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that these rivers do not retain their names (as
the) should do) to their true sources. By their true source we mean the stream that conducts the most westerly drainage to the Atlantic and the most easterly drainage to the Pacific. When Lewis and Clark named the Three Forks of the Missouri, they were in doubt as to which was the truce source of that great river. When, however, they reached the confluence of the Beaverhead and Wisdom or Big Hole rivers, and had ascended the former as far as they could with their boats, they concluded that it was the true source of the great Missouri. Some geographers claim the Madison to be the true source ; others that the Wisdom or Big Hole is the stream entitled to that credit. Ap pleton's Cyclopedia says the Wisdom river is thought by many to be the true source, and that it rises within a mile of the head waters of Clark's Fork of the Columbia. Could these geographers and map compilers stand, as I have stood, on a point of Table mountain (near Highland) just where the west side of Montana ceases and the Main Range of the Rocky Mountains turns abruptly to the west two degrees, they could have seen it turn again to the south, and there, at its most ex treme westerly point, is the source of the Wis dom or Big Hole river, which is the largest fork of the Jefferson, which, in turn, is the lar gest fork of the Missouri; and looking down at their feet they could also have seen the most easterly waters that flow through Clark's Fork of the Columbia to the Pacific—more than 125 miles east of the source of the Wisdom or Big Hole, the point at which the Cyclopedia places the headwaters of that stream. [Written for the Herald.] IS CHRISTIANITY ON THE DECLINE ? BY REV. M. N. GILBERT. I suppoes it is an ever-standing wonder to un believers that Christianity does not die. To read their writings, to study their arguments, one would conclude that they had made out such a clear case against the Christian delusion, as they call it, that it would crumble in pieces at once. From their point of view it would seem that none but fools or bigots could with any rea son believe in the Bible and Christianity. With shrewd argument, keen satire and plausible statements they demonstrate, to their own sat isfaction at least it would seem, the absurdity of the claims of Christianity. They are constantly prophesying its downfall. They are ever en deavoring to usher in the reign of another Sa vior, which is somewhat arrogantly denominat ed Free Thought. Yet, marvelous to relate, able scholars, profound thinkers, sincere men and truth-loving women all over this broad earth are believing in and accepting Christ still» and standing right loyally by His Church. Skeptics proclaim that Christianity is on the decline, yet when you face them with figures and statistics they are obliged to recede from their assertion. For instance I frequently hear men proclaiming that Christianity is losing its hold and declining in these United States. If so, how do they account for the following facts : In the United States since the beginning of the revolutionär)» war, the increase of population has been a little more than twelve fold. The increase of churches has been thirty-seven fold. The members of the churches then were as one to seventeen hundred of the people. Now they are as one to six hundred. It seems that six houses of Christian worship are finished somewhere in the Union each working day of the year, and that fifty million dollars are dis tributed annually on objects connected with them. Thirty-two millions of Bibles are printed annually and they are all distributed. There are three hundred and ninety-eight colleges, and more than eight hundred seats of a high secular education, nearly all of them founded by be lieving men. These facts surely do not point to a decline of Christianity in this country. Were such a won derful progress to be made in Spain or Italy it might be claimed that it was simply the result of superstition and ignorance, but this progress is being accomplished in the midst of the most universally intelligent people of the earth, among people who have but little patience with mere superstition. These facts not only go to show that the church of Christ has the masses largely on her side, but that she has the majori ty of the intelligence and respectability enlisted under her banner as well. I can imagine that first American prophet of the new religion—or rather of no religion at all—Thomas Payne, re turning to this earth and opening wide his skeptical eyes as he beholds that religion which he so furiously attacked and which, even dur ing his life time, more than a century ago, he predicted was tottering to its speedy fall, still growing, thriving, retaining and increasing its power and influence ; enlisting in its service men of high intellect, men of pure, common sense, men utterly removed from the realm of the sentimental, and, in short, men of all con ditions and education. To him the spires and crosses of the countless churches which every where rise heavenward would seem to be trans formed into fingers of scorn and to point at him with a sombre ridicule and a grira irony. Then, moreover, would it be unreasonable for me to imagine that I could discover him whispering in the ears of his modern imitators and saying, "My friends, I fear you are wasting your breath, your energies, your time; you are not, as far as I can see, improving one whit upon my argu ments, my reasonings. These churches, these Christian homes, which rise and flourish all around me to-day, these voices of praise and thanksgiving and prayer to the Christian Sa vior which fill my ears with their refrains of faith and melody, all, all but re-echo one cry to me, 'Your labor and mine is lost ! lost !' " Why does Christianity live and thrive ? The answer is obvious. First, because its author was divine and has lived and still lives in the heart of the church. Second, because in all the attempts to overthrow Christianity nothing sat isfactory to the heart ot man has been offered in its place. If one kind of nutritious food removed from man something equally nutritious must be substituted or the man languishes and dies. Equally true is it if you remove one Sa vior from humanity you must supply it with another equally as excellent, or the spiritual life which springs out of the profound longings of the heart languishes and dies. What has been the nature of these Saviors which have been offered to man within the last century ? The older ones in our midst can almost recall them all. There was the Goddess of Reason, who was enthroned in the streets of Paris in the sanguinary days of seventeen hun dred and ninety-three. How long did she , °ign ? Just so long as terror reigned, and no loi ge*. Then there was the Savior of August Cot ipte—Positivism. It promised great things. The best moral precepts had been culled from all religions and made into a Religion of Hu man'ty. The idea, from the human moral point of vii W alone, was a most reasonable and taking one. Yet even this Savior, formulated with so much care and study, made no real impression upon the world, and now is barely known save in the salons of savans, of literatii and of stu dents of Ethics. Then there appeared upon the scene the Savior of Rationalism, with its "Old Faith and New." With its Strauss and Baur and German thinkers of that school of thought for its apostles, it promised great things. It reasoned about religion and morals in a very profound and learned way. It declared that it had demolished utterly the Savior Christ, nevermore to revive. Yet even now its boasted power is becoming a spent force. "Its hopeless decline has been written in more than one tongue. Strauss laughs at Paulus, Baur at Strauss, Renan at Baur, and the hour-glass at all." Next with loud pæans of praise is ush ered in the Savior of Evolution. Yet already many of the former most enthusiastic advocates of this system are admitting that they claimed too much for this Savior, and that until the missing link is found, which they now despair of ever finding, their system, as a system, is a practical failure. Its Savior, of course, shares the fate of the system. Then there have been the so-called Saviors of Science, of Law, of Nature, of Mormonism, of Spiritualism, but their realms have been limited ones. A poor religion is better than no religion at all, and so I would rather see men adopt any of these fragmentary religions, with their illu sory Saviors, than with no religion at all, which many of the materialistic skeptics of the last few years are advocating. The thought of the world is ever changing its front. The truth is ever being seen and brought to light from many different points of view. So long as in the midst of this agitation and fluctuation the higher truths of life and immortality are being kept distinct and clear, so long will believing men endure these manifold attacks upon the citadel of faith. The triumphant experiences of the Church of God in the past are happy auguries for the future. As long as she is pro tected by the overshadowing ægis of God's own providential love, she will stand firm, the sure refuge and fortress for those who believe in the intense realities of a spiritual life, which the truths of Christianity ever most forcibly em phasize. [Written for the Herald.] PHILIPSBURG. The Town and Mines and Mills of the District. BY A. WILL. This mining district was first brought to notice in the year 1867. A number of silver lodes were here discovered in that year. The present population is about 500. A mere enumeration of its people, however, would not enable the reader to form any adequate idea of the business done in this district. The imports, this season, of dry goods, groceries, hardware, powder, etc., amount to 400 tons. Flour dealers find sale for 150,000 pounds of flour, ranchmen a market for 200,000 pounds of potatoes, and other vege tables in proportion, yearly. The quartz mills furnish employment to freighters to transport here hundreds of tons of salt annually. The Algonquin Company alone brought in over a thousand tons of machinery, salt and supplies the past season. Philipsburg is situated in upper Flint creek valley, just on the edge of the foot-hills. Why the creek was called "Flint" I don't know, un less from the fact that there never, or hardly ever, was a flint found in the vicinity. Both the upper and lower valleys are decidedly pretty, and are dotted with the homes of well-to-do farmers and stock men. The creek itself is a clear mountain stream, from whose sparkling waters the clever sportsman numerously inveigles the unsuspecting trout. The town contains sev eral large business houses, two good hotels, a very neat school house, but no church. The Gospel is seldom dispensed here. Occasionally a mild mannered, slender-waisted young man comes to see us and delivers a May morning, softly mur mured, zephyr-like discourse. Miners, as a gen eral thing, don't like things too mild or too much diluted. The waters of regeneration, dispensed as a gentle mist, w ill fail to penetrate the moral gum coat of the miner's conscience. The preacher, to succeed here, must be a moral cyc a lone, and drive the waters of life with hurricane violence through every interstice of the imper vious rubber if he would hope to reach and drench and cleanse the inner man. The mines in this vicinity are all located in the foot-hills, and are easily approachable by wagons. Some of the ores are free milling, some are base, and others baser still. The Hope was the first discovered mine and the first upon which a mill was erected. The ore, averaging about fifty ounces per ton, is free and the mine dry. The expense of pumps and roasting machinery is therefore avoided. Every thing about the mine is in good shape. The mill is a wet crusher of ten stamps—capacity fifteen tons per day. At present it is being overhauled, repaired and improved. In a few days it will ba at w r ork again. The Hope Com pany has averaged about $150,000 annually. The Speckled Trout was the next to put up works. A smelter w»as first tried, but this not proving satisfactory was soon succeeded by a five wooden-stamp mill. This, in some respects, proved eminently successful. The result of the first run was 250 tons of kindling wood and the quartz not much damaged. Remember that this was in the days of primitive silver mining in Montana. Iron stamps were afterward sub stituted and the result was no kindling wood but plenty of pulp. From this time the future of the camp was assured. Over $500,000 have been taken out of the Trout and the mine looks well to-day. The miners at present are en gaged running a level and stoping. They have at this mine steam hoisting works and a double plunger Knowles pump. They have much more pump power than water. The Algonquin was located by some sailor boys and by them named after a ship they once sailed on. The present company purchased the mine in '76 and have been at work developing ever since. Mr. Pardee was too old a hand at the business to put up a mill before he was per fectly assured he had a mine to justify it. The main shaft on the Algonquin is 350 feet. Three levels have been run and a fourth level is now in 60 feet. There are several cross-cuts. Levels and cross-cuts all show ore, and there are over a thousand tons on the dump. They get nearly all their water on the 250 foot level. At one time a reservoir was tapped, and the water rush ed in tumultuously, but after the reservoir was pumped out only the ordinary flow of water re mained. The Algonquin Mill is the crowning glory of the camp. It is magnificent in propor tions and perfect in detail. There are no shams nor make shifts, but everything is genuine, w r ith the latest improvements. It is quite impressive to step into the presence of the imposing ma chinery. There stand the huge boilers and en gine, giants in repose, only awaiting the warm ing influence of steam to set in motion all this wilderness of mechanism. The immense Howell cylinder, enthroned amongst brick, stone and iron, presents a most formidable appearance and is capable of roasting and chloridizing 24 tons per day. The mill will be finished in a few days. This is no experiment. The same kind of ore has been handled for years, and from the data I possess I can easily predict that the Algonquin mill will turn out not less than $300,000 w orth of bullion in 1880. The Murray & Durfee is a noted mine in this camp, from which large quantities of free milling ore have been taken. Unfortunately this property is now in litigation. The Salmon is another good mine situated in litigious proximity to the Murray & Durfee. The Salmon belongs to the Algonquin Com pany. The ore is free and will be largely used in the Algonquin mill to mix w ith base ores. The developments on this mine are sufficient to insure the requisite ore supply. The Cliff" belongs to the Hope Company. A whim house has just been erected. There is a good body of ore and the mine looks well as far as opened. The Comanche is a valuable mine of free ore, but labors under the disadvantage of having been located under the old law and has thirteen hundred owners. Too many cooks spoil the broth and too many owners spoil a mine. It is to be hoped most of them will die soon. When they do so we will plant them deep and put big rocks on them so they can't come back to plague anybody. ~ The Franklin shows well as far as develop ments have gone. It has a strong vein of ex tra good ore and the ore comes out in a remark ably clear and neat condition. There are other good mines here, but I havn't time to look them up. Very few communities of no greater population can make a better showing than this district. NORTHERN MONTANA. BY LEON T. MERRY'. The grazing and agriculture! resources of Northern Montana (which consists of the county of Choteau and portions of Lewis and Clarke and Meagher) will compare fav orably with other portions of the Territory which have been given up to such pursuits a longer period. One fact alone proves its val ue. The valleys of Sun River, Teton and Marias contain an area of arable land equal to ten times the size of Rhode Island. But these valleys are but a tithe of the valuable land in this portion of Montana suitable alike to farming and stock raising. The chief fea ture of Northern Montana is its magnificent stock range. The valleys proper, teeming with a rich growth of the most nutritious grasses, afford all requisite shelter in stormy seasons, and opening out upon the broad mazers the same rich growth of grass ap pears. The valleys of Sun River, Teton, Marias, and the country in the vicinity of the Judith river, Dot forgetting the Milk river re gion, are all pretty well represented by wealthy stock owners and agriculturists, and each season but adds to the grow of these interests. The valley of Sun River is about fifty miles in length, with a varying width of from two to six miles. The valley proper is perfectly smooth, and through its centre flows the beautiful stream, bordered with waving wil lows, and here and there tall cottonwoods. In some places the valley opens out very broad, and there is not en inch of soil that is not inexhaustibly rich and the wealthy stock owners who inhabit it attest its advantages in that respect. As an agricultural district, in proportion to their 6ize, the Sun River and South Fork regions take first rank. Wheat and oats are the favorite crops with the farm ers. A ready market is found for all that can be raised now. If Montana had a rail road the farmers would soon get rich, and the world would exult in good bread. Montana wheat is at a premium, and, as has been shown, is superior to the best Minnesota var ieties. True, the droughts come sometimes, and the grasshoppers, too, but of late we have been particularly favored with an ab sence of both these hindrances to success, and, as is evident, the climate has somewhat changed in the past two or three years, and it is hoped that better results may yet be at tained. The wheat harvest in Sun River val ley averaged about 40 bushels to the acre, and in some particular instances large pieces of land yielded as high as 60 bushels to the acre. Oats often average 75 bushels, and sometimes go as high as 100 bushels to the acre. Mr. Robert Vaughn averaged 104 bushels to the acre on a four acre field. As regards the productiveness of the soil in all of the valleys the same remarks apply. The Highwood and Belt Creek regions are largely devoted to farming. No portion of Montana is better watered than this, and irri gation is everywhere easy. No fertilizers are used or required. Some of the prominent stock growers of Northern Montana are W. C. Bwett, Sieben Bros., Robert Coburn and J. Austin on the Missouri in the vicinity of Chestnut ; Robert Vaughn, R. S. Ford, Thomas Dunn, O. H. Churchill, J. Spencer, J. R. Cox, Thomas Clary, Morrow, Lepley, Kingsbury, Bane, Greenleaf & Co., Snyder & Jones, Pangburn, Jas. Lemon, HogaD, and Sam Douglas, of Choteau and Lewis and Clarke counties. All of these are well-to-do stock men, who but a few years ago began with small capital and now count their herds of horses, cattle and sheep by the hundreds and thousands. But there is another industry in]which Mon tanians are beginnings take a lively interest, and which promises large results. It is the sheep business—the business in which a poor man can enter with every hope of success. Montana as a sheep country has no equal, and the day is not distant when capitalists will see this and at once engage in wool man ufactures within her borders. It is estimated that a properly graded flock of sheep will average about five pounds of wool to the head, which is worth from 20 to 25 cents per pound. The cost of caring for sheep need not exceed 40 cents per head, and as the in crease here in Montana is something enor mous, often attaining a hundred per cent.— the minimum beiDg about ninety per cent.— the profits of this business are clearly appar ent. Greenleaf & Co., on the Shonkin, are the largest sheep raisers in Choteau county, their herd numbering about four thousand head. A year and a half ago the Shonkin valley did not contain a stock raiser or sheep (-rower, but at the present time the valley is represented by quite a number of such sub stantial firms as the above mentioned ones, and the whole country in the vicinity of the ShonkiD, Highwood and Belt creeks promise, at an early day, to teem with thrifty stockmen and the wealth which necessarily proceeds from such a remunerative business. One great advantage which this portion of Cho teau county possesses is the great facilities for shipping. One firm last year made their wool clip from over three thousand head, had it baled and hauled and upon the steamer in less than a week's time from the time it left the animals' backs. There is one other advantage in Montana : You are not apt to lose lambs in storms. Sheep go through the winter without sheds. Snow rarely lies on the ground long after a storm. High westerly winds prevail and drive the most of it into drifts ; at the same time a current of dry atmosphere moves over the surface and melts the snow and bears away all moisture as fast as the snow is melt ed. It is something almost remarkable to watch the snow that thus mysteriously disap pears, and without leaving the much dreaded puddle of mud behind. It has been given out that sheep growers do not put up hay for the winter months. This is a mistake, for the grower who knows his best interests will always put up some hay to provide against emergencies that may arise, though it is seldom that sheep in this country require "fodder" or penning up. The very nature of this country throughout affords all the shelter necessary for stock or sheep. The minimum increase in sheep is ninety per cent, and this percentage can be relied upon as certain. And the profits of the busi ness should always, and will, yield fifty per cent on the capital invested. Several Mon t&nians intend to import sheep herders—men of known ability, and this fact should be an incentive to resident young men to look well to their interests and not be "slow," for good help must and will be had. Col. A. J. Smith hits taken up a sheep ranch at the mouth of the Shonkin. He in tends making it a shearing ranch for that whole country. Two young men ft om Chi cago have bought out Mr. Lacy's cattle inter est, and propose to enter largely into this, to then», new enterprise. The future of Montana is bright, and as she receives accessions to her population and becomes the seat of varied industries, she must necessarily become great. The immense water power every where apparent, invites to her manufactures, and it is strange that she has not already embarked in some of these especially that of woolen manufactures. When Montana once embarks in manufac tures her prosperity is certain and unlimited. MONTANA IN SMALL SLICES. Montana has a good free echool system, not only established by law, bnt in the hearts of her people. Helena has telegraphic connection with all parts ol Montana and by two separate lines wich the States. In a new country there is capital in strong hands and brave hearts as well as in gold, greenbacks or bonds. As settlement is now rapidly increasing, and busi ness with it proportionally, there will always be an in creasing demand for laborers. Our mail facilities are increasing yearly. As soon as the Norther Pacific reaches the Yellowstone anoth er through route will he opened. Within three years our population and wealth will be doubled and before the census of 1890 we shall be entitled to admission as a State. The past season house-builders, in any branch of the work, have been in demand, and the prospect is that more still will be needed the next and succeeding years. Or mills, factories and work shops of the infinite variety that exists at the East we have as yet little or nothing, nor can we look for them to any extent for some time to come. In size, Montana is only exceeded by Texas and Cal ifornia among the States and Dakota among the Ter ritories. It is more than three times as large as all the six New England States. Those articles of large consumption, whose market prices are made up in so large a degree of the coet of long transportation are the ones which promise the best results to the wide-awake cultivator of the soil. With confidence we claim that fortunes await those who will engage in the culture of the sugar beet or Chinese sugar cane. If the latter fails the former could not, for no land can excel Montana in the growth of vegetables. There is a ronte to fortune for any one who can in troduce the working of hides into leather. Some small attempts made have failed but success is sure to one who understands the business and conforms to the conditions of success. The only position of our Territory exposed to In dian depredations has been rendered sate by the con struction of Fort Assinniboine the paßt season, whence the Sioux over the northern border can be easily watch ed and speedily reached. To young men seeking clerkships we have little en couragement to hold out. To young professional men present openings and immediate prospects are no more in vit ng. To school teachers of the better class there is a moderately fair field. For lone females willing to do housework, the de mand has always been beyond the supply, and at wages from two to three times as high as in the States. Our population, however, being largely made up of unmarried men, we must warn any woman ayeree to marriage not to come this way. Those who come to Montana with capital will have no trouble to find paying investments in a country like ours, so full of capabilities and the raw material of wealth, a country now filling with population, [whose asseesible wealth, according to official returns, in' creased last year about three millions of dollars. If any who read these pages are not just now ready to come, but are so disposed soon, it would prove a most profitable investment'to familiarize themselves with our enterprise, industries, markets and current history by subscribing for one of our Territorial news papers, of which the Herald of Helena is the oldest and best, thongh there are others above average ex cellence, Though there arc always some persons hanging around the larger towns, complaining that they cannot get work, it is generally true that such men do not want to work at all, or are reserving themselves for some favored chance where the w ork will be light and the pay out of proportion to their services. It is a rare case where any one able and willing to work has long to wait for a job, and when once known to be a good hand work will seek him. Besides our railroad connections Montana has the Missouri river navigable to the foot of the Great Falls, open seven months of the year to steamers, with a channel that has recently been very much improved by government engineers and on which the improve ments will next season be^continued and extended above the Falls, where, after a portage of about sixteen miles, a good boating river extends 200 miles further directly into the very heart of the Territory. So far it is fair,to say that hog culture has not been a success in Montana, for the reason that our soil and climate are not suited to corn. Bnt it is certain that other crops equally good for fattening swine can be grown here as abundantly as corn in the best of the Western State*. There is a sure fortune to any one who will engage intelligently in this business. It would give employment* to hundreds to supply the ham, bacon and lard that are now shipped at great cost from Chicago and St, Louis. THERfc are many employments in which unskilled labor can, without much difficulty or delay, engage, and at wages above the prices paid in the States, such as driving team, chopping wood and timber in the mountains, working on farms and tending stock. Good hands at any of these employments, after one season, easily find better positions or begii work on their own account, commencing in the freighting business with a single team, taking up a farm and be coming producers, or taking cattle or sheep to tend on share«. At times there is a great demand for hands, as in shearing or harvest Between the enervation of hoffie sickness and the errors and losses resulting from ignorance and inex perience, the first year in a new oountry is a hard one to nearly everybody. If properly husbanded and handled, the first year's experiences in a new country are as valuable as those of any succeeding one, though it may present at lia close a scene of wrecked hopes, unfinished designs and indivisible profits. It is the year that every one would like to skip, but if it were possible it were better not to do so. ' *' ■i ■ '