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THE WEEKLY HERALD.
E. E. nSK...........................Editor. THLBSDAY, MAY 10, 181T. the extra session. The public mind, after having alternated a long time between the expectation of a ses sion of Congress early in June, and no ses sion at ab, is at last brought to rest by the information that in full Cabinet meeting the time has been fixed for mid-autumn. We readily concede the wisdom of the decision, though our eargerness for some legislation in aid of the two Pacific Railroads, led us to hope for au earlier meeting. In this decision for a meeting in October it is not contem plated to disband the army or any part of it. Only one pay-day will be passed, and it is thought no great trouble or inconvenience will ensue. The most stringent economy will be required in many departments to get along, but the country can stand a sight of economy and grow fat and strong over it. If Congress had been already organized, the Speaker elected, and contested cases set tled, the possibility of a short session might have been realized, but as it was, the promise was very poor to be in working order for a long time. The President can get Congress .together, but it is beyond the ken of human foresight to tell what will be done and when it would adjourn. To most Congressmen, Washington City would be a very hot and uncomfortable if not unhealthy place during the summer, and the valuable lives of our distinguished statesmen and influential lobbyists might be endangered. There is complaint even in winter days that the hall of Representatives is poorly ventila ted and unhealthy, and it would be dangerous in the extreme for heated debates and the "heated term" to enter into conjunction. The country, generally, wants rest and time to recover from the disgust and confusion ex cited by some of the closing scenes of the last Congress. The outbreak of a European war is arousing every dormant industry into life, and in business circles it is felt that it would be a misfortune to divert attention in any other direction. Rut after all we expect the controlling mo tive in reaching this decision is to be found in the unsettled state of the political mind, consequent upon the withdrawal of the troops from Southern capitals. There is some pres ent division of opinion among Republicans about the wisdom, justice, and success of the President's policy. This difference of opin ion might, at present, bring on collision among ardent supporters of the different policies and result in final rupture, whereas a few months of trial might and probably will lead to a better understanding and satisfy the most unwilling that the President's course was necessary, right, wise, and in fact, the only course open to the final pacification that all desire. The members of the next Congress were elected in the heat of the Presidential contest, and in the contest that ensued over the count of votes they espoused the cause of their party candidates with a zeal that cannot im mediately grow cool. If they were to meet at once, they would probably vote as they would have done just after their election. But there are favorable indications of a break up in the old Democratic party. Certainly a large portion of the so-called Democratic party of the South only affiliated nominally, thinking that only through that organization was hope of deliverance from misrule at home. But having received at the hands of the President all that they ever hoped through Democratic ascendancy, they have no fur ther ties to hold them to their mistaken alle giance. By the middle of next October we believe that there will be some beginning of a distinct line among Southern whites, and that fully one-third, it may be more, will be out spoken friends and supporters of the admin istration. It may not be tru<f that an equal portion of Congressmen selected under old issues, will become reliable supporters of all administrative measures, but there will be some, enough we doubt not tc change the slight preponderance now gemst to one still stronger in favor of the administration. President Iiayes proposes to make a South ern tour very soon, the results of which, we believe, will be to change the present senti mental admiration of many into firm and set tled support. We are clear in saying that we do not share one iota in the opinion that Wen dell Phillips has expressed of the Southern people. We believe they will respond to gen erous confidence with as much alacrity, warmth and sincerity as they were outspoken and extreme in their antipathy and hostility. We think we see already sufficient indications of a general revival of an era of good will through reconciliation of industrial and intel lectual reform and advancement. It is best to allow it a fair field to work in without any immediate interruption by disputes that an earlier meeting of Congress would certainly bring with it. General Robert E. Lee was one of the vestrymen of St. Sohn's church, Brooklyn, in 1842. He was at the time Captain in the Engineer Corps and stationed at Fort Hamil ton. It is related of the Bishop who con firmed him that when the young officer came to him after the conclusion of the service, he said : " Captain Lee, if you will serve God as faithfully as you have hitherto served your country, I shall envy you your crown." The Rev. James D. Carder was pastor of SL John's at the time Captain Lee was one of its officers. BALANCE OF POWliR More than the fall of Turkey is involved in the war that has now opened. It seems that it must result in the final overthrow of that indefinable and costly abstraction, gen erally known by the title of "Balance of Power," the substance of which is that it will not do for the rest of the Powers to let any other one become so strong that it would en danger their existence. Hence all combined to check the career of the French Republic and Napoleon. Hence the alliance between England, France, and Italy, to check Russia at the time of the Crimean war. This "bal ance of power" has been a one sided thing, any wav. With all the constant care and ex pense in adjusting it by the ablest hands in Europe, it as constantly tends to dip to one side or the other. There are three Continental Powers that have outstripped the rest—England, Ger many and Russia. Of these, England has no chance for territorial growth, girt by the ocean on every side, but she has held undis puted the supremacy of the ocean, and by this means more or less controls all countries that have a seaboard. And isn't it very singu lar that in all these years of contention over the adjustment of this "balance of power," nothing has been said about this naval pre ponderance, no attempts to curb English su premacy on the water, no willingness on the part of England to have the subject brought into controversy. She has from the outset used to the utmost the advantage of her posi tion, and by the multiplication of her war ships has virtually annexed island after island and seacoast after seacoast, with a seeming unconsciousness that others had as much cause to complain of the increase of her power on the ocean, as she had, of their growth on the land. It is the favorite argument among English writers to say that the possession of Constan tinople by the Russians would convert the Black Sea into a Russian lake, from which the commerce of all other nations could be excluded. But does not the force of this argument hold good and apply as justly to the English hold of Gibralter and Malta? The possession of these strongholds makes the Mediterranean an English inland water in exactly the same sense and with many times less excuse, for on the one hand Russia owns most of the coast of the Black Sea, while England has comparatively little at stake in the Mediterranean, while to Italy, Austria, Greece and Turkey, there is no way to the main ocean except under the open mouths of English cannon. In the same way and in equal defiance of the "balance of power" doctrine England possesses Aden, at the en trance to the Red Sea, and thus controls the commerce that comes and goes by the Suez canal. We cite these cases not to complain. We are glad that these posts are in English pos session. We are glad for the extension of the English power in Asia, Africa, and among the islands of the sea. But we are glad, also, for the same reasons mainly, that Germany has absorbed those little jealous principalities around Prussia, and at less cost gives to all better government and laws, awakens national life, intellect and ambition. If it should absorb all the rest of countries in Europe w r hose population speak German, we shall still rejoice at it as a victory for the welfare of the race, as a step in the direction of true progress. In the same spirit we re joice in French dominion over the Barbary states of North Africa, and only wish it greater strength and growth. In just the same spirit we wish success to Russian arms in Turkey. It is not so much the Christians of Turkey that are oppressed by the Turks, but it is humanity in all its re lations and interests that is perishing. It is as though a fainting captive were chained to a corpse. The corpse of Islamism has for 400 years been exhaling pestilence over the fairest portions of the eastern world, includ ing the gardens of Eden and Gethseman and all the places most sacred to the memory of Christian and scholar. Our chief concern is to see deliverance come, careing compara tively little from what direction it comes. Let the Christian subjects of Turkey be free to gov ern themselves, they outnumber the Moham medans, two to one. Let Constantinople be a free city, under protection of all the Powers. Let Palestine be given to the Jews and its freedom be guaranteed by all Christendom. Let England have Egypt with its Nile Valley and Suez Canal. We know of no better hands in which we would prefer to see it fall, or that would ensure to those now living there or who will hereafter go to settle there, good government, security for life, property and religious freedom. We think the march of events foreshad ows a breaking up of this costly, repressive, blighting shadow called "balance of power." Nothing else has done more to keep all the nations of Europe in poverty, ignorance and bondage. It has forced the devotion of the best years of the best men in every continen tal country to be squandered in the idleness and vice of army life. It has squandered the wealth of the people, needed for bread often, for schools always^ to the empty glitter and parade or the more cruel waste of havoc and war. The laying of this ghost will be the first step to the disarmament of the nations. One of the first acts of the Forty-fifth Congress should be to secure legislation dis franchising every person in Utah who prac tices polygamy. This religion will undoubt edly die of its own accord in time, but it may take a century. Congress can kill it in three months, and receive the thanks of every re spectable clement in Christendom. RIVER NAVIGATION. The early arrival of the steamer Benton at the head of navigation several days in advance of the earliest arrival in any former year, will draw attention anew to the undeveloped ca pacities of the Missouri River as a channel of commerce. For thousands of years it has been flowing idly to the sea, with no other visible occupa tion than that of filling up the gulf of Mexico with crumbs of the Rocky Mountains. Draining a valley of almost double the area of that of the Danube, and navigable for nearly twice the length, its capacities are still matters of doubt and experiment. All the rivers of Asia Minor, Greece and Italy together would not equal in volume, length, and capacity of use, our neglected and despised Missouri river. The Euphrates and Tigris, on whose banks stood Ninivah, Babylon and Bagdad, the capitals of mighty empires and seats of vast commerce, have not half the length of our Missouri and Yellowstone. Besides which we have the knowledge and use of steam, giving vastly greater power to multiply com merce than the ancients possessed. The recent rapid growth of rail roads has so occupied public attention that river com munications have been overlooked and under valued. The greater speed on railways and the fact that the rivers are closed with ice in our mother country a large part of the year, have unduly influenced public opinion preju dicially to the water ways. There are few rivers in the world that afford 3,000 miles of navigation. A railroad of equal length would represent a capital of at least one hundred and fifty millions of dollars, on which inter est, wear and repairs would be a constant charge. But even a double-track road could not accommodate the commerce that can pass to and fro on the river. Even in the six months that the Missouri can be counted on as sure to be open, there can be twice as much business done as on a double-track railroad during the entire year. Considering their carrying capacity, steam boats cost no more than trains of cars, and the danger of loss by accident is not much greater. The contrast in time between cars and boats in making the passage from the Mississippi valley to the heart of Montana is somewhat to the disadvantage of the boats, yet this disadvantage is more than compensa ted by the smaller cost of river transportation. On the other hand the heavier freights of ores and live stock, and the bulkier freights like wool cannot only go much cheaper, but in scarcely any longer time. Without break ing bulk, our freights once loaded at Benton would not need to be touched till they were unloaded at St. Paul, Pittsburg or New Orleans. With boats made specially for the upper river, we can calculate on ah average of seasons that they would reach Benton as early as April 25, from which time to the last of October, with the improvements comple ted that are now begun, they might run con stantly, so that smoke stacks would be thick as fence posts the whole length of the river. Helena can avail herself of all the river advantages by constructing a railroad to Ben ton. If the importance of such an enter prise and connection appeared to our readers one-half as strong as they seem to us, this season would not pass without seeing the worK in progress. By building 150 miles of road we have the direct use of 400 miles of water way east and south. Even after the North Pacific is complete to the Western ocean, and the North and South Road from the Central to the Canadian Pa cific, and both passed within our city limits, the mere existence of this road to the head of navigation will pay us large dividends on its cost by exempting us from the extortions that the road would otherwise inflict. Other localities may linger in doubt, and waste time, money and patience, and finally lose their chance of existence, before they can settle and agree upon the best route to open, but it seems to us that nature has settled the question for us, and placed within our own grasp the sceptre to rule our future destiny and fix the foundation of our existence and prosperity on as sure a basis as that of New York City. __ In a recent letter in reply to a paper that had criticised his appearance as one of Til den's counsel, Hon. Matt. H. Carpenter thus gives his views of a lawyer's duty in his pro fession : "It is well settled that an advocate should not devote his services exclusively to himself, his family, his relatives, his neigh bors, his party, or his church ; but that he should serve all men in the interest of truth and justice. No lawyer can be disgraced by a bad cause, but only by his management of it. The cause is his client's, the management his own. Of course, no advocate is either re quired or permitted to contend for a proposi tion of law which he does not believe to be sound, nor to misrepresent a fact. But it is his duty to press every principle of law fa vorable to his client, and every fact in his favor, upon the consideration of the judge, who alone is charged with the duty of decid ing. And, as Chief Justice Marshall once said, fit is a dreadful case that hasn't some thing right about it.' " New York proposes to commemorate her birth as one of the United States. A cen tury ago the Constitution was adopted at Kingston, and a hundred years back from the 30th of July next, George Clinton was in augurated first Governor of the State, after ward to be known as the Empire State. On the latter anniversary, Kingston proposes to erect a permanent memorial, and, of course, hna nakprl for nn Rnnrnnrifttion. is r a COMMUNICATIONS FROM ACTING GOV ERNOR CALLAWAY. Appointment oi Private Secretary and Clerk. Order to Take Possession of the Books and Property of the Executive Office. The following communications from Acting Governor Callaway were received at the Sec retary's office last evening : Executive Office, Territory of Montana,) May 7th, 1677. f Isaac R. Alden, Esq., is hereby appointed Private Secretary to the Acting Governor of Montana Territory. J. E. CALLAWAY, Acting Governor. Executive Office, Territory of Montana,) May 7th, 1877. j lion. 1). II. Cuthbert , Ter. Auditoi\ Helena : Dear Sir Any and all law reports or other law books w T hich you may have in your possession and delivered to you by B. F. Potts as Governor of Montana, you will please deliver to Hon. Isaac R. Alden and take his receipt therefor. Very respectfully, J. E. CALLAWAY, Acting Governor. Exeoutivb Office, Territory of Montana.) . May 7th, 1877. j Isaac R. Alden y Esq., Private Secretary , Helena : Dear Sir:— Upon receipt of this you will be pleased to take with you Capt. Jno. O'Meara, (Clerk in the Secretary's office,) and proceed at once to the room lately occupied as an office by the Governor ot this Territory, and in my name and by my authority take possession of the books, records, papers, and other property belonging or pertaining to the Executive Office of said Territory. All law reports and other law books that you may find in said office, or in the Audi tor's or Treasurer's office, will be at once de livered to Hon. D. S. Wade, Chief Justice of Montana Territory, and the proper receipts taken therefor. All other books, records, papers, etc., properly belonging or pertaining to said office, you will please have conveyed to the office of the Secretary of said Territory and there securely kept until demanded by proper au thority. Very respectfully, J. E. CALLAWAY, Acting Governor. A correspondent writing from San Fran cisco utters an earnest warning against New Englanders going there in hope of finding business. He says : " This State is full of bankrupt farmers and merchants. This city alone has 25,000 men to-day out of employ ment, and still they are coming faster than ever from the East, farmers, miners, print ers, book-keepers, lawyers and doctors—men with their families, and after arriving here have hardly funds enough to take them out of sight of the city. It is a very hard and pit iable sight to look at them in every part of the city in search of something to do to keep from starving." Not long ago a paper was read before the Liverpool Chamber of Commerce, showing that "England, if there was no check on the present rate of increase of its inhabitants, would contain in the year 2476 a population of 10,000,000,000." Some few thousand years further on, the paper might have added, America will be populated compactly from Coney Island to the tips of the Rocky Moun tains. The Australian Continent will be so crammed with inhabitants that they will be falling over its edges, and Siberia and the Sahara will be crowded like a Sunday excur sion boat in August.__ The New York Times , m discussing the declared purposes of the Russian Government, says : "This must mean to drive the Turks, as rulers, from Europe. Nothing short of this will protect the Christians now subject to Turkish power from the abuses of which they complain. Russia cannot govern the Christian provinces through the Porte, be cause the Porte could not, if it wished to, govern those provinces in any other way than that in which they are now governed. The Power of the Sultan over the local authorities is a shadow, for which he may fight, but con cerning which he could never give any satis factory guarantee." Senator Morton has been devoting him self to a renewed study of the Electoral Col lege question, andbas prepared a series of arti cles on the subject, which will appear shortly in the Fortnightly Review. He has also de cided to lecture on the same subject after the extra session of Congress is closed. This is welcome news. The danger has been that so important a question would slip from the pub lic mind, to be brought back only by fresh complications at the next Presidential elec tion. There is but one opinion as to the ne cessity of a change of some sort. While Mr. Morton may not present the best plan, he Will perform a scarcely less important service in awaking interest in the discussion. A curious railway signal has recently been invented in Illinois to prevent one train from r unnin g into a preceding one. As the inven tor believes that considerable of a demonstra tion is necessary to attract the attention of the average engineer, and as it is difficult to find living men who will stand on high pedestals and make frantic gestures at stated intervals, he has invented a machine man who flourishes a flag, rings a bell and displays a changeable light in his hat with unfailing regularity. The machine is worked by electricity, which is set in operation by the passage of the train, and the frantic contortions of the effigy are said to be almost ridiculous enough to make the iron horse laugh. a A man by the name of Hollister has pur chased 75,000 acres in California, and is now negotiating for the remnant of the State. Whatever else may be said against the Chinese, no one can truthfully say that he ever saw one who parted his hair in the mid dle. A remarkable phenomenon is reported from Naples, Italy. It is that for three whole days in a week there were no births out of a population of 500,000 souls. The St. Augustine Hotel in Florida is the largest hotel in the world. It must be, for a correspoupent says that among the guests are " the Smiths of New York." The Czar and the Sultan have both invok ed the blessing of God on their arms, and the vengeance of God on their enemies. Some body is bound to be disappointed. Robert Dale Owen, when asked the other day as to what he thought of President Hayes' policy, said: "I have not been so well satis fied with the political outlook since the death of President Lincoln." It is said that Minister Elihu B. Washburne is negotiating for a house in Chicago, intend ing to make that city his residence upon his return from France, with a side glance at the United States Senate, at the election two years hence. A rare event has occurred in New London, Conn. A healthy girl child was born of Mrs. Edwin Messer, September 3, 1876, and a well developed, living boy, January 27,1877, the births being four months and twenty four days apart. In giving its hearty approval to the Presi dent's policy, the Christian Union says: "This is not a new policy. It is an old policy revived. Mr. Hayes takes up the work of Abraham Lincoln and in the spirit of Abra ham Lincoln where he laid it down." William G. Brownlow, more generally known as "Parson Brownlow," died suddenly at his residence in Knoxville, Tennessee, on the 1st inst. In 1826 he entered the Metho dist ministry, laboring for ten years as an itinerant preacher. He was elected Governor of Tennessee in 1864, and in 1869 was sent by that State to the United States Senate. It having been charged that General Sher man recommended General Joe Johnston for Secretary of War, Sherman answered, with his usual sharpness, that he declared, as a fundamental proposition, that Johnston was an accomplished soldier and a faultless gen tleman, and is astonished that such a com pliment should have been misconstrued into a recommendation for office. Turkey and Austria are both patchwork nations. If Turkey is dismembered, it will be only the prelude to the falling to pieces of the Austrian Empire. Hence the probability that Austria will enter the war as an ally of Turkey at no distant day. Hence, perhaps, Moltke's appeal for the strengthening of the German army, under pretence of having to look after France. Yon Moltke says that Germany must pre pare to meet re-aw r akened France, and this declaration seems to have fallen like a thun derbolt on Paris. That proud city receives this declaration with the profoundest sense of imminent danger, and her markets and her people are accordingly excited. We do not believe that France is yet ready to strike the blow of revenge, but then the French are a remarkable people. San Francisco Letter : A wealthy broker's wife recently returned from Paris. She came not to see her husband, but to get $100,000. Their daughter is engaged to a French Count. He demanded $100,000 as a "dowry" before leading his lady love to the nuptial altar. Her mother has just departed for Paris with the purchase money. We may soon expect to hear of the. wedding of a "California heir ess" in the American Colony. New York Tribune: Mr. Holmam yell ing on the floor ot the House from one end of the session to another for economy, is an impressive figure ; Mr. Holman, in the bowels of the Capitol, slyly franking thirteen hun dred worthless and bulky volumes to his con stituents, is a less majestic creature. Why will treasury watch-dogs be tempted with small Astronomers say that the earth will one of these days be struck and utterly destroyed by one of the comets which are now shoot ing promiscuously about in space. We would advise those who prefer to suffer the ills we have here rather than to wait for this other that is to come to be struck as soon as possi ble by Cronin's nose. It seems to be the only alternative. - Those London funny papers get off a good thing so seldom that it should be instantly grabbed up 'whenever it appears. Here is one from Judy: "Mr. Gudgeon: 'Oh, I say, now, Miss Ada, you are fishing for a compUmenf Miss Ada: 'Oh, dear, no, I never fish in shal low waters. " Gen. Beauregard is described as a man below the middle height, with snow-white hair and mustache, and a face seemed with / innumerable wrinkles and yellow as a kite's claw. His long nose seems to reach below his upper lip, as he bends his head and places his hands behind his back, after the manner of "the little corporal."