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TH3 weekly he rald. a. s. ............................... Siitor - 'I SS I itMJAV, Aï'îllL 2 * 1 » !&("<»• I RE bellgates ni the xatiosal I»Ci;l, 5 ( I N rOXVESTIOX. It lias been the custom of late years for the National R< publican Conventions, assembled to nominate a President, to allow the terri tories full representation by delegation. It is the only recognition of our equal rights as American citizens that comes to us from any quarter, hence we do right in showing our appreciation of the justice and honor done us in selecting those who will most surely and ably represent us. It is impossible now to tell how sharp and close may be the contest, and how important two votes may prove in shap ing the result. According to present appear ances the candidate selected by the Rcpubli can Convention, unless inconceivable folly intervenes, will be the next President. And though we may have no vote in November, it promises to be of equal importance to ha\e a vote in dune. The Convention at Deer Lodge seems to have realized the impôt taucc of their duty and tin; general interest concentrated upon their at tion and the d legates chosen we expect to realize these things more fully. Lettern of instruction arc best given in the cLara; ter and well known sentiments of the îiit'ïi selected fur the position. We want men who know us so well that they can interpret our w i.-hes however events may present them selves diiierently from what weic our expec tations. The demand of the present year is birlhe very best men for every position. Char acter, personal ability and merit are going to cm'at this year for more than ever before. I'lXAXdAL. The statement of the public debt issued the first of the present month ought to exert a reviving inlluencc upon business interests. F.,r the past nine months the decrease of this debt has been at the rate of two millions of dollars per month, double the rate of the corresponding time last year. But not omy is the debt being thus rapidly reduced, but by substituting live per cent for six per cent bonds, several millions yearly have been saved in the interest account. In 1869 the amount paid in interest was $124,25o, <330. la 1870 this burden is reduced to $94,601,859. Thus, within seven years, the burden of our public debt has been reduced one fourth, and those years have not been prosperous ones either. No other nation in the whole history of the world ever achieved an equal task. The richest and strongest nations of Europe to day, think they do all that can be reason ably expected, if they meet the payment of interest when it comes due, and allow no in crease of debt. Very few of the nations accomplish this much, and yet they are able to borrow money at lower rates than our own government. The explanation of this discrepancy between our credit, and our ability to pay, is only to be found in the fact that our government suffers paper promises to be made legal tender, together with the noisy threats of some financial idiots to issue still more paper promises and pay all our debt in that way. With a sound financial system, understood and generally supported by our people, and religiously adhered to by our government, our whole debt could be bonded within ten years at four per cent, and be put m the way of extinction at the rale of five millions per month. In other words, such blatant demagogues as Ben Hill, and Bill Allen, and Ben Butler, and their fellow here tics, are a dead weight upon the people of this country, to the extent of between fifteen and twenty millions every year, in the single item of interest alone. It is not mere inuocent sen timentalism or excusable electioneering bom bast, but it costs fearfully, and adds weight to the burden of every man, woman, and child in the country. People on the continent, not accustomed to the freedom of the press, can not understand the wholesale abuse indulged in by our party press, except, by concluding that we are a nation of cut-throats, and thieves, whom it would not do to trust how ever rich. We hope this ugly-looking fact will be held up before our people, aud they be compelled to look at it till they learn to exercise some decent self-control over their tongues and pens. There is something besides danger of intlation that is exciting a depres ing infiuence upon our national debt just now. It is the fact that although we have promised to become honest in 1879 and pay money for our notes, we are not in as good condition as seven years ago to make this promise good. Then we had about seventy millions of gold in the treasury, now less than half that amount. Not only hasall thegold pro duced within these seven years been shipped away, but nearly two thirds of what was then in the country has gone with it, and in its place there has been an increase of near forty millions of paper money. With greater resources, aud more stable government, than England, we have hardly greater credit than Italy, whose debt is increasing every year, all from poor management and careless talk. Since 1809 our interest bearing debt has been reduced to the extent of $412,816,700, an amount just about equal io the outstanding legal tenders $270,705,248, and the fractional currency $42,004,894. Besides having our taxes of all kinds greatly reduced, we have as a nation, raised and paid enough to have substituted gold and silver for all of our dishonored paper, and we are entttled to have it. is this we of sion the and for The of and or his this of a we the of of of as it THE ABUSE OF PUBLIC .TIEN. In these days of centennial celebrations it is very gratifying to look upon the advance ment in civilization which we have made in this the first one hundred years of our national existence. But with all our improvement, we have fallen into some bad habits, one of which is the abuse of our public men. No nation or people can exist without some form of government. And when the people as sume a republican form of government, en trusting the public welfare to those whom they choose to thus honor, it is necessary for them in turn to give their support and confi dence to their public men. On the other hand, we closely watch them, criticise every word and act, and if we perceive anything in their conduct which we do not like, we hastily proclaim it to the world, w'ith our own ver sion of the story, none the less exaggerated from personal prejudice. It is taken up by the press, passes from the press to the people, and becomes a subject of gossip for all ages, classes and conditions of society. Pausing for a moment to consider the results of such a course, its evil effects are easily detected. The man who otherwise would not make a good public officer, when surrounded by men of integrity, and elevated to a position of honor and trust in his country's service, might faithfully discharge the duties of his office. But, abused and maligned on ail sides, he is carried along by the tide of human uatuie and plunges headlong into the sea of official corruption. Again, to the man who has faith fully, patriotically served his town, his State, or his nation, and lias given to this service his earnest care, Lis ripest thought, how un grateful and base is the return of public abuse. The people, too, lose confidence in their officers and in each other. And when this sacred bond ot trust is thus severed, we break down the walls which keep off the sea of public ruin. Financial depression comes quickly through the breach, mental inactivity, with general immorality, follows, and we are soon swamped in the billow's of national de struction. These are no mere fancies. His tory tells us that they are facts, and would warn us of their evils. Perhaps the experi ence of most of us corroborates the statement. Reason favors it. We are therefore led to believe its truth, and declare that mind to be a weak one which denies it. Therefore, admitting these facts, it behooves us, as we love our country, to look carefully to its prosperity, aud let this evil, which is fraught with so much harm, be eradicated at once. But where does the trouble lie ? Is it with the public men ? No ! for they are only the servants of the people. It must then neces sarily be with the people. Yes, we, the peo ple, as we form the nation, make it what it is, and it remains for us to remove this dreadful tumor, which is sapping our very life-blood. Let us, therefore, establish a higher standard of morality. Let a noble, exalting public in terest rise in the place of individual selfish ness; instead of ignorance, let us have knowl edge ; in the place of dishonesty, let us culti vate integrity ; instead of abusing our public men, let us give them our encouragement and confidence. Thus endeavoring to restore our country to its original condition of integrity, patriotism, aud magnanimity, we may trans mit to posterity as glorious a boon as our fathers gave to us. With these changes and a continual advancement iu civilization, how proudly may our children glory in calling themselves—Americans. WHAT SHALL WE TEACH IV OUR SCHOOLS? It was the saying of one of the wisest sages of Greece, that children should be taught in youth what they will most need in manhood. There is a current of proverbs from the days of Solomon to the present time, expressive of very nearly the same idea, drafting into ser vice all the known relations between early and later life in the natural world, as between the twig and the tree, the spring and the stream flowing thence. The bewildering mazes of modern civilization have so inter fered with old customs that it is no longer as once the fashion for the son to follow the occupation of the father, so that the main life occupation is rarely known or decided upon until the threshold of active life is reached, and it is about as often as otherwise that the occupation first chosen is abandoned after trial, and perhaps several trials are made before the right one is found. Hence it happens that we can tell very little about the special wants of an individual when grown up. It is the business therefore of the public schools to confine themselves to such instructions as will suit equally well any occupation or profession in life. Hence as a natural consequence, habits and methods of doing things are even more important than any thing else that can be taught. Take reading for instance. No matter what one's occupation can possibly be, every one will have occasion to read a great deal, both for his own information, and for the instruction of others. The principal thing then is not whether the lesson in school is from the first or the fifth reader, in one series or another, or on one subject or another. The real ob ject sought is as readily attainable in one case as the other. The habit of close at tention, of careful inquiry into the meaning of anything unknown or in doubt, of seeking to give proper pronunciation, accent, ex pression; of learning to get control over the organs of expression, so that reading may be natural, easy, attractive, and instructive. All of these things are to be the subject of study in school. If any one thinks these un important or easy matters of acquirement, would indicate very little thought or attention on the subject. There are always some who think that having once gone through a book ought to suffice. The truth is any book may be profitably studied for the hundredth time and give better results each time and be far from being exhausted then. We hope the delusion will never be fostered in this country that the names of studies are more impor tant than the substance. Method is every thing. One thing well done is worth a thousand poorly done. The way that a scholar grapples with and conquers a lesson in school will show' you what he will do with the practical subjects that life presents for solution. _ BECIXMAu at the wboso end. to be of it It may seem a little ungracious in us, but we must frankly confess that we have heard with something of regret of the purpose to erect several more quartz mills in our Terri tory the present season. Is it not the very thing of all others to which our people are looking for relief, to see foreign capital seek ing investment iu our midsi? Will it not aid in developing the riches of our mines ? Will not the money expended in erecting mills find its way into circulation among our people? All of which interrogatories may be affirma tively answered, and yet by simply asking another question, as for instance, "of ail the mills heretofore erected in this r i erritory, how many have done us more good than harm ? " We shall see that there are two sides very distinctly marked on this subject. If it was true that every quartz mill erected would prove a success from the start, there would be no question at all. The pros pect of every new mill would be the source of unalloyed pleasure. But on the contrary, if every three out of lour are to be failures, the little incidental and partial advantages art bur ied out of sight under the heavy disadvantages that will ensue to all. Every premature, ill managed enterprise of the kind resulting in failure aud loss injures the whole Territory. We have enough of these monuments of folly already standing in different parts of the Ter ritory to drive away cautious capitalists from even looking at our mines long enough to ascertain their value. It is time that our people organize some public opinion iu these matters iu self-defense, and not allow the reputation of our Territory to be smirched by any more swindling and untimely enterprises, and the permanent de velopment of our material interests thereby retarded. It sounds very fine and funny to say that "farmers in Illinois long ago ceased to ship their corn to New York on the stalk," and the analogy intended to be established, that it is equally foolish for us to ship our crude ores to the east instead of reducing them at home, will no doubt sometime be applica ble and forcible. At present, however, the analogy is not good, and points only to folly and failure. In spite, therefore, of encoun tering the opposition of a great many enthu siastic and well-meaning parties, we feel like entering a decided protest against encourag ing any more mill building at present. It is beginning at the wrong end. We first want mines, not mere surface indications. We next want thousands of tons of good milling ores piled on the surface, with vast bodies more w in sight, so that when a mill once starts to run, it may be sure of employment till it wears out. Mills cannot be erected at present except at great relative expense on account of high rates of freight, heavy cost for labor, at great risks of delay from breakage and need of repair and alteration. Many a good mine suffers iu reputation, and its develop ment is retarded because the first working experiment is so burdened with disadvan tages that success was impossible. The true interests of mine owners, mill owners, and of every man, woman and child in Montana are alike on this subject, if they will only look over them thoroughly and clear through to ultimate and necessary results. It needs a mine to justify the erection of a mill, and a mine is something very different from a prospect hole. It is much easier to open a mine with the imagination than with a pick and shovel, but such openings give poor foundation for mills. Until a mine has been opened to the depth of a thousand feet, with drifts at diferent levels running hun dreds of feet, disclosing a good seam of pay ing ore in all parts, it is not worthy of being called a mine. Surface indications are very deceptive, as we all ought to know, for we have had plenty of the best kind of evidence to prove it to us. As fools are not all dead, and a certain per centage of them may be counted on as per manent as the human race, we suppose there will always be a chance to sell a prospect for a mine , but it is not from this class either of sellers or buyers that the future prosperity of Montana has much to expect. The question whether there is a mine or not is one capable of absolute proof, but only by opening. And any one who shows he has a mine by open ing it, can get he price of a mine for it, as sure as anything else of recognized value. After a mine, next comes a mill, and a mill should be built for pay rather than for show. A good mine will furnish the means to build its needed mills. The present era of our de velopment pre-eminently calls for pick, shovels, drill, sledges and fuse, rather than more mills. The New York Evening Express is out un der its new proprietorship. Mr. Erastus Brooks, who is president of the new T com pany, retains the editorial control, with all his old staff, and in addition, A. J. Cummings, as news editor, and George Moss as associate editor. The Express is to continue as an in dependent Democratic paper, and announces that it belongs to no clique, faction or ism, and will follow no lead but honor, truth, jus tice and fair play. froh the front. General Gibbon's C'ampaisn Against tlie Sioux. [from our special correspondent.] Camp Near Moutii of Stillwater,) Also near Countryman's Ranch, > Yellowstone Valley, April 8, 1870. ) To the Editor of the Herald. On the morning of March 21 st the "foot" portion of this command pulled out of the Fort Ellis mud, and with many a "God-speed" from their cavalry friends, w'ho were to re main behind a day or two, they boldly struck out for the hunting ground of the bloody Sioux. The limpid branch of the East Gal latin, which flows musically by the post, had swollen considerably, and there being no bridge the boys had to roll up their pantaloons and wade it. This they did at first, reluc tantly, but after hearing a few patriotic re marks from Paddy Fallon in regard to Wash ington's Delaware crossing ; how his gallant little band, fired with a country's pride, push ed their way through cakes of floating ice, leaving footprints stained with America's best and purest blood behind them, aud how William crossed the Boyne several years ago, wetting his kingly feet—which, by the way, were very large—just as wet as they could be—this was enough, and the most timid, with a Comanche-like yell for Paddy, rushed in pell-mell, upsetting the orator into the deepest part, and leaving him spluttering, plunging, and blowing like a porpoise. I he command, with the exception of Paddy, had all crossed and were complacently viewing his vain efforts to "shwim out," with ap parent delight, when Lieut. Johnson rode up and ordered one of the men (Milt. Wilson) to pull off his overshoe and tnrow it too him. Milt., with the assistance of another man, did so, aud to the satisfaction of all Paddy crawled into it aud paddled himself ashore. Paddy says that if he should ever make an other speech, it will be on the railroad ques tion. And as he is one of the rale old stock, we believe him. "Forward !" said the commander, and for ward we went to the foot of the "divide," where we quietly stuck in the mud. The only soul-stirring remarks made here wouldn't do for the eye of a church goer, so we shan't notice them. Anyhow, after pulling and hauling, swearing and singing, dancing, shouting, and getting stuck again, we man aged with considerable executive skill on the part of Lieut. Woodruff, to reach the east side, where we went into camp in a blinding snow storm. We laid over here one day and then pulled out again for Shield's river, which we reached without mishap. Here the weather was beautiful, not a particle of snow, the roads dusty, and flies humming melodiously. An occasional grasshopper, also, hopped about, but was soon impaled on the point of a fish-hook. Next morning, the 2d, ere the lambs on Sheep Mountain's rocky slope had time to wash the wool out of their pretty little eyes, we were again on the road, bound lor Dr. Hunter's Warm Springs, two miles east of which, in a beautiful cottonwood grove, we went into camp. Here a very romantic little affair occurred. Two beauti ful young ladies, genuine Montana girls, the soft flush of health on whose lovely cheeks would drive your Eastern young lady wild with envy, came, escorted by a gentleman friend of your cor respondent, "to see the soldiers!" The poor soldier, whose nomadic life is seldom blessed by such angelic visions, blessed them in their inmost hearts, and vowed then and there that that would be the kind of a girl iu whose partnership he would like to drift down life's tide. Oh, heavens, how bright their eyes looked! For pure disinterested friendship, beauty, aud all other gifts which heaven be stows, we back an Eastern Montana girl against the world. I hate to leave the afore said subject, but will have to in order to teil you what happened afterw r ards. The morning of the 3d dawned beautifully and found us on the march, but towards noon a change of weather took p^ace, w'hich damp ened our military spirits considerably. We crossed the Yellowstone two miles below Mr. Gage's ranch without any difficulty, the time occupied by the whole command in doing sc being 17 minutes and 34 seconds. After striking the east side the beautiful (?) snow began falling fast and drifting furiously, fill ing our ears, and going down our backbones until we were chilled to the marrow. Weather beaten warriors who bad served their country since General Scott was a cadet, including John Bennett, who was an old soldier at that time, said that such snow-flakes never, to their knowledge, visited America. Tin plates were nothing in comparison to them for size. Such a storm as this would annihilate the most stubborn mule that ever "bucked ;" but we "stuck it out" until we reached the Boul der, on the other side of which we went into a snowy camp. All the best Christians in the command, including brother. Lehmer, began praying for a cessation of the storm ; but whether it was because their voices didn't reach heaven, or that it stormed too hard in that direction to allow them to get through, they didn't appear to be heard, anyhow, and things went on just the same. The pickets who were sent out on the bluffs to ascertain whether some red-skinned foes w'ere lurking near, might just as well have expected to find W. M. Tweed reclining on the shady (?) side of a coulie. No foe w r as visible, neither was anything else. But all things, it is said, must have an ending, and this storm turned out not to be an exception to the general rule. It stopped; we didn't; we went on the next morning through eight inches of snow, and made as many miles. Here we again pitched our the an the we ets by as ; It our tents, aud scarcely bad we done so when the pure, large-tlaked snow began falling in an impenetrable sheet, making us wish we were sheet-iron or some other substance hard enough to resist it. We were used to it now, however, aud didn't care so much whether it stopped or not. It did stop, though, and we went on. It was now, if 1 am not mistaken, the 5th of the month, aud we were still wad ding through slush eleven inches deep ; and deep in the inmost recesses of our hearts did we curse Sitting Bull. This day we made 14 miles, getting out of the snow and slush al together, and camped about 2 o'clock on the Yellowstone's loyely banks, and offered up to good old "Prob." our fervent thanks for sending us such a beautiful afternoon. Wood was plenty in this camp, so was grass and water, and ourselves and the poor jaded mules fared sumptuously. Our anglers got out their fishing tackle, aud ere the shades of evening fell upon us the sweet odor of a hundred Yellowstone trout, the smallest of which was nearly as long as your correspondent's leg, greeted our appreciative nostrils. We were once more happy, aud turned 'neath the blank ets of our downy bunks, better pleased with the world than for some days past. The dulcet strains of Johnny McLennon's bugle roused us from somewhat dreamy slum bers on the morning of the Gth, and after getting on the outside of our coffee, bacon, a half dozen of Richard Loekey s "hard-tack -—which, by the by, the boys relish far more than the o.d government kind—and a lew other delicacies, pulled up stakes and started for this camp, where we have since waited for the cavalry to join us. They (the cavalry) arrived to-day, and were warmly greeted by the "dough-boys." They needed all the warmth we could extend to them, for they were wet to the skin, and chilled considerably by a cold, drizzling rain, which fell continu ally since morning. General Gibbon, with an escort of a few men, started for the Crow Agency, ten miles distant, this morning, and will return to camp to-morrow. We will then, cavalry and in fantry combined, march toward the Sioux stronghold, where, if Silting Bull should meet us, we will give him a cordial greeting. Reading matter is getting scarce with us. The Sergeant-Major called around to our lent yesterday, and said : "A man whose literary tastes can't be gratified better than they are here, ought to go to Alaska and marry a native." We ventured the remark that that was a cold country, at die same time handing him a Dutch almanac, which he grabbed at as a drowning man would a saw-log. He looked at the pictures, and then silently wept. LONG-IIORSE. -- — «« »► - Tl»c President's Veto Message. Washington, April 19.—To the Senate of the United States: Herewith I return Senate bill No. 172, en titled "An Act fixing the salary of the Presi dent of the United States," without my appro val. I am constrained to this course from a sense of duty to my successors iu office, to myself, and to what is due to the dignity of the position of Chief Magistrate of a nation of more than forty millions of people. When the salary of the President of the United States was fixed by Congress at $25,000 per annum we were a nation of but three million of people, poor from long and exhaustive war, without commerce or manufactories; with but few wants and those cheaply sup plied. The salary must then have been deemed small for the responsibilities and necessities, but justifiably so from the im poverished condition of the treasury and the simplicity it w T as desired to cultivate in the Republic. The salary of Congressmen, un der the Constitution was first fixed at $0 pet day for the time actually in session, on an average of about 120 days to each session, or $720 dollars per year, or less than one thirtieth of the salary the present Congress have legislated upon their own salaries from time to time until it finally reaches $5,000 per annum, or one-fifth that of the President before the salary of the latter was increased. No one having a knowledge of the cost of living at the national capital will contend that the present salary of Congressmen is too high, unless it be the intention to make the office one entirely of honor, when tùe salary should be entirely abolished, a proposition entirely repugnant to our republican ideas or institutions. I do not believe the citizens of this republic desire public servants to serve them without a fair compensation for their services. $25,000 does not defray the ex penses of the Executive for one year, or has not in my experience. It is now one-fifth in value what it was when fixed by the Consti tution in supplying the demands and wants, and having no personal interest in this matter, I have felt myself free to return this bill to the House in which it originated, with my objections, believing that in doing so I meet the wishes or judgment of a great majority of those who indirectly pay all the salaries and all the other expenses of the government. [Signed.] U. S. GRANT, Executive Mansion, April 18th, 1870. On motion of Clayton, it was ordered that the message be printed and referred to the Committee on Civil Service and Retrench ment. _ A CORRECTION. The New Northwest, in its leading article of this week, severely criticises the action of the Republican Territorial Convention in passing the Blaine resolution, and states that the "substitute" was defeated by one majority. This is a mistake. The vote on the substitute stood 19 to 27, a majority of 8 against its adoption. The Blaine resolution was carried by two majority. It is but justice to the Deer Lodge delega tion to state that five out of the thirteen dele gates were in favor of Blaine for President, but they voted in accordance with the instruc tions of their county convention.