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FISK BEOS.. - - Publishers. R. E. FISK, - - Editor. THURSDAY' SEPTEIOBEK 25, 1879. PUBLIC FREE SCHOOLS. As we understand some very extraordinary sentiments bave recently been promulgated in this city upon the matter of public free schools. So extraordinary are some of these statements that we are at loss how to notice them seriously. If it is true that public free schools are a failure, it is hardly necessary for one to fight against them. It only seems straDge that if this is true that somebody has not discovered it. Our people generally are pretty quick to discern a failure and to aban don it. Now the facts are that the system of public free schools, which for a long time was confined to the few Eastern States of our republic, has become universal throughout the country. We believe there is not a State or Territory in the Union where they do not now exist, in a state of greater or less effi ciency, daily becoming more popular and efficient. On the Continent they have long been established in Germany and Switzer land. In England they have been established within a few years and have had a wonder ful growth. In France, since the establish ment of the republic, the same system has been adopted, and within the last year Bel gium has decided after a fierce contest to in troduce the same. Taken as an historical fact, the system of free public schools has trade greater progress in the world during the last fifty years than in all the ages preceding, and we baye y e t to iearn the first instance in which, having once been adopted, it has failed or been abandoned. We would not be so unreasonable as to claim that the system, even where it exists in its greatest perfection, is complete, and beyond the reach of criti cism. Though we firmly believe that the system, as it now exists, is doing more than all other means and influences combined to promote the wealth, virtue, prosperity and security of our institutions and our people, we are free to say that it 6till has many im perfections ; in fact it is almost in its in fancy. The principal charge made against the pub lic schools is that they are irreligious and therefore immoral and nurseries of vice. We believe such a charge, so far as it goes be yond the claim that any particular form of religion is not taught, is altogether without foundation in truth or fact, and we are wil ling to stake the existence of public free schools upon the result of any honest, thorough investigation of the subject Such schools are no more designed to teach re ligion than our factories or work shops. They are designed simply for intellectual training. They do not meddle with religion, simply be cause they have a large, independent field which fully occupies all the time, attention and effort that can be given to it. When it comes to the matter of religion there is Buch a diversity of opinion that there could not be any unity of action. Every one who is attached to any form of religion thinks that is the true one and every other form false. The wisest course, then, is to confine the works of the public school to those matters which arc to the advantage of all, and let each provide for the religious training of their children at their homes or at their churches. It does not interfere with that work at all to teach children how to read and write, or to make them familiar with the rudiments of science. As well might it be charged that every trade was irreligious be cause every motion of the hands is not ac companied with prayer aud reading the bible. If any portion of mankind still believe that ignorance is better than education ; that it tends to make men happier, more virtuous, useful and honorable, they probably will op pose free schools, because their existence rests upon the belief of the contrary. There are some who believe that free institutions are irreligious aud that mankind is better off in a condition of servitude. There is no doubt that many use their freedom to their in a of by ica own hurt, and so will many use knowledge in the same way. It is true that steam en gines burst and frequently destroy many lives, but could we seriously think of doing without them ? It is absolutely certain that some children will grow up to lives of sin and shame, no matter how carefully they are trained. It would be just as reasonable to advocate that they should all be strangled in infancy. We admit that education does not alwfeys and necessarily make its possessor more Virtuous and happy, but it does open before him a more useful and honorable ca reer in life. The only reasonable conclusion that can be reached is that parents, in con< nection with the intellectual training given to their children in the public schools, should in crease their care at home and see that these children have religious training superadded. Knowledge is power and power is desirable. It is only necessary that this increase of power should be property directed that it may benefit the possessor and the world. The statement if made in oar dispatches that Senator Lamar haa concluded to de nounce the Yazoo plan in a speech soon to be delivered in Mississippi. This announcement the Independent takes particular pains to strangle. _ The Industrial Exhibition opened at BycU ney, New South Wales, yesterday. free free has are of the or in THE FUTURE OF AFRICA. The day is likely to come when Africa will be the rival of America to secure the swarms of emigration that yearly leave Europe in search of bread and home. Even thf* last war that England has been carrying on with the Zulus at such heavy cost of money anci prestige, will work for the general good. The Zulus were undoubtedly the bravest of the native races. The courage that has driven them without faltering up to the muzzles of British guns and not rarely given them the victory over the best troops in the world, may well be believed made the Zulus the terror of all central Africa. Now that their power has been destroyed more by reckless waste of courage and resources than conquest, there is uo longer any great barrier in the way of any nation gaining a foot-hold and making headway towards the fertile and healthy in terior of that continent. There are eviden ces that such a movement is in progress. Capt. Stanley is in the employ of the Dutch government putting steamers on the Congo. This will be followed by colonies, and no great interval will elapse before there is com munication by steam across the African con tinent from sea to sea, with thriving cities on the route peopled by Europeans. Such a splendid country as the interior of Africa, now that the fact of its wealth and beauty and the nature of the obstacles to be overcome are known, cannot long remain un occupied. It is nearer Europe and would more naturally have attracted emigration, ex cept that its sea coast is so unhealthy and desolate. But when railroads are built which will carry a person in twenty-four hours be yond the malaria of the coast aud into the region of perpetual and luxurant vegetation, there will be thousands eager to go and plant homes in a land that will before many years be rich and populous. It is an open question whether this occu pancy will result in the extermination or ser vitude of the natives. The system that Eng land h&S pursued in India will not operate in Africa, for the natives of Africa are not naturally inclined to be industrious and will not raise more than a living except under compulsion. It would seem from late reports that the English were going to advance into central Africa on the same plan that they have followed in India—by setting up petty chiefs and establishing resident agents to look after them and govern through them. English success in India has not been great, and it will have greater difficulties 'in Africa, for while the Hindoos are naturally peaceful and industrious, the people of Africa are indolent and accustomed to violence. If England should adopt a system of servi' tude, she could perhaps derive some revenue from African provinces, but public opinion would not allow it. She has only one course open for permanent success, and that is by establishing colonies in the way that Canada, Australia and New Zealand have been occu" pied. To this it will be objected that Eng land has not the people to spare to build up any more colonial empires. But it must be remembered that England has had the help of other nations in the work. The English are the true successors of the Romans as suc cessful colonizers. There is a great difference in the method employed and in the results obtained, and yet there is great similarity in other respects. Rome had the power of as similating all nations to itself. She furnished a little more than the nucleus, and the nations among whom she established herself became Romans, adopting her civilization, language, laws and customs. England is having a similar career. Under her name and the protection of her arms on land and sea, all the nations of the world become Eng lish. Natives of every country in Europe swarm to her colonies and in a few years become as much English as the decendants of those who have gone forth from the British Isles. We confidently expect and most heartily desire to see Africa civilized and settled un der English authority, but it will not be done by setting up petty chiefs and ruling in their name as in India, but by colonies gathered from all the nations of Europe, just as Amer ica has been peopled. to to in of It has been said that the great business of an editor is to leave out matter, not to put it in. It is the matter he leaves out which testifies to his judgment, his courage and his industry. — Independent. Themew editor of the Independent offers the above in apology for omitting from the Independent the greater part of the report of General Grant's reception in San Francisco. If credit is to be claimed in proportion to the amount of news "left out" of a paper we suppose our contemporary is entitled to a front seat in journalism. There is something sublime in the "courage" boasted of, and as for "industry'' never probably was an editor so wretchedly overworked. But how per verse is the public in judging of these things! The other day hundreds of Democrats had to rely upon the Hxbald to furnish them with a fall, ungarbled report of the Syracuse Convention. And now all Montana, their wives, their aunts and their cousins, look to the Herald, singly and alone, to give them the entire telegraphic account of the magni ficent ovation paid to the Nation's Great Captain, just landed upon oar Western shores. The Independent will continue to "leave out" and the Herald to "put in" the news. This is a long standing agreement to which both journals adhere with marked fidelity. Geo. Walker, U. 8. Commissioner, is en deavoring to persuade Germany to reintro duce the bimetallic standard. territorial fair. Preparations Completed—Hew Horses and Cattle Arriving. This morning early we dispatched a re porter to the Fair Grounds to note the com pleteness of the preparations for the Fair, which commences next Monday morning. BO ADS. Commencing at Main street, all the avenues to Clore have been put in first-class order by street Supervisor Evans. From this point all holes have been filled up with gravel, bridges over ditches repaired, and all stones visible picked out and raked from the roadway for a width of sixty feet, clear to the Fair Grounds. The road is as perfect as possible. the pair grounds. The grand stand, from which all the track can be seen, is perfectly completed. Eleven rows of seats, each 150 feet long, will com-1 fortably seat 1,150 people. Backs are made I to one-third of the seats at the west end of the buildiDg for the especial accommodation of ladies and their escorts. A dozen seats are railed off for the use of reporters. Thus everything for the comfort of the public pos sible has been done. Every building has its flag-staff, and the dozen new flags just re ceived by the Secretary, will give a gala ap pearance to the Fair grounds during the Ex hibition. ladies' restaurant. The ladies of the Episcopal Church have the restaurant privilege, and are now in full running order. Meals at all times of day can be procured during Fair week. The eatables will be furnished by the ladies of Helena, and persons visiting the grounds will find extra good meals and at very reasonable rates. Mr. and Mrs. Nicholas Fritz are in charge and will wait on the public at all times. The net proceeds are to be applied to wards the debt of the new Episcopal church, just completed in Helena. A worthy object and worthy of patronage. NEW RACE HORSES. Since the report published in the Daily Herald last Monday evening, the following horses have arrived and are in training at the track. WILLIAM FLANNERY has brought from his ranch in the Gallatin Valley a bay running stallion, named Turf Gallery, 7 years old, sire by Rifleman, dam, Emma Barnes by Norfolk. Splendid animal WILLIAM MC'COMAS introduces Pilgrim, a fine black gelding from Salt Lake City. He is an easy trotter and may be a favorite. No pedigree given. GOV. POTTS has just received from the railroad, "Bell Mabone," s. m. 2 years old. Sire, imp. Glen Athol, dam. Bell Brandon, full sister to Frank Short, who has just won in the great running race at Cincinnati, and is half-sister to Checkmate and Glen more. He also shows a yearling bay colt by his Clydsdale stallion Emperor. The colt is 16 hands high and weighs 1,150 pounds, and bids fair to be equal to his sire. j.'ward has arrived from Glendale with his quarter nags, Cricket and Norman D. They are hard to beat, and appear finely. BRUTUS, the great unknown trotter, is on his way from Butte and will arrive Thursday. Several other runners and trotters from the West Side are expected this week. w. v. SMITH, the champion long-distance rider of the world, will, at 10 a. m. Wednesday next, com mence riding his twenty (20) horses for the premium of $1,000, offered by the Fair As sociation, if he succeeds in riding 100 miles in four hours and twenty minutes. He has selected his horses from Montana bred stock, and his assistants are all Montanians. This will be an exciting and instructive race, and will illustrate what can be done by intelligent use of horseflesh, and will demonstrate the endurance of man. It will eclipse all kinds of circus riding, and prove an attractive fea ture of the Fair. in to by if THOROUGHBRED CATTLE. Buford Farris arrived to-day with a dozen thoroughbred short-horns, among the finest in the world. After being shown through Fair week, they will be sold on the last day to the highest bidder for cash. HELENA RIFLE CLUB. On Tuesday morning of Fair week the Helena Rifle Club will contest at their target grounds near town for a beautiful and valu able gold badge, which is now being made by Mr. J. Steinmetz, jeweler, as a present to be retained by the first member of the club who wins it three times in succession. Besides the attractions of the Fair, amuse ments of all kinds have been fully provided for evenings in Helena, which will be found advertised in the .columns of the Herald. Our friends from abroad will find both in struction and entertainment during Fair week in Helena. So come all, old and young, and have a week's recreation. The Presidential Party. MbndotA, 111., September 23. —The Presi dential party arrived here this morning and were received by a committee of citizens, the President appeared upon the rear platform of the car and was greeted enthusiastically by the large crowd in attendance. The Pres ident made a short speech touching upon the general prosperity of the country, after which he introduced Generals Sherman and Sheri dan, who were received with load cheers. After a delay of ten minutes the train left for Galesburg and Quthcy. ALEXANDER CULBERTSON. Sketch of one of Montano's Old tiersmen. Fron Alexander Culbertson, who died recently at the residence of his son-in-law at Lincoln Nebraska, was a character widely known in the northwest, and especially in Montana, where he was a pioneer long before the country was organized into a Territory. He came to the upper Missouri in 1845. The American Fur Company had been unfortun ate in their agents, and Brule Fort had been the scene of a savage massacre, and the fur traders had wound up a drunken orgie by taking a dozen Indians into the Fort and shooting them to death with a mountain how itzer loaded with nails. This barbarous act for a time ruined the trading business, and compelled the fur company to select Culbert son, the peace-maker, as their representative Capt. LaBarge, the veteran steamboatman, credits much of Choteau's great fortune to Culbertson's tact and courage in trading with I *h e Indians. At Fort Benton Culbertson stayed until 1850, at which time he was cred ited with having accumulated a competence. His fortune afterward went to pieces and his services afterward were in large demand as trading post employee and interpreter. His wife was an Indian, and their children were sent East and educated. One of his daugh ters is the wife of Attorney General Roberts, of Nebraska; she is one of the most accom plished ladies, and her husband is the most brilliant orator of the State. One of the sons is Jack Culbertson the present interpreter at the Poplar River agency, and another, Joe, at the same agency in the ubiquitous role of scout. As illustrative of the father's courage, he visited a year ago Sitting Bull's camp, without even carrying a gun or revolver. He said he didn't want to be bothered with either. He traveled alone, and laid down on the prairie wherever night caught him. His horse carried his blankets and haversack. The Indians all knew him and treated him with respect. At Wickes. We noticed a short time since, in speaking of the Montana Company, works and im provements, that the company were building a reading room and library for the men. We learn, however, the building is being erected at the expense of Mr. Wickes and not the company. We are also pleased to learn that Rev. Thomas A. Wickes, of Marietta, Ohio, has just arrived in the Territory with his family, and will reside at Wickes, where a house is being built for him. While the reading room, which is 30x20 feet will be used for the comfort and convenience of the men, where they can pleasantly spend their time on winter evenings, the building will be opened every Sabbath for religious services as soon as finished, which will be in the course of a fortnight or less. Notice will be given, when such services commence, that those from neighboring towns, who desire, may attend. We learn that the works which are being greatly improved and enlarged, are fast progressing toward completion, and will have a capacity of reducing 30 tons of ore per day. They have the best scientific talen? employed and look for a grand success. The company have struck a fine body of ore in the face of the "North Pacific" tunnel, also in the face of the upper tunnel of the 'Alta." Two new shafts have also been run in ore on the Alta hill. at a. Our contemporary makes a sorry explana tion of its lack of enterprise in failing to pub lish the news. It is trifling with the public to say that the fraction of thé dispatches published by the Independent are given in ad vance of the complete news report furnished by the Herald. The fact remains that the great bulk of the world's news and of current local news is placed by the Herald before the Helena public earlier by twelve hours than by the Independent ; and as for the outside public there is not a town or neighborhood, if served a few hours later, but feels a hun dredfold compensated by the full and com plete telegraphic report of every important and interesting event supplied by the Her ald. This is only one of the several dis tinctive features that quite as widely separate the two papers. Is the glorious old Democratic party going to the dogs ?— Louisville Courier Journal. Well, yes, we think it is. An old Moss Back, who knows all about the party, no longer ago than yesterday told us it was "go ing to the demnition bow-wows." We sup pose that means the same thing. From Montana. [Newton (Pa.) Eenterprise.] Richard Lockey, of Helena, Montana, visited Newtown on Saturdayjlast, and drop ped into the Eenterprise office. He is ap parently a keen, shrewd business man, a native of Iowa, and has resided several years in Montana. He speaks highly of the mining and agricultural resources of the Territory. For the last two or three years good crops have been raised without irrigation, and he thinks the climate is gradually changing, there being more rain than formerly. No railroad yet penetrates the Territory, but one is being built north from the Union Pacific, and is now within some 200 miles of Helena. The Northern Pacific will, at no distant day, traverse the Territory from east to west. The most feasible and popular mode of reaching there from the East during the summer is up the Missouri river from Bismarck, where the Northern Pacific crosses the river, to Fort Benton, a distance by the river of 1,200 miles. From Fort Benton to Helena is 150 miles by wagon road. Above Fort Benton there are falls in the river, bat above the falls there is quite a stretch that can be navigated by small steamboats, and they will be in use at no dis tant day. : at The Willow Creek Conference. To the Editor of the Herald: The second session of the Montana Annual Conference M. E. Church öouth convened at "Stateler Chapel," Willow Creek, Gallatin county, Wednesday, September 10th, 1879, at 2:30 p. m., and opened with the usual re ligious exercises, reading of scriptures, sing ing and prayer by Bishop J. C. Keener. There were present daring the session the following members : Clerical.—L. B. State ler, R. S. Clark, T. W. Flewers, E. J. Stan ley, R. M. Crevan, C. W. Sanford. Lay del egates.—Rev. M. H. Spencer, Thompson Kemper, G. L. Duke and Abram Collett. L. B. Stateler was elected Secretary and E. J. Stanley Assistant Secretary. The Bishop in his address to the Confer ence gave utterance to many sentiments and words of cheer that encouraged the hearts of the preachers and all present. • Communications were received from the book agent and book committee at Nashville, Tennessee, showing the business of the pub lishing house at that place in a quite hopeful condition. The usual committees were appointed, and all the business of the conference gone through with very harmoniously and pleas antly. Rev. Wm. Eva, a local preacher, of St. Louis, Indian Creek, was present and ordain ed deacon. Rev. R. M. Crevan was ordained Elder in the traveling ministry. Both are worthy men and efficient workers in the Mas ter's vineyard. The report of the committee on books and periodicals urged the importance of greater diligence in circulating books and papers; that in Sunday Schools the necessity ot more earnestness in Sunday School work. The ministers and members of the church were also urged to make, if possible, more earnest and united efforts in every laudable way to secure a better observance of the Sab bath, and to discourage the use of ardent spirits as a beverage in our midst. There were many families present from different parts of the Territory, who camped in tents and cabins near the church. The at tendance upon the religious services was large and respectable. Bishop Keener made a fine impression, and his very able and practical sermons will not soon be forgotten by those who heard them. His lecture on the anniver sary of the Missionary Society on Saturday night was listened to with attention, and the effect can be imagined when it is known that at the close of the lecture a collection amount ing to the round sum of $162 was raised for missions. The house would scarcely hold the people. The sacramental services in the afternoon were very impressive, and the love feast at 9 a. m. was a time to be remembered. There were several accessions to the church during the meeting. At the close of the sermon on Sunday evening, after an address by the Bish op and the sidgiug of the hymn commencing "Blest be the dear uniting tie That will not let us part/' the appointments of the preachers for the en suing year were read, and the large audience slowly dispersed, the people to their homes, and the preachers, after affecting leave-tak ings, to their fields of labor, thankful for the pleasure of another conference meeting, and encouraged and strengthened for the toils and conflicts of another year. The next conference will be held at Butte. The following is the list of appointments. Helena District— R. S. Clark, P. E. Helena Station—to be supplied. Helena Circuit— R. S. Clark. Ceutreville Circuit— R. M. Craven. St. Louis Circuit—to be supplied by Wm. Eva. Bozeman Circuit— L. B. Stateler. Willow Creek Circuit—to be supplied. Ft. Benton and Sun River—to be supplied. Deer Lodge District— E. J. Stanley, P. E. Deer Lodge Circuit—to be supplied. Silver Star and Butte— E. J. Stanley. Missoula Circuit— T. W. Flowers, Virginia City Circuit—to be supplied. Yellowstone Valley—to be supplied. C. W. Sanford was located at his own re quest. Bishop Keener expects to send two or three young men to this field soon, and provision has been made to assist them to get here. E. J. STANLEY Aes't Sec'y. Senator Lamar and the Yazoo Trairedj'. New York, September 23 —The Tribunes Washington special says : Senator Lamar is now reported to have made up bis mind that the assassination of Dixon ought to be denounced. A few days ago he told a Dem ocratic friend that in a political speech which he was expecting to make at Yazoo City he should censure the Yazoo plan in very strong terms ; that he had declined to do so until be should come face to face with its authors. He has evidently become convinced by the unanimous expressions of disapproval iu Northern press that it will be good policy for him to denounce the Yazoo assassination. A Mississippian, who has been hand in glove with the Yazoo Democracy since 18<o, sa ^ s that Lamar will never dare to say wbat he has expressed his intention of saying public y :in Yazoo county. The New York Democrats have tried bu.* lying and coaxing, and still John Kelly sue 'here remains now only the lazoo P ft • Hasn't New York a Barksdale to put the con tente of a double barreled shot gun into ly's back ? In Mississippi Democratic ity is secured by this method in the twmk » •f an eye.