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THE WEEKLY HERALD .
£. E. FISK,..........................Editor. THI.'KSDAW, APRIL. 8, 1815. THEORIOIN of wester» greatness In a very able article, tbe Overland Monthly reviews the policy which has built up the West, proving by true and incontestable argu ments that to the Federal Government and its wise and liberal legislation the West owes most of its prosperity and present advance ment. At the close of tbe first quarter of the present century tbe population of the West ern States was confined to the margins of the principal navigable rivers. 1 he vast interior of the; country was a solitude. The contrast now presented, with its millions of industri ous, thriving people, could never have existed under a cramped and narrow policy. Following the example of New York in the construction of the great Eric Canal, the Western settlers petitioned the Federal Gov ernment for aid, asking for a donation of public lands to assist them in their several enterprises. '1 he donation Was granted, aöd in course of time large subsidies were made, with the view of encouraging internal im provement and public education. No sooner had the Western States commenced the con struct i<*n of canals than population began to pour in upon them. Labor was abundant, and its rewards certain. From feeble com munities they sprang into powerful common wealths, and the wisdom of Congress was apparent. The lapse of a few years proved that the incoming population sought localities only where the canals afforded means of transpor tation to markets, so that a vast stretch of interior still remained unoccupied and un sought . As the progress of invention brought railways, it became apparent that with such means of inter-communication population would largely increase. The employment of associated capital, under the guaranty of cor porate franchise, was the only remaining re source. The States readily granted charters to railroad companies, voluntarily clothing them with the requisite powers. There was scarcely any surplus capital ut this period in the Western States, but the spirit and pluck exhibited by these early financiers seemed equal to any emergency. About twenty-live years ago the Legislature of Illinois chartered a company with a view to the construction of a railroad from the Ohio river to Lake Michigan. Having peti tioned Congress for certain alternate sections on each side of the railroad track, giving cogcut arguments why these lands could thus be put to better use than in any other way, an enlightened and far-seeing legislation at once acceded to the request. The road audits branches were soon constructed, the vacant lands were eagerly sought lor, ana improved. In less than ten years the vast prairie solitude was made to blossom like the rose. Other Western States now applied for subsidies, and the Federal authorities did not hesitate. Grants of public lands were made to Wis consin, Minnesota, Michigan, Missouri, Kan sas, Arkansas, and other Suites. The result lies before us. Immigrants, assured of the certainty of employment, and cited by the cheapness of desirable land, poured into the Western States, bringing with them both in dustry and money. The West at once leaped into an advanced position of greatness and power, and the effulgence of her newly ac quired glory illuminated the whole country. Such is part of the sketch of an enlightened system of national legislation which has, within the last quarter of a century, made the States of the Mississippi valley the abode of an energetic, new, and resplendent civili zation. Indeed, the policy of granting sub sides to aid American enterprise not only began at an early period of our history, hut lias been applied to many different iuduslries. A tariff for revenue carries with it incidental protection to American citizens engaged in manufacturing the article taxed; it increases the price of the foreign article to the extent of the tax, and thus operates to the advantage of our own manufactures; but a tariff for protection, especially, is but another name for a subsidy to the American manufacturer. Education is subsidized; the postal service is subsidized; in one word, without subsidies civil government, equal to the spirit of the age, could not be maintained. "But this essay," says the Overland, "would tic incomplete did we fail to lake a glance at the Pacific State?, which, in the rapid pro gress of our history, have now become the West. When the pressing necessities of the late civil war, as well as the general interests the country, demanded the speedy construc tion of the transcontinental railroad, Congress resolved to pursue a policy whose wisdom has received such ample proof. There exist ed, indeed, no reason why the new States of the Pacific should not be the recipients of thtr like consideration that had been bestowed upon their elder sisters of the Mississippi val ley. Impartial justice demanded that there should be no invidious discrimination against our new Republican empire, so large and val uable a portion of which had been recently acquired by our martial valor. But indepen dent of considerations which appealed to our impartiality and our pride, there existed weighty reasons which addressed themselves, w ith resistless force, to our material interests. True, the project of spanning our vast conti nent with a railroad was a conception of such grandeur as to excite our emulation; but a glory which lacks utility as a substratum is evanescent and profitless. But here is a pro ject not only morally grand, but odd fraught with vast utility to our own commercial inter ests as well as to the commercial interests of the world. When, before, did any nation possess the prerogative of demanding tribute from the commerce of the world ? W c had but to put forth our hand, construct the great transcontinental railroad, and this pre rogative was ours. The American Congress was too sagacious to let this opportunity slip. Taking this enlarged and comprehensive view of the subject. Congress endowed the com panies that undertook the construction of this great work with a subsidy of public lands. But the lands so granted, as everybody knows, were quite inadequate to meet the immediate and immense outlay which the speedy con tion of the road demanded. A large propor tion of the lands, lying in the mountain re gions, are worthless, and it would take years to realize cuoagh from the sale of the best of the lands in the grant. It was impossible for the companies, without other aid, to com mand the necessary means to meet the neces sary means to meet the pressing and import ant demands of the country. Iu one w T ord, the country not afford to wait, p order, therefore, to insure the early completion of the road, beyond all hazard or contingency, Congress adopted the plan of loaning to the companies, upon certaiu conditions, the cred it or bonds of the Government; for which loan the companies stand towards the Gov ernment in the attitude of debtors; aud, like debtor in other cases, must respond to their creditor. The alternate sections of land were the only actual donations to the companies; the loan must be repaid; and it is gratifying to state that such is the prosperity of the companies, the constantly increasing volume of their business, and the prudence of their management, that they will, no doubt, be able to reimburse the Government substantially upon the terms prescribed. This liberal and enlightened action of the Government enabl ed the companies to complete the road with in a time so short as to excite universal won der. And now now let us take a glance at the practical results of the masterly policy pursued by Cougress." In answer to the question, Does subsidy repay the Government? the Overland quotes from a report made by tbe Committee on the Pacific Railroad to the Senate of the United States, February 31, 1871. The Committee, summing up the subject, says: "The net result to the United States may be thus stated: The cost of the overland service for the whole period from the acquisition of our Pacific Coast possessions down to the completion of the Pacific Railroad, was over $8,000,000 per annum; and this cost was con stantly increasing. The cost since the com pletion of the road is the annual interest— $3,877,120—to which must be added one-half the charges for services performed by the company, about $1,163,138 per annum, mak ing a total annual expenditure of about $5, 000,000, and showing a saving of at least *£, 000,0000 per annum." The committee oaloulutLou mo cil till? DUSÎS tbät none of the interest will ever be repaid to the United States except what is paid by services, and that the excess of interest advanced over freights is a total loss." By the annual interest in the above quota tion, is meant the interest on the Government bonds loaned to the companies that construct ed the Union aud Central Pacific roads, which bonds amount in the aggregate to $04,618, 832. It should be noted that this report was made in 1871; since that time the volume of Government overland transportation has largely increased with the vast increase of population on the Pacific Coast; so that it may now be assumed that the saving to the Gov ernment by the use of the road, is about $6, 000,000 per annum, nearly twice as much as the annual interest upon the bonds loaned to the companies. If, therefore, the Government were to sink every dollar advanced to the companies, it would still be the gainer, in the course of a few years, by manj r millions. Such are the practical facts as to the financial attitude of the Government toward this great work. The Overland closes its admirable article as follows: "Notwithstanding these grand results of the subsidy policy, a feeling hostile to it has sprung up iu the country within the last few years. This feeling, we are inclined to be lieve, has grown out of certain alleged abuses, rather than from opposition to the policy it self. There has been a good deal of discus sion concerning these alleged abuses; but it is foreign to the purpose of this essay to treat of that topic. So far, however, as the com panies have made honest gains, we are glad of it; for it is certainly true that they have created vastly more wealth than they have acquired. The hope of gain is a stimulus to exertion, and such extraordinary enterprise deserves corresponding reward.' But for a hostility that originates in envy and is foster ed and adopted by demagoguism, we have no respect. These companies have, by their energy, added new lustre to our national glory; they have built a highway across our continent for the nations, and made the com merce of the world pay tribute to American enterprise. It seems to us that aDy man who takes a proper view of what constitutes a solid and desirable fame—who regards the building up of a great people as an achieve ment superior to their destruction by an armed force—would rather have the reputation of projecting and executing such an enterprise, than to wear the crown of the most renown ed of the Cæsars. Whatever else may be Said of the companies who constructed the transcontinental railroad, this may he confi dently affirmed—that the world is better for their having existed." Recently, during the pantomime at one of the Dublin theatres, a clown entered and said, "I feci rather Moody." The pantaloon rejoined, "and I feel rather Sankey-monious," at which the gallery hissed furiously, und some one struck up '"Hold the Fort for 1 am Coining," one of the revivalist hymns, and the whole assembly in the higher story joined in the chorus heartily. The curtain fell until the Lypin was conclude^. Debt of Missoula county. The annual statement of the receipts and expenditures of Missoula county, as publish ed iu the last Missoulian , places the indebt edness of that county on the 1st of March, 1875, exclusive of interest, at $83,447.65. The assessed valuation of all property of the county for the year 1874 was $537,745.00, and the indebtedness is therefore proportion ately greater than any other county in the Territory. The Missoulian , in commenting on this state of affairs, says : "The financial condition of the county as shown by this exhibit is not as satisfactory as we could wish, and how to improve it is the problem that is now sorely vexing the brains of our county fathers. To effect this end the Legislature of the Territory at its next session must inaugurate a reform in county affairs by such legislation as shall render the administration of Justice less expensive to the people either by a reduction of fees and salaries, or by a grand innovation upon es tablished forms and usages which have so long obtained iu both Europe aud America." Missoula county contains more and better agricultural lands than any other in the Ter ritory, has the advantage over all others in climate, in that its seasons are adapted to the growth of corn and fruit, but the distance the farmers have had to transport their pro ducts to market, and the uncertainty of find ing ready sale for the same after reaching the more thickly settled sections, have discour aged to a great extent farming in that county, aud its population is less to-day than five years ago. What that county wants to place it upon good footing is a ready market for its products. This can never be secured until the population of the Territory is materially augmented, and this will never be until we have railroad communication with the outside world—and we may safely add that, to secure this railroad connection within the next de cade, this Territory must give u subsidy for the same. It is a reasonable estimate to say that within three years after such railway shall reach the settlements of Montana, our population will have increased 50,000, and with the increase will come capital to develop our mines, erect suitable reduction works, and make of this one of the most prosperous and wealthy States in the Union. Of this in crease in population and prosperity Missoula county might possibly receive proportion ately less than some others, and for this rea son the Missoulian is opposed to a Territorial subsidy, although it says the people there are iu favor of a subsidy of "millions for the North Pacific, but not one dollar for the North and South road." While any road will benefit every section of the Territory, no route could be selected which would bring equal benefits to all. Let the delegation from 3lissoula come up to the Territorial Conven tion and aim to secure the greatest good to the greatest number of the whole Territory in a railroad route, be it from the East or South, nnd they will have, at no distant day, a popu lous, prosperous county, with its treasury fill ed and debts paid. — <l i< 1 I I ~ — West Sid« Items. Mr. Joseph Ramsdell contemplates the erection of a smelter at Butte as soon as the weather will permit. There is no mistake about, the richness of the ore found by Mr. Farlin in the Travona lode. If there is enough of it, it is immense. On the Parrott discovery, Messrs. John Downs & Co., in the 80-feet shaft,have struck a good witdth of high grade copper ore, Mr. Kohrs has advices from his baud of 1,800 head of cattle on Snake river that only 17 head had died. Less than one per cent, is light. By the way, he says we were given an under estimate of the number of beef cat tle in this valley, and that there will be no scarcity. Mr. J. K. Pardee, of Philipsburg, iufurms us that he has received a letter from Mr. Moore, of the firm of Moore Brothers. Santa Barbara, California, informing it is their in tention to drive ten thousand head of sheep to Montana to graze this season, as an ex periment. They are very large owners, hav ing, we are informed, some hundred thou sand head, and having heard much favorably spoken of the Montana pasturage, are going to test it in this way. While this seems a large number of sheep—there being last year only 13,747 head iu the entire Territory—it is in fact but a trifling number when compared with the illimitable grazing lands in Montana, and they can be grazed in any of the valleys and surrounding foot-hills and their feeding scarce be noticed.— Northwest. The people of the county are giving the railroad question considerable thought, exam ining their financial conditions and that of the county, and are carefully lookihg over the prospects of the future that they may act intelligently and safely upon this question. The opinions so far as we are able to general ize them from our best information, is a most emphatic declaration in favor of the North ern Pacific. "Millions for the North Pacific, but not one dollar for a North and South road." Cain Mahoney walked into the office one day last week with a very handsome gold nugget weighing forty-six dollars, taken from claim No. 20 in Quartz Creek. The claim is owned by McGraith & Co., and is yielding at the rate of one hundred and fifty dollars to the set of timbers. With such evidences of mining prospects at home wouldn't it be well enough to consider a little before starting off in a jiffy to Fanamint or the Black Hills ex- citement.— Missoulian. - - ^ 0 ■ — There are three vacancies in the Quarter- master's Department, to be filled with offi- cers of the rank of captain, and three hun- dred applicants. This makes the chances as slim as those of holders of tickets in the last Louisville lottery. A j i ! CORRESPONDENCE FROM UPPER TEN MILE. A Railroad Demanded—All Abont the Nllver Mines of Red Mountain—Con centrating 1 Works Needed—Ore Shipments, ete. Red Mountain District, > March 31st, 1875. * To the Editor of the Herald. The miserable day9 have come, the mad dest of the year, in this camp at least. The weather has went contrary to the old saw, that if March comes in like a lion it will go out like a lamb ; for "winter has lingered in the lap of spring" during the whole month, to the disgust of spring and everybody else, and scarcely a day passes without a little ad dition is made to our already liberal supply of the "beautiful 9now." Well, "'tisanill wind that blows nobody good," and ye placer miner views our three feet of snow with calm placidity. As the balmy days of spring approach, there seems to be a disposition manifesting itself among the boys to scatter out and look for work iu other camps. We are million aires prospectively, but in the meantime it takes money to develop our quartz, while we arc waiting for a railroad and all the blessings it will bring. I may as well say in this con nection that we are "red hot" for a railroad, and equally red hot to endorse any practica ble scheme proposed by the Territorial Con vention to realize this dearest wish of our hearts. We have not an anti-railroad man in camp to our knowledge, and if such a one comes to our knowledge we will tie him, Mazeppa-like, to a pair of snow shoes and turn him loose down the side of the moun tain ; and if he escapes as seatkless, be de serves to live in more immortal verse. The Riardon Bros., who own a fine look ing bonanza farther up the gulch than any body, are taking out fine concentrating rock, and have been all winter. The lead is six feet in width aud well defined, and their prospects are good, but they will probably discontinue work on their lead when the water starts, to work their placer ground in Try Again gulch. Further down, at the mouth of Benner, is situated the Mineral Hill lode, owner by Doc. Parker, Coulter and others, which is looking well, and some large piles of ore on the dump shows what the boys have been doing the past winter. The Merrit lode, a short distance below, and owned by Wilson, Johnson and others, is at present shut down, though looking bet ter than at any previous time during the winter. Directly across the gulch Wells it McMur phy are opening the Red Bird lode, and though but a short distance into the hill have taken out good looking rock from the start, and have reason to hope for even better things farther in. The next lead down the gulcli is the Stan ton, on which work has been suspended for some time, 31r. Boyd, the Superintendent, having been busy for the last month getting down the ore that was taken from this fine lead during the winter. Train & Corwin, of the Little Sampson, have also suspended for the season, after having run in a tunnel 90 feet and taking out considerable galena and concentrating ore. Our modest friend, Mr. Corbin, who would like his "name kept out of' the papers," has, single-handed, run in a tunnel 60 feet on his really fine lead, and is naturally jubilant over his fine prospects. "All we want is concen trators," says the old man, "and we will have them if I have to put them up myself." Col. Keeler is confident he has a good thing in the Evening Shade, and has been taking out ore ever since the tunnel struck the lead. John Gonu has sunk a shaft 50 feet on his 3Iammoth lode this winter, and lias a large amount of rock on the dump and several tons of fine ore in his ore house. John sees glance in it all. He is an indefatigable prospector, and deserves to strike it rich. Russell <!fc Constant, of the North Pacific, will have considerable ore to ship by the time the roads become passable, as they have been taking it out all winter and have an abundance in sight. This is at present the finest lead in the district. 3Ir. Russell has lately brought his family out from the States, and the society of the camp will have a pleas ant addition in the person of his estimable lady. 3Ir. IIowc, of Helena, has put men to work on the road, and will try to get the engine and boiler down from the old quartz mill on Ruby Creek before the roads break up, and the boys are all iu hopes it is designed to run a mill or concentrator on this creek, a scheme which there is no reason to believe would not pay. Concentrators are a success other where?, aud why will they not do well here where we have as good concentrating ores as j anybody, and as much of It? I pause for i a reply. POLONIUM "I am not a member of Plymouth Church," ! said 3Ir. 3Ioulton to Assistant Pastor Halli day, "but my wife is. Do you suppose that, if Beecher was a bad man, I would allow' him to come here and sit at my table?" Of course he wouldn't ; and yet Moulton knew as much about the scandal at that time as he does now. "Mr. Beecher is my pastor," said Mrs. 3Ioulton to the same gentleman in her own house, "and I believe in him, and nothing people can say will affect my confidence in him one particle." That was faank and spunky, and no doubt true; and yet 3Irs. Moulton had all the light on the subject which she had when she sw'ore such furious things against "her pastor" in the court room. At the latter place, she had no confidence iu him whatever. At the former, her confidence could not be shaken. And what caused the change? Will some of those newspapers which arc assisting in this prosecution please answer? Letter from California. Coi.pax, Cal., 3!arch 25th, 1875. To the Editor of the Herald. Our friend L. 31. Door, recently from your vicinity, having intimated that a few occa sional reliable news items relating to mining and other matters in this vicinity might be acceptable to you, I have collected the fol lowing facts, which may be of interest to at least a portion of your readers. First 1 will say that THR NARROW GAUGE RAILROAD now in course of construction from Colfax to Nevada City, via Grass Valley, is rapidly pro gressing, there being between four and five hundred men at work, and all tbe ground between Colfax and Bear river is occupied by graders and culvert builders. As soon as Bear river is passed by the graders more men will be put to work, as there will then be more room for them. The road runs out of Colfax in nearly an easterly direction, and near the track of the C. P. R. R., until it reaches the trestle bridge of the latter, near Cape Horn, then runs under the bridge and crosses the Colfax aud Gold Run toll road, just east of the house at I.oug Ravine. Knox and Turton are the sub-contractors, aud have also commenced the tuunel through the ridge between Bear river and Greenhorn creek. Giant powder is made to do a great deal of work, such as was formerly done by picks and shovels, in cuts where dirt and rock are to be removed. Bridge timbers, rails for the track, and rolling stock bave been con tracted for, to be in readiness as soon as re quired. The work seems to be progressing rapidly. TilE RISING SUN MINE of Colfax, located about a mile and a half west of the village, near the stage road to Grass Valley, has the first year declared a dividend of about $87,000, and with present facilities for working the ledge, it will doubt less pay still better the coming year, if it bolds its present width and richness, which is abont one foot, the pay rock averaging about $80 per ton; they being down upon it about 500 feet. Its principal owners are John and Edward Coleman, of Grass Valley, and C. J. Shaw. J. II. Neff is superintendent, and Thomas Bowden chief engineer. A new engine house and mill and new hoisting and crushing machinery have been put up the past year, at a cost of about $30,000. The pumps, hoisting works, and batteries ol ten stamps, are each run by a separate engine —three in all—everything being of the most substantial character. The gold saving apar atus consists of blankets and rubbers. Con siderable prospecting is being; done in the vicinity of Colfax, and between here and Gold Run, more or less gold being found in the rock at several of the various localities. The best that 1 have seen being from the MED A MINE, located a few miles below Colfax. Several tons of this quartz rock has recently been crushed at the Rising Sun mill, the result of which will soon be made known. There* is still another near by called THE LIVE OAK, the prospects of which, although somewhat encouraging, are said to be not quite as good just at present as the "Meda." Considerable prospecting has been done on the NORTH STAR LEDGE by the owners, 3Ioses Ileald& Co., v\ ho have run a tunnel into the hill about 550 feet, from which rock has been iaken and crushed at the Rising Sun mill, and said to have paid about $10 per ton. This ledge lies near the toll road from Colfax to Gold Run. and has not :ts yet been fully developed. MR. l>OKE, who will .-Ü 011 return to Monhum v> abend to his interests in silver ledges there, has pre sented me with specimens of silver ore from your locality said to assay from $500 to $2,000 per ton, and he says that "prospectors" m Montana would scarcely look at a ledge then which would not pay more per ton tinn mum that are now worked at a profit here. MR. CHARLES I» HOG AN, now in Sau Francisco, and b innerl \ a red dent of Gold Run, will, I am informed, also return to Montana this sprimj ; to lit up and work a gravel claim liiere, mvi icd by himself and others. Possibly your coirespon' dent may "put in an appearance'' :i u*re at no very distant day. Meantime, men anon, if yoi : desire it. 1. A. 1 y A I.iUIu Town iu I tali the Scene ol' 1 «1 paralleled Fiendish mess. Au atrocious tragedy was commit t< .1 in Toquerville, Utah, last Thursd ay. which, , for some unaccountable reason, w. r is not repo rtci by telegraph. Richard Fryer, who has 1:. dely labored under the hallucination that no \va. a second Jesus Christ, entered Ids house in the evening and found Thomas Batty, u friend of tlic family, lighting a fire in the grate. Believing that Batty was an emissary of the devil, who was trying to burn hi> premises, the lunatic rushed fora pistol and shot him through the head. Mrs. Fry it. paralyzed with fear, crouched in a corner, and was shot through the heart by her dem oniac husband. The next thing lie did was to go to a cradle, where his infant child \v:e lying asleep, and deliberately blow its bruin. out. This was the crowning act of lb»- al most unparalleled tragedy. Fryer then "-diied forth into tlic village, armed with a revolver and a gun, proclaiming himself the Lord, and saving that he lmd slain the devil and several of his imps. Tbe sheriff, being una ble to arrest Fryer, aud fearing that still other lives might bo sacrifice!, killed him with a shot from a navy revolver. Batty, Mrs. Fryer, the babe, and the slaver of them all. were buried on St. Patrick s day from the same house.— Denver News, 2R/< inst.