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NEW YEAR'S NUMBER, WITH SUPPLEMENT—SIXTEEN PAGES.
y 1 _>■ 9L ut!L % Ä fis Sc Volume xiv. Helena, Montana, Thursday, January i, 1880. No. 7 iffi H M PUBLISHED EVERT THURSDAY MORNING. FISK BROS., - - Publishers. R. E. FISK, _ - Editor. TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION TERMS FOR THE DAILY HERALD. Subscribers (delivered by carrier) per month, |2 00 BT MALL. One copy one month............................ f 2 00 One copy three months......................... 8 00 One copy six months........................... 9 00 One copy one yeiw............................18 00 TERMS FOR THE WEEKLY HERALD. One year........................................|R 00 Six months......................................3 00 Three months................................... 1 59 [Written for the Herald.] MI ROUND TOWER IN THE WEST, HY ANNIE HERBERT BARKER. When the wings ot sunset hover On the purple hills of even, And the golden light sways backward To kindle the rtars of heaven ; When the heart of the whole world weary Turns dumbly to Qod for rest, As the reaper turns to his cottage, And the child to its mother's breast, I Hit in the ruined casement Of my round tower in the West Slant splendors of oriels faded In mosaics cross the floor, And a banner of ivy signals From the arch above the door; Strange suns to the turret creeping Beckon with fitful gleams, Till neither of morn nor midnight The light of my casement seems; Tis the glow of a haunted palace Lighting the land of dreams! An owl has flown to the rafters, And steadfastly gazes down On relic and rust of armor, And dust of a kingly crown ; There are whispers of wilding breezes And glints of a sunny sky ; Hope flings to the morn her tresses, At noon love wanders by, But there dwell in the ivied cloister Only the owl and I. He is priest of a tear-stained missal, And utters a weird "To-whoo! Memories rich and olden, Memories sweet for two !" Though gayer guests may grieve me, And snows lie down on the lea, Though summer friends flit homeward As the lark flies over the sea, And the smile of hope dissemble, Yet the owl is true to me. He calls, and the voiceless pageant Of a vision glideth by— Faces of lords and ladies That in silent chambers lie ; Bursts of forgotten music Winuow the waveless air; Ghosts of unquiet glory, Glimmer of jeweled hair, And the dawns and damps of ages Are wavering everywhere. My friar in gray has keeping Of love.ier things than these, Safe hid in a ruby casket That opens to soundless keys: A ring from the hands that vanished Like snowflakes oyer the sea; An hour that gathered the perfume Of the dearest things that be ; These were nothing to another— They are all the world to me ! The owl Is a rare magician ; He locks in his sombre breast AU secrets of thing* divinest: When day dies out of the west lie shows me the wee, round faces Framed in by a cottage wall, And toys with the tangled ringlets That on cottage pillows fall. And this, in my round tower olden, Is the tenderest dream of alL If a pilgrim worn and weary Would fain in our palace lie, We spread him a royal banquet, My sent schal gray and I; I sing to my lute in the casement Old songs that he loves the best, And show him a bed of lichens Where the sunshine lies at rest, Till he quite forgets the shadows Of my round tower In the West When my dneky walls grow dreary, I foUow some rover far Where the Crescent pales in splendor, Or watch by the clear North Star ; In cathedrals grand and solemn The moonlight of marble gleams, And the Soul that stood by the masters Through choral and picture streams, 1*111 the marvelous men of story Arise In my land of dreams. From old worlds waxing and waning To the worlds of time's gray dawn, A stately mirage is lifted, As the caravan struggles on : I press for the shadow of palm trees a Stretching across the sands, Past pyramid piles of princes I flit through the hoary lands, And bow in a kindling glory Where the cros$ of Judea stands. Sometimes I go from my casement Down into the human sea, With waves in the sunlight lifting, And heavings of agony; In the swelling of mighty surges Crown jewels are lost anc' won ; There are towers agleam with signals For the good that must be done, And God keeps watch wi;h the boatmen That sail by the setiiDg sun. Then a glimmer of casques and lances Illumines the purple west, And the winds toss plume and favor Each worn on a knightly crest ; Right royally prance the squadrons As their pennons rise and fall, But it may be the steed that paces Leaps first at the bugle call, And the dark knight riding plnmeless Is the bravest knight of all. One rides for a crimson token, Another, a knot of blue ; One battles for gain and glory, And one to De strung and true; It he wins when the foe is flying I fling a glove for his crest— If he raises a woman failing With a little one on her breast, I write his name in the casement Of my round tower in the West. When the gloom of the combat deepens, I list for a bugle call. And my heart keeps watch for the colors Of the dearest knight of all ; And oh ! to stand when he wavers. With true love's clearer sight, And oh ! when my knight is fallen To kiss his forehead white, To comfort him when he calleth, And bear him into the light ! The strains of an old, old Idyl Still conquer the kings of war, And women still lean enchanted From lhe towers of faith afar; And because love's loss is sweeter Than its glory unconfessed, You may know the brave knight found me Id the dream I love the best, When the owl looks ont from the casement Of my round tower in the West. MONTANA COAL. The Carbon Moor Mine Near Helena. The only successful working of coal in the near vicinity of Helena has been done by Messrs. Hobert and Barton at the Star coal mine, Carbon Moor. This mine was dis covered in 1869 by the present owners, who have worked it continuously from that date. The mine is opened by an incline following down the vein 170 feet, with levels running right and left 200 and 150 feet respectively, showing a face on a body of coal estimated to contain 50,000 tons. Underlying the coal is a vein of superior fire clay, which has been used by various smelting works and pro nounced good. Messrs. H. and B. contem plate the manufacture of fire brick the com ing season, and expect to produce a first class article. The coal is bituminous, excel lent'for fuel, blacksmithing and the manufac ture of coke and gas. A ready market has been found for all the coal and clay mined, and the coke has been used for the last five years in the Helena and Butte foundries. In the vicinity of Carbon Moor iron, tin copper and silver ores exist ; also an abundance of lime stone required for the manufacture of iron. With the splendid water power furn ished by the little Blackfoot and the wealth of raw material at hand many remunerative industries must spring up in this section with this supply of mineral fuel as a nucleus. Coal as an article of fuel will soon have to supply the place of wood from our rapidly disappearing forests. When we contemplate the enormous consumption of timber by our towns, mines and mills and the increasing distance the supplies have to be drawn from, we will soon have to consider the economy and convenience of coal. Helena alone con sumes annually from 25,000 to 30,000 cords of wood, beside a large amount in the form of charcoal and lumber. The Penobscot mine and Mill this year let their contract for over 5,000 cords of wood. W 1 I» 11 RAPID GROWTH IN WEALTH. The abstract ot assesments of Montana for the fiscal year of 1879 is the best evidence that can be presented of the increasing weath and growing prosperity of the Territory. The total increase of assessible values (omit ting mining, not assessible,) compared with the preceding year amounts to nearly $3,000, 000. It is estimated that the present year will show an increase of at least $5,000,000, and may reach a much higher figure. The consummation of important projects now' un der headway or in contemplation, the daily increasing revelations of the vast mineral treasures hidden in its network of mines, with the advent into its midst of at least two lines of railway, will bring to Montana such a tide of population and capital that its pres ent growth will seem dw'ared compared with her giant strides when these beneficent influ ences shall be brought to aid her develop ment. [Written for the Herald.] LANE OF THE SHINING The Future Home for Millions of Freemen. BY JOHN POTTER. The agricultural resources of Montana, never fully comprehended by her own people until within the past year or two, are as yet entirely unappreciated by that great class, both in Europe and America, whose interest it is fully to understand them. As in mining operations the Territory suffers because of the early mis takes of the people, so in matters of agriculture it suffers from mistaken views of climate, char acter of soil, and capacity for production. It is always difficult to eradicate from the mind the first impression it forms of a country; yet, rea soning from analog}', it would have been strange had the first settlers of Montana found it to cor respond in character with their views of its bar renness and insalubrity. There is hardly a range of mountains in the world which is not enriched by extensive valleys capable of the highest cultivation. Especially is this true of the Rocky Mountains along their whole ex tent north of New Mexico. In Montana all of the great rivers of the Atlantic and Pacific slopes take their rise. The Missouri is here formed by the union of the Jefferson, Madison and Gallatin, each of which, for many miles be fore it unites with the other, passes through a valley of great fertility and beauty. A portion of the Missouri is characterized by the same fea ture. On the Pacific side the two great forming streams of the Columbia, the Snake or Lewis Fork on the south, and Clark's Fork on the North, traverse extensive portions of the Ter ritory and receive contributions from innumera ble small streams, each of which passes through a valley of surpassing richness. a valley surpassing To form an idea of the extent of these valleys one must have some conception of the magni tude of the Territory itself. It covers a surface at least four times the size of Ohio. One-fourth part of this surface is valley land, full one-half the remainder grazing land, and the balance is mountainous. Nearly two-thirds of the Terri tory afford perpetual pasture facilities for raising stock. The grasses which cover the foot-hills and valleys are more nutritious than any of the cultivated grasses of the States. The bunch-grass, superior to all others, is per rennial. It shoots from the root in the spring, before the frost disappears, and clothes the en tire country, except the mountains, in a vesture of emerald. It grows in small bunches, close, fine, and never to a great height. The stalk, unlike that of tame grass, is solid, and the head is well filled with small, solid seeds, full of nu triment. Exposed to the summer sun, and un affected by frequent rains or early frosts, it be gins to ripen about midsummer, and in the early fall is thoroughly cured, affording a standing hay for winter use, which needs no harvesting, and which unites with all the qualities of good hay the fattening principles of oats and corn. It imparts a rich, delicious flavor to beef and mut ton, and stock of all kinds, which feed entirely upon it during the winter, are in much better condition than any stock that is not stall-fed in the States. Careful herding to prevent them from straying is all the attention that cattle re quire summer or winter. Even the custom of putting up a few tons of hay to meet contingen cies is gradually falling into disuse. During my residence of seventeen years in Montana there have been but two seasons that cattle, thus fed, failed to afford as good beef as the stall fed cat tle of the Western States during the winter months. The business of stock raising is as suming immense proportions. A large number of our citizens have no other business, and all those thus engaged are toquiring fortunes. The in crease in stock is rapid, and the cost of keeping comparatively trifling. A few of the largest operators have, for the first time, within the past two or three years introduced the improved bloods of cattle, which at great expense have been secured from the best stock herds in Kentucky. The certainty of its results has rendered stock raising a favorite pursuit in Montana. Large herds of cattle, horses and sheep roam the broad pasture lands of the settled portions of the Ter ritory. Young men and many miners, who get a few hundred dollars together, find no more profitable investment than cattle and sheep, which they place in charge of ranchmen and take no further care about them. Before they are aware of it they each own a herd. They are rich. The transportation of fat cattle to Eastern markets will be one of the most pro ductive sources of incane derived from Mon tana by the Northern Pacific Railroad, now ap proaching our eastern border. until in fully mis is the rea cor bar a not the of ex of here be a fea the is for the It I have spoken thus particularly on the subject of stock raising because it has already assumed the form of a leading industry in our compara tively new Territory. There are millions of acres of land in our foot-hills which are good for nothing else, and which w;il afford feed foi millions of cattle and sheep for a century to come. Not less promising or important are the facil ities for supporting a large and successful farm ing population. Indeed, it may be safely as sumed that agriculture is to form, and from the very nature of things must always be, à leading pursuit of Montana. It is that which will ulti mately make the mines more productive than either those of Colorado or Nevada, or indeed any other portion of the continent. In agricul tural opportunities Montana is singularly fortu nate. Her valley system exceeds by more than half that of any other mountainous region in the world. The valleys are more numerous, larger, and favored with more abundant natural advantages for the highest cultivation. On the east side of the Rocky Mountains there are, be sides the immense central valley of the Yellow stone, and the valleys of its tributaries, as yet but partially settled, the Gallatin, Madison, Jef ferson, Missouri, Beaverhead, Muscleshell and Judith, all of which are of grand acreage, com prising altogether an agricultural territory two thirds the size of New England, and full half as much more territory susceptible of cultiva tion, divided into a large number of basins and smaller valleys. On the west side of the Rocky Range there are the large valleys of the Deer Lodge, Bitter Root, Jocko, Horse Plains, Thompson's Fork and Clark's Fork of the Co lumbia, besides many smaller ones. All this valley region is supplied with abund ance of water for irrigation by (he streams that intersect ft. Each declivity of the mountain has a climate peculiar to itself. The west side is favored with dews and rain. Frost does not visit it as early in fall or spring as the east side. Some crops mature better than in the eastern valleys—such as corn, tomatoes and melons. In all the great elements of profitable agricul ture, however, especially in the production of wheat, rye, oats, barley, and the root crops gen erally, there is but little difference in the char acter of the cultivatible lands on either side of the Main Range. The average yield of wheat has been thus far forty bushels to the acre. Some few fields in the Gallatin valley have produced as high as eighty bushels to the acre. The weight will average sixty-five pounds to the standard bushel. It has never yet been injured by chinch-bug, weavil, army worm, fly or rust. The berry is well filled, plump, and equal to that produced in Western Canada. The White Tome, Black Sea and Club are the favorite varieties sown, and have proved the most prolific and profitable of any yet planted. Barley is one of the most remunerative crops raised in Montana. It commands a very high price and finds ready sale. It yields about sev enty bushels to the acre and weighs seven pounds above the standard measure. It is used for the manufacture of beer, and also in lieu of corn for fattening hogs, producing a much sweeter pork, though not so solid. It usually finds ready sale at the granary from one and a half to three cents per pound. The average yield of oats per acre may safely be estimated at sixty bushels and the weight at forty pounds, being largely in excess of standard measure ment. The Norway and Surprise varieties are the favorites, as they yield more and are heavier than other qualities. Of these varieties many of our farmers have raised one hundred bushels per acre. The heads are well filled many of which measure twenty six inches in length, the grain of which is much larger than the Polish or common varieties. Rye is almost native to the soil, yields sixty bushels to the acre, and over-weighs more than other grains. A very superior quality of rye called the "Hoopes' variety," from the fact that it was first produced by two brothers of that name in the Boulder valley, has thus far super ceded all other qualities in Montana. It yields a berry larger and longer than the largest wheat. The flour manufactured from it is nearly as white as the best wheat flour, and contains all the gluten and nourishment of the best rye. It finds ready sale anil commands high prices. All these grains are irrigated twice while growing, once when the stalk is about two inches in height and again when the first joint is fully formed. Further irrigation, except in sea sons of extraordinary heat, is unnecessary. The process of irrigation is very simple and attended with little labor. One man can attend to sixty acres of wheat, which will yield, in a good sea son, 3,600 bushels, equal to 1,200 bags of flour of 100 pounds each, which may ordinarily be calculated to sell for three dollars per bag, yielding an aggregate of $3,600. The cost of seed, sowing, irrigation, harvesting, threshing of foi to as the ulti in the be yet Jef and half and Co that has is not of of far the of a and flouring will not exceed fourteen dollars per acre. The producer thus realizes a net in come of $2,760, or about $46 per acre. Agriculture is a different science in Montana from that in the States. During the first years of our settlements, owing to the climatic changes and other vicissitudes of the high latitude of the Territory, crops were destroyed by frosts and ate up by grasshoppers. There were some mys teries of soil which were only solved by experi ence. The requirements of irrigation formed another new feature which needed investigation. All these novelties are now well understood and comprehended. The Montana ranchman can tell exactly what is necessary to insure large crops, when and how to irrigate, when to plant and when to gather. The agricultural statistics of Montana seem incredible, especially in the eyes of those who have entertained the belief that agriculture could not be successfully pur sued in a region so far north. They are thus detailed by Prof. Raymond in his very thorough report for 1870. He says : "According to the Surveyor-General's report, the Territory contains 23,000,000 acres of agricultural and 60,000,000 acres of grazing land." The productions for the year are, according to the same authority : Value. Wheat..................................... Barley and Oats............................. 8' <MwO Potatoes....................................1,090,000 Hay........................................ 200,000 Cattle .................................... 480,000 Garden Vegetables.......................... 7C.OOO Poultry and Eggs............. ............. 100,000 Butter, Cheese and Milk.................... 400,000 It will be remembered that this report was made nearly ten years ago, and I regret that I have not a report of 1878, showing more fully the ex cess over the above. Whether or not the repeal of the franking privilege, by the acts of Congres», has to do with the loss of these valuable items of 'general information to the settlers of the Territory, I do not here propose to discuss. The above exhibit, however, reported by a sworn officer of the Government, presents, I will venture to say, a more promising condi tion of the husbandry of Montana than was ever before made of any portion of our country which had been settled only seven years. The entire agricultural population of Montana to-day will not exceed eight thousand. The high wages demanded by farm laborers has been, and still is, the greatest obstruction to agricultu ral development that the Territory has experi enced. Notwithstanding the high prices paid farm hands there has been cultivated the pres ent year nearly double the number of acres of any previous one. The Territory has produced sufficient flour for home consumption for the past two or three years, though within that period flour has ranged from three to seven dollars per hundred pounds. The improvement of the agricultural facilities of the Territory is rapidly reducing prices to a standard compatible with true economy. The merchant in his turn has felt the necessity of a great reduction in those ar ticles of importation that enter into every day consumption. Labor, the last to feel and ac knowledge the effects of reduced prices, has for the first time during the past season begun to re cede from previously established and re cognized rates. In the mining more than in the agricultural districts this change has been marked by a revival of work and the inspiration of feeling that the day of tribulation is over. Immigration alone is the one thing needful to a very full development of all the elements of our material prosperity. There is no limit to the confidence of our citi zens in the ultimate greatness of our Territorial resources. This is demonstrated by the diversi fied forms which enterprise has assumed and is constantly carrying out. It is not to be denied that the certainty of the speedy completion of competing railroads has given both impulse and direction to many of the pursuits now occupying the attention of the people of the Territory. The reduction of silver quartz in nearly all the silver mining districts in a form suitable for transportation has gained great impetus within the past year. Thousands of tons of mineral and bullion will be ready for shipment when railroads are completed into the Territory. Hundreds of people, infatuated with the prospect of speedy and easy accumula tion of fortunes by stock raising and the ready means of transportation to certain markets by the great thoroughfares, have engaged extensively in that industry. The influence of the railroad is felt in everything. The miller, who a few years ago would have been content with a sin gle run of millstones, now puts three or four run into his mill, because he has no fear of a surplus or doubt of a market for all the flour he can manufacture. The ranchman increases his crops from similar causes, and the merchant his stock. There is a feeling everywhere through out the Territory that Montana is soon to be brought into neat neighborhood with the rest of the Union, ai/d that her unequaled resources, which have lain slumbering for centuries, will be appreciated by all. The rapid "march of em pire" is already at our very borders, and we cheerfully bid it enter through the silver gates of our mountains, by our great rivers and ap proaching railroads, to share the rich rewards that this peerless land offers to all. "To the West, to the West, To the land of the free. Where the mighty Missouri Rolls down to the sea, Where a man is a man If he's willing to toil, And the humblest may gather The fruits of the soil/'