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TK3 WEEKLY HERALD
a. E. FISK........................... Editor. TH I ICS BAY, JUNE «2, 187«. 4 oMPAfu rn i: yam e of testimony Several of the recent cases of investigation present anew the circumstance so prominent ly illustrated in the Beecher case, a tlat and irrecomileahle conflict <>f testimony on the main fact in the case. The history of Eng lish and American courts, (and we suppose, also, the courts of every country),furnish fre quent instances of the same kind. But since the rules of evidence have been changed to allow parties to testify in their own behalf, the instances have been multiplied very greatly. There is an error in this connection very general—perhaps judicial utterances, certainly the claims of attorneys in hard cas ts give color to it—that one man's testimony is as good as another, and that w'hen offered under the sanction of an oath and unim peached it must be received as true. Careful study and close observation will convince every one open to reason and truth, that, there rarely can occur a case where there is not a wide difference in the value of statements made by witnesses under oath. Character is not taken into account sufficiently in weigh ing testimony. The word of a man of tried integrity and truthfulness ought to outweigh the most positive assertions of a score of wit nesses of low character and bad habits. Some are illogical enough to reason that the con t ui reuce of several bad. witnesses will make good testimony,though ready to acknowledge that either alone is insufficient. To give an apt illustration: While there are few that would believe the word of either Tilton or .Moulton as against Beecher, yet theic are found quite a portion of people that by put ting two such witnesses together and supple menting them by Moultou's wife, think Beecher is outdone. There is nothing cumu lative about such testimony. When it comes down to the narrow point of issue in a direct conflict, a critic must look elsewhere than to the sanction of the oath for means of ascer taining the true from the false. Then cornea in the element of character which is rarely so equally balanced that it will not turn the scale in one direction rather than the other. Men who would believe Harney rather than Kerr, or Mulligan rather than Blaine, do not desire or attempt to form an honest judgment. They express a prejudice, a judgment made up in advance to suit a taste or passion which seizes upon anything that will serve as a pre text. Men who thus give way to prejudice and flippantly pronounce judgment without caretul investigation and weighing of testi mony, commit a double crime, the lesser one against the accused, the greater one against themselves. Persons who force or allow themselves to utter false judgments break down the power of making moral distinctions in their own consciences, instead of elevating their reason to a noble empire, divine in its nature and little lower than that of angels, they reduce it to a menial rank and service where it must dwindle and die of self-contempt or grow a distorted monster. Whoever de sires to know the truth, aud is manly and honest enough to suspend judgment until the truth is ascertained, can always find it. On the other hand, there is nothing easier in the world than to impugn the motives where no fault can be found in the act itself. Thus it '.vas that Christ's enemies could accuse him of aspiring to royal authority because lie went about doing good to others , and when it was advertised that witnesses were wanted to accuse him of some capital crime, there was a large supply to meet the demand. Men were not wanting to accuse Washington of ( very crime known to the Decalogue. The histories of Old and New England show how easy it was to find plenty of accusers aud wit nesses against those suspected of being witches and hundreds were hanged and burned for crimes that we know to have been impossi ble. So, too, of all the thousands that have perished under the charges of heresy and treason a vast majority are now universally believed to bave been less guilty than their persecutors and murderers. We have only a word to say in ado'ition, in reference to the so-called independent press. We have witnessed its growth with much satisfaction. The position of Independence is most favorable for thorough and impartial investigation and the ascertainment of truth. But in the late Investigations we have failed to observe that they have been actuated by any higher motives than their less assuming compeers. Each has had its favorite whose fortunes it has advocated as persistently, while with equal industry it has assailed the reputation of rivals by foul means as well as fair; circulating exploded falsehoods ; listen ing at keyholes for unclean stories ; grasping at and magnifying suspicions. There seems to be a tidal wave of mutual distrust and sus •picion at present sweeping over the country. It infets and palsies business, as well as seeking to drag down the character of every public man. It was a time for papers claim ing to be independent to show their superior metal, and we are sorry to see and have to say that they have shown little foundation for their vaunted independence. Tiik Manitoba Free Press fears that Sitting Bull and his three thousand »ioux warriors will take refuge in Manitoba in case they are defeated by the forces under Gen. Terry, and calls for Canadian troops to take care of the red intruders. The new Sultan of Turkey has but. a single wife. He paid $00,000 in gold for her and pronounces her a bargain at that. a a to to NEW ELECTION BILL FOR THE TERRI TAIIIE'C a In order to reach the troublesome case of Utah, the House Committee on Territories have reported a bill confining the elective franchise in all the Territories to male citi zens of 21 years and upward, and not bigam ists or polygamists at the time they offer to vote. All ballots are to be enclosed in an envelope, to be furnished by the Territorial Secretary, of the same color aud size lor all. It would not make much difference in Mon tana, but will extinguish all female suffrage now existing in Utah and Wyoming. If car ried out, too, it will be very apt to throw Utah into Gentile hands. However, we have little faith that it will prove more effectual than laws now in force. Mormons have be come ingenious swearers, and will find a way to satisfy their conscience and keep their votes and wives, too. It would seem that another class now permitted to vote in our Territory, those who have declared their in tention to become citizens, are to be excluded hereafter. It is possible, however, that the brevity of the report may account for the omission. As to the use of envelopes, we are satisfied that it w ill prove ineffectual to accomplish the good intended, and be counted a bore in practice. Massachusetts once tried the same experiment, intending to protect tlie inde pendence of employees against the dictation of their employers in large manufacturing towns and cities. It was only in force a very short time, and disappeared by unani mous consent._ SILVER CHANGE TO BE PLENTY. Two bills passed the House on the 10th of this month which will, without much doubt, meet the concurrence of the Senate and Pres ident and become law. One was reported by Cox for the issue of ten millions of silver in exchange for legal tender notes ; the other other by Randall authorizes the coinage of twenty millions of silver, and the purchase of bullion for the purpose. The necessity for this latter act arises from the fact that nearly that amount of fractional currency, from wastage and losses of various kinds will probably never be presented for redemption. The total amount of the frac tional currency issue -was forty-two millions. Perhaps twelve millions will more nearly rep resent the absolute loss. Thirty millions, then, of fractional currency will be redeemed with silver. Randall's bill adds tw'enty mil lions more to this, w'hile Cox's bill is another increase, making the total amount in circula tion w'hen those measures have all gone into effect, sixty millions. We may expect to reach this result within the next tw'o years. It will be more than was ever before in cir culation, but will not be in excess of the de mands for growth of population and increas ed business activity. Let other nations de monetize silver if they will, we shall be well content to see paper demonetized and a more substantial representative of value in its place. • THE YELLOWSTONE. News from Bismarck by way of Chicago and Salt Lake, that the steamer Yellowstone, loaded with oats for Montana, has sold its car go to Black Hillers and returned, wflll some what relieve our Granger friends. There is plenty of time yet to sow oats, and before the steamer could return to Benton, they would be nearly ready to harvest. Perhaps with little extra effort a supply could be got to Benton to load the steamer for a return cargo at prices that would pay to ship to St. Louis. It would be a fair game of bluff for the Gran gers to inquire by telegraph of the owners of the Yellowstone what they would charge to deliver oats in St. Louis. It îs possible that the oats brought up on this steamer were all the time designed for the cavalry operating in Eastern Montana under Custer, and Gen. Terry, and that the story got out without proper limitations. Shipping oats to the settled portions of this Territory from St. Louis w'ould seem as ridiculous on genera] principles as sending coals to Newscastle. It has some appearance of having been a hoax, whether intended or not is more diffi cult to determine. It may have been set afloat through the philanthropic motive of discouraging bur grasshoppers by showing them that they had undertaken a job that they couldn't carry through, of robbing our cayuses of their proper diet. Indian Appropriations. Washington, June 10.— The Indian ap propriation bill as finally amended and passed by the House, provides the following amounts for incidental expenses of service : In California, $30,000: Oregon, $10,000; Washington, $50,000; Nevada, $5,000; Idaho, $3,000 ; Montana, $5,000 ; Utah, $10, 000; New Mexico, $10.000 ; Arizona, $20,000. No portion of these amounts can be paid to employees, the bill providing that they shall hereafter be detailed or appointed and paid by the War Department. Delegate Elkins made an earnest effort to secure an increased appropriation for the care and subsistence of Apaches in Arizona and New Mexico, but the House voted only the $400,000 recom mended by the appropriation committee. On motion of Mr. Maginuis, of Montana, a provision was inserted to break the power which the Indian agents now possess, con trolling Dade with the Indians. The amend ment provides that any person who receives a certificate from the United States District Judge, or Territorial Supreme Court Judge, that he is of good moral character and fitness to be in the Indian country, shall receive a trading license, when he presents it to the agent, which license shall be forthwith ap proved by the department when forwarded to Washington. • ARE WE TO HAVE A RAILROAD? Whatever may be said of agriculture and stock raising, they are with us mere corollar ies of mining enteprise. Our past, present and future are inseparably linked to mines and mining. Had it not been for the discov ery of gold what is known as Montana would be an unbroken wilderness,roamed over by wild Indians aud regarded by all, save perhaps a few adventurers, an impenetrable waste. What we are, not less than what we are to be, we owe to mining industry. This leads us to think that we cannot do better than to encourage the development of quartz inter ests. At present, owing to many causes, the reduction of ores cannot be successfully car ried on here. If reduced at all they must be shipped east to undergo that process. In a crude state they would be valueless, but for the prospect of converting theln into cash. Hepce the importance of facilities for trans porting them. It is impossible to procure transportation for a quarter of the ore now being mined. Great quantities of it, averag ing in value from $50 to $80 per ton, are ly ing on the dumps of the different mines, for the expense of extracting which the own ers have received nothing, because ores that run less than $100 per ton will not pay to ship by the slow, cumbrous and uncertain method now in use. Recent shipments are small, and scarcely deserve notice except as an index to what remains behind. But once assure the miner of rapid aud cheap trans portation, aud a limit could scarcely be as signed to the increase of production. In the palmy da} r s we poured a stream of wealth in to the lap of the world, but the placer yield is now less than a tenth of what it was in 1800. Even then we retained a comparative ly small portion of the precious metal for cir culation at home,and the result shows products and exports to have been about equal. We had nothing then, and we have little now, to give in exchange for the necessaries, comforts and luxuries of life but gold dust. The drain up on our resources is consequently very great, and must be supplied from a more produc tive source than that of our surface mines re maining yet un worked, or we shall fail to keep the balance between supply and demand. And everybody knows what that means. It means stagnation, impoverishment, distress. If we are forced to look in another direction than that to which we have been accustomed for gold, or its equivalent, wherewithal to pay for what—as civilized beings, we cannot do without, to what, and in what direction, shall our eyes be turned? To agriculture? No. The cost of producing a bushel of wheat or a barrel of flour with us is nearly double what it would be in the States. It is hardly necessary to add that if we had a rail road at our very doors we could not compete in the markets of the east with products rais ed nearer the points of general consumption. Cultivators of the soil in Montana rely solely upon home demand. No class would be ben efitted more than they by an influx of popula tion. Can we trust to cattle or sheep? Cer tainly not. Stock raising is profitable, and sure to become more so, in a country unri valled for pasturage : but it leans directly on other industries and could not, if it stood as principal, supply the wants of our people, though they should content themselves with cheaper wear and plainer food than the bu colic inhabitants of Tartary—a thing they are not likely to do. As already said, there is one resource of wealth to which, with us, all others are sub sidiary. That is, our mines of gold, silver, copper, lead and iron. On their development all our other interests depend. Thus far, we presume, all agree. Who is not willing to prosper? and who so silly as to suppose that prosperity will come of itself before we have deserved it? The only question is one of means to compass the end in view. How can we break the fetters of isolation which have kept capital when seeking investment from know ing anything of us, and people who emigrate from coming our way? How open a chan nel of rapid and regular communication with the States? We think it has been shown by the failure of two attempts, one to procure aid for the construction of a North and South road, and one to assist the N. P. R. R. Co., in building theirs—by the deceitful character of one scheme and the doubtful propriety of the other, that our case is hopeless so far as they are concerned. There is still an outlet through which the only object we could have had in granting these subsidies,bad we grant ed them, may be reached at less cost, per haps. with equal advantage to us. A railroad to Benton or Cow Island would fully supply our wants of transportation. The Missouri river is, or could easily be made navigable for light draught boats during eight or nine months of the year—that is to say, from the time it cleared of ice in the spring till freez ing in mid-winter. If the Northern Pacific Railroad was completed and in running order from Duluth to Helena, it could not furnish better, and would not furnish cheaper, trans portation than such a line. Montana mer chants are obliged to carry immense quanti ties of goods to supply the trade. They pur chase during the winter and spring months al most their entire stock for the ensuing year, necessitating great outlay and increasing or dinary risks. After ordering, they wait from three to six months for new supplies, always at great inconvenience,often with serious loss. With the line we speak of, orders for goods could be transmitter at any time and a few weeks would find them in store. A bus'ness that now requires a capital of $50,000 could then be conducted as successfully with less than half that sum. This consideration should ! of itself be sufficient to induce merchants to in ! look favorably upon the proposition of a rail road to one of the points named, and to make some sacrifices, if any were needed, to obtain it. There is, however, a considera tion paramount to this ; one that appeals even more strongly—that is, self interest. Until we have a good line of communication with the States, the population of Montana instead of increasing will decrease as it has for sev eral years. Trade, instead of reviving will languish more and more. Many 'will emi grate and those who remain, perforce accom modating themselves to circumetances, will have fewer wants. Stores will be closed for the want of customers. Vacant houses and deserted streets will prove, we fear, more elo quently than words the folly of Wilkins Mi cawber's theory, of "waiting for something to turn up," if we adopt it and decide to sit with folded hands. This is no fancy picture. One has but to think a moment to perceive its truth why it is so, aud to suggest a way to avoid its be coming a reality. Our situation is very far from desperate, and the ground we have lost may be regained b} r taking the right course in time. It rests wholly with ourselves to apply the remedy. Suppose that we have reached the lowest rung of the ladder, aud that things will remain pretty much as they are, is the thought consoling? Is there a set tler or a man in business here, who will say be is content to have it so? Not one. We should be sorry to see Helena take the po sition she would have occupied as an inland provincial town, fifty or sixty years ago, when railroads were unknown, and keep it, and hope a better fate. We invite the citizens of Lewis and Clark, the business men of Helena, and in one w T ord, all w'ho are in any way interested in our ma terial growth, to put their heads together, talk the matter up and see for themselves if an enterprise which will result in the con struction of a railroad to Benton or Cow 7 Is land, such as, iu connection with a line of steamers, would insure the rapid aud regular transmission of freights to and from the Ter ritory, cannot be set on foot. We suggest county aid on fair conditions. In this article we have only hinted at one or two of the advantages of connection by rail with the Missouri river, leaving a host of details aud scientific data for future dis cussion, w hich w T e promise to examine here after with minuteness and care. BUNKER HILL. To-day is the anniversary of the battle of Bunker Hill, the centennial of which was cele brated one year ago. Though accounted a British victory, in loss of men and the dis proportionate loss of officers, in loss of pres tige and confidence, in the barren fruits and blood-stained laurels, it was in fact a defeat of the most costly and decisive nature. While to the Continentals, though they lost posses sion of their redoubts and their best officer, General Wan en, hey withdrew w'ith little loss compared with what they had inflicted, and attributed their failure to hold their works to a lack of powder and bayonets, rather than the superiority of their foes. It confirmed the courage aud hopes of the friends of lib erty, aud probably was decisive of the events that led within less than a year after to the union of all the colonies an the declaration of Independence. On this day every citizen ought to read again the history of this battle as given by Bancroft, or some other of our many histori ans, and fix in his mind the incidents, localities and characters connected therewith. It would be an interesting study to follow the effects of this battle, as the news of it spread through the colonies, and trace the influence of it in the altered tone of speech and bearing visible in every public meeting and address. On the 17th of June, 1825, LaFayette laid the foundation of the monument, 221 feet in height, that now crowns the sacred spot. Indians Concentrating; Omaha, June8.— A dispatch received at Department headquarters this morning, dated at Fort Laramie, June 7th, says an Indian courier from Red Cloud brings a report that just before be left, an Indian arrived from the mouth of Tongue river. He found there twelve hundred and seventy-three lodges un der Sitting Bull ; Crazy Horse and others were on their w T ay to Powder river to fight Crook. On his return he met the same band that Egan saw on May 7th. They told him they met Custer's troops and had fought them all day. Many were killed on both sides. No result is reported. This occurred about ten days ago. --— «I -4 •HU>- ►► ----- The Rig; Horn Country. Washington, June J). —The House com mittee on Indian affairs to-day authorized Representative Page to report w ith recom mendation the passage of a joint resolution introduced by the delegate from the Territory of Wyoming, declaring all territory north of the North Platte river and east of the sum mits of the Big Horn Mountains, commonly known as the Black Hills country, open to exploration aud settlement. It also declares that the true intent and meaning of the treaty of April 29th, 1868, is that white men are not excluded from traveling or settling upon any portion of Wyoming Territory not in cluded w'ithiu the boundaries of the perma nent Sioux reservation. Duel iu Colorait«». Denver, June 8. —A duel was fought at River Bend, Colorado, to-day, by Alfred D. Jessup, jr., and a man named Davis, who were respectiv ely armed with Winchester rifles and Colt's navy pistols. Jessup was killed in the second exchange of shots. P. to of a of touveulion Talk—Blaine*» Frieml» En thusiastic. Cincinnati, June 10. —The trains arriving this morning were crowded with delegates to the Convention, friends of the prominent candidates, and others interested. The Lin coln Club, of New York, headed by Down ing's band, paraded some of the principal streets, immediately upon their arrival, making a very creditable display. The ru mor that Mr. Blaine would be present next week is authoratively denied. As regards the prospects of the candidates, every mo ment's developments seem to indicate that the struggle next week will be a very ob stinate one, It is not probable that balloting will comramence before Thursday, and per haps not till Friday. In an interview with Hon. J. H. Frye this morning, he denies em phatically that Blaine could withdraw his name as a candidate, or that after the first ballot he would name the candidate who would succeed. The friends of Blaine claim that because the Democrats believe him the least daugerous to their party, they have subjected him to the ordeal through which he has passed. There is great anxiety to know' where Illinois will go in the event of Blaine's failure to secure a majority. Conk ling's friends are very enthusiastic, and con fident of his success. Bristow's adherents seem to lack strength, although a large num ber of delegates and friends are expected to arrive on Monday, especially from the South. View» at Cincinnati. Chicago, June 9.—The Tribune'» Cin cinnati dispatch says: The Conkliug men are spending much money, aud w ill keep up the scandals against Blaine to the last, and hope to have the contest finally narrowed down to Conkliug aud Morton. The Morton men though are less confident. The Cincin nati people, oddly enough, are for Bristow and not for Hayes. Iu half of the shop windows Bristow's picture is displayed. The Hayes movement has apparently no' strength at all in this city, and very little in the State. A well informed gentleman who does not support Blaine, told to-day that the ex-Speaker will have from sixteen to twenty votes from the Ohio delegation. - ■—?► — Warrant» Issue«!. San Francisco, June 9. —Warrants were issued to-day for the arrest of Lelaud Stan ford and E. H. Miller, President and Secre tary of the Central Pacific railroad, on com plaint of J. R. Robinson, a stockholder, for refusing to exhibit accounts of the company. The facts of the case are that in the examina tion of the books of the company now going on in the &uits brought by Robinson and other stockholders, the Secretary was asked to pro duce a certain report made by Stanford to the directors of sundry expenditures. The Secretary produced the paper, but refused to state the contents, and being asked if it did not contain a statement of the amounts of money paid to influence State and Congres sional legislation, declined to answer. A warrant is therefore sued to compel the pro duction, under the State code governing corporations. The examination discloses great unwillingness on the part of the Secre tary of the Company to testify on material points. Williams, Blanchard A Co. to-day took possession of the office of the Pacific Mail Company, in conformity with the appoint- ment of a receiver from the Home Office, A. P. Bacon retiring. --I irf)- «* ►► ÄM« 1 * - Ljiu'li Law. Sax Francisco, June 10.—A dispatch from Santa Rosa says : Last night about 150 armed men went to the jail in that tow n and overpowered the keeper. They took T. W . Henly, confined, waiting the action of the grand jury for killing Janies Rowland, a prominent citizen, about a month ago, and hung him to a tree, a mile from the town. The body was discovered this morning. Pub lic sentiment is disposed to consider the ac tion of the mob in the interest of justice. Hiulüon River Tunnel. New York, June 9. —The Hudson River Tunnel Company, who have been delayed more than a year by an injunction, has again resumed operations at the shaft in the Jersey City roadway, under the river. It will be 5,400 feet long and 25 feet wide, the outlet to be at Washington Square, New York. The estimated cost is $15,000,000 and upward of 10,000,000 in stock has already been sub scribed, the principal parties to the enter prise being Californians. It is intended to complete the work in two years. The House Committee on Railways has reported favorably on Mr. Stone's measure for securing cheap transportation. It pro vides for the creation of a corporation, with a capital stock of $50,000,000, to construct a railroad from New York city to Council Bluffs, Iowa, said road to be subsidized by and be under control of the Government. The amount of subsidy asked is $32,000,000. Of course, it is not expected that the bill will pass the present session. A terrible war is now waging in Ne v York betw'een the rapid-transit aud the horse car roads. The elevated road carries from 6,000 to 7,000 passengers daily between the Battery and Fifty-ninth street. The President has said that, if the h reign bill, or other important ones, should tail, he should recall every foreign minister aud con sul, and discontinue the other service within his control, leaving the responsibility with Congress. The Senate has confirmed the app«»:ntmei t of Seligman Brothers as t lie United States agents in Europe for the Treasury Depart ment.