there are plain clothes detectives and night watchmen. A lunatic seldom gets farther than Henry VIII's gateway at Windsor. The little police office is just inside the gate and here is officially recorded every day anything of note that takes place within the precincts of the castle. A few yards inside the gateway are also the quarters of the officer who is in command of the castle guard. Telephones are installed all over the castle, and the different entrances are connected with the main switchboard. near the equerries' entrance. If a paper knife were taken out of the castle today it would be missed to morrow. Every treasure and piece of furniture in Windsor castle is entered into huge books and photographs are kept of all the most valuable articles. The sentries were always provided with ball cartridges until a guards mIwan fired three bullets into a stone eil,phant on the east terrace of Wind is rapidly nearing completion. Many camps throughout the country are donating $250, the sum required for the building and equipment of a single tent. Treatment is conducted along prac tical lines, emphasis being placed on the outdoor features, so that almost any day the patients may be seen basking in the Colorado sunshine. The executive council has decided to conduct the sanitarium free of charge to all members afflicted with tubercu losis, but the provision has been made that only those who are curable or whose lives may be prolonged a con siderable length of time will be ad mitted. This rule is expected to bring members to a realization of the neces sity of beginning of the fight against the disease in its earliest stages. In an educational way, the sani tarium will do an irpportant work. From it will be disseminated by pamphlet, by lecturers and the month ly journal knowledge which will be a potent factor in the world-wide campaign for the prevention of tuber culosis. The staff of lecturers re cently held a meeting at the sani tarium for the purpose of studying its methods and spreading informa tion throughout the country. Aside from the humanitarian fea tures the sanitarium is considered by the head officers to *be a financial economy. It is figured that each life it saves represents $1,700, the aver-. age amount of policies in force, at an expense for treatment of one-twen tieth that sum. Official reports show that from 1891 to 1907, 14.5 per cent of the total mortality, or 5,156 deaths, were charged to tuberculosis and that 13.9 per cent of the insuranbe losses of these years, or $9,065,000, resulted from this cause. sor castle, which he mistook for a ghost in the mists of the early morn ing. Now they have to depend on their bayonets. It is very seldom that thefts take place at royal residences. The police have power to search all bags or par cels being conveyed from the royal palaces. Many years ago a sentry at Windsor castle managed to hook down a valuable gold watch and chain from one of the royal apartments with his bayonet on the end of his rifle, but he was quickly found out and pun ished. A night watchman goes on duty in side the castle at Windsor every night and comes off in the morning. In case of fire, he would at once give the alarm, and in a very few moments the royal firemen and castle guard would be on the spot, and all entrances would be closed and guarded. The same system prevails at the chief of the other royal residences. There used to be sentries at Frog more in the early part of the last cen tury, but there are none now. Around the royal mausoleum at Frogmore, where Queen Victoria's remains re pose, the metropolitan police are on duty all through the 24 hours. The penalty for a soldier failing to perform his duty when on guard out side royal residences is so severe that there are very few cases indeed on record of men having to be taken off their posts. Two hours on and four hours off duty are the allotted times in the 24 hours' round, and men are very seldom discovered asleep. When the court is in residence at the chief royal palaces the strain of duty is very severe at times. The royal household police, of course, take turns at night and day duty, and when important functions are on they have a very busy time. In addition to the soldiers, police, and detectives, there are, of course, the royal servants and lodgekeepers, who know a stranger at once. Even if a visitor got through the strong cordon around royal residences he would still have to face the six foot footmen in scarlet and gold, who sit just inside the chief entrances. Near at their hand is a telephone, and if they have the least suspicion of a visitor the police are acquainted in a trice. A stranger would have the greatest difficulty, even if he successfully eluded the hall porter, to find his way about such buildings as Windsor cas tle and Buckingham.-London Daily .[ail.