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THE WEEKLY HERALD.
S. E. FISK,..........................Editor. THURSDAY, IÏOVEMBEU22, 1877. IHAUKSUIVIAO. By tïie l*rcsi«ïent off the Unite«] states, h 1'roclaination. The completed circle of eummer and winter, seed time and harvest has brought us to the accustomed season at which religious people celebrate with praise and thanksgiving the enduring mercy of Almighty God. This devout and public confession of constant dependence of man upon the Divine Father for all the good gifts of life and health, of peace and happiness, so early in our history made a habit of our people, linds in the survey of me past year new grounds for its joyful and grateful man festation in all the bless ings which depend upon benignant seasons. This has indeed been a memorable year. Over the wide terri tory of our country, with all its diversity of soil and climate end products, the earth has yielded a bountiful return to the labor of the husbandman. The health of the people has been blighted by no prevalent or wide-spread disease, no great disasters of shipwreck upon our coasts or to our commerce on the seas have brought loss and hardship to merchants and mariners and clouded the happiness of the community with sympathetic sorrow. In all that concerns our strength and peace and quietness as a nation ; in all that touch es the permanence and security of our government, and the beniticent institutions on which it rests ; in all that affects the character and disposition of our peo ple, and tests our capacity to enjoy and uphold the equal and free condition of society which are now per manent and universal throughout the land, the exper ience of the last year is conspicuously marked by the protecting providence of God, and is full of promise and hope for the coming generations. Under a sense of these infinite obligations to the Great Kuler of the times and seasons and events, let us humbly ascribe it to our own faults and frailties if in any degree that perfect concord and happiness, peace and justice which Buch great mercies should diffuse through the hearts and lives of our people, do not altogether and always and everywhere prevail. Let us with one spirit and with ono voice lift up praise and thanksgiving to God for his manifold goodness to our lands, his manifest care for the nation. Now, therefore, I, Rutherford B. Hayes, President ot the United States, do appoint Thursday, the 29th day of November next, as a day of National Thanks giving and Prayer, and I earnestly recommend that withdrawing themselves from secular cares and labors the people of the United States do meet together on that day in their respective places of worship there to give thanks to Almighty God tor His mercies and to devoutly beseech their continuance. In witness whereof, etc. (Signed) RUTHERFORD B. HAYES. Washington, D. C., October 29th, 18T7. - — - MacMahon lias now made up bis mind not to resign. _ It is thought that the German mission will be tendered to Col. Robert G. Iogersoll, of Illinois. _ The French Chamber of Deputies elected Grevy, Provisional President, by a vote of 290 to 170. _ Several mineral patents are announced in our Washington report as having been issued to Montana parties. Greenbacks in New York are relatively worth their face in gold. In trade, gold coin is freely given in exchange. TnE extensive retail dry goods establish ment of Field, Leiter & Co., Chicago, was totally dstroyed by fire yesterday. The Senate, in executive session yesterday, 14th, confirmed the nomination of R. H. Mason for Surveyor Geneial of Montana. This is the middleof November, with the thermometer still above zero in Central, Southern and Eastern Montana. Placer mining still continues in Helena and contigu ous district s. Rev. Joseph Cook, the popular Boston Evangelical preacher, writes to a Republican elub that "if civil service reform can unite old men in council and young men in action the day of the disestablishment of the ma chine in politics cannot be far distant." The New York Sun takes the falling off in registration as an indication of a decrease of population. No wonder that in a city where taxes are equivalent to $28 a year for every mau, woman and child, or $140 tor each family of five persons, there is a de crease of population. Life there is too ex pensive for most people. The Hon. Galusha A. Grow summed up his financial creed in a pithy sentence during a speech to the Philadelphia Republicans on Monday evening : "My only rule in finance is that a nation that owes a debt should pay it as soon as it finds itself able to pay ; and my belief is that one of the direst curses with which a country can be inflicted is irredeem able paper established as a circulating medium." _ A Republican Senatorial Committee held an interview with the President yesterday for the purpose, if possible, of establishing amicable relations between the Executive and the Senate. Senutor Edmonds, acting a3 spokesman, is said to have expressed himself plainly in opposition to Democratic appoint ments. The President was pleasant, and heard the committee attentively, but is re ported to have made no concessions. The National Union has a weekly edition, a novelty associated with daily journalism in Washington. The first number was issued November 1. It adopts something of the style in make-up of the Congressional Record , is typographically perfect, and as a newspaper is first class. Each number contains thirty two pages. With the first issue is a pictorial supplement, with excellent portraits of the President and Cabinet. The "portrait gal lery" is a feature of the paper which the pub lisher will continue in supplementary form to the Weekly Union. A PAPER'S AXXÎVEUSARY. ATecent birth-day cuts a notch in the tally-stick of a Territorial exchange. We refer to a somewhat remarkable publication —the Avant Courier. Our contemporaries, we notice, have been "backward in coming forward" with congratulations usual on such occasions. The discovery gives U9 pain. Failure of the Herald at an earlier day to talk to the subject will be readily understood as purely accidental on our part. We are ready now as heretofore to avow that the Courier , under its recent and present charge, has opened up new vistas and multiplied many fold the possibilities of personal jour nalism. Novelties, quite original in this line and wholly peculiar to young Mr. Alderson, have been introduced as leading features of his paper. As a fairly average sample we quote the Courier editor's becomingly modest allusion to himself : "The Courier has at its helm a youDg man of intellectual, executive and financial ability —a young man who, knowing that circum stances do not make the man, but on the contrary, the man is shown in his power to grapple with the obstacles that cross his path way and become master of them, is prepared for anything that may turn up, and relying on himself, on the ability he knows he possesses, expects to remain master of the situation." It is thus seen that the Herald is more than sustained in the estimate it has all along placed to the credit of the Courier young man. His intellectual and other distinguish ing gifts and acquirements have not been ex agerated. We no not claim to be on as in timate terms with the young man as he is himself, and that he should overreach us a trifle in panegyric is naturally accounted for in the circumstance that he knows some qual ities of the Courier editor which we have thus far overlooked or failed to discern. "A young man of intellectual, executive, and fi nancial ability." We do not remember that the Herald has ever put it in those exact words, but that we always meant as much is obvious to every unprejudiced mind. Our confidence in Mr. Alderson's "power to grap ple with obstacles" is as well confirmed as his own, and that he "is prepared for anything that may turn up" admits really of no debate. The self-told account of the Courier mau continues : "True, he is young and inexperienced ; ha3 failings, as well as good qualities, but a man must make a start sometime ; all men are not perfect ; and it is the young men—men who are full of life and energy, who have to carry the burdens and do the work in this world." We are loth to agree with the Couner edi tor in the admission of "failings," so accus tomed have we become to regarding him as "our model young man." Possibly he has foibles, but such have not been discernable to the naked eye. A sense of self-conceit, suspicioned by some, grew out of an eccen tric exhibition in his case of an overly devel oped mental expression in the occiput and a strongly defined intellectual force in the el bows. Even this peculiarity, if it exists, will pass away, and the ideal of all our hopes will soon appear brighter than before above the Eastern borizen, gladdening the eyes of an expectant and worshipping public. Let Mr. Alderson go right on "overcoming obstacles," as he says he is going to. We desire to see him overcome everything but himself. He has abilities, muscular and otherwise, which opportunity and practice will develop to the generous mold of an athlete. Boze man must give him a chance, and with that success and a brilliant future are before him. Chicago is to receive a noble bequest from the estate of Allen C. Lewis, lately deceased. He directed that his property, now estimated to be worth $650,000, shall be allowed to ac cumulate until it amounts to $800,000. A building is then to be put up, at a cost of $250,000, and the name of the Lewis Insti tute is to be attached to it. This building will be used at first for a free library and reading room ; it will contain also a school of the practical arts, such as telegraphy, and a school for the instruction of women in the branches of industry that may be adapted to assist them in gaining their livelihood. When the condition of the property will permit, a polytechnic school for instruction in engineer ing, applied chemistry, etc., will be opened. The will provides that the bequest shall take effect in 1885, if the accumulations do not reach $800,000 before that time. The late General Forrest was an illiterate man, although he rose to the rank of Lieu tenant General in the Confederate army. Some one asked him just before the close of the war, when his victories made him par ticularly conspicuous, what was the secret of his success. In his own homely way he said that it was by "gitting the most men thar fust." _ The Sitting Bull Commissioners in the mackinaw passage down the Missouri, had a hard trip, but finally reached Ft. Buford without serious mishap. The following day. November 2, the river froze completely over, and the party were forced to make the jour ney from Buford to Bismarck by ambulance. William Cullen Bryant, editor of the New York Evening Post , celebrated the eighty-third anniversary of his birth last Saturday. He is hale and strong, and gives promise of much more service as "poet, philantbrophist, novelist and sage." About $15,000 worth of gold dust per week is taken to the San Francisco mint from the Lava Beds, by Chinamen. These diggings were sold to the heathen Chinee by white men who thought they were barren. THE ARMY. We published the oilier day an interview in which General Sherman explained to a re porter, as he has tried to explain to Congress, the actual status of the army. From the General's report and the facts and figures which he presents in bristling array, the Gov ernment may cease to maintain a small army at a great cost anly to maintain no army at about the same cost. At present the nomi nal strength of the army is 25,000 rank and file, but the actual number available for ser vice in the field is a little over 19,000. The report of the General shows that in conse quence of the cessation of recruiting, there were onie 22,331 men in all branches of the service. Of these there were in the Engin eer Battalion 198 men ; recruiting parties, 527 men ; general service men or clerks em ployed at headquarters, 336 ; Ordnance De partment, enlisted men, 346 ; West Point detachment, 178 men ; prison guard at Leav enworth, 74 men ; hospital stewards, 182 ; ordnance sergeants, 114; commissary ser geants, 146; a total of 2,101 men. This estimate does not include the sick, who must be numerous since we spend something like a million dollars a year in the way of a military doctor's bill. It does not include ambulance drivers and teamsters, and it is hardly fair to estimate as available for military service the guards at the forts, arsenals and other military stations iutended for foreign defense, since our army, on its present scale, is not intended for such de fense. Omitting these, we think it would be easy to show that, while we pay for 25,000 men, rank and file, we can never count on more than 15,000 men actually available for the only kind of service for which we need them—hunting Indians, watching Mexicans and putting down riots. Now the ideal of army reduction contem plates cutting down the army to 10,000 men, and the shortest way to do it would be to abolish the 15,000 men now available. This would be not only the easy, but the logical way. If the objection is made to the army as an army, it is only reasonable to suppose that the actual combatants are the most objection able, and that the strict economist is not op posed to those who are in the army but who do do military service. There is no danger to our liberties from the hospital stewards ; the recruiting service will never be used to set aside a State government, nor will the headquarters clerks be apt to be sent to trample on the lights of labor by suppressing riots. By carefully retaining all of these non combatant privates and applying the pruning knife of economy only to the battalions in field, we might be able to carry out a great army reform, ending in an army of 10,000 men, without a single one able to shoulder a musket. This course would have the advan tage of leaving us under no delusion as to the efficiency of the army ; and while we are about the job of paralyz'mg this branch of the public service we might as well make a complete job ot it. The difference between an army of a maximum of 10,000 and an army reduced to a minimum of none at all is rather apparent than real, and our little army is so small a cherry that it is not worth while making two bites of it ; if it must be destroy ed, let it be destroyed at once. Eastern Montana. Allen Myers, of Cottonwood, raised 46 1-6 bushels per acre of the finest quality of wheat —number of acres, 14 1-4. This was the best crop in Gallatin valley this year, at least no larger yield has been reported. Mr. Frerer, the soldier at Fort Ellis who shot himself one weeK ago, was at last ac counts doing very well, and it is thought he will yet recover from his wound, although the siege will very likely be a long one. Col. Pickett, who has been making Boze man an extended visit, leaves on this morn ing's coach for New Orleans, where he pro poses to spend the winter with some relatives. S. S. Huntley was in town most of the past week, attending to his stage interests. He left for the South by way of Virginia this week. He expects to reach Washington some time in December, and will remain there this winter. —Bozeman Courier , 15fA inst. Hon. John A. Campbell, who has been nominated as Consul to Basle, Switzerland, was an officer on the staff of Gen. Schofield during the rebillion, and was made Governor of Wyoming Territory by President Grant. After three years' service in that capacity he resigned, and was appointed Third Assist ant Secretary of State under Secretary Fish. Bad health, caused by close confinement, is the cause of his leaving the Department. Col. Delancey Kane has brought the coaching season of 1877 to a close. Seven teen hundred passengers were carried be tween New T York and Yonkers from May to November._ An Oshkosb, Wis., genius resolves the resumption problem. As gold is only worth 3 per cent, premium, let the Government, he says, stick a three cent postage stamp on each dollar bill, and the thing is done. The dividends declared and paid to Oct ober 30, by the bonanza companies amount to $54,000,000. Of this amount the Consoli dated Virginia Company has paid $34,560, 000, and the California Company, $19,440, 000. ______ The Democrats of the House will hear of no silver dollar that is worth a dollar. Missionary contributions for Stanley's 15,000,000 hitherto undiscovered heathens will be in order directly. Garfield's Speech on Resump tion. In the Name of the Laboring Man he Denounces the Attempt to Repeal the Act. Washington, November 16. Garfield said this w r as a well discussed topic» and its features were old. He appealed to the general judgment of mankind on the question of currency. In 1860 there was general prosperity, and then it wras the best settled of all questions that the only safe, trustworthy standard of value was coin of ascertained weight and fineness, or a paper currency convertible into coin at the holder's will. That was then, and had been for a long time, the unanimous opinion of the American people. Here and there there had been dreamers, who looked upon paper money as a fetich of their idolatry, but the dream ers were then so few in number that they made no ripple on the current of public thought and formed no part of public opinion. That opinion was then the aggregate result of the opinions of the foremost Americans who ever thought or wrote on that subject. No man had eyer sat in the Presidential chair and left on record any word on the subject which spoke of safety in finance except in coin or paper convertible into coin. No man ever sat in the chair of Secretary of the Treas ury, who had spoken at all on the subject, who had not left on record an opinion equally as strong, from Hamilton down to the father of his distinguished colleague (Ewing), and down to the present day. It seemed to him that the general judgment of all who deserved to be called the leaders of American thought ought to be considered worth something in an American House of Representatives on the discussion of a great topic like this. What had happened to produce the change from the general level of public opinion in 1861 was the war. The overmastering neces sities of that war had led the men of 1861 to depart from the doctrine of their fathers, and they had not departed from it as a matter of sentiment, but as a matter of overwhelming necessity. All who voted for the greenback law in the House and Senate had done so un der protest, and with the declaration that at the earliest possible moment tbe country should be brought back to tbe old, safe, es tablished doctrine of their fathers. Like the companions of Ulysses, they had lashed themselves to the mast of public credit when they embarked on the stormy and hazardous sea of paper money, so that they might not be beguiled by the syren songs which might be sung to them when they were on the wild waves. But times were changed. New men were on deck. Only twelve years had passed since the House, with only six dissenting votes, resolved to stand again by the old tvays to bring the country to sound money, and now what was found ? A group of school men and doctrinaires, the latter unknown twelve years ago, w r ere found in favor of what they caUed "absolute money," declar ing that a piece of paper stamped one dollar was a dollar, and that gold and silver were a part of the barbarism of the past, which ought forever to be abandoned ; that resump tion should never take place, and that the eras of prosperity were paper eras. Coming back to the prosperous era of 1860, he assert ed that although banking was free there was but $207,000,000 paper money in circulation and about $200,000,000 in coin. How much was in circulation to-day? About $727,000,000 in greenbacks, fractional currency and frac tional silver, and about $9,000,000 of copper. In all, $736,000,000, exclusive ot the gold circulation on the Pacific coast. He put it to the judgment of the House whether, if in 1860, under free banking and with no restric tions, $407,000,000 was the limit of possible currency in circulation, ulmost twice that amount was needed and hardly enough in 1877. He put himself in the same category in which the gentleman from Pennsylvania (Kelly) had placed the late Secretary of the Treasury, Hugh McCulloch. He (Kelly) had read yesterday three times from an article written by that gentleman, and had declared that the statement made in those lines showed either unexampled ignorance or unexampled mendacity. What was that statement? Was it that every great financial crisis in this country had been preceded by an enormous enlargement of tbe paper circulation ? He (Garfield) affirmed that it was true, and be challenged any one to prove the contrary. It had been assumed that specie payments would injure the debtor class, and would therefore help the rich. He denied that pro position in toto. He affirmed that the vast majority of creditors belonged to the rich classes. In the first place the poor man had to borrow money, and in the second place it was the laboring man who placed his surplus money in the savings banks, and it was the rich man who borrowed from the savings banks, and thus did the poor lend to the rich. In the name of the laboring man, therefore, he denounced the attempt to repeal the re sumption law. If it were repealed the coun try would be plunged into the necessity of sailing the same tempestuous ocean with an uncertain result. If it were repealed and no substitute made for it, the day would not be far distant when Congress would look back from the depth and horrors of the evils that would surround the country to the present time, and would earnestly regret the day when the Resumption act was repealed. He did not undervalue greenbacks, but when Kelly talked about greenbacks putting down the rebellion if he (Garfield) had been on the other side of the House he would have said, "Oh, no, Judge, we had a more liberal sup ply of that kind than you had. It was a bet ter money than yours on your own principle, for it was to be redeemed six years after the independence of the Confederate States, and yet that did not put you down." [Laughter.] The struggle now pending in the House is on the one hand to make the greenback bet ter, and on the other to make it worse. In the name of every man who wanted his own when he earned it, he demanded that Con gress should not make the earned wages of the poor mau to shrink and shrink away. But greenbacks should be made better, until tbe plow-holder's money should be as good as the bond-holder's money. This was an era of pacification. The States and citizens were equal before the law. So that the motto of the country might be, "Equal States, equal men, equal dollars," and complete pacifica tion would be achieved. The elements were all now favorable for resumption. The re port of the Secretary of the Treasury yester lerday showed that he had $66,000,000 in coin unpledged for any other purpose, wait ing as a reserve for the day of resumption, and that he was adding to that stock at the rate of $5,000,000 a month. The balance of trade was in favor of this country to an ex tent of nearly $200,000,000 a year. Ex change was flowing this way ; the harvests had been bounteous ; the nation was awaken ing to new enterprises ; business was every where reviving. There was no dangei, ex cept from Congress, of the United States. There was the storm centre, there the point of peril. If that point could be passed and the act now threatened be averted, the coun try would be safe and resumption completed. Two years ago bis colleague (Ewing) had predicted the silver currency then proposed to be issued, would be immediately absorbed and withdrawn from circulation. So his col league thought now that gold coin would be absorbed and withdrawn from circulation. Ewing explained that when he made that statement the country was not aware of the rascally act demonetizing silver, and that silver was then at a high premium over the greenback. Garfield suggested that the trouble about the explanation was that silver coin was of twelve per cent, less value than old silver, so that there never was the slightest danger of its being bought up for silver. The gentle man (Ewing) thought there was some danger about gold, but if an Eastern farmer, re moving to the West, sold his farm for $10, 000, was he likely to load himself with forty pounds weight of gold or G40 pounds of silver ? Would he not rather take his pay in ten $1,000 bills and carry it west in that con venient form ? In conclusion he said : The moment your greenback is equal to gold it is better than gold, for it is more convenient, and as long as the people desired it to be in circulation so long it will be until the business of the country demauds its removal. If any of the amendments proposed to make the resump tion act more safe, more certain, and more careful of the interests of the country, I shall cheerfully join iu voting for it, but anything that gives up what we have gained, or sets us afloat again on the wild waves from which we have nearly escaped, I will oppose it if it should cost me all the political futuie that can be offered to any American. [Applause on the Republican side.] Buckner advocated the passage of the bill for tbe repeal of the resumption act, and said : Whatever others might do, and what ever might be the action of other depart ments of tbe Government, the duty of the House, as immediate representatives of the people, was plain. No one should be de luded into the support of any of the amend ments offered. They should be all voted down, and that would insure the passage of the bill. If the present policy were persisted in the whole social fabric of the country would be strickeu to its foundation. The Speaker stated that the operation of the resolution adopted on the subject was that at the close of the debate the previous question would be considered as seconded ; that then, if the house refused to order the main question, it would throw tbe bill hack and strip it of ail past agreements. The whole matter, however, was in the control of the majority of the House. Recess was taken until evening, the session to be exclu sively for debate on the bill. Washington Items. Chicago, November 16.—The Journal's Washington special says: The Senate Fi nance Committee discussed the Silver bill two hours to-day resultlessly. Senator Davis' long speech on Treasury discrepancies excited little attention. The Committee on Ways and Means to day took up the subject of revising the tariff and internal laws, and referred the whole sub ject to a special sub-commiltee, consisting of Woods, of New York, Chairman, and Tucker, Gibson, Banks and Burcbard, thus represent ing the various sections of the country. It is understood that this commitee will report an entirely new system, both as to rates and method of collection, different from any ! )l( '* sented to the present Congress. It is nu.dd ered certain that neither the Willis or 3b>i rison bill will be adopted by the Commit" . although some of their features may be >*. corporated in the general measure which w.il ultimately be prepared.