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Helena weekly herald. [volume] (Helena, Mont.) 1867-1900, April 08, 1875, Image 4

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£. E. FISK,..........................Editor.
THI.'KSDAW, APRIL. 8, 1815.
THEORIOIN of wester» greatness
In a very able article, tbe Overland Monthly
reviews the policy which has built up the
West, proving by true and incontestable argu
ments that to the Federal Government and its
wise and liberal legislation the West owes
most of its prosperity and present advance
ment. At the close of tbe first quarter of the
present century tbe population of the West
ern States was confined to the margins of the
principal navigable rivers. 1 he vast interior
of the; country was a solitude. The contrast
now presented, with its millions of industri
ous, thriving people, could never have existed
under a cramped and narrow policy.
Following the example of New York in the
construction of the great Eric Canal, the
Western settlers petitioned the Federal Gov
ernment for aid, asking for a donation of
public lands to assist them in their several
enterprises. '1 he donation Was granted, aöd
in course of time large subsidies were made,
with the view of encouraging internal im
provement and public education. No sooner
had the Western States commenced the con
struct i<*n of canals than population began to
pour in upon them. Labor was abundant,
and its rewards certain. From feeble com
munities they sprang into powerful common
wealths, and the wisdom of Congress was
The lapse of a few years proved that the
incoming population sought localities only
where the canals afforded means of transpor
tation to markets, so that a vast stretch of
interior still remained unoccupied and un
sought . As the progress of invention brought
railways, it became apparent that with such
means of inter-communication population
would largely increase. The employment of
associated capital, under the guaranty of cor
porate franchise, was the only remaining re
source. The States readily granted charters
to railroad companies, voluntarily clothing
them with the requisite powers. There was
scarcely any surplus capital ut this period in
the Western States, but the spirit and pluck
exhibited by these early financiers seemed
equal to any emergency.
About twenty-live years ago the Legislature
of Illinois chartered a company with a view
to the construction of a railroad from the
Ohio river to Lake Michigan. Having peti
tioned Congress for certain alternate sections
on each side of the railroad track, giving
cogcut arguments why these lands could thus
be put to better use than in any other way, an
enlightened and far-seeing legislation at once
acceded to the request. The road audits
branches were soon constructed, the vacant
lands were eagerly sought lor, ana improved.
In less than ten years the vast prairie solitude
was made to blossom like the rose. Other
Western States now applied for subsidies, and
the Federal authorities did not hesitate.
Grants of public lands were made to Wis
consin, Minnesota, Michigan, Missouri, Kan
sas, Arkansas, and other Suites. The result
lies before us. Immigrants, assured of the
certainty of employment, and cited by the
cheapness of desirable land, poured into the
Western States, bringing with them both in
dustry and money. The West at once leaped
into an advanced position of greatness and
power, and the effulgence of her newly ac
quired glory illuminated the whole country.
Such is part of the sketch of an enlightened
system of national legislation which has,
within the last quarter of a century, made
the States of the Mississippi valley the abode
of an energetic, new, and resplendent civili
zation. Indeed, the policy of granting sub
sides to aid American enterprise not only
began at an early period of our history, hut
lias been applied to many different iuduslries.
A tariff for revenue carries with it incidental
protection to American citizens engaged in
manufacturing the article taxed; it increases
the price of the foreign article to the extent
of the tax, and thus operates to the advantage
of our own manufactures; but a tariff for
protection, especially, is but another name
for a subsidy to the American manufacturer.
Education is subsidized; the postal service is
subsidized; in one word, without subsidies
civil government, equal to the spirit of the
age, could not be maintained.
"But this essay," says the Overland, "would
tic incomplete did we fail to lake a glance at
the Pacific State?, which, in the rapid pro
gress of our history, have now become the
West. When the pressing necessities of the
late civil war, as well as the general interests
the country, demanded the speedy construc
tion of the transcontinental railroad, Congress
resolved to pursue a policy whose wisdom
has received such ample proof. There exist
ed, indeed, no reason why the new States of
the Pacific should not be the recipients of thtr
like consideration that had been bestowed
upon their elder sisters of the Mississippi val
ley. Impartial justice demanded that there
should be no invidious discrimination against
our new Republican empire, so large and val
uable a portion of which had been recently
acquired by our martial valor. But indepen
dent of considerations which appealed to our
impartiality and our pride, there existed
weighty reasons which addressed themselves,
w ith resistless force, to our material interests.
True, the project of spanning our vast conti
nent with a railroad was a conception of such
grandeur as to excite our emulation; but a
glory which lacks utility as a substratum is
evanescent and profitless. But here is a pro
ject not only morally grand, but odd fraught
with vast utility to our own commercial inter
ests as well as to the commercial interests of
the world. When, before, did any nation
possess the prerogative of demanding tribute
from the commerce of the world ? W c
had but to put forth our hand, construct the
great transcontinental railroad, and this pre
rogative was ours. The American Congress
was too sagacious to let this opportunity slip.
Taking this enlarged and comprehensive view
of the subject. Congress endowed the com
panies that undertook the construction of this
great work with a subsidy of public lands.
But the lands so granted, as everybody knows,
were quite inadequate to meet the immediate
and immense outlay which the speedy con
tion of the road demanded. A large propor
tion of the lands, lying in the mountain re
gions, are worthless, and it would take years
to realize cuoagh from the sale of the best of
the lands in the grant. It was impossible for
the companies, without other aid, to com
mand the necessary means to meet the neces
sary means to meet the pressing and import
ant demands of the country. Iu one w T ord,
the country not afford to wait, p order,
therefore, to insure the early completion of
the road, beyond all hazard or contingency,
Congress adopted the plan of loaning to the
companies, upon certaiu conditions, the cred
it or bonds of the Government; for which
loan the companies stand towards the Gov
ernment in the attitude of debtors; aud, like
debtor in other cases, must respond to their
creditor. The alternate sections of land were
the only actual donations to the companies;
the loan must be repaid; and it is gratifying
to state that such is the prosperity of the
companies, the constantly increasing volume
of their business, and the prudence of their
management, that they will, no doubt, be able
to reimburse the Government substantially
upon the terms prescribed. This liberal and
enlightened action of the Government enabl
ed the companies to complete the road with
in a time so short as to excite universal won
der. And now now let us take a glance at
the practical results of the masterly policy
pursued by Cougress."
In answer to the question, Does subsidy
repay the Government? the Overland quotes
from a report made by tbe Committee on the
Pacific Railroad to the Senate of the United
States, February 31, 1871. The Committee,
summing up the subject, says:
"The net result to the United States may be
thus stated: The cost of the overland service
for the whole period from the acquisition of
our Pacific Coast possessions down to the
completion of the Pacific Railroad, was over
$8,000,000 per annum; and this cost was con
stantly increasing. The cost since the com
pletion of the road is the annual interest—
$3,877,120—to which must be added one-half
the charges for services performed by the
company, about $1,163,138 per annum, mak
ing a total annual expenditure of about $5,
000,000, and showing a saving of at least
*£, 000,0000 per annum." The committee
oaloulutLou mo cil till? DUSÎS tbät
none of the interest will ever be repaid to the
United States except what is paid by services,
and that the excess of interest advanced over
freights is a total loss."
By the annual interest in the above quota
tion, is meant the interest on the Government
bonds loaned to the companies that construct
ed the Union aud Central Pacific roads, which
bonds amount in the aggregate to $04,618,
832. It should be noted that this report was
made in 1871; since that time the volume of
Government overland transportation has
largely increased with the vast increase of
population on the Pacific Coast; so that it may
now be assumed that the saving to the Gov
ernment by the use of the road, is about $6,
000,000 per annum, nearly twice as much as
the annual interest upon the bonds loaned to
the companies. If, therefore, the Government
were to sink every dollar advanced to the
companies, it would still be the gainer, in the
course of a few years, by manj r millions.
Such are the practical facts as to the financial
attitude of the Government toward this great
The Overland closes its admirable article as
"Notwithstanding these grand results of the
subsidy policy, a feeling hostile to it has
sprung up iu the country within the last few
years. This feeling, we are inclined to be
lieve, has grown out of certain alleged abuses,
rather than from opposition to the policy it
self. There has been a good deal of discus
sion concerning these alleged abuses; but it is
foreign to the purpose of this essay to treat
of that topic. So far, however, as the com
panies have made honest gains, we are glad
of it; for it is certainly true that they have
created vastly more wealth than they have
acquired. The hope of gain is a stimulus to
exertion, and such extraordinary enterprise
deserves corresponding reward.' But for a
hostility that originates in envy and is foster
ed and adopted by demagoguism, we have no
respect. These companies have, by their
energy, added new lustre to our national
glory; they have built a highway across our
continent for the nations, and made the com
merce of the world pay tribute to American
enterprise. It seems to us that aDy man who
takes a proper view of what constitutes a
solid and desirable fame—who regards the
building up of a great people as an achieve
ment superior to their destruction by an armed
force—would rather have the reputation of
projecting and executing such an enterprise,
than to wear the crown of the most renown
ed of the Cæsars. Whatever else may be
Said of the companies who constructed the
transcontinental railroad, this may he confi
dently affirmed—that the world is better for
their having existed."
Recently, during the pantomime at one
of the Dublin theatres, a clown entered and
said, "I feci rather Moody." The pantaloon
rejoined, "and I feel rather Sankey-monious,"
at which the gallery hissed furiously, und
some one struck up '"Hold the Fort for 1 am
Coining," one of the revivalist hymns, and
the whole assembly in the higher story joined
in the chorus heartily. The curtain fell until
the Lypin was conclude^.
Debt of Missoula county.
The annual statement of the receipts and
expenditures of Missoula county, as publish
ed iu the last Missoulian , places the indebt
edness of that county on the 1st of March,
1875, exclusive of interest, at $83,447.65.
The assessed valuation of all property of the
county for the year 1874 was $537,745.00,
and the indebtedness is therefore proportion
ately greater than any other county in the
Territory. The Missoulian , in commenting
on this state of affairs, says :
"The financial condition of the county as
shown by this exhibit is not as satisfactory
as we could wish, and how to improve it is
the problem that is now sorely vexing the
brains of our county fathers. To effect this
end the Legislature of the Territory at its next
session must inaugurate a reform in county
affairs by such legislation as shall render the
administration of Justice less expensive to
the people either by a reduction of fees and
salaries, or by a grand innovation upon es
tablished forms and usages which have so
long obtained iu both Europe aud America."
Missoula county contains more and better
agricultural lands than any other in the Ter
ritory, has the advantage over all others in
climate, in that its seasons are adapted to the
growth of corn and fruit, but the distance
the farmers have had to transport their pro
ducts to market, and the uncertainty of find
ing ready sale for the same after reaching
the more thickly settled sections, have discour
aged to a great extent farming in that county,
aud its population is less to-day than five
years ago. What that county wants to place
it upon good footing is a ready market for its
products. This can never be secured until
the population of the Territory is materially
augmented, and this will never be until we
have railroad communication with the outside
world—and we may safely add that, to secure
this railroad connection within the next de
cade, this Territory must give u subsidy for
the same. It is a reasonable estimate to say
that within three years after such railway
shall reach the settlements of Montana, our
population will have increased 50,000, and
with the increase will come capital to develop
our mines, erect suitable reduction works,
and make of this one of the most prosperous
and wealthy States in the Union. Of this in
crease in population and prosperity Missoula
county might possibly receive proportion
ately less than some others, and for this rea
son the Missoulian is opposed to a Territorial
subsidy, although it says the people there are
iu favor of a subsidy of "millions for the
North Pacific, but not one dollar for the
North and South road." While any road will
benefit every section of the Territory, no
route could be selected which would bring
equal benefits to all. Let the delegation from
3lissoula come up to the Territorial Conven
tion and aim to secure the greatest good to
the greatest number of the whole Territory in
a railroad route, be it from the East or South,
nnd they will have, at no distant day, a popu
lous, prosperous county, with its treasury fill
ed and debts paid.
— <l i< 1 I I ~ —
West Sid« Items.
Mr. Joseph Ramsdell contemplates the
erection of a smelter at Butte as soon as the
weather will permit.
There is no mistake about, the richness of
the ore found by Mr. Farlin in the Travona
lode. If there is enough of it, it is immense.
On the Parrott discovery, Messrs. John
Downs & Co., in the 80-feet shaft,have struck
a good witdth of high grade copper ore,
Mr. Kohrs has advices from his baud of
1,800 head of cattle on Snake river that only
17 head had died. Less than one per cent, is
light. By the way, he says we were given
an under estimate of the number of beef cat
tle in this valley, and that there will be no
Mr. J. K. Pardee, of Philipsburg, iufurms
us that he has received a letter from Mr.
Moore, of the firm of Moore Brothers. Santa
Barbara, California, informing it is their in
tention to drive ten thousand head of sheep
to Montana to graze this season, as an ex
periment. They are very large owners, hav
ing, we are informed, some hundred thou
sand head, and having heard much favorably
spoken of the Montana pasturage, are going
to test it in this way. While this seems a
large number of sheep—there being last year
only 13,747 head iu the entire Territory—it is
in fact but a trifling number when compared
with the illimitable grazing lands in Montana,
and they can be grazed in any of the valleys
and surrounding foot-hills and their feeding
scarce be noticed.— Northwest.
The people of the county are giving the
railroad question considerable thought, exam
ining their financial conditions and that of
the county, and are carefully lookihg over
the prospects of the future that they may act
intelligently and safely upon this question.
The opinions so far as we are able to general
ize them from our best information, is a most
emphatic declaration in favor of the North
ern Pacific. "Millions for the North Pacific,
but not one dollar for a North and South
Cain Mahoney walked into the office one
day last week with a very handsome gold
nugget weighing forty-six dollars, taken from
claim No. 20 in Quartz Creek. The claim is
owned by McGraith & Co., and is yielding at
the rate of one hundred and fifty dollars to
the set of timbers. With such evidences of
mining prospects at home wouldn't it be well
enough to consider a little before starting off
in a jiffy to Fanamint or the Black Hills ex-
citement.— Missoulian.
- - ^ 0 ■ —
There are three vacancies in the Quarter-
master's Department, to be filled with offi-
cers of the rank of captain, and three hun-
dred applicants. This makes the chances as
slim as those of holders of tickets in the
last Louisville lottery.
A Railroad Demanded—All Abont the
Nllver Mines of Red Mountain—Con
centrating 1 Works Needed—Ore
Shipments, ete.
Red Mountain District, >
March 31st, 1875. *
To the Editor of the Herald.
The miserable day9 have come, the mad
dest of the year, in this camp at least. The
weather has went contrary to the old saw,
that if March comes in like a lion it will go
out like a lamb ; for "winter has lingered in
the lap of spring" during the whole month,
to the disgust of spring and everybody else,
and scarcely a day passes without a little ad
dition is made to our already liberal supply
of the "beautiful 9now." Well, "'tisanill
wind that blows nobody good," and ye placer
miner views our three feet of snow with calm
As the balmy days of spring approach,
there seems to be a disposition manifesting
itself among the boys to scatter out and look
for work iu other camps. We are million
aires prospectively, but in the meantime it
takes money to develop our quartz, while we
arc waiting for a railroad and all the blessings
it will bring. I may as well say in this con
nection that we are "red hot" for a railroad,
and equally red hot to endorse any practica
ble scheme proposed by the Territorial Con
vention to realize this dearest wish of our
hearts. We have not an anti-railroad man
in camp to our knowledge, and if such a one
comes to our knowledge we will tie him,
Mazeppa-like, to a pair of snow shoes and
turn him loose down the side of the moun
tain ; and if he escapes as seatkless, be de
serves to live in more immortal verse.
The Riardon Bros., who own a fine look
ing bonanza farther up the gulch than any
body, are taking out fine concentrating rock,
and have been all winter. The lead is six
feet in width aud well defined, and their
prospects are good, but they will probably
discontinue work on their lead when the
water starts, to work their placer ground in
Try Again gulch.
Further down, at the mouth of Benner, is
situated the Mineral Hill lode, owner by Doc.
Parker, Coulter and others, which is looking
well, and some large piles of ore on the dump
shows what the boys have been doing the
past winter.
The Merrit lode, a short distance below,
and owned by Wilson, Johnson and others,
is at present shut down, though looking bet
ter than at any previous time during the
Directly across the gulch Wells it McMur
phy are opening the Red Bird lode, and
though but a short distance into the hill have
taken out good looking rock from the start,
and have reason to hope for even better
things farther in.
The next lead down the gulcli is the Stan
ton, on which work has been suspended for
some time, 31r. Boyd, the Superintendent,
having been busy for the last month getting
down the ore that was taken from this fine
lead during the winter.
Train & Corwin, of the Little Sampson,
have also suspended for the season, after
having run in a tunnel 90 feet and taking out
considerable galena and concentrating ore.
Our modest friend, Mr. Corbin, who would
like his "name kept out of' the papers," has,
single-handed, run in a tunnel 60 feet on his
really fine lead, and is naturally jubilant over
his fine prospects. "All we want is concen
trators," says the old man, "and we will have
them if I have to put them up myself."
Col. Keeler is confident he has a good thing
in the Evening Shade, and has been taking
out ore ever since the tunnel struck the lead.
John Gonu has sunk a shaft 50 feet on his
3Iammoth lode this winter, and lias a large
amount of rock on the dump and several tons
of fine ore in his ore house. John sees glance
in it all. He is an indefatigable prospector,
and deserves to strike it rich.
Russell <!fc Constant, of the North Pacific,
will have considerable ore to ship by the
time the roads become passable, as they have
been taking it out all winter and have an
abundance in sight. This is at present the
finest lead in the district. 3Ir. Russell has
lately brought his family out from the States,
and the society of the camp will have a pleas
ant addition in the person of his estimable
3Ir. IIowc, of Helena, has put men to work
on the road, and will try to get the engine
and boiler down from the old quartz mill on
Ruby Creek before the roads break up, and
the boys are all iu hopes it is designed to run
a mill or concentrator on this creek, a scheme
which there is no reason to believe would not
pay. Concentrators are a success other
where?, aud why will they not do well here
where we have as good concentrating ores as
j anybody, and as much of It? I pause for
i a reply. POLONIUM
"I am not a member of Plymouth Church,"
! said 3Ir. 3Ioulton to Assistant Pastor Halli
day, "but my wife is. Do you suppose that,
if Beecher was a bad man, I would allow' him
to come here and sit at my table?" Of course
he wouldn't ; and yet Moulton knew as much
about the scandal at that time as he does now.
"Mr. Beecher is my pastor," said Mrs.
3Ioulton to the same gentleman in her own
house, "and I believe in him, and nothing
people can say will affect my confidence in
him one particle." That was faank and
spunky, and no doubt true; and yet 3Irs.
Moulton had all the light on the subject
which she had when she sw'ore such furious
things against "her pastor" in the court room.
At the latter place, she had no confidence iu
him whatever. At the former, her confidence
could not be shaken. And what caused the
change? Will some of those newspapers
which arc assisting in this prosecution please
Letter from California.
Coi.pax, Cal., 3!arch 25th, 1875.
To the Editor of the Herald.
Our friend L. 31. Door, recently from your
vicinity, having intimated that a few occa
sional reliable news items relating to mining
and other matters in this vicinity might be
acceptable to you, I have collected the fol
lowing facts, which may be of interest to at
least a portion of your readers. First 1 will
say that
now in course of construction from Colfax to
Nevada City, via Grass Valley, is rapidly pro
gressing, there being between four and five
hundred men at work, and all tbe ground
between Colfax and Bear river is occupied by
graders and culvert builders. As soon as
Bear river is passed by the graders more men
will be put to work, as there will then be
more room for them. The road runs out of
Colfax in nearly an easterly direction, and
near the track of the C. P. R. R., until it
reaches the trestle bridge of the latter, near
Cape Horn, then runs under the bridge and
crosses the Colfax aud Gold Run toll road,
just east of the house at I.oug Ravine. Knox
and Turton are the sub-contractors, aud have
also commenced the tuunel through the ridge
between Bear river and Greenhorn creek.
Giant powder is made to do a great deal
of work, such as was formerly done by
picks and shovels, in cuts where dirt and
rock are to be removed. Bridge timbers, rails
for the track, and rolling stock bave been con
tracted for, to be in readiness as soon as re
quired. The work seems to be progressing
of Colfax, located about a mile and a half
west of the village, near the stage road to
Grass Valley, has the first year declared a
dividend of about $87,000, and with present
facilities for working the ledge, it will doubt
less pay still better the coming year, if it bolds
its present width and richness, which is abont
one foot, the pay rock averaging about $80
per ton; they being down upon it about 500
feet. Its principal owners are John and
Edward Coleman, of Grass Valley, and C. J.
Shaw. J. II. Neff is superintendent, and
Thomas Bowden chief engineer. A new
engine house and mill and new hoisting and
crushing machinery have been put up the
past year, at a cost of about $30,000. The
pumps, hoisting works, and batteries ol
ten stamps, are each run by a separate engine
—three in all—everything being of the most
substantial character. The gold saving apar
atus consists of blankets and rubbers. Con
siderable prospecting is being; done in the
vicinity of Colfax, and between here and
Gold Run, more or less gold being found in
the rock at several of the various localities.
The best that 1 have seen being from the
located a few miles below Colfax. Several
tons of this quartz rock has recently been
crushed at the Rising Sun mill, the result of
which will soon be made known. There* is
still another near by called
the prospects of which, although somewhat
encouraging, are said to be not quite as good
just at present as the "Meda." Considerable
prospecting has been done on the
by the owners, 3Ioses Ileald& Co., v\ ho have
run a tunnel into the hill about 550 feet, from
which rock has been iaken and crushed at
the Rising Sun mill, and said to have paid
about $10 per ton. This ledge lies near the
toll road from Colfax to Gold Run. and has
not :ts yet been fully developed.
MR. l>OKE,
who will .-Ü 011 return to Monhum v> abend to
his interests in silver ledges there, has pre
sented me with specimens of silver ore from
your locality said to assay from $500 to $2,000
per ton, and he says that "prospectors" m
Montana would scarcely look at a ledge then
which would not pay more per ton tinn mum
that are now worked at a profit here.
now in Sau Francisco, and b
innerl \ a
dent of Gold Run, will, I am
return to Montana this sprimj
; to lit up
work a gravel claim liiere, mvi
icd by himself
and others. Possibly your
may "put in an appearance'' :i
u*re at no
distant day. Meantime, men
anon, if
yoi :
desire it.
1. A. 1
A I.iUIu Town iu I tali the
Scene ol'
1 «1
paralleled Fiendish
Au atrocious tragedy was
commit t<
.1 in
Toquerville, Utah, last Thursd
ay. which,
, for
some unaccountable reason, w. r
is not repo
by telegraph. Richard Fryer,
who has 1:.
labored under the hallucination that no \va.
a second Jesus Christ, entered Ids house in
the evening and found Thomas Batty, u
friend of tlic family, lighting a fire in the
grate. Believing that Batty was an emissary
of the devil, who was trying to burn hi>
premises, the lunatic rushed fora pistol and
shot him through the head. Mrs. Fry it.
paralyzed with fear, crouched in a corner,
and was shot through the heart by her dem
oniac husband. The next thing lie did was
to go to a cradle, where his infant child \v:e
lying asleep, and deliberately blow its bruin.
out. This was the crowning act of lb»- al
most unparalleled tragedy. Fryer then "-diied
forth into tlic village, armed with a revolver
and a gun, proclaiming himself the Lord,
and saving that he lmd slain the devil and
several of his imps. Tbe sheriff, being una
ble to arrest Fryer, aud fearing that still other
lives might bo sacrifice!, killed him with a
shot from a navy revolver. Batty, Mrs.
Fryer, the babe, and the slaver of them all.
were buried on St. Patrick s day from the
same house.— Denver News, 2R/< inst.

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