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S' m m i y iâ 3 y % Sc Volume 9. Helena, Montana, Thursday, November 18, 1875. No. 51 THE WEEKLY HERALD PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY MOKWING. *: j w F isk k ' FISK BEOS., Publishers TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION TERMS FOR T1IE DAILY HERALD. City Subscribers (delivered by carrier) per month. .$3 00 One copy one month....... One cop y three month» ... (»ne copy »ix month»...... .......... | 3 00 ........... 6 00 ........... 12 00 TERMS FOR THE WEEKLY HERALD. One year .................. ............|6 00 Six month»................ ........ . . .............. 4 00 Three month»............. ..... ............2 50 HIE l ARMEB» TIIlliMMi OUT. Nleiuly Depopulation «f the New Eng> land Farming DiNtrictH. At one of the Berkshire (Mass-) cattle shows the address, by Alexander Hyde, of Lee, was upon the appropriate topic of "The depopulation ot the rural districts, the causes and the remedies." He stated that nearly half the population of Massachusetts were concentrated in her fourteen cities, and that a score of populous towns contained a fraction of the ba'auce. Of the .thirty-one towns in Birkshire only eleven have increased in pop ulation during the last live years, though the population of the county has increased some 2,000 in this time. The increase had mainly been in the three towns of Adams, Pittsfield Dalton. The two great causes for the de crease in the agricultural towns were a desire for a more social life, and earning a living in a more easy way than by agriculture, though a want of good church privileges, good schools and easy transportation also had an influence. Mr. Hyde deprecated this state of things, and encouraged the farmers to strengh en the things that remain by keeping up the churches, schools, roads, and all social insti tutions, by cultivating smaller farms, and al lowing the rocky hill pastures to grow up with forest trees, giving more attention to sheep husbandry, and especially to the rais ing of mutton and lambs for the butcher, the most profitable part of sheep husbandry in these days. He gave it as his opinion that a young man could make more money buying a farm on one of the hill towns of Berkshire, at the present low prices, than by obeying Greeley s injunction, "Go West/ 1 These hill towns also were becoming favorite resorts of citizens, as here they could enjoy pure air and water, fresh milk and butter, and have Sunday seven days in the week, if "Ichabod" is ever written on these hills it will be for the want of enterprise on the part of the inhabi tants. Here and there, scattered in the rural districts, are individual farmers who are con stantly improving their lands, and are mak ing money and enjoying life in spite of the general depression of society and property. What these individuals are doing all can do, and the glory of the hill towns, an intelligent and virtuous population, will be retained. FOILED AT LAST. An Army Officer Who Embarked on a Ship Never Heard From. [From the Boston Herald.] Major John S. Walker was a native of Fryeburg, Me., where he fitted for college, pursued the study of law', and was married to his first wife. During the late war he was appointed paymaster's clerk, subsequently paymaster, and at the close of the war w r as transferred to the army. For a short time he was stationed at the south,- but finally was ordered to Portland, Oregon, the place of his residence at the time of his decease. On the return from Alaska, where he had been sent to pay off the troops, he embarked w r ith his wife (a southern woman) on board the steamer George S. Wright, bound for Portland, Jan uary, 1873. Nothing has ever been heard of the steamer, aud although many reports were for a time in circulation, the fate of the pas sengers and crew has remained a mystery. Two years and a half after the supposed loss of the vessel and all on board the remains of Major Walker were found on the shore of an island twelve miles west of Cape Cygane, the southwest point of Alaska. Two Indians were hunting and trapping otter and mink, when they saw a strange object on the shore, aud on landing they found the larger portion of the remains with a life preserver around them, while other parts were somewhat scat tered. A few yards from the body they dis covered two bunches of keys, a sleeve button and about f 40 in gold coin. They saw no relics of the steamer. Subse- quently they told at Sitka what they had seen, and by the keys and button the remains were identified as those of Major Walker. A reve- nue cutter recovered the remains and they were buried at Fort Vancouver. - M ♦< !■! I — Nickname** of American Cities. The principal cities of the American Union have from time to time received various nick names. For example: New York is called Gotham; Boston, the American Athens, also, the Hub; Philadelphia, the Quaker City; Bal timore, the Monumental City; Cincinnati, the Queen City; New Orleans, the Crescent City; Washington, the City of Magnificent distances; Chicago, the Garden City; Buffalo, Queen City of the Lakes; Rochester, Flower City; Detroit, the City of the Straits; Cleve land, the Forest City; Pittsburg, the Iron City; New Haven, the City of Elms; Indian apolis, the Railroad City; St. Louis, the City of Mounds; Keokuk, the Gate City; Louisville, the Falls City; Nashville, the City of Rocks; Quincy, the Model City; Hannibal, the Bluff Alexandria, the Delta City; Newburyport, the Garden of Eden; Salem, the City of Peace. 00 Tbe End of the World* Be warned in time. The world is to be burned up. The rainbow keeps the word of non-destructive promise to our eyes, but breaks it to our hopes. After the deluge come no more universal drownings, but ages of. withering heat shall dry the seas up ; life shall disappear from the face of this globe ; the firmament shall be rolled up like a scroll; and hideous aridity shall reign over all. Trausser says so, Trausser is an M. D. of New Orleans, to whom the Copernican sys tem of astronomy is as a kid glove, easy to be turned inside out, and unfit for use at a fire. He discards it. To him also do the laws of Kepler appear a childish fraud, and the elliptical orbits of the planets seem a de lusion. "There is," says Trausser, "in the sun and in the planets neither centripetal nor centrifugal forces. The stars or suns, in ad vancing from w est to east, cause our sun, the earth, and all the planetary bodies to advance in the same direction. Our globe has no need of any primitive impulse in order to be set in motion. If the sun came to be extinguished suddenly the rotary movement of the earth around its axis w r ould diminish gradually, until it stopped entirely, without causing any damage upon its surface^ and if subsequently the sun recovered its pow'er of emitting light, the earth would resume immediately its nor mal movement slowly and progressively." The earth, on TrausseFs plan, does not move around the sun. The sun moves around a fixed center, outside tbe orbit of the earth. The point around which the earth travels is east of the center around which the other planets (sun included) travel and is not fixed, but describes a small circle around the general planetary center once iu each 24,000 years. Owing to our being thus a little off center, the arcs of this circle w T hich the earth de scribes at each season are unequal, and the difference in the length of the seasons is thus accounted for. There is a constant westward tendency of the sun, w'hich delays that lumin ary's return to each succeeding equinox— against the order of the zodiacal signs. The rétrogradation, slight each year, bears fright ful consequences in the long run, since it will eventually bring the sun and the earth in deadly proximity, as it has done before, if Trausser knows himself. He says: "About 5,334 years ago the sun and the earth met in the same side of the heavens (at 0 degree of Aries, vernal equinox,) without ceasing to circulate each one in its own orbit. The sun intersected at the terrestrial equator the first meridian of the secular period in which we are. This proximity of the sun and of the earth at their maximum occasioned the most awful disasters in increasing more and more the solar heat on our globe during several centuries. The temperate zones and the equatorial regions were reduced to have no more, either animals or plants, under the long action of a burning sun." This is to happen again. Of course such a heat will draw the w'aters into the air. For hundreds of years this sphere will be the theater of most tremendous natural convulsions. The burning ground will send its exhalations up to flaming clouds, the envelope of air will expand to enormous heights, charged with superheated steams and gases. As years roll away and the baleful orb of day withdraws the upper layers of the air will cool, and its waters will descend into the lower, and they in their appointed turn will fall and fall with vast and terrible shocks, until their accumu lated condensations drop upon the earth in a grand cataclysm that will wipe out all traces of the land as it was before. And when at last the vapors shall pass off and the waters subside, a new world, smiling and refreshed, will swing away upon its eastward course toward its next assignment ■with the sun, another 12,000 years removed. Then will come another order of creation, from the cell to man ; another succession of gradual civili zation and enlightenment; the ground we fancy we have trod for the first time will be rediscovered ; another antiquity will succeed more epochs lost to history ; the story of the rocks will be spelled out anew, and by the time the intellect of those peoples of the fu ture shall have wakened into light another grand tragedy will precede the re-enactment of the same old catastrophe—and so on per haps forever. We are pleased to state, how ever, that Dr. Trausser places the next crisp ing operation at a distance of time for which w r e really do feel personally obliged to him, inasmuch as it quite stills all apprehensions— some 6,900 years hence. The preparatory process will be so slow, moreover, that our descendants (in whom we take quite as lively a family interest as in our ancestors of 5,000 years since) will have been gradually and painlessly taken out of the w 7 ay previous to the supreme moment. The Soldiers of 1812. The extraordinary longevity of the surviv ors of tbe war of 1812 is certainly a curious fact well worthy of notice. That was not a great war ; not many troops were engaged, and no very large force mustered into the service of the United States, and the war came to an end almost sixty-one years ago. Yet the Commissioner of Pensions records 15,875 survivors of that war on the rolls of the Pension Office. Very few, indeed, of these can be less than eighty years of age, and the number must be nearly if not quite ten per cent, of the whole force mustered for service. If the veterans of the late rebellion prove so tenacious of life, nearly twojhundred thousand of them will survive the year 1926. We should be very glad to believe that all of them would live much longer than that, but we cannot expect it, for it is against the course of nature. It is hard to resist the con viction that a large share of the fifteen thou sand veterans of 1812 are impostors. "Poor fellow'—he had a good deal in him," was the sorrowing remark of a Mississippi editor over the body of a subscriber shot in a gin mill. The coroner's inquest subsequently verified the assertion. a A Carions Coincidence. An ex-Lieutenant of the United States Navy, referring to the alleged murder of Harriet Lane by Henry Wain wright in the Whitechapel road, writes as follows to the London Times : "Arriving but recently from America, I was painfully startled in reading from a half torn and mutilated copy of the Times the names of Harriet Lane" and "Wainwright," names so familiar to the American public that generations will come and go ere they will be forgotten. Two years prior to the outbreak of the civil war in America, a ves sel was launched from one of the govern ment dockyards, designed for service as a revenue cruiser and government yacht, and was christened the Harriet Lane. Upon the arrival of the Prince of Wales in America the government assigned the Harriet Lane as the vessel specially selected to carry the Prince and his suite in his tours of observation. The vessel had been named in honor ot Miss Harriet Lane, the niece of President Bu chanan, and at that time mistress of the White House. It was the steamer Harriet Lane that carried the Prince from Washing ton to Mount Vernon, on the Potomac; the grave of George Washington. At the out break of the war the Harriet Lane was turned over to the Navy Department for service, and she participated in several engagements on the coast ; took part in the battle of Hatteras and also at the bombardments of the forts on the Mississippi below New Orleans, serving in the latter engagements as flagship of Com modore Porter's division in Admiral Far ragut's fleet. Subsequently the Harriet Lane was ordered to the Texas coast, and Com modore Wainwright was appointed to her command. While lying at anchor in one of the harbors of the Texas coast, in company with the war steamer Fort Jackson, on the night of the 1st of January, 1863, she was surrounded by a fleet of Confederate steamers, protected with cotton bales. The Confederate steamers were said to have between four and five thousand men on them. Commander Wainwright refused to surrender, and the Confederates, after some hard fighting, suc ceeded in carrying the Harriet Lane by the board, and her decks witnessed a terrible hand-to-hand encounter. Blood ran from her scuppers like water. Commander Wainwright and nearly all the officers and crew of me Harriet Lane were killed in defending the vessel. At early dawn her flag was hauled down by the Confederate and their own sub stituted in lieu of it. She was never again seen as a United States cruiser." Wh«rc Kaiser Wilhelm Lives. Wayland Hoyt whites as follows to the Bos ton Journal : The Emperor does not seem to have any thing he wishes to conceal. I spent a very interesting hour in passing through the pal ace, which is his constant city residence. It is not very grand, or even sumptuous. But enter it and you at once feel that you are in the home of a soldier. It is almost an arsen al it is so warlike every w T ay. Old armor and new armor—fragments of shells—the me mentoes of battles, models ot different kinds of soldiers in their appropriate uniform, models of various guns, great relief maps of battle fields and fortresses—these are every where about. Almost all the pictures, too, are martial—battle scene aft^r battle scene; some of older conflicts, others of modern fights, iu which the Emperor himself is the conspicuous figure. I went into the Emper or's private study aud library. I saw the chair in which he sits, the desk at which he writes, the pile of dispatches awaiting his at tention, the books he uses, the papers fresh from his hand. It is manifestly a workman's place—this study. The grim old Emperor is evidently no idler. He keeps his hand on things. I am told that he is at his table regu larly every morning at 6. Well, no one can help honoring the fearless old fellow 7 amid such painstaking devotion to duty. Sixteen miles from Berlin is Potsdam, the favorite residence of King Fredeiick the Great. Here, too, is the present Emperor's summer palace. Well, there is many a country seat in Amer ica more splendid. I was most interested in this palace, in the Emperor's sleeping-room It is utterly plain. His bed is but a single mattress upon a narrow and common bed stead. Origin null History of the Piano. The piano began to make its appearance about the beginning of the eighteenth century Its invention, l.ke many others, is disputed', and England, France, Italy and Germany claim to have a share in the honor. Pianos were certainly made for the first time in the four countries w'ithin a very few 7 years of each other, but in Germany alone did they succeed. Silbermann improved upon the in vention of Schroeter, and constructed pianos which met with Bach's approbation. From this dates the success of the piano in Ger many. Frederick the Great had no less than forty of Silbermann's pianos in his palace at Berlin, and when Bach visited him he insist ed upon the old man's trying every one. Stein of Augsburg was also a celebrated mak er, and Mozart in one of his letters describes the care taken by Stein in seasoning the wood which w 7 as expose^ to all sorts of weather, and afterward had the cracks filled up with slips of w T ood glued into them. In England the piano made no sensible progress until 1760, when tw'elve German w r orkmen, after wards called the "twelve apostles," arrived in search of employment. Dibdin, at a con cert in 1767, played on the first piano public ly exhibited, and after that the instrument became very popular, and harpsichords more and more in disrepute. Sebastian Erard made a great improvement in the touch, and Broad wood, who came to London from Scotland in 1751, introduced w'hat he called his "grand action," w'bich improved many defects. From that day until the present, the piano in England has been improving. LION HUNTING. Thrilling Experiences ol an English Officer—Habits of the Lion and the Panther. The Paris correspondent o£ the Boston Ad vertiser sends that paper the following letter, relating the experiences of an old African soldier, who he says, speaks of nothing he has not personally seen, and who modestly withholds only such episodes as would place himself in convenient position : Dear Friend : You wish me to introduce you into the true secrets of the African lion hunt, which you must know little resembles the fantastic tales told by certain European travelers, and dilated upon by newspapers and novel writers until there is no possibility of separating truth from fiction, or drawing to any satisfactory degree a conclusion re garding the lion aud panther, which are in fact our only dangerous African carnivorous animals. Lions are quite numerous in cer tain parts of the province of Constantine, rare in those of Algiers and Oran. Panthers, on the contrary, are seldom seen in the last two provinces, but are numerous in Algiers. The habits of these two carnivora differ es sentially. As a general rule, neither the one nor the other attacks man, unless molested or threatened by him. It sometimes happens, however, that a panther surprised while eat ing springs furiously upon the man whose imprudent toot has troubled the silence of his repast, and in this case there is noth ing to hope, as before the bravest man can have got possession of his arms he is a bruis ed and broken mass. The panther tears and mutilates the body, even after all life has fled, but does not devour it. In general he kills for the pleasure of killing, and even when attacking a flock or herd he vents his savage fury on many before deciding to eat one. The lion, on the contrary, springs upon his victim and at once devours it, or, dragging it to a preferred dining-spot, quittly makes his repast, nor thinks of troubling the rest of the flock until renewed appetite leads him to sat isfy hunger in the same w 7 ay. If, during the repast, he sees a man approach, and is not ravenous, he gets up and walks aw 7 ay slowly, one may say solemnly—or sometimes, not even deigning this,he raises his majestic head looks at the intruder, and by a half-friendly growl -warna Lina that he will not t iten rl heimr troubled when at dinner. A pedestrian find ing himself in this position does well to with draw slowly, for, should he become frighten ed and run, the lion is quite capable of feel ing a desire to overtake him, and in that case will; even in that case, if the man has pres ence of mind sufficient to understand the danger, and do the only thing remaining to be done, he may still escape safe and sound. For the lion seems oftenest actuated by a half-playful, friendly sentiment, and so he does not lose his respect for man—seldom troubles him. Often-times he joins and passes the pedestrian, and when at a good distance crouches across his path, watching his approach. If the man has the unfortu nate idea of turning to run away, he is lost; but if he comes on quietly, neither faster nor slower than his usual pace, looking his ene my steadily in the face, showing no signs of fear, he has every chance to escape. The lion will growl, wag his tail in rather a terri fying way, but, allowing the man to pass be fore him, gets up, and as though admitting to himself that he had honestly lost the game, go quietly back to his lair. A lion rarely attacks women, and I once witnessed a scene which will go further than the longest explanation toward illustrating this. It was a hot sultry day in July. The sirocco made the atmosphere dense with sand and glare; the very earth seemed on fire. I was returning from a little expedition on the frontiers of Tunis, and as I had some mat ters to settle with tribes in tbe environs of la Calle, I left my troops to return to Con stantine, and, followed only by two spahis , turned my steps toward la Calle. Having started just before day, we arrived about four o'clock iu tbe afternoon at the ford of the little river de la Mafrap. Our horses, as well as ourselves, were sadly in want of food and drink, aud we stopped to refresh ourselves at a little inn kept by an European, and situated on a low mound, two or three hundred yards from the ford. While waiting for my frugal repast I unbuckled my sword, laid by my pistols, and stretched out comfortably in the shade, idly watching a band of Arab women washing clothes in tbe river. All at once I was startled by cries proceeding from the op posite side of a sand-heap bordering the river, and a half dozen women came rushing into the midst of their peaceable companions, dragging them into the shallow water, and behind them a magnificent lion, his tail proudly in the air, and his great brown eyes looking carelessly from one to the other. Paying no attention to their retreat into the river, he followed them there, rubbing him self up against them, not seeming to mind in the least their cries or terrified gesticula tions, and when he had enough of it he took a long drink of the running water, and, turn ing majestically, walked away into the moun tains from whence he had come. This lion was a stranger in that part of the country, and when on the following day I went in search of him he had disappeared. I will recall another souvenir of this expe diton which will prove to you the harmless nature of an unattacked lion. One day, after a rather serious skirmish against the revolted tribes, I led my two bat tallions of infantry to a little river situated two miles from the fort where we were sta tioned, in order to allow them to bathe and clean their arms. As a measure of prudence I allowed but half the men to disarm and en ter the river at a time, the remaining battalion being on tbe quivive , ready for defense. As there w 7 as no need for haste, I allowed the men what time they liked for bathing and cleaning, and night, which falls so suddenly in Africa, surprised us on our return at a few' moments' march from the fort. I was it a suddenly alarmed by the report of a gun, whose sound, being very different from any in use among the Arabs, spoke plainly of having been fired by one of my own meo, and I at once brought my column to a halt and galloped off in the direction from whence the single report had come. At a short dis tance 1 met a soldier recently arrived in Afri ca, who had been detained behind his com rades by a very adequate and singular cause, and who in hastening up, hoping to arrive before the doors were closed for tbe night, excused himself timidly for being late and having fired at last at a troublesome calf or cow 7 which had barred his passage and seem ed determined to keep him from joining his regiment. He assured me he had done all he could to get rid of him, pushing him w ith the butt end of his gun, etc., but to no purpose, and at last hacl been obliged to tire at him so close that he had rolled instantly dead at his feet. Suspecting the truth, I reassured the man, and as night was complete!} 7 upon us, rejoined my troops and entered the fort. On the following morning I dispatched the cul prit with a dozen men to bring back the mur dered animal, and let me decide whether a calf was to be paid for or a reward be given to the slayer of a lion; and, as I had rightly imagined, the latter proved to be the case, and our unconscious hero received from the government sixty francs reward for the finest lion killed that year. During the summer of 1856 the General commanding the province of Constantine w r as obliged to replace the chief of a trouble some Arab tribe at the foot of the Moun tains of Kabyla, w 7 ho had been killed by those under him, and named a young Arab of good race, much esteemed for his intelligence and courage, and Second Lieutenant in the Third Regiment of spahis. As soon as he had re ceived his dangerous command, Kaid Has man gathered his family about him and plant ed his tents in the midst of his tribe. The great fantasia , (a sham battle where guns only charged w r ith powder are tired in every direction) which always accompanies the in auguration of a new chief, was organized ac cording to custom, but it was plain to see that a spirit of discontent animated most of the cavaliers, for Kaid was not of their own tribe, and the Arab is of a jealous and vindictive nature. Hardly had the festivities commenc ed when bullets were heard to whiz through the air. and Kaid'« bournou« U'ub trarcro ed by more than one—happily w ithout even grazing him—and instantly, without the slight est emotion, he ordered a circle to be formed around him, and addressing himself more particularly to those whom he suspected to be his deadly enemies, he said: You are but awkward, clumsy women; when a man wishes to shoot his chief he makes sure of his bullet and his aim. Y T ou have missed me, aud this time I pardon both your wickedness and stupidity. 1 know 7 those who have tried to kill me, and I promise them that if this little game recommences 1 shall not miss them. Now 7 disband, and go to your tents. Wishing to be reassured as to how my brave Kaid Hasman could maintain its com mand and govern the treacherous Arabs about him, I arrived on the following day with a strong escort of spahis , and the fantasia w 7 as again prepared in my honor. This time no gun was charged with lead, and the ceremony passed off to the complete satisfaction of all parties. Next day 1 returned the civility by ordering a w 7 ild boar hunt, in which all the cavaliers took part, and had they still nour ished a treacherous sentiment toward their brave chief, a better occasion could not have been for misdirecting one of the many bullets which were fired. But they were completely conquered, nor had Kaid Ilasman any further difficulty in governing them. But to return to my lion story. The day after our famous wild boar hunt Kaid and 1, followed only by about a dozen cavaliers, went off on a little hunt of our own in quite another direction. Starting at about live o'clock in the morning, we returned at about the same hour in the evening, half dead of hunger, thirst and heat. We were walking our horses aloug the dried bed of a river, I at the head, Kaid, with but one barrel of Lis gun loaded, a few 7 yards behind me, and still further back one of his cavaliers. The rest of our band had loitered or dispersed. Sud- denly my horse made a tremendous jump, and at the same instant I heard a crushing of bl anches behind me ; a cry, and the sound as of the falling of a horse and rider; then the report of a gun, and, as I turned Kaid and his horse brushed rudely by me, and I saw behind, lying in a strange, wild heap, the cavalier, his horse, and upon them a gigantic lion, the last, happily, quite dead. All this must have passed as follows : The lion had come down from the mountains, and finding himself in the ravine just as we passed had patiently allowed two of us to go on un- molested, but the third was more than he could stand, and the sound of approaching galloping horses probably augmenting his im- patience, he sprang upon the horse and rider, making a nasty tear on the cheek and shoul- der of one, and a much deeper one on the haunch of the other. Hearing the noise Kaid Hasman had turned, and, with Arab prompt- neas, had fired his one remaining barrel, scarcely taking aim. Fortunately the bullet had entered the lion's eye, and death had been instantaneous. As to the unlucky cava- lier and horse, they were able, notwithstand- ing their wounds, to return to their tent, and in a few days were quite right again. Not long after this Kaid Hasman killed a second lion, likewise by accident. - m -**<^^*-**- m . -- The Duke of Portland has an annual in- come of 4)360,000, most of which he expends in vast building enterprises. He is a recluse himself. He never answers a letter, and al- though a member of four London clubs he never goes to them, So far as society is concerned, he is dead to the world. ---—^-- The official majority for Kirkwood, (Rep.) Governer of Iowa, is 31,745.