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uncertain wake of politics at the very moment
of its promised fruition. Nearly the entire four years of Lincoln's first administration I was Clerk of the House Com mittee on Territories in Washington. This I resigned in July, 1864, to accept the office which I held the succeeding four years in Montana. 1 was nearly fifty years old the day that I alighted from the coach in Virginia City. The trip from the States had been so full of novelty and interest; nature had presented herself in so many new and wonderful forms, that I felt like one who had passed out of all worldly experi ence into a new and unexplored phase of exis tence. Never before had 1 seen the world upon so grand a scale. And now while I write memory recalls the effect produced by the first view that I had of the grass-covered hills and purple mountains beyond them, the frowning canons, the majestic rocks, the winding dells, the crystal rivers with their copses of cotton wood, and the broad, shining valleys of your beautiful t erritory. "This" thought I, "is all 't)f grandeur and majesty that one need desire to render life happy. Here, if any where, on the earth's broad surface, the soul of man can ex pand beyond the measure of those bonds of selfishness which in countries less favored by Providence hold it in thrall." The first three or four months that I spent in Montana life with me was little more than a romance. The change in scenery, in habits, in associations, in enjoyments, in pursuits—all so unlike the hum drum life 1 had been accustomed to in the States—seemed to renew my years, and beget in me a wish for a rejuvenescence correspond ing in freshness and magnitude to the world around me. But, alas! I was too old. I had come too later I could not forget all the joys and associations of the past, nor fully compre hend all the outspread grandeur of the present. As for the future I very soon learned that it pre sented very little to my hope either in Montana or elsewhere. I found my Nemesis even in Montana, and much as I loved its scenery and people, strong as my desire was to remain there, a more persistent voice within gave me no rest till I came to California. Much of my experience in the social life of Montana was as new and fresh as its material developments. There was a community senti ment among the people which over rode all the affected conventionalities of settled society that to „me was very delightful. I well remember that we were ten weeks without a mail during the first winter of my residence in Virgnia City. There was no moping about it, but we all set to work to make the time as pleasant as possible. The weather was cold ; snow storms frequent and heavy ; business of all kinds suspended ; but every day and every evening some one con trived some little amusement which called us all together, and we talked and danced and played games, and partook of such refreshments as the market afforded, and thus lightened the burden of 1 ..>>•.■ gloomy days with joys never to be forgotten, inis was good philosophy, but you would never have met with it in an Eastern society. in It 1 found .social life in Montana to be more hearty and friendly than l had ever experi enced it elsewhere. It developed a thousand little enjoyments that could never find their way into an old and settled community. Our mountain rides, our evening parties, our balls, our festivals, our attempted dramatic en tertainments, flowing from the unselfish de sire to promote the general happiness, had more of the true nobility of sentiment and human brotherhood in them than all the stilt ed efforts of wealth and power, where dis play in dress and ornament are the ruling motives. True it is also that this sort of com munity life formed stronger friendships and begat holier confidences, for once a man yielded to it he found only friends for com panions and equality for a basis. "What shall we do next ? When shall we have another ball ?" were the questions which wound up all social gatherings, and all lived in expectancy until the next one came. Masonry was a power in Montana, and Masons generally loved one another and obeyed their vows. Often do I dwell with real delight upon the evenings spent with my brethren of the different Masonic socie ties of Virginia. They were real friends. Alas ! how they are scattered and gone Daems, Russell, Hanna, have been gathered by the Relentless Reaper, and only a few of that old and faithful band of Knights, wont like Arthur and his companions to gather around the festive table, joyous with song and council and merriment, remain upon the spot which has echoed to their hilarity and mirth. I should not feel at home to visit Montana and find their places empty. I should desire once again to witness the power of the Enchanter, which so often at the sound of the trumpet summoned them to gether for an anniversary visit to the little Emerald Lake in the mountains, which once, with imposing ceremonies, we named in honor of the great martyr of our order. But I feel that I am growing tedious. You asked an old man for a letter, a.ad you must bear with an old man's drivel. Montana was never anything else than a land of ro mance and novelty to me. I cannot think of it disconnected with all its grandeur of scenery and majesty. It destroys the beauty of the picture which its might of mountain and river and valley have imprinted on my memory to associate it with railroads and steamboats and the other material improve ments of the age. I should hardly wish to ride over all its well-remembered hills and valleys in a steam car. But I hope you will soon have all these improvements, and that your beautiful Territory will become as re nowned in the future for its material re sources as it now is for its grandeur of scenery and purity of atmosphere. I I 1 [Written for the Herald.] FREEDOM OF THOUGHT. .A. iFZR-A-GrlÊÆZElSrT.. BY HF.NRY N. BLAKE. If there is anything in a name, the Territory of Montana (mountains) has been aptly christened by Congress in the Organic Act. The study of the map which exhibits her system of Mountains, and, what is more instructive, one glance of the eye upon the vast and rugged ranges, upheaved between her boundaries, prove this fact. Her history in this matter is different from that of most of the States and Territories, which seem to have been named like many children without definite meaning or purpose. The most pleasant emotions arise when we review the noble thoughts and heroic deeds that have been in spired by these "palaces of nature," in which the people of this Territory live. Thus Bryant in his sonnet, "William Tell," sings: '•Chain* may subdue the feeble spirit, but thee. Tell, of the iron heart! they could not tame! For thou wert of the mountains; they proclaim The everlasting creed of liberty. That creed is written on the untrampled snow." The motto of the seal of West Virginia "Montant semper liberi," (mountain eers are always freemen), expresses a similar sen timent. The walls of every school room in the Union have echoed— "When Freedom, from her mountain height, Unfurl'd her standard to the air.' - Bancroft, the historian, writes : "Freedom has its favorite home on the mountains." Many quotations of this character might be made, but their repetition would be needless. We do not wish to undermine this faith that associated with the "everlasting hills," and deem it unwise to examine critically facts affecting this topic. If the future generations of Mon tana believe that every Rocky Mountain breeze diffuses the principles of liberty, and confers upon their birth-place this great advantage over other sections, patriotism will govern their pub lie tasks. Do the text books contain a more impressive lesson than this ? May the air of this altitude, when it propels the mechanism of the body, stimulate forever the muscles and nerves to maintain in every crisis the freedom of thought, speech, action and conscience, which are essential to republicanism ! A proper respect for the rights of the contri bntors to this number of the Herald restricts our observations to other means of securing and upholding freedom or independence of thought. Accepting without doubt the article of faith that has been defined, we intend to consider the ef fect of mental labor. The chief object of every system of education is to develop and strengthen the powers of the mind in order that the pupil may be able at maturity to think for himself. Many and various are the methods that arc used in the schools to attain the same end—mental freedom. "To teach the young idea how to shoot," is a familiar way of uttering this opinion. It is evident that the zealous work of efficient teachers is often unsuccessful in gaining this grand object. We cannot now inquire into the causes of this unfortunate failure, but think they can be found more frequently in the mental con stitution of the student than the course which has been pursued in his instruction. We know that there are many persons who do not and can ed on cut ate this not think for themselves, and must rely upon others to furnish them with ideas. It should be remembered that there is a broad and well defined distinction between the knowl edge of facts and the deductions based upon them. Viewed from one point all men are scholars, "never too old to learn," and seldom think for themselves. The departments, that re quire the grasp and attention of the mind, are so extensive that it is difficult for the most gifted persons to comprehend one branch during the lifetime of a generation. It is therefore natural to aet upon the presumption that those who make a special study of any question are correct in their statements of the grounds on which their conclusions rest. The predictions of an astron omer that there will be an eclipse of the sun at a certain hour, minute and second are acted on with implicit confidence by parties who are un able to detect error in his calculations. But tact are rot ideas, although he who has no knowledge of the first has no foundation for the last. It will be inferred that the truly educated man must be a master of logic. He may not be an investigator within some of the domains of knowledge, and is compelled to receive blindly, or to speak with precision, ignorantly, the re sults of the experience oi those who have labor ed therein. But his mental forces should be dis ciplined so thoroughly that the weak position of each theory will be attacked and carried, and ever)' correct inference will be defended against the onset of fallacy. It is conceded that Mr. Darwin has stated accurately the facts which are pres'i.ted with marvelous power in his works which discuss the origin of man and species. Yet those who make this admission can deny consistently the soundness of the deductions of this eminent naturalist, and, at the same time, support different propositions upon similar premises. We claim that the man who is not a perfect logician cannot hope to achieve greatness in more than one department of learning. It is unreasonable to expect that the world-renown ed geologist will hold the same rank in the corps of historians, or that the first among chemists will will be an authority in deciding questions of ethics. The statistics that underlie every theory multiply yearly, and these obstructions in the un royal road to learning become more formidable to the student with each revolution of the wheels of time. This state of things must cause many accessions to the specialists, and it is safe to con clude that the genus that has been known gener ally as "a walking encyclopedia" must become extinct within a brief period. In the future the best thinkers or logicians must be more depend in ent than ever upon the observations and experi ments of others. The reflections which cluster about New Year's Day remind us of the con trast in this respect between the present age and the past. We are informed by the ancieut wri ters that there were orators in Greece and Rome who were acquainted with all the arts and sci ences, and comprehended every object of knowl edge which was then understood. This gigantic change in the times and man ners of nations shows the instructor of youth that his primary aim should be to promote the growth of the reasoning faculties of his scholars. The pupil, who has acquired the contents of his school books by the aid of his memory alone has not been taught to think for himself. He is like the apprentice who has completed his term of service with the most skillful of masters, but is unable to use the tools of his trade. The first is a graduate without a head, the second is a journeyman without hands. For the purposes of education books are studied, not only for the information which is between their covers, but for the power to grasp what is outside of them. Every member of modern society labors on a small spot of the globe of learning, and should be trained to avail himself of the industry of the toilers on the remainder. All should be bor rowers and lenders, and givers as well as re ceivers of facts, figures and statistics, because mental independence in these things appears to be an impossibility. We think this system of instruction will abolish mental slavery here and elsewhere. Independent thinking can be checked, if not destroyed, by the hostility of monarchies, and nourished by the liberal institutions of republics. We have no space to dwell upon the efforts of despots to fetter the mind by welding chains for the body, or extinguish ideas by the destruction of life. Our attention must be given to more important events in history. The omission of the Constitution to guarantee in express terms intellectual freedom was the most forcible argu ment which was urged by its opponents against its adoption. The people were so deeply im pressed by these considerations that they de manded the first amendment to the Great Char ter which declares that "Congress shall make no law * * * abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press." These words form a proclamation of emancipation to every mind within the Union. The right of a person to the product of his brain, after it has been reduced to the tangible shape of manuscript, has not been denied. But there have been many discussions concerning the interest of an author in his works after they have been printed, and parties have appealed to the courts of England and the United States to determine the question. The claim that this lit erary property was exclusive and perpetual was ably maintained more than a century ago. It was decided that the time during which this privilege of ownership continued could be limit ed to a number of years by Parliament. The power of copyrighting did not exist under the Confederation, and Congress in 1783, by a reso lution, recommended the passage of laws there on by the States. Prior to this time, Connecti cut and Massachusetts had enacted the appropri ate legislation of the mother country and their policy was endorsed by other States. The members of the Federal Convention considered this subject and adopted without opposition the following article : "The Congress shall have power * * * to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries." Wise commentators teach us that this "power to legislate for the purpose of securing a national right to the fruits of mental labor" was surren dered by the States to the General Government. The property of an author in his printed books within the United States has been regulated by acts of Congress, which are similar to those of Parliament. The law of copyright protects sub stantially the right enumerated in the Constitu tion. For all practicable purposes an author enjoys his privileges during life, although the statute limits them to forty-two years. Under this enlightened statesmanship freedom of thought must thrive. We cannot avoid another comparison between the dead and living age. As soon as the art of printing became useful to mankind, and the circulation of books inspired the people to think for themselves, the sovereigns of Europe about five hundred years ago estab lished a censorship of the press. With few ex ceptions these restrictions upon intellectual lib erty have not been removed. The association of authors and inventors in the same clause by the fathers of the Union was not original, and may be found in laws that were passed as early as 1710. This action sustains some of the suggestions which have been offered. The inventor and author produce results in dif ferent spheres by the same means—the activity of the mental powers. Both classes abound where freedom of thought prevails. More pat ents for new and useful inventions are issued in our country than in any foreign land, and the excess in the number of authors is in the same ratio. The American citizen, who has not lived un der another form of government, does not know by observation the evils of mental servitude and cannot weigh justly the consequences of the measures which have been referred to. It is sometimes difficult to conceive that the War of the Revolution was waged to vindicate these rights, which seem to be the natural inheritance of all men. Bancroft states in his history that the force which procured the alliance of France and our republic "was the movement of intellec tual freedom." He describes with felicitous words the scene in the presence of the French academy in April, 1778, when "Franklin and Voltaire kissed one another, in recognition that the war for American independence was a war for freedom of mind." The censorship of the press was one of the prerogatives of the royal governors of the colonies, but this authority was rarely exercised. The patriotic actors in these events knew by experience the dangers that must be shunned and sought to save for posteri ty the mental liberty that had been won The American scholar is born in a most for tunate era. The wisest of men have prepared the foundations of mental liberty ip**»e supreme law of the land. All the statutes necessary for its protection have been engraved by legislators upon tables that must never be broken. The brave men of the last century fought the decisive battle and gained the victory for freedom of thought. The duty of preserving this right by the proper mode of educating the mind devolves upon every resident of the republic. Let this be,done in Montana, and her mountains, the res ervoirs of the Atlantic and Pacific, will become the abodes of men, "high-minded men," free in all that constitutes true manhood, and to these oceans, dashing their waters upon conti nents in the hemispheres, liberty will be "Thunder'd by torrents which no power can hold." [Written for the Herald.] LION SCHUHS ALOIS THE YELLOWSTONE. BY "ONE OF THE PILGRIMS.' The afternoon of March 31st, '78, was made quite memorable away down the Yel lowstone river by a Circular Letter which issued from the Post Trader's Store inviting gentlemen of the "Sword and Quill" gener ally (in the name of the Chief Clerk, Mr. Z—) to unite the next morning in a grand search after a huge mountain lion reported to have been seen quite recently by two men living in "dug outs" on the north bank, several miles higher up stream. [Such a rubbing up of guns and chaining up of canines that night, the latter making the air perfectly melodious with their bowl ings, not being able to divine what could pos sibly be in the wind. I believe no person made his will. Certainly little else was left undone to make the thing a decided success.] The next morning bright and early saw the party assemble in front of General M— 's quarters, duly mounted, and followed by, a 9 Mark Tapley would say, "the most remarka ble collection of dogs ever congregated to gether on the American continent," consist ing of a number of uneducated pointers and setters, together with certain dilapidated, woolÛ9h Indian curs, thievish looking hounds, groggy, blear-eyed bull pups, logy, panting St. Bernards, even clear down to the inevitable black and tans, all snapping and snarling at each other from beneath the riders' feet, in their frantic efforts to settle all sorts of imaginary disputes previous to taking the field in a body against the common enemy. Finally, after mutual satisfaction had been given and taken the procession moved on to the ferry. It might be proper for me to remark at this juncture, that just previous to our taking our departure from the General's door the latter quietly remarked to Colonel G --: "This being the 1 st day of April it might indeed happen that Mr. Z-- 's lion will fail to put in an appearance, which would be unfortu nate in the extreme, as, no doubt, but few of our party have ever seen a mountain speci men in all his pristine grandeur. I have, in deed, a very fine skin in the upper part of my house which could be displayed at an op portune moment, provided we had it with us." Sufficient to say the skin in question was suc cessfully smuggled to a spring wagon (which was to accompany the party) and hidden away under a seat. Colonel G --quaintly remark ing that he did not know whether it would be a good day for lions or not, but he rather thought, from the extensive preparations made, that one at least was sure to be scooped. The ferry reached, our party was soon carried to the opposite shore, the St. Ber nards treating us to a series of aquatic exhibi tions in crossing, and after a sharp canter of a half hour the residences of the "dug out" men ouddenly burst upon the view. With pride these simple-minded, tangle-footed, sub urban friends pointed us to several freshly mede tracks of the evening before, leading from their spring. Alas ! one glance of the practised eye of "Yellowstone Kelly" re solved them into being those made by a wild cat, and not a very large specimen at that. However, he wisely kept his own counsel, no doubt having had occasion to date a letter that morning, previous to leaving the Post. The ground to be hunted over consisted of a bend in the river of possibly three-quar ters of a mile in width, grown up in a great measure with scattering thickets, across the face of which we deployed in skirmishing order, the pack being kept pretty well to the front, frequently being lost to view. Suddenly arose from earth to sky the piercing, combined yells of our canine fol lowers. The lion ! The lion ! shouted one and all. Crash ! There came sailing out a huge brindle calf, bead and tail erect, for home. Fortunately "fear lent it wings," owing to which happy circumstance no experienced "whipping in" on our part was required to recall our pack to further explorations. Charge No. 2 into the remaining thickets produced a perfect explosion of snowbirds, one unfortunate tom-tit being pursued by the "setter-pointer" portion of the delegation in the most remorseless manner, until it succeed ed in placing the river between itself and its barking foe. Still no lion ! Matters looked serious ! Finally, with a majestic wave of his hand, (and possibly a peculiar twinkle of his eye), our gallant leader exclaimed : "Gentlemen, the lion is evidently not here! I perceive an island higher up the river, covered with brush. Possibly he may have taken refuge on it. Let us go and stir him up in his lair !" Accordingly, putting spurs to his horse, he dashed down a steep bank to the water's edge, followed by the whole party, the St. Bernards (a prospect of a swim being in the question) taking the lead. Finally, just as the last horseman had disappeared amidst the foliage ot the island, Colonel G -,(who had quietly remained behind on the main shore awaiting events, his absence not having been noticed apparently), espying the spring wagon approaching, cantered back to meet it, and taking from it the skin, which up to that time, fortunately, had remained undis covered, he conveyed it to the centre of the bend of the river previously hunted over, where he proceeded to stuff out its ample proportions with dried grass and bent twigs in a manner calculated to w'in him the plau dits of all the savans congregated about the Smithsonian Institute, with Prof essor. Baird in 9 at their head. The thicket selected for dis playing his lionship was well calculated for the purpose, as it was not very extensive, the animal upon being placed in its centre being seen from the outside with just suffi cient distinctness to cause a passing stranger to crane his neck considerably before ventur ing in there to cut a fishing pole. The last touches having been given, a trusty orderly was dispatched to the General (who had again returned to the main shore) with the confi dential information that "the thing was ready." Summoning his followers around him, the General exclaimed : "Unquestionably, gentlemen, the lion must be about here somewhere ! 1 incline to the belief that in our haste we failed to ex amine with sufficient care all the thickets in the bend. I suggest, therefore, we return and give them a final scouring before going home, it being in our course!" To hear was to obey, and for the last time was our skirmish line formed with a view to making a final effort to develope our enemy if possible. Our dogs by this time (owing to their efforts of the morning, barking at everything and nothing in particular,) were pretty well played out, and were contented to follow in straggling array, instead of lead ing as heretofore, which fact necessitated the horsemen beating the bushes themselves. Presently, away in the distance was heard the voice of Colonel G --, shouting in the most excited manner : "Come here, quickly, somebody with a gun ! Queer looking ani mal in a thicket to my right !" With wild hallos came charging down the entire skir mish line to his assistance, a grand "sur round" being at once entered upon. As the circle commenced to narrow, the proprietor of a cocked revolver [.who happened to be close up to the edge of the thicket in ques tion), suddenly espying the proportions of the seemingly bewildered lion, announced his intention of being about to open battery on him. At this Colonel G --hurried ly exclaimed, "Look out there ! my six shooting friend. Z--is about to bore the animal through from the other side with h»s rifle. You are in the line of fire;" a hint which was by no manner of means lost upon him. With the nerve of a Gordon Cummings or a Gerard, Z-rapidly brought his gun to his shoulder, and as its clear, sharp crack rang out on the air, over tumbled the stuffed skin (dried grass, bent twigs and all), which General M- promptly dragged forth to view by its ears, an innoffensive pointer dog sailing after it and depriving it of its caudle appendage with a vigorous tug, thereby show ing the estimation in which dead lions are held generally by the canine species. Need I say that an audible smile pervaded the congregation generally ? Even Z- (as he took the situation in fully) managed to scare up a sort of sickly attempt, of a not very prolonged duration, however, whilst the genial proprietor of the post trader's store sud denly disappeared up a neighboring coolie to enjoy, as it is said, along with his pony, a quiet sort of horse laugh. At this moment appeared on the scene our friends of the "dug outs," anx ious to know the cause of the firing. Never shall I forget their fit of virtuous indignation upon being pointed to the stuffed skin curled up at their feet in explanation. They are now the happy possessors of a well thumbed almanac, and most religiously keep track ot the annual reccurrence of All Fools' Day. Of course wine flowed in abundance on the return of the party to the post, the Trader's Store stepping up like a little man with the oft repeated inquiry : "What shall it be, gentlemen ?" Daily now does the Bozeman coach roll leisurely by the once much dreaded "Bend in the Kiver," in perfect security, en route to Miles City. The circumstance of the chase has passed into history (Territorial, of course,) and we.can only say of it in the languageof a once famous bard of the Emerald Isle. "Sure the hunt at Fort Keogh will not be forgot, By those who were there—and those who were not ! » A Second Northwestern Fort. The Army and Navy Journal favors the establishment of a new military post, about half way between Forts Buford and Assinni boine, near the Canada line, as recommend ed by Gen. Terry, who suggests an appro priation of $200,000 for this purpose. This recommendation is approved by Gens. Sher man and Sheridan, whose remarks on the northerly advance of the civilized frontier are conclusive. Probably Wood Mountain would be about the best place for this new fort, and right in the path of the Sioux who come from Canada. An appropriation of $100,000 should also be made to complete Fort Assinniboiae, oue of the most impor tant in the chain of frontier defenses. As an offset, Congress might sell about thirty small posts which long since have fulfilled their mission, and are now either in the heart of civilization, or are superseded by railroads and other means of transporting troops from other forts. Upper Missouri River Navigation. It is probable that & new Missouri River Navigation Company, will be formed in a short time by parties in Helena. They are men who have the capital and look at the matter as a simple business investment. One party has already offered to furnish half the money necessary tc build and equip a boat, and there are othera who will quickly furnish the remainder. Should the company be formed, it is the intention to build a boat early in the Spring, which could be profitably leased to the government engineers next season, after which it would be used for regular river traffic.