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THE WEEKLY HERALD.
B. E. FISK,... THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 30, 1875. AMERICAN CITIZENS IN PEKIE. Our cotemporarj' professes to have infor mation that two American citizens are now unjustly confined in a British prison, and makes it a text for sermonizing on the de generacy of our government and its indiffer ence to the sacred rights of its citizens. Be fore indulging in that style of talk, would it not be well to ascertain whether the case has ever been made known to the government ? If any such case exists deserving the inter position of the government a~>d the facts are laid before it in some way tc c tke it a basis for a proper demand, we have not a shadow of doubt but the officers of the government will do their duty. We recognize no politics in such matters, and will cheerfully do all in our power to aid any movement for the res cue of any citizen from suffering unjustly. Any one who has any evidence in such a case ought to present it in proper shape to the proper authorities. We have a Delegate who would be the proper one to bring it to the notice of the Secretary of State, and there is no doubt it would Le forthwith brought be fore the British Minister and an investigation had at once. It is the veriest twaddle about our govern ment being indifferent to the rights of citi zens. There never was a day since we were a nation when these rights were more se curely and promptly cared for. If our citi zens voluntarily go upon the soil of other nations, they must submit to and obey their laws, as we make foreigners obey our own when on our soil. This rule is recognized by all civilized nations. It was a Republican Administration that interceded for and pro cured the release of those poor, deluded Fen ians that invaded Canada a few years since und brought up in prison. Repeatedly the present Administration has effectually inter fered with Spain whenever they have at tempted any outrages on American citizens. It was not long ago that one of our fleets in the extreme East administered a fearful chastisement upon the savage Coreans for cruelty to American seamen. The affair of Grey town reflects no particular glory upon our government, and would not be very confidently quoted among civilized people. It should he remembered that it was under a Democratic administration that our just claim to the line of 54 deg. 40 m. on the north of us was given up and the present boundary line adopted. But what is the use of dragging such questions into politics? Our citizenship ought to rank above our partizanship, and we hold that every Ameri can citizen suffers when even the humblest of our fellow citizens suffer. The arm of our government is strong enough to protect every citizen in his just rights in any part of the globe, and it is its duty to do so, and we will join every demand to have it done, with out even inquiring of the politics of the party involved or the possible effects of our action upon any political issue. When any case has been brought to the notice of the govern ment and then it neglects its duty, it will be time to speak of its neglect and indifference. GIVES IT UP. The New York World, discussing the ac tion of the recent Pennsylvania Democratic Convention, and speaking of that State, Ohio and Indiana, says: "The States which we have just named, are the States which have always of late years been bedeviled with false and foolish notionb of fiscal policy. Ohio, Pennsylvania and Indiana have always been carried by the Republicans in every Presiden tial election. It is not to them that we have ever looked with hope for help in carrying the country upon the issues which now will supercede all other issues in the contest of 1876. Less than ever now, therefore, shall we look to them to prescribe the fiscal policy upon which that battle is to be fought and won." This is not only conceding that the Republicans will carry Pennsylvania and Ohio this fall, but it is really confessing that there is no hope for the Democracy in the greater contest of next year. . With these three States against them, even admitting that that party may carry New York in 1876, they have no possible chance of electing the next President. Add to Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indian, the votes of the States conceded to be Republican, and they will make a majority of the electoral colleges, and thus ensure the election of the Republican candidate. We print elsewhere an interesting letter from Lieutenant Bradley, U. S. Army,throw ing additional light upon the vexed question of earliest Montana gold mining. According to the authorities quoted by our correspond ent, gold was mined and sold in this Terri tory, or in what subsequently became Mon tana, as early as the year 1856. The name of the pioneer thus credited is one Silverthorne, who is reported to have washed out and sold gold in quantity to Major Culbertson, then in the employ of the American Fur Company, in the year named. Oue of the oldest settlers in these mountains bears the name of Silver thorne; and Col. DeLscey, excellent authority on everybody and ev< • thing connected with the early history of this Territory—says he is still living in Western Montana, (Missoula county.) But this Silverthorne, according to DeLacey, never engaged in mining pursuits, and must be a different person from him of Mercure's story. We should like now to hear from Mr. Matt Carroll on this subject of ear liest gold discovery. This gentleman ought to be able to corroborate Culbertson's account, it correct ATTORNEY FEES IN THE STERRES CASE. The Independent seems to be very hard pressed to find something upon which to base a charge against the Republican sfficials of this county. The attack upon the Board of County Commissioners, in its issue of yester day, is but an illustration of its desperation in this regard. Its first complaint is that the Board of Commissioners is Republican, which is very sad indeed—in the estimation of the Bourbon paper; and, second, that this Re publican Board, in the discharge of their of ficial duties, caused to be paid to a Republi can lawyer the sum of $300 for his services in the case of the Territory vs. Sterres. But when this same Republican Board caused to be paid to a Democratic lawyer—Col. John ston—the sum of $400 for his one day's ser vice in assisting the Democratic District At torney in the first trial of Sterres, the Bour bon organ by its silence entirely approved of such action, and we did not and do not com plain thereof. So it seems that when a Dem ocrat receives pay for his services at the hands of the Commissioners, the Independent smiles appiovingly; but if a Republican,from the same source, obtains pay for like services then the Commissioners are corrupt and should be prosecuted. Now, when the facts are stated, it will be seen that the payment of the three hundred dollars to Williams was an an act of prudence and economy on the part of the Commission ers, and the failure to take such action Would have subjected them to the charge of extrav agance and unfaithful performance of official duty. The case of Sterres had been once tried. The case of Wheatley had also been tried. The facts in the cases had been pub lished, and were well known to almost every citizen in the county. Probably not twelve men in the county could have been found who had not formed an opinion as to the guilt or innocence of the accused. In this situation of affairs, if Sterres had been advis ed by his attorney to stand upon his plea of "not guilty," and thereby compelled a trial upon the question of his guilt or innocence, the expense to the county in obtaining a jury would have been very great. And it is more than probable that Sterres, in standing a trial or entering a plea of "guilty," acted upon the advice of his attorney. And for counsel ing him to plead guilty, and thereby saving to the county the expense of procuring a jury to try the question of his guilt or innocence, the Commissioners paid the attorney $300, and by such payment probably saved the county that sum. The fact that he had open ly confessed his guilt is not material. If he had plead not guilty, this plea would have necessitated an unbiassed jury to have tried the case, no matter how perfect and complete a case could have been made against him. Acting upon the advice he received, he plead guilty, and a juiy was then called to hear the testimony and ascertain the degree of guilt, and a jury for this purpose was obtained at an expense to the county of just $36. Undoubtedly the reason that actuated the attorney in giving this advice was the abso lute certainty of a conviction before a trial jury; and another reason was the desire to save useless expense to the county. For the service of advising this plea of guilty, and causing it to be entered, the Commissioners caused the attorney to be paid $300, and in doing so they saved a large expense to the county. The law does not anthorize the Commis sioners to pay anything for the defense of criminals, but there is nothing that we are aware of to prevent the Commissioners from taking such honorable action as good sense and good judgment dictates in any given case, to save to the county useless and unnecessary expense. NORTH CAROLINA CONVENTION. In organizing the Constitutional Conven tion of North Carolina, some of our readers, probably, are curious to know how it was accomplished. There were 119 members, and 60 were necessary for the choice. Sev eral ballots had taken place, Ransom (Demo crat) having 59 votes, Dockery (Republican) 58 votes, and scattering two votes. The Lynchburg Republican states the rest of the matter thus : "Before the fourteenth vote was made known, Dr. Ransom rose from his seat, and said : "This balloting has gone on long enough. 1 have not sought this position ; I do not desire it; I have cast my vote twice to defeat myself ; but the people seem to de sire that this Convention shall be organized. I have made effort to effect a compromise; failing in this, I now cast my vote, let the consequences be what they will, for Edward Ransom, of Tyrrell county, for President of this Convention." Dockery then voted for Plato Durham, and the result was announced as follows: Ransom, 60; Dockery, 58; Dur ham, 1. Dr. Ransom was then declared President of the Convention, in the midst of great excitement and applause, and conduct ed to the chair. On taking the chair, he simply announced that the Convention was ready for business. Dr. Ransom was elected to the Convention as an Independent, but is known to be a staunch and tried Democrat." The St. Louis Republican (Democratic) speaking of the Mississippi troubles, says "All the accounts we have received of the Clinton affair, even those from the side of the whites, indicate that the latter were to blame for it—if not for its commencement, at least for the pitiless cruelty with which they conducted it." Miss Walker, of Brooklyn, is a famous Alpine climber, and is much respected by the English ladies who admire feminine hardi hood and endurance. a in w of in a al of is so ly to in THE INDIAN'S! HERITAGE. Spotted Tail seems willing to part with his Dakota home for $6,000,600. Spotted Tail is a diplomat. He is a wary statesman. With a clear perception he sees that the tidal wave of public opinion must eventually unseat him from his Dakota throne and mercilessly drive him to a spot where the progress of civiliza tion will not be impeded by the presence of his dusky race, and he therefore, with cun ning shrewdness, places a price upon his beloved heritage. In a vision of the future, which hangs about him like a gloomy shadow, he sees his people—the women and children, aged and decrepid, miserable and wretched— forced to leave their native hills for a land unknown and strange to them. In this de pressing visionary picture the embers die upon the hearth. The curling smoke goes up no more from the deserted wigwam. The shouts of the children in their sports on the plains are hushed. A dreary, dreamy look of despair lingers upon their faces, but he hears no complaint, he sees no sign of obstinacy. They pass on with slow and indifferent tread. They heed not the busy bustle of civilization that is snapping and snarling at their heels. They gaze once more at their forsaken cabins. They glance again at the graves of their father's. They take a long, lingering look at the hills and vales of Dakota, and then pass silently on. There is a deep feeling of sad ness in their hearts which passes all speech. Their countenances gleam with an expres sion, not of spite or vengeance, but severe necessity which stifles both, which smothers utterance and leaves their actions without aim or method. It seems as though their wonted fortitude were enveloped in despair. With one more look back upon the desert ed scene they hurry on and cross the limit of their native domain -which can never be re covered by them. As the king of the Black Hills gazes upon this visionary scene the solemn and impressive truth breaks upon his untutored mind, and he sees there is but one permanent home for them which is neither far removed nor unseen. It is the happy hunting grounds beyond the western waters. This is why he sells his heritage. ALPHONSO. There is an old story of Philip III., King of Spain, of which the points are as follows, though the several versions differ somewhat in regard to details : He was sitting near a brasier of burning coals, and becoming too warm wanted to change his position. It would have been a flagrant violation of eti quette for him to move his own chair, and it w r as equally contrary to court law for any one present to do it for hin* Before the proper official could be found and summoned the poor monarch w as heated into an attack of erysipelas, from which he died. Philip's successor, the juvenile Alfonso, may not die in the same way, but, if we may believe the Madrid correspondents, he is suffering from troubles hardly less vexatious. There are few boys in their teens who have a gloomier time than this youthful monarch. His near est friend is his sister, the Countess Girgenti, a stiff and uncongenial woman, who seldom has any conversation with him. His minis ters have chosen his household for him. Roy al etiquette directs all his movements. His only recreation is business, and his ministers, of course, tell him what to do. One of the council visits him every day but on Saturdays. They all meet him in general conference. He is a mere puppet at these meetings and equally so in his reception of foreign ministers,wash ings of the feet of paupers, and promotion of party favorites. While all this is going on the approach of peace is far from apparent. The Carlists are still fighting, and new con scriptions are ordered to raise troops to meet them. Money is scarce, and the position of the King of Spain and of the Indies is em phatically not the situation any lover of ease would choose to take. Mr. Geo. F. Williams, the newsboys' friend, and ex-city editor of the New York Times , is now managing editor of the Herald. He has done more for the poor children of New York than any other person, and is fair ly worshiped by them. Tbat Strange Indian Story. [From the Lyon County (Nev.) Times.] How poor old Nat. Crabtree must have laughed as he read that dispatch from Wash ington, which is now going the rounds of the press to the effect that "there has been no Blackfoot Indians in Montana for the last ten years;" and how old Nat. must have chuckled at "not over five lodges of Blood Indians have been on American soil" for the same period; and how our poor old friend Crabtree must have fairly danced in ecstacy when he read in that dispatch that "no U. 8. Indian Agent has ever seen a Blackfoot In dian." Yes, Nat. must have laughed, be cause if those statements are true, Nat. Crab tree isn't dead and didn't have seven ar rows shot through his bowels by Blackfeet Indians on the banks of the Missouri near Benton, in the fall of 1869. Yet Nat. said with his last gasp "It war Blackfeet, boys ! —it war the cussed Blackfeet!" and Nat. knew and spoke every Indian language west of the Missouri river ; and many who lived in Montana at the time always supposed that the Blackfeet and Bloods constantly built their camp-fires along the Teton and Marias, and along the shores of the Missouri ; and always thought that a majority of the old trappers and traders around Benton were liv ing with Blood and Blackfeet squaws. But Prof. Marsh probably knows all about it, al though he has never been in that country ; but if the Devil ever gets his own until he collars that Prof. Marsh and a few more like him, we shall always think he was poorly paid. But what is the use taking exceptions to Prof. Marsh's yarns? Poor, demented, jackass—he must carve the way to notoriety in some manner, and he is doing it. a to in in an at TERRITORIAL NEWS. Deer Lodge County. [From the New Northwest, 24th inst.] Lou. Burt, a Deer Lodger of old times, has just put in an appearance, after an absence of over six years, writh a band of 4,300 sheep from California. He has been on the road since the middle of June. Major Davenport of Helena, and A. B. Covalt, Esq., of Omaha, are in town work ing up an organization for their Life Insur ance Company, strong branches of which have already been organized in Helena and Virginia. Mr. W. 8. Easson is also here or ganizing a branch of the Life Insurance Co., a branch of which has been established in Bozeman. We notice by the Helena papers that Chas. K. Wells has become sole proprietor of the stationery and variety store, late John H. Ming & Co., of which he was junior partner. Mr. Ming retires, having all the other prop erties he can attend to, and Charley Wells succeeds iu the business he has damonstrated such excellent abilities to manage. We rec ommend him as one of the promptest and worthiest young business men of Montana, and wish him abundant success. Col. M. B. Cox writes us from the East that he has made a sale of the quartz mill at Highland and some quartz property at Phil ipsburg, to an organization which will doubt less be designated the Silver Bend Company, conditioned upon the representations made being ratified by the company's agent, Mr. Dickison, of Boston, who is now en route to Montana. If it shall prove as represented the company will at once remove the mill to Philipsburg and put it in operation. Colonel Cox has still other excellent mining property in bond, and expects soon to negotiate with parties for all or portions of it. This is the second company he has organized this season —the Belmont having already progressed well with their mill and mine. Mr. D. Davies, M. P. for Cardigan bor oughs, who made his fortune at coals, some time ago, had to consult his lawyer on a bus iness matter of considerable importance, and the lawyer persuaded him to take a course different from that which had suggested it self to the millionaire, and the advice turned out so advantageous that Mr. Davies showed his gratitude and appreciation of his adviser's services by giving him a share in a newly opened coal pit, which brings the lucky law yer £12,000 a year. Mr. Dayies makes about £600,000 a year TnE diocese of Illinois has at last succeed ed in electing a bishop, Dr. McKenzie, and in putting an end to the unhappy controversy which has made the church in that State an arena for the display of some very unchris tian controversial pugilism. The candidate elect is comparatively a recent convert to Episcopacy, and for that reason w r e hope will escape challenge, and be allowed to settle down to his work in peace. Miss Harriet Hosmer, the American sculp tor, has written from Rome that she will be represented at the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition by an original groupe in marble— the largest she has ever undertaken. It por trays the idea of "the African Sybil fore shadowing the freedom of her race." She will also send a copy of Lord Brownlow's gates, ten feet wide and seventeen feet high, containing seventy-one human figures. The Duke of Argyle has placed his younger sons in business, where they will earn their living like honest men—scratch gravel as it w'ere. God bless the Duke of Argyle! The circumstance has so irritated the useless but elegant Prince of Wales, whose sister was promoted by her marriage into this sensible family, that he snubs his brother-in-law most cruelly whenever they meet. Colonel George Hancock, one of the leaders in the Texan war for independence, died recently at Louisville, Ky. When the Texans, although victorious in several battles, found it impossible to carry on the war with an empty treasury and no means of obtain ing arms and ammunition, Col. Hancock ten dered Gen. Houston about $60,000 in gold. Henry A. Henken is a New York lad of sixteen, the heir to $30,000 and an habitual drunkard. As he is cruel to himself, the So ciety for the Prevention of Cruelty to Ani mals has taken him in charge. The railroad is completed to Alta, Utah, a town near the Emma, Flagstaff and other prominent mines and a train ran in there re cently. _____ The Silver City Avalanche says the "stone age" of Idaho Territory will be represented at the Centennial by several tons of speci mens. Tennessee's new school law provides that for like services of male and female teachers like salaries shall be paid, and that is right. Of one hundred and nineteen newspapers published in Missouri, all but eight favor the adoption of the new State Constitution. I sham Case is elected President of the Mahogany Mining Company, vice George M. Pinney. _ It is said that A. T. Stewart intends to build a grand hotel in shington, D. C. D. O. Mills, of the Bank of California, started in life by vending soda pop. British Columbia will send a flag-staff 140 feet long, to the Centennial. MONTANA'S FIRST GOLD MINER. Another Claimant Found lor that Dis tinction. The Story of American Fur Traders as Told to Iiieutenat Bradley. Stiver Thorne, the Mysterious Miner of 1856. Fort Shaw, M. T., Sept. 21, 1875. To the Editor of the Herald : Dear Sir :— I read with interest the extract from the Northwest , contained in your week ly issue of the 16th instant, relative to the "First Gold Mining îd Montana." Anything that Mr. Granville Stuart has to say about the early history of Montana is sure to be in teresting and valuable, and it is probably rare indeed that his views would require subse quent modification. But in reference to the first gold mining done in Montana, I am in possession of some facts apparently not known to Mr. Stuart, and which may be equally unknown to the great majority of your readers. Believing that they will be in teresting to all who enjoy inquiry into the early history of their Territory, 1 will com municate them briefly for publication in your paper. It is probably generally known that the American Fur Company, founded by Mr. Astor and subsequently controlled by Pierre Choteau, Jr., & Co., had a trading post at or near the site of the present town of Fort Benton from the year 1831 to the period of the settlement of Montana. Maj. Alexander Culbertson was for a number of years in charge of that post, and was at the time of which I have to speak, namely the year 1856. In the month of October a stranger appeared at the Fort, coming by the trail from the southwest, now the Benton and Helena stage road. He was evidently an old mountaineer, and his object was to purchase supplies. Producing a sack, he displayed a quantity of yellow dust which he claimed was gold, and for which he demanded $1,000, offering to take it all in goods. Nothing was known at the Fort of the existence of gold in the ad joining country, and Maj. Culbertson was loth to accept the proffered dust, having doubts of its genuineness. Besides, even if gold, he was uncertain of its value in this crude state, and he was, therefore, about to decline it, when an employee of the Fort, a young man named Ray, came to the aid of the mountaineer, and by his assurances as to the genuineness of the gold and the value of the quantity offered, induced Maj. Culbertson to accept it. Still doubtful, however, he made it a private transaction, charging the goods to his own account. The mountaineer was very reticent as to the locality where he obtained his gold, but in answer to numerous questions he stated that he had been engaged in prospecting for a considerable period in the mountains to the southwest, that his wanderings were made alone, and that he had found plenty of gold. Receiving in exchange for his dust a supply of horses, arms, ammunition, blankets, to bacco, provisions, and other supplies, he quietly left the Fort on his return to the mountains. Maj. Culbertson never saw or heard of him afterward, and was ignorant even of his name. The follow ing year, 1857, he sent the gold dust through the hands of Mr. Choieau to the mint, and in due time re ceived as the yield thereof $1,525, the dust having proved to be remarkably pure gold. Thus as early as the year 1857, three years before Gold Tom hewed out his rude sluice boxes on Gold Creek, Montana gold had found its way to the mint, and contributed a small fortune of shining pieces to the circu lating medium of the country. This much 1 obtained from the lips of Major Culbertson, just enough to pique curi osity; and the mysterious miner who had been first to work the rich gulches of Mon tana, made the earliest contribution to the world of its mineral treasure, and whose sub sequent fate and very name were unknown, often returned to my thoughts to vex me in my apparent powerlessness to lift any part of the veil of mystery that enshrouded him. But one day I mentioned the circumstance to Mr. Mercure, an old and respected resident of Fort Benton, who came to the Territory in the service of the American Fur Company in 1855, and has resided here ever since. To my great satisfaction he remembered the old mountaineer, the event of his golden visit to the Fort having created quite an enduring im pression, and he communicated to me a few additional particulars. When Montana's great mining rush began, Mr. Mercure quitted the service of the Fur Company and sought the mines. There he met the mountaineer again, and immediately recognized him. His name was Silver thorne, and his habits w r ere still of the soli tary character that had distinguished him in former days. For several years he remained in the Territory, occasionally appearing at the settlements, with gold in abundance ; but after supplying his necessities by trade, he would again disappear on his lonely rambles. He could not be induced to divulge the secret of his diggings, but always declared that his mine was not a rich one, yielding him only four or five dollars a day. He preferred this, he said, untroubled by companions, to min gling in the rush and jam of the richer mines then almost every day developed. Mr. Mer cure believes, however, from the quantity of gold always in the possession of Silver thorne, that he greatly understated the value of his discovery. Possibly he still lives in solitary possession of his treasure ; possibly the mine has been ere this re-discovered ami is among the number famous in the annals of Montana mining history. What has be come of Silverthorne the writer does not know 7 , but unless further developments rob him of that honor, he is evidently entitled to the distinction of having been first, by several years, of the thousands of enterprising men who haye labored in the gold gulches of Montana and made so rich a contribution to the volume of the world's treasure. Yours Truly, JAMES H. BRADLEY •