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[Written for the Herald.]
THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. BY PROF. R. H. HOWEY. Of the importance, utility and general results of education to the individual, to society, and to the state, I need not take time to discuss. These will be conceded by almost every one. Differences of opinion arise in regard to the manner in which schools shall be established, the means by which they shall be supported, and the branches taught in them. These ques tions are fundamental and lie i:t the very base of our educational system. It has been said, and, I think, justly, that the public schools are the pride and glory of this nation. As to the relation of the public schools to our institutions of government—indeed, to our existence as a free people—permit me to quote the opinion of the French Commission to the Centennial Ex position, in their report to the Minister of Pub lic Instruction. They say: "If, indeed, there is a people which has at all attended to this power of education, which has intimately united its own national destinies to the development of its schools, which has made public instruction the supreme guarantee of its liberties, the con dition of its prosperity, the safeguard of its in stitutions, that is most assuredly the people of the United States." The people of this country, from the very be ginning of their history, have taken a deep in terest in the cause of education and the estab lishment of schools. The public schools have been developed with the country, have grown up with its institutions, kept pace with its settle ment, and permeated every element of its civ ilization. It is the policy of our government to establish and maintain a system of schools such that all the children of a certain age shall have the benefits of an education. Our schools are both free and cosmopolitan. Their doors are open to the poor as well as the rich, of every country, race, creed or nationality. So far, with few exceptions, it has been thought suffi cient to leave the attendance of pupils free from any compulsion. It would seem that the anxiety of most parents for the education and welfare of their children, together with the natural desire and ambition of the great major ity of children for an education, would be suf ficient inducement to secure attendance at school w ithout any legal compulsion. Compulsory education would hardly seem to be in harmony w ith the spirit of our institutions of government. Every position of honor and trust is open to him who strives to reach them. A man's success or position in life depends for the most part upon his own efforts. If com pulsory education should be thought necessary in Germany or any other military power, it is no reason why it should be a necessity in this country. Compulsory laws may be generally passed in the different States at some future time, but as yet the people have not concluded that they are necessary. The public schools are supported by taxes regularly levied upon the people. This would necessarily be the first point of friction with those w ho from any motive should oppose them. The argument is, "We cannot conscienciously send our children to the public schools ; w r e prefer to send^to a private school. We have to pay their tuition, therefore we should not be taxed fc to support the public schools. Give us our share of the public money to support our own schools." If this request should be grant ed to any party or sect it would lead to the speedy downfall of the public school system, for if granted to one there would be many more clamoring for the same. The American people w ill never consent to have the public school fund divided and appropriated to the mainten ance of sectarian and private schools until they are willing to give up their present form of gov ernment, yield the traditions of the past, and surrender the hopes of the future. The same opposition is made against the public schools of France, Germany and Belgium. The present is an age of inquiry and progress. The very spirit of modern civilization demands the gen» oral diffusion of knowledge among all classes and conditions of people, and to this end the establishment and maintenance by the State of public instruction, open to all, and free from all sectarian bias. There is no power in the world that can check the onward movement. The United States and the great and enlightened nations of Europe are pledged to free schools. Even Japan has roused up from the slumber of twenty centuries and established a system of public schools, embracing the common school, the normal school and the university, with all their appliances, not excelled by any other country. She spent six million dollars last year on her public schools. I do not wish to disparage the efforts of pri vate enterprises in the way of education. The academies, female seminaries, colleges and uni versities of our country, founded and main tained by private enterprise, have done a grand work in the past, and no doubt will accomplish more in the future for the higher education of the thousands who attend them. These, for the most part, are sectarian in their character ; that is, under the control of some particular church or religious body. The tenets of moral and re ligious instruction are all in accordance with the tenets of some religious organization. The Presbyterian father would -most naturally send his son to a Presbyterian school, the Baptist to a Baptist college, the Congregational ist to an in stitution of that character, and so on through the whole catalogue of churches. In fact, there is scarcely a religious body in the United States but has its school or schools. This is a country of schools. Each one is free to go to whichever school he pleases so long as he pays the bill. It is apparent, without discussing the question, that private schools could not educate the great mass of the people, especially the poor. The public school system is born of necessity. It has grown out of the very wants and demands of the people. It is also apparent that our public schools must be free from sectarian bias and influence. They are supported and patronized by all de nominations, creeds and classes. One has just as much right under the law' to his religious be lief as another. The Christian, the Jew', the Rationalist, the Mahommedan and the Buddhist may all meet in the public school room on an equality so far as religion is concerned. The public schools are not theological seminaries for instruction in dogmas, neither engines for the enforcement of any creed. It is not necessary either for the public instruction or the public welfare that distinct articles of religious belief be taught in the public schools. There are churches and sabbath schools within the reach of almost every one throughout the whole coun try that desires to attend them. In some places there has been some conflict in reference to the Bible in the schools. It is evident, from the experience of the past, that the legislators of the different States have pur sued the wisest course by leaving this question to be settled by the people themselves. Com munities and boards of trustees, acting from the sentiments of their respective constituents, must decide the question whether they want the Bible read in the school. The prevailing senti ment in every community will invariably settle this question without any legislation by the State. There has been too much legislation and decreeing about the Bible in the past. No amount of human legislation could prop up the Bible if it were not of God. The Bible stands because it addresses itself to the reason, the conscience, and the spiritual wants of the hu man soul. Neither can any amount of legisla tion prop up a creed or church unless it is found ed upon truth and virtue and morality. Every one is protected in his religious belief and his particular mode of worship, so long as it does not conflict with the law's of the land. This is all that should be asked or required. There is no doubt that in the end there will be a "sur vival of the fittest." It is objected that the public schools are God less, and hence immoral in their tendency. As to the first, if the objector means by Godless that there is no distinct creed or religious dogma taught in them, I have already considered the objection. God is as much in the public schools as he is in the Constitution of the United States, or as he is in any elymosenary institution found ed by the State. God is tacitly in all the insti tutions of our country, including the schools. In fact, it has been the opinion of our most eminent jurists that the common law of our country, which is for the most part the common law of England, is founded upon the great prin ciples of Christianity .—See Gerard Will Case. As to the public schools being immoral in their tendency, this is a question that can easily be settled by facts and comparisons. I appeal to statistics to show that such is not the case, and that for good morals, honesty and integrity, purity of life, security of person and property, and in fact everything that adorns civilized and enlightened society, those communities that have good public schools and patronize them'are equal, if not far superior, to those which have not nor never had any free school system. I am sure the public schools will lose nothing by the comparison. The best way to teach either morals or religion in the public schools is by the example and God-like spirit of the teacher. Re ligion is a life. Neither dogma nor creed nor profession amount to anything without a con sistent life. The best way to have pupils relig ious and moral is to continually act out a holy and moral life ; otherwise, they will only des pise the hypocrisy of an empty profession. In conclusion, permit me to quote from Sec. 34 of the Montana School Laws, as to secta rianism in the schools. "No books, tracts, pa pers, catechisms, or other publications of a par tisan, sectarian or denominational character shall be used or distributed in any schools. Neither shall any political, sectarian or denominational doctrine be taught therein." PROSPECTING. The region lying about twenty miles west of Helena, and known as the Ten Mile Dis trict, is acknowledged to be exceptionally rich in the valuable minerals. There is a vast number of strong and well-defined lodes, sufficiently developed to give reasonable as surance of permanency, and rich enough to pay large dividends on the investment that would be necessary to realize their grand possibilities, waiting for the facilities that the idle capital of the East could furnish to the abundant advancement of the interests of that locality and to its own profit. Forty miles away to the south lies another well known camp, the mines of which will before long render the name of ' Pipestone" district familiar to all who are interested in mining, and between these points lie the rug ged mountains of the Main Range of the Rockies. Every indication at Tan Mile and Pipestone tends to show that the intervening country lies within the limits of an extensive mineral belt, and yet little or no effort has been made to determine its character. A com pany of well-equipped prospectors, under proper management, would, at no great cob\ explore that region in a single season suffi ciently to determine with a resonable degree of certainty its mineralogy and probable future importance as a part of our vast min ing resources. It It is [Written for the Herald.] THE CATTLE INTEREST OF MONTANA. When and How Our Beeves are to be Marketed. BY WM. W. WICKES. Up to the present time there has a more general interest, prooably, centered about cattle raising than any other business in the Territory, from the fact that a larger part of the population are engaged in it, and also be cause it has produced larger profits than any other, as well as from the fact that money in vested in cattle is considered absolutely safe, with sure returns and a large income. The question is often asked : "If the increase of cattle continues in the same ratio for the next five years as for the past five years, in this Territory, with the large increase in all other parts of the country, what will be done with them and what will be their value ?" That same question has often in the past been asked about other productions of this great country, while the consumption was only within ourselves. But it has soon been solved by the export demand which arose for almost every article that was produced, and enabled us to increase the supply to an almost unlimited extent without affecting the price. It is, however, only within three years that a mode of exporting beef (except in barrels and tierces, packed in pickle) has been made available. In July, 1875, the writer became interested in a patent refrigerating process for the preservation of meats and other per ishable goods, by a forced current of air through ice, thereby condensing all the mois ture upon the ice, and having the articles for preservation in a perfectly dry chamber with air about 36 degrees Fahrenheit. After ex perimenting with it and ascertaining that meats could be kept nice and sweet for months, and even strawberries, peaches, and tomatoes kept in good condition for four and six weeks, a box was fitted up on one of the steamers of the White Star line to hold forty carcasses of beef and forty of mutton, which were shipped to Liverpool—one of the gentlemen interested going over previously to fit up a similar refrigerating box in Liver pool, to receive the consignment in case it should not find immediate sale. Upon the arrival of the shipment at Liverpool, it was found upon opening the box that, owing to bad stowage, the meat had all fallen down in a heap at the bottom of the box, and had probably lain in that condition the whole voyage of ten days. It is customary in En glish ports to have a meat inspector, who has the power and authority to confiscate all meat that is not perfectly sweet and in good order. He was on hand, and saw a job for himself on this "Yankee beef," as he supposed. As it was taken from the vessel a great crowd of men, women and children gathered about in the nasty English mist or rain that was fall ing, crying out with jeerg, "Yankee beef !" "Yankee mutton!" The prejudice was so strong against this new-fangled Yankee idea of shipping fresh meats to England, where the boasted English beef is found, that the Inspector was going to condemn the whole lot without further examination. But the gentleman in charge of it was present, and said, "No; examine it, and if you find it bad condemn it, and not otherwise." It was critically examined, and not a piece of the beef or mutton could be found that was off flavor in the least. The Inspector took a piece of each (beef and mutton) home with him, and after eating pronounced it the best he had ever tasted. This venture was not without loss, but it proved to the shippers what was of more value than a profit, that meats could be car ried on a ten days' voyage sweet and in good order, even under the most adverse circum stances. Another small shipment was made later in the season, with better success, al though not paying a profit, owing to the great prejudice against "Yankee beef." In Octo ber of the same year, Mr. Timothy C. East man, of New York, the largest cattle dealer, probably, in the United States, hearing of the experiment, offered to make trial of 100 carcasses of beef, with the understanding that he could have the monopoly of the pa tent upon certain terms, in case it was a suc cess. He fitted up a box on one of Guion's steamers and shipped 100 head, sending a man with them, who took them right through to London, instead of trying a sale in the Liverpool market. They arrived in good or der, and notwithstanding the prejudice and opposition he found at such an innovation of bringing 100 carcasses of fresh beef from America into Smithfield Market, London, they sold at a price that paid a little profit. Mr. Eastman desired another trial, which was given him, and that also reached London in good order and paid out. He then made a contract with the owners of the patent for the full term of the patent (17 years), pro vided he had the sole right of shipment by this method, and to erect ten boxes on ten ships within the next year. He found it so successful that within the year he erected some twenty-eight boxes, instead of ten, as agreed, and his shipments rose from 100 head per week to 1,800 and 2,000 head. The writer was in London during all the summer of 1876, and although many of the shipments were made from New York when the ther mometer was as high as 04 and 96, yet none of the shipments or any part of them were condemned, and the butchers in Smithfield Market were surprised beyond measure at the great success of this Y'ankee venture, not only because of the good condition in which it arrived, but at the fine quality of the beef, not knowing or imagining that such fine cat tle were raised in America. John and James Bell, oi Glasgow, were induced, after a good deal of persuasion, to receive the beef shipped to that port, com mencing with 100 carcasses of beef and 100 carcasses of mutton. When the writer was there, last summer, the Messrs. Bell stated to him that Mr. Eastman's shipments of dressed and live cattle for this year would amount to £2,000,000, or $10,000,000, and instead of their having only one place, and that in Glas gow, for the sale of meats, they had estab lished houses in London, Liverpool, and in about thirty other large provincial towns of England, such as Manchester, Birmingham, Sheffield, etc., such was the large increase of this trade from August, 1876, to August, 1878, and that by one firm. Others were shipping by other processes, and many were shipping live stock alone. The writer, while in London in the summer of 1876, was written to by Rossiter & Skid more, of New York, a firm in which he is the special partner, asking if he could not find a market for canned corn beef, packed under a patent by Libby, McNeil & Libby, of Chicago. He found a party who had seen the goods, and were ready to purchase, if they could have the control of all that was shipped to that market, and upon those terms would contract to take all that the Libbys could make. They were told that was a dan gerous contract, to agree to take all that a Y T ankee firm could produce. Yet they in sisted upon it and gave bank credits to meet the large amounts that would be required un der such an arrangement. When the writer returned and reported the contract to the Libbys, they did just what he supposed they would do, doubled up their capacity and be gan to pour it in upon them, increasing the shipments from $5,000 and $10,000 per week in October, until they reached in January about $40,000 or $50,000 per week. A tele gram came to stop shipments, and soon after the London merchant, thoroughly frightened, came over and reduced the shipments to al most nothing. But in the course of a few months, say by June following, an increased demand sprung up, owing to the very favor able reception the goods met with the more generally they became known, and from that time until the present the demand has been on the increase, until now the firm of Rossi ter & Skidmore are making weekly shipments of from $70,000 to $100,000, and probably all the other manufacturers of similar goods are shipping as much more. A large demand has also arisen in other continental countries —France, Germany and Switzerland. Messrs. Libby, McNeil & Libby have gone on in creasing their capacity until now they slaugh ter and put into cans 1,000 head of cattle per day, having nearly 1,000 persons in their em ploy, and having a cellar where 25,000 bar rels of beef are constantly kept, with beef curing tor twenty days before being canned. Thus, the export of beef by these two modes (dressed and canned), by the firms named, has, in only three years, reached an amount equal to $15,000,000 per annum, and proba bly as much more has been shipped by other parties. The writer remembers the first shipments of cheese to England, in 1844, and now prob ably four-fifths of our whole product is taken for export. Also the first shipments of hog product, which were made in 1845 and 1846. It has now reached mammoth proportions among our articles of export, supplying with our bacon and lard not only the British isles, but France, Germany, and more lately even Norway and Sweden. Both the French and the German steamers have made application to Mr. T. C. Eastman to put up boxes on their steamers to make shipments of dressed beef, and French and German merchants have solicited consign ments of the same. The only feasible mode of marketing cat tle from Montana at the present time is to drive them to some point from whence they can be transported by rail. But the prospect is that in the near future the railroads will be at our doors. The Northern Pacific will this year cross our eastern border, and the Utah & Northern has already reached within 200 miles of the Capital. If they continue the work of construction with the same vigor and energy as they have the past year, the end of another season will bring these roads close upon us. With this new communi cation to the cattle marts of our country the cattle owner need have no fear but that all the increase that can be produced in Mon tana will find a ready market at full prices, to supply not only the continued demand from abroad, but the requirements of a pop ulation at home so greatly augmented by its natural increase, and the large immigration now pouring in upon our shores. A Prospérons Tear. To us in Montana the past has been a favor able year. The evidences are numerous on every band. Our harvests have been abun dant, our herds and flocks have increased rapidly, our mines have given large returns and their promise of future yield is no longer clouded with any doubt, and our population and assessible wealth have made decided gains. If pestilence and famine have brood ed over other lands, abounding health and plenty have remained with us. Gallatin Grain Crop. Competent authorities estimate the grain crop of Gallatin county at about 360,000 bushels for the year 1879. This is a grand product from a few score of small farms. to 100 to to of in of is of if a [Written for the Herald.] RECITATION ANS ITS OBJECT, BY GEO. H. SCOTT. In order to insure a successful recitation^a teacher should feel that every day's work is of vital importance. There are no days in which a subject may be slipped over—no time in which the scholars may feel or be un prepared, listless, or unruly. One day; is as important as another. The teacher must come into a class pre pared, earnest, alert, and should pre-suppose even if it requires a stretch of imagination, that the pupils come in the same spirit; therefore, the first appearance of carelessness or indifference should be checked. As the paramount object of a recitation is to gain knowledge, there must be attention—atten tion of every member. This must be en forced. Every movement of the class should evince attention to the business in hand. As the object is to obtain knowledge, it is of no little consequence that the physique should help the mind. An erect body, a well poised head, an open ear and eye, are requi sites for furnishing an unobstructed avenue for the passage of ideas to the brain, and also for conveying an intelligible expression of the pup.Fs thoughts to the ear of the teacher and class. Each pupil, tor the time being, is or should be a teacher of his classmates, and should recognize his responsibility to that end. Con sequently clearness of thought and utterance should be enforced. There are two exceptions in the methods of recitation equally ruinous to the true aim of the system. One, a mere relying on the book questioning and a book answering; the other, indiscriminate profusion of explana tion and information on the part of the teacher. In one case a pupil is given a whole book to swallow, bones and all. The much he cannot digest distresses, weakens and dis courages him, and he is fortunate if he can assimilate enough to keep him alive. In the other, his food is chosen for him, diluted, ground into pap and then poured into his open eyes and ears (if, perchance, they are open), and the pupil becomes a babe and re mains a babe, although he may have swal lowed the whole range of Robinson's series. Evidently, then, the teacher has an impor tant part to perform to prevent such mental cata8tropbies. In regard to the guidance required by pu pils to prevent their selecting only such por tions of the lessons as agree with their own predelictions and rejecting the rest, I observe in the case of history that "not by apparent personal application, but by suggestion and question ; by showing the relations of facts to previous or subsequent history ; by giving a glimpse occasionally of the influence that even remote history has upon our nation and our time, an interest will be awakened so that, by forming new analogies, finding other relations, seeing the necessity of one date following another, more or less, but not in the same proportion, the pupils will add to their mental height and breadth." In mathematics, one can master rules, another "work out sums, and another define principles." The work here is the same. The fitness of one part to another must be shown A teacher who explains away all apparent difficulties does an irrepa rable injury to the pupil, and yet one must remember that in these times discipline is not everything, and practical knowledge makes its claim so that a large amount of time is wasted in requiring pupils to puzzle over a problem for four or five days, when an ex planation at the right time may give courage and impetus enough to conquer a dozen more in the same time. \Ve are supposed to understand that it re quires much wisdom and judgment to know the extent and limit of profitable explanation without detriment to the pupil's thoughts. And this suggests a duty which is far greater and more necessary, namely, to teach pupils how to think. To most minds to think out a problem or to think out some abstruse statement means to stare at it or to repeat it over, conscien tiously but hopelessly. If we make a store house out of our brains, putting in materials, raw and manufactured, the brain is not to blame if an article is called for that has never been stored there. But if we make them fac tories, teaching processes and furnishing ma terial or showing where it may be found, we have a right to expect that some articles will be made to order. There are certain and successive steps that lead to conclusions and the pupils should be taught these. But the imparting of knowl edge is not the only important object of a recitation. The requiring of cor rect and concise answering inculcates a habit of truthfulness and exactness in all depart ments of speech. The very distinctness ac quired in utterance gives a zest and interest to general conversation or to any public ef fort. The grace of courtesy and the charm of politeness can be engrafted or encouraged through the example and precepts of the teacher. A true teacher finds time and means with out encroaching upon his immediate duties to inculcate a love for the pure, noble and good, and a reverence for the right and di vine. The crown and glory, however, of a teach er's duty lies in the personal interest taken in each pupil. In this is the power of success ful teaching. One of the requisites of a teacher's certificate should be the possession of a heart—a warm heart, but a strong one, strengthened by wisdom and judgment. The brilliant pupils should feel the joy of the teacher, but also the steady, guiding hand. The dull and slow should expand and quicken under the loving eye, discerning their various needs, and the careless and con* ceited should feel that the restraining and pruning hand is impelled by a wise and gen erous hand.