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t V,i. - .if I FISK BROS., - - Publishers. R. E. FISK, - - Editor. THUIMPAl, JVNE 6, 1879. CAUSE OF STAGNATION OF BUSINESS. Bonamy Price, writing for the Jane number of the North American Review, holds that the real cause of the general depression business all over the world is over-consump tion and not over production, as is more of ten assigned as the cause. By over consump tion he includes not only the wastes of war in this country and the old world, but the vast amounts permanently invested in rail roads, According to this writer we have in vested beyond our annual savings. These investments in railroads, though yielding lit tie return in many easea at present, will soon begin to return harvests and prove perpetual mines of wealth; but the millions upon mil lions wasted yearly in Europe in war and in preparation for war is like the wealth con sumed in fire—it is loss without return. The remedy suggested is not diminished produc tion, not fewer days and hours of work, but cheaper production, so that the articles pro duced will come within the reach of a larger class of purchasers. The attempt to cure the evil by protective tariffs will surely aggra vate the trouble. It will increase prices and diminish the number of buyers; it will check commerce and divert capital and labor both ■ into less profitable channels. If the writer has reached the main root of the evil it would be easy to discover the way to escape. It will be to work harder, produce more, and by increasing our sales make small profits on large transactions, instead of aiming at large profits on small transactions. Most people think there are some peculiar, abstruse prin ciples that control society and nations differ ent from those which apply to the individual. But the same causes that bring prosperity to the individual will produce the same results for the State. WEI'ESSE OF THE PACIFIC KAIL HOADS. HOADS. Henry V. Poor, who was the.Secretary of the first organized Pacific railroad company, writes a defense of that much-abused corpor ation in the North American Review. It is well that the public should be invited to look upon the difficulties that surrounded the orig inal undertaking. It will help to explain the reasons why the charter was apparently so loosely drawn, why the terms of the grants were made so favorable to the company, and why it is common to attribute treachery to those who framed the bills that passed Congress. The fact is, at first nobody thought the road could ever be built, or if built that it could ever be run to pay expenses. The reason why interest on the government bonds was not to be paid until the bonds themselves fell due, was that it was not believed by any one at that, time in Congress or- out that the road would become self eupportirf£ within 30 years. Mr. Poor counts with justice that the road should be credited with an annual sav ing of over five millions upon the cost of transportation of mail and military supplies, which within nine years past amounts to $46, 547. lo5, a sum considerably greater than the interest paid on the bonds, issued to both com panies. While not disposed to concede ail that is claimed for these roads in the development of I silver production, there are a great many di- 1 rect advantages about which there can be no I doubt, aud, as we have said before, we believe the government has been more than repaid I though it should never get back a dollar for its bonds and interest. However, conceding all that is claimed and more, it does not fol- 1 low that all the profits of this profitable in vestment should be monopolized by the man-1 aging partner and not be fairly divided with the one that furnished most of the capital, It is the general belief that the earnings of I the nmd, if honestly devoted to that purpose, can refund every dollar advanced by the gov eminent by the time the thirty year bonds | fail due, and then the stockholders will vir tually own the best piece of property in the world without costing them a dollar m d . , 4 . , Mr. Poor thinks the Thurman bill a (treat iniquity and that the Supreme Court has etulti fied uselr in affirming its validity. Tothedisin-1 terested it looks as if it coukl work no great injustice to ask the devotion of the net earn ings each year to reducing the debt. An hon "t debtor geuerally takes that course volun n? bat is paid before the debt falls ^ to be paid then, and when of ^festesledthe public »er intend« to | in THE MIGHT TO BEAM ARMS. The framers of our National Constitution living under the perpetual menace of attack ffom Indians, regarded the right to keep and bear arms as one of the most sacred and nec essary, and hence provided for it by one of the earliest amendments. But the intention is made obvious by associating this personal right with the necessity of maintaining a well regulated militia. It was never intended to furnish people with greater facilities to commit crimes. It was, on the contrary, to testify to the world that the government thus framed rested on popular approval and sup port; that its founders were not fearful of armed resistance to the execution of laws; that as the people w T ere now recognized as the true sovereigns they should retain the badge of sovereignty. The people in frontier States aud Territo ries are still in much the same condition as the people of the States when the Constitu tion was adopted, and the same necessity ex ists why they should keep arms and be trained to familiarity in their use. But the revolver was not known when the Constitution was framed. If it bad been we doubt whether some restriction would not have been inserted as to keeping and carrying them. With the experience this country has had of their use we believe mo6t good citizens are satisfied that hundreds of lives are yearly sacrificed and our prisons filled in consequence of these weapons being so common and ready to exe cute the momentary passions of angry and suspicious persons. We have a law making it a crime to draw or exhibit a deadly weapon in a rude, augry aud threatening manner, and not in necessary self-defense, but this seems very inadequate. The mischief is having them around at all in the hands of men lia ble to become insane with liquor or passion and ready to seize upon anything m reach to execute the demands of the master passion. Some further legislation is needed, and many restrictions should be placed upon the carry ing of concealed weapons upon the persou. There should be a general disarmament of all persons under the ordinary circumstances in which they meet and mingle in society. The law ought to be strong enough and suffi cient to furnish every man ample protection without allowing him to carry an arsenal in his pocket on the pretense of self protection. The many fatal tragedies that have recently occurred in Montana ought to be enough to lead men to the resolution to put some effec tive stop to practices working such terri ble consequences. Either one of two things will surely result—men will go to work and arm themselves for emergencies likely to arise any moment as things now are, or they will have to be assured that others as well as themselves are unarmed. An appeal to the good sense of the community would gener ally be sufficient, but this might not reach the small portion that most needs restraint, and so long as any person has the legal right to carry deadly weapons with which to punish imaginary or trivial affronts or unjust suspi cions, everybody is in danger, and the appeal is one-sided and ineffectual. It is a matter deserving of the most careful consideration, and we hope it w ill lead to some suitable legislation. of ENDOWMENTS. It was once the custom for men of wealth to bequeath their fortunes to found monas teries and build churches, but in this age of advanced enlightenment a better charity be yond all question is the foundation of institu rions of learning. The name of Asa Packer, of Mauch Chunk, Pa., is deserving of a high I place on the honored roll of those who have I bestowed their wealth in such a way that future generations to the end of time shall have cauße to bless his memory. The Lehigh University at Bethlehem, which received half a million in his life time, receives the bequest I of a million and a half of dollars from Judge Packer for its enlargement and permanent endowment. Such men are the most glorious product of our institutions, and such monu ments to perpetuate their memorj the most noble and useful ever devised. The good that men may do is not necessarify confined to their short lives, DEATH OF GEN. SHIELD». T* 1 ® new8 of the sudden death of General Shield* at Ottumwa, Iowa, soon after having delivered a 1):tture at that , wi „ " shock of sad surprise in all parts of our I land. His career has been an honorable and successful one, though he fell far short of Webster and Calhoun in ability, and was equally as much surpassed in skill and energy I of a political leader. Though connected all I I* ife with ***® ^ emocrat, 'c party, his parti **nship did not extinguish bis patriotism, as in so many others. Without, the aid of l wealth and powerful friends, and under the I '~**ntage of a foreign birth and a limited J w **as a great thing to win the m foreign birth and a limited a great thing to win the * United States ; but ase of having filled c States, in addition wars. In the Mex trough the lungs and To his further great , like Henry Wilson, enator brings chances ifiuences almost equal I nt I taring the subject of I support of the widow aylor, who have been nstances. The fact is j raised for the family $40,000 for Prof Hen Gen. Meade. of a to to of THE UTAH & NORTHERN R. R. The Rapid Progress Made in Its Construction Through Snake % River Valley. Will the Road This Season Cross the Montana Border? In the dusk of evening of a day in the lat ter part of April the Herald edit.r was bowled in a Gilmer & Salisbury stage coach across the bridge spanning Snake river at Eagle Rock. The iron track of the Utah and Northern Railway had but a day or two before reached the river bank, and as the four-horse side" drew up in front of the stage office the shrill whistle of the locomo tive, towing a long incoming freight train, greeted our approach. A hundred canvassed houses, moved hastily forward a distance of 26 miles from Blackfoot, were either in course of erection or already in line facing each other on either side of the track. It was the imposed site for a couple of months of the terminal town, and a busier or more bustling spot, in the hurry and skurry of the busy hundreds and the eager push to place their habitations, was never seen. Returning, we were again, at the close of May, at E igle Rock, and the town wore a quieter and more settled look. The railroad construction force, increased by scores and hundreds in number, were north of the river and pushing the advance work swiftly ahead, pointing straight for Montana's southern bor der. A splendid iron bridge, of two magnifi cent spans, had been thrown across the Snake, the center abutment being the famed Eagle Rock rising out of the narrow chasms through which the immense volume of the river's waters race in their hurrying course to the Columbia. The iron track for a distance of twelve miles north of the river crossing had been laid, and every day long trains of •flits," carrying rails and other building ma terial, were pushing out to the frynt. The , grade, iu most part in a completed state, bad j reached Camas creek, a point nearly fifty miles in our direction from Eagle Rock, while working parties were still moving for ward, locating their camps and preparing to plow and scrape, as far north as Canyon stage station, ten miles south of Pleasant Valley. On the coach which conveyed us homeward was the chief engineer of the railroad, who came up to join his surveyois and to place grading foices along the lined division approaching to scale the divide sep arating Montana from Idaho. The instruc tions from Mr. Gould and associates were to surmount the main range and reach ihe valley of Red Rook this season, if possible. To this accomplishment the Superintendent of Construction, Mr. Dunn, is addressing every a effort. To the work in hand he has sum moned active and competent engineers and builders, and northern Utah has been called upon to supply for the labor part all available men, hundreds of whom are strung along the Hue grading with their two and four-horse teams, while others are bridge building, tie ing, track-laying, etc. Mr. Thatcher, Super intendent of the Utah and Northern, is oper ating the road to the best advantagé, expe diting the transportation of iron and other material discharging daily at Ogden. He is as uninterruptedly employed as the road constructor "out in the wilderness," and for of I the P»st two months bas worked the rolling I rtock to its utmost capacity, which the in creasing freight business has rendered im peratively necessary, Track laying is now progressing at the rate of one mile a day, and this rate of speed I wd l ^ kept U P u °til Camas creek is reached, when the Terminal people will receive orders to "strike tents" and take themselves to the new b* 180 °f operations, which will remain f° r a month or more the northern shipping P°* nt where the iron track ends and wagon in £ begins. Camas creek will be a great leap forward. It will have, crossed the toilsome pulls through the sandy wastes and wrench ing lava beds that succeed each other nearly the entire distance from the leaving of snake river to Hole-in-the-Rock. As rapid as the railroad advance really is, it hardly comes as fast, nor will it come this I ^ ear as * ar » a8 Montanians could wish. A1 rea( ty many thousands of dollars in freights hav ® been saved t0 th ® Territory ; merchan dise ^-been expedited in transit ; travel to I and ^ rom the country quickened and cheap I ened ' and our * 8 °l at ' on * 8 leas felt and drear. the reas0Dab le legislation asked of but *'* tb held by our people, the railroad authori l * es wou ^ have been impelled to extraordi I nar Y exertions, and Montana the present year J w p u ^ d bave been penetrated at least a hundred m ^ es the point which will now in that I ** m ® b® reached. Had the moderate exemp I requested of the Legislature been granted, th . e actual Bavin « in reduced freights, in trav elin S ex P en8es and expressage would have near ^Y ° r quite equalled the entire revenue which tb ® Territory could have collected from tbe road in twelve years. Montana is ^b* 8 sea8on adding thousands to her popula ^ on ' bot the class of new-comers is largely mad ® U P °f laborers seeking employment, with little or no means to commence lite for themselves. Some of these—perhaps a ma jority—will find work and remain with us, while those who do not will gravitate to other parts. Had the iron horse been here, all who have arrived and all who are yet to come could have easily been absorbed into ourcom munities and counted as permanent to our pop of the the the ly M. ulation. This view is not suppositious ; it is a fact. With the railway penetrating to the heart of Montana scores of capitalists seeking desirable fields for investment of idle means would have been ere now in our midst and scores upon scores of waiting, worked leads of gold and stiver and copper would have been the scene of busy industry and trains of ore and bullion would h^e been speeding their way to market. Men of money are not so timid as to bow they will invest as to where they will inyest. It is the exception that one of them can be induced to leave the main avenues of travel and seek away from lines of railway investments which otherwise would pour in upon this and neigh boring territories by thousands and millions. The sense of the people of Moniana in re ference to the great and lasting benefits to be derived from railway communication tends to the belief that but one expression will be heard from one end to the other of the terri tory should the question of exemption in the form before presented come again before them. Speed the good work ! Forward with the iron roadway ! We say this while fresh in mind is the ten hour» ride in a rail car covering a distance that a stage coach could not traverse in two days nor a freight wagon in ten ; while vivid in memory is the toil and strain of snail paced mules and bulls strug gling with heavily freighted wagons in the sands and alkali bottoms and amid the un cushioned lava rocks and forbidding sage brush wastes that feature the desolate road way to the very gates of Montana. It we must travel a region like that separating this mountain paradise from "God's country" be yond, let it be done quickly and in a curtained railcar speeding us at thirty miles an hour over the bad lands that intervene in our out going and incoming journeys. We aspire to a Christain civilization, but that blessed boon may not in its completeness come to this peo ple so long as the moving column of buil-whackers aud mule-skinners thread the wagon tracks and profane the at mosphere with objurations before which even the brute kingdom shrinks with fear and trembling. If we can as well speed in safe ty and comfort, in twenty-four hou-s, to the greater railway leading east and west to the limits of the continent, why should We longer choose to cling to primitive and torturous modes of travel requiring days of agony to consummate? The time is near—thanks to those who are more our friends than our selves—when Alontanians will ride in a car for $30 to Ogden, instead of in a stage coach for $60 ami more, as they have for years done. The day cannot come too .soon to suit the wishes of the people of this Territory. RAILROAD ADVANCE. The coast papers mention the significant circumstance that agents of the Utah and Northern Railroad have recently purchased iron works and real estate in Pot tland. Ore gon. It renders certain what has long been suspected, that Jay Gould and the Union Pa cific Directors have fully resolved to have a line of their own to the Pacific coast, and thus be independent of the Central Pacific as well as anticipate the Northern Pacific and carry off a part of what might have been its own legitimate business. Though the Utah and Northern is to be pushed through to Portland directly, it does not at all follow that it will divert the attention of the company from extending its line towards Montana. The same motive would inspire the move in both directions. The business of Oregon and Montana has so long remained unclaimed by the natural heir that it may well be regarded as abandoned to the first one that will reduce it to possession. The indirect advantages of this competition that is becom ing so apparent will be as great f o us as tbe direct. The Northern Pacific will be forced in self-defense to push on its construction with the utmost speed to save its business, and even then will have to submit to a divi sion. With little influence and accumulated wealth to secure our own deliverance, we depend upon Providential interposition to cause the interests of others to coincide with our own. The day seems not far distant when two Pacific railroads will be competing __j a _______....... v ... I for cur traffic and transportation, while steamboats will be plying both above and be low the falls, effectually preventing the growth of any oppressive monopoly by any railroad line. Valle Items. Bullion shipments for the week ending Monday, June 2d, amounts to 2,511 pounds, worth $40,000. The Boulder road is in excellent condition for travel ; and the Helena coach makes good time. A large immigration is reported At other points in Montana, but very little of it has yet reached Butte. In this issue we commence the publication I of. fascinating serial entitled "Ordinances of the City of Bntte." which will be con tinned from time te time indefinitely. A good opening for a miner with email capital is embraced in the offer of Mr. John McLagan who proposes to sell an undivided one half in'erest in the North Star mine for the low price of »3.000. Biehop Tuttle, while in Bntte, appointed the following named gentlemen to serve as I the Committee of St. John's Church tor the ensuing year. W. A. Clark, John Noyes, Jere. Roach, T. C. Miles, T. J. Argyll, and Wm. W. Jack. The Committee subsequent ly chose John Noyes, Treasurer, and Win. M. Jack, Secretary. —Miner, 3d. a Terrltorlnl New». [From the B >nton Record, May 29.1 The new steamer Montana received a min tary salute from the guns of Fort Benton on her arrival here. Thomas' bridge at the crossing of tn e Dearborn has been placed in thorough repair and the fare reduced to fifty cents for l ar g e teams and twenty-five cents for small outfits Mr. O. H. Churchill, of 8un River, i 8 [ n town on round up business. Mr. Churchill thinks the cattle on the Teton and Marias ranges iared better than those on Sun River and other celebrated ranges. [Missoulian, May 30.} There has been considerable activity j Q the horse stealing line during the past week It is reported that quite a band of horses are missing in Bitter Root. Last week, as Nep. Lynch was out attending to his cattle, he left a tramp in camp who lit out with a horse and some judicious selections from Nep'g wardrobe. Nep. heeled himself, and started in pursuit, and was reported close on the trail at Flint creek. Two men who have been working for Timothy Le Beau stole away with his horses Saturday night. Deputy sheriff Anirew8 started below for them, passed them at Nine Mile crossing, and waited for them at Lozeav's ranch, where he politely requested them to throw up their hands when they arrived there. They made some show of resistance, but wisely conclud ed that the hand was not worth playing out. and threw them up. They are now in jail. [Prom the Madisonian, May 31.J The report is sent from Challis, Salmon river, that the Yellow Jacket mine has been sold to a San Francisco company, and the latter will at once erect a 40-stamp mill. A report has reached here that negotia tions are pending, looking to the transfer of the Hecla Company's mines at Trapper to a New York company. As the season advances, the fear 3 enter tained a short time ago that Montana would be the theater of a serious Indian war are giving away to a more peaceful feeling. The advance of the Utah & Northern Railroad, and the rapid settlement of the Salmon river region which is now going on will have the effect of putting a quietus upon the hostile movements of the Banuacks; aud similar causes, together with the prompt action of the military authorities at the Yellowstone posts, and the establishment of Fort Assina boine, will doubtless be sufficient to hold the belligerent Sioux in check and prevent any serious incursions upon the settlements. All that is needed now to complete the effectual defense of our borders is the establishment of a military post at Henry's Lake, or some where adjacent, and this we have reason to hope will soon be obtained. The prospects are, therefore, very promising that the set tlers in our territory will be able to pursue their avocations in peace and quietness, so far, at least, as the Indians are concerned. a Old Timer!« vs. Pilgrims. ["Port," in Bntte Miner], I would remind our pilgrim friends that nearly all 8f the first settlers in this territory arrived here without a dollar in their purses. They found no cities or villages, or hamlets, or friends to receive them. Oft-times the lurking savages were their nearest neighbors, and their scalps too often graced the lodges of their barbarous foes. Bacon and beans were esteemed a luxury, and "beef-siraight" and mule cutlets the more common bill of fare. Amid privations and dangers, to which the immigrant of to-day is a perfect stranger, with strong armes and brave hearts they hacked and hewed, dug and delved, ploughed and sowed, and built tbe rude, rough homes which sheltered them till they were able to enjoy more comfortable abodes. These men are the cattle kings, the bonanza king,Band the prominent men of our territory. Croakers and grumblers will please make a note of this. But, pilgrim brothers! the path is open to you by which you can reach the same positions. The briars and thorns on the wayside were torn away by our daunt less pioneers. The virgin soil and hidden 1^"1 !*"! yoar " min S; . « J™ posses» I pluck and energy they will yield their wealth at your bidding. But if you be faint-hearted and weak-kneed, spiritless and despondent, with neither backbone nor faith in your com position, and constantly longing for the flesh pots of your eastern home, you had better get out of the country as soon as possible and stand not in the order of your going. We have no poor bouses io Montana. Ocb Washington correspondent says: "Thos H. Brents, Delegate from Washington Territory, has published a statement here touching that expectant State which is inter esting and important. Tbe population is rapidly increasing, and at the present rate ot growth, its vote will be more than 15,000 ?."* yea '' W '! iC J h . * 8 rtoUl ,he aTerase TO,e ° f CoD «™7 f ^ J f,' * S 'T T" 1 . " d one obslacle 10 "• 11 woad a Republican State, sending two Repnbli. 8e " ,or8 0n * a No *' wben fed f» ea are »» desperate as to make efforts '°/ T teal R T W,can sel,s llKethal ot of La '' Kl11 ,hev con3ent give the Repobli C " 8 ' w06ea,s -.» n<J tber .e!>y P'elty 8Ure ,he Kepub],cans a ma J ori, J r in well tn Congress in 1881 ? That is the serious question.'' GEO. F. MARSH, (Late Chief Clerk Surveyor General's Office,; (Is S. Deputy mineral Kurve) or. BUTTE,........................... MONTA N A. All Work Promptly Executed.