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W' FISK BROS., - - Publi shers R. E. FISK^ I I I I Editor. THURSDAY* AFUII. 29, 1880, Ktri BLU AX TERRITORIAL, cosies* TIO Ai. , ►► »♦ - LEWIS ASI) CLARKE COUXTY KEPIB I.ICAS COSVESTIOS. The Republicans of Lewis and Clarke county are requested to meet in delegate convention at the Court House, Helena, Si. T., on Friday, April 30. 1SS0. at 12 SI., to elect delegates to the Territorial Convention, to be held in Helens, May 1st, 1SS0. By order of the Republican County Committee of Lewis and Clarke.J OHO. A. WELLS, Chairman. It may be remarked that Tilden still gets the delegates whoever may get the boom. It is nip and tuck between the Davis and Palmer booms for the rear of. the procession Anybody can hear the popular clamor against a third term, but nobody reports the discovery of a popular demand for it. Blaine's friends are not doing much talk ing, but the results in several States recently show that they are doing a deal of voting. Washbdrne and Blaine both graduated from the office of the Kennebec Journal. Next to Ohio men, Fortune makes pets of newspaper men. Mr. Tilden's health is so poor that he sub sists almost exclusively upon beefsteak ancl toast. The cook at the White House need not grow jubilant over thi9. It is a little unfortunate for the third term movement that the only popular demand for it comes from the Solid South, where the popular voting is all Democratic. Messrs. Worden, Pomeroy, Kinney and Kennett are the four stalwart delegates elect ed from Missoula to the Republican Territo rial Convention. They are solidly for Blaine The Democratic editor just now. when other topics fail him, looms up on the need of harmony in the party. They'il need a strong infusion of it about the time when Samuel appears with his bar'l at Cincinnati. The Executive Committee of the Minne sota Republican State Committee has changed the date of the State Convention from May 20th to May 19tb, in order not to conflict with the Democratic State Convention on the former day._ Encouraging advices come from southern Montana. We are aware that influences have been actively at work to secure Beaverheac for Grant, but it seems these influences are likely to be of no avail. Republicans there, as elsewhere, naturally gravitate toward the man of the people. Beaverhead valley is re ported strong for Blaine. The Glendale del egation, elected last week, at the head of which is Dr. E. D. Leavitt, is unanimous for Blaine. The county will undoubtedly appear in the Territorial Convention with an undi vided Blaine representation. Ohio is booming for Blaine. AT the ar guments and appeals of the Sherman mana gers in that state cannot keep down the en thusiasm of the people or suppress their preferences. The Cleveland Leader says: Everything that could be has been done to stifle an honest expression by the people and let the politicians decide, at the dictation of the Washington wire-pullers, for whom the vote of Ohio shall be cast at Chicago. The Washington clique is for Sherman, the peo ple are for Blaine. Below are the results of the struggle for the control of the State Con vention up to this time : Instructed for Blaine. Delegates. Ottawa............................................. 3 Athens............................................. 7 Columbiana........................................11 Jefferson H The Republicans of the Territory of Montana are requested to meet by delegates or alternates in con vention at the Court House in Helena on Saturday, at 11 o'clock a. m., May 1st, 18S0, for the purpose of selecting two delegates and two alternates to attend the Republican National Convention to be held in Chicago, June 3d, 1SS0. The several counties are en titled to representation as follows: Deer Lodge........... 18 Lewis anti Clarke...................................16 Madison ...........................................10 Gallatin........................................... Meagher............................................ Jefferson... ........................................5 Beaverhead......................................... 5 Missoula............................................ 4 Custer.............................................. 3 Choteau.............................. 3 Total..............:..... 74 The rules adopted in, previous conventions are in force. JOHN KINNA, Chairman. JosLrn Davis, Secretary. Henry. Wood. 3« Total...................................... Instructed for Sherman. Holmes............................................ 3 Fairfield............................................ 6 Total....... Uninstmcted. Hardin......... Clark........... Scioto.......... Blaine. Sherman. ... 3 4 ...5 Ö ... 1 « Totai..................;.......;... 9 15 Total Blaine strength................................45 Total Sherman strength......... 24 Total delegates chosen.................. 69 These figures tell their own story, but in justice to Senator Blaine it should be stated that the fBlaine counties have not yet been heard from. Redaction or Groin Kates. Chicago, April 23— The grain rates from the Missouri river to Chicago and St. Louis have been heavily reduced to-day, the reduc tion amounting in some cases to nine cents per hundred pounds. RANGERS OF A CONTESTED ELECTION There is no disguising the fact that the present year, with its Presidential election, will witness serious peril to our Government and free institutions. We do not know that we wou'.d be justified in saying that partisan spirit is any more blind, bitter and unscrupu lous than in some former periods of our his tory. The early contests between Federal ists and Republicans compare well with present differences. Democrats then de nounced the Supreme Court just as severely, and with even more reason, than now. The Federal party was accused, with vastly more reason, of aiming at the establishment of a strong government with monarchical tenden cies, and with imposing restrictions apon free speech and a free press. There was another display of fierce partisanship during Jack son's candidacy and Presidency, when lead ers talked as wildly and threatened each other as savagely. Then came the struggle which terminated in Lincoln's election, when the Democracy defeated itself by division, and war ensued. That, however, was something more than the result of partisan strife for power and pl^ce. It was a war of slavery against freedom, of two radically different systems of civilization which could not be reconciled. It would seem that there were no such irreconcilable elements in contest now that could come to blows. It would seem, too, that the recollections of the suffer ings and losses of so recent a struggle would repress any desires for a revival of bloodshed. At the south, where the suffering and loss were greatest, this feeling is strongest, as was clearly shown after the decision of the Elec toral Commission was announced. It was the northern democracy that indulged in all the wild threats of marching on Washington 300,000 strong to inaugurate Tilden. It is still the same parties who are threatening loudest and manifesting the most unscrupu lous disposition to rule or ruin. It is con ceded that no such thing as a free election at the South is possible. Cost what it may, and be the consequences what they will, the Re publican party will never be allowed te re sume power in any southern State, no matter how great a majority of votes it casts, so long as the bulk of the party consists of ex slaves or northern settlers. This purpose of the South, however, concerns itself princi pally with home rule and does not seek with anything like the same desperation to seize upon the power of the General Government. In reality, the southern Democracy differs as essentially in spirit and purpose from the northern Democracy as either section differs from the Republicans. The southern Demo crats look upon their northern allies as great boasters, fierce to threaten but utterly unreli able in time of danger. They have not for gotten that these same fellows urged them to rebel and then fought on the other side or stayed at home and speculated upon the ne cessities and distresses of both sides. In this lack of Democratic harmony there is the chief hope of a peaceful issue. Still the sight of a Solid South ready for delivery with scarce a formality of a vote to the Cincinnati nominee, and still more the sight of a Con gress so devoid of any decent regard for jus tice, ready to reverse settled decisions and turn out of their seats members certified as elected by State Courts, and others whose majorities ran up into the thousands, may well fill the heart of every citizen with gloom when he thinks that such a Congress has tihe counting of the Presidential vote. Would those men who say that Washburne is not entitled to represent the Third District of Minnesota have any more scruple to say that whoever is the Republican candidate for President, and by whatever majority he may be chosen, he was not entitled to the seat. The chorus of curses raised against the Su preme Court seems to be inspired by the fear that it holds a power to thwart and reverse the judgments that have been already resolved upon. We would like to inquire of those so profuse in charges of partisanshipjagainst the Supreme Court, what oath they have taken to obey the Constitution and laws, that Dem ocratic members of Congress have not taken? Are not members of Congress, when judicial ly deciding the rights of claimants to seats, as solemnly bound to render justice according to * law as the members of the Supreme Court ? If the Democracy is ready to spit upon the decisions of the Supreme Court, en forced and supported as they are by unan swerable arguments, how is it to be thought the Republicans would regard the decisions of this Congress, after the exhibitions and avowals of purpose already of record ? A fat lamb would have just as much to expect from an appeal to the compassion of a hungry lion. There is a peril that cannot be dis guised, and Republicans will do well to be providing for it The question propounded a few years ago as to whether the Caucasian was "played out" or not, must be deemed still open for discussion. Hitherto he has held his own pretty well ; but his position in the front rank of humanity is seriously threatened by the result of the last walking match in New York. If a colored brother, whose province it is, according to all recognized authorities, to be on his back in the sun and do nothing unless under compulsion, can carry off the palm for covering more miles in six days than any other man, it is time for the Caucasian to look to his laurels and put his best foot forward. If be does not, he seems likely, in sporting parlance, to be "got away with," as indeed he was pretty badly on this last oc casion. NORTHERN PACIFIE EXTENSION. Senator Windom has reported back to the Senate the bill to extend the time for the com pletion of the Northern Pacific railroad six years from date. The extension of time is accompanied with several very important conditions, some of which are so succinctly stated as to be obscure. The first is the most important, throwing open all the agricultural lands of the company to settlement and guaranteeing to each actual settler a quarter section or some smaller portion at $2 50 per acre. To this it is added that all lands sold, except by way of mortgage, to aid in the con struction of the road shall be subject to taxa tion. This latter clause looks as if it left it altogether in the pleasure of the company to withdraw its lands from taxation by putting them under mortgage. There are several other inquiries arise that lead us to desire much to see the full text of the bill. How are settlers to be sure of getting their lands at $2.50 per acre unless they get their title direct from the government. If the com pany's lands are made over to it by patent we see nothing to prevent the company from placing on them any price it sees fit : and what redress will the settler have in case the company does charge $5.00 or $10.00 per acre. All this can be secured by letting the settler get title from the government and in no other way. But if this is in the bill that the government shall retain title till the lands are taken by settlers, how can the company mortgage them to secure funds for construc tion. No one could expect that the lands would be subject to taxation till after the government had parted with its title. We would say that we are far from being satisfied with the provision so far as it is re vealed in the brief synopsis given. We see no indication that the propositions of the grant have been cut down at all. The rail road company will receive their twenty full sections of land for every mile of road con structed, which at $2.50 per acre will give it $32,000, an ample sum to build and equip the road. Gen. Dodge says that the cost of building the Union Pacific did not exceed $35,000 per mile, and that at a time when inflation was at its maximum. We do not complain of this liberality, but it certainly gives the government a right to accompany it with all the restrictions and securities for their faithful performance, that its own in terests and those of the countries traversed may require. When we come to account for the milk in the cocoanut we shall discover that in reality the people in the Terri torties who buy the alternate sections and pay $2.50 per acre, are the ones who build the railroad or at least the ones who pay for it, the government making itself whole on the half that remains. The railroad company gets a good thing in having its road built for nothing. The gov ernment gets a good thing in many ways without costing it a cent. The ones who get the least and are last thought of are the ones who pay for the whole thing. It is right that they should be heard in their own behalf, and that their interests should be considered first and foremost, instead of last and least. We have a right to demand that all the lands shall be open to settlement at a fixed price, that they shall remain in government hands until paid for and the title comes from govern ment, that when once the title passes from the United States in any form to any person or company, it shall be liable to taxation to pay its share to support the government and improve the country. Still further it is the duty of the government to provide not only at what rates its mails and troops and sup plies shall be transported, but also what rates transportation shall be done for those who pay for the road and present it to the com pany. We will not say more until we know more fully the nature and provisions of the bill. Chhicago Tribune : Can any man pre empt the office of President of the United States ? Is it a personal office ? Should it be conferred upon any citizen as a prize or a re ward, to gratify his feelings or provide for his wants ? These are some of the questions that the people of the United States, and par ticularly of Illinois, are now called upon to ace iver. There are persons, and even public journals, that support a particular candidate on the ground that he is entitled to the Presi dency. To withhold the office from him, they say, would be "insulting." For the people of Illinois to declare for any other candidate would be an "outrage." To say that, after he has held the office two terms, another man should hold it, is to "stab" him. If the Presidency is a private perquisite, to be farmed out to the person who has done most for the country, held in his possession by virtue of his merits, and used by him to reward his friends and punish his enemies, these persons and public journals may be right But if the office is a very different thing, if it is an instrument of government, if it is part of an administrative machine, established by the people for their own bene fit, those who would degrade it into air ap panage of a private fortune are wholly wrong. ___ A ton of gold or silver contains 29,166.66 ounces. A ton of gold is worth $602,875. A ton of silver at the present rate per ounce is worth about $32,000. A citic foot of gold weighs 1,200 pounds, and is worth near ly $300,000. A cubic foot of silver weighs 600 pounds, and is worth about $10,000. The value of gold coin, bars and bullion in cir fondation in the world is estimated at $3,500, 000,000. ABOVE THE GREAT FALLS. Extracts from the Report of Lieut. Edward Maguire, Corps of Engineers. Improvements Recommended to Facili tate Steamboat Navigation. In bis report bearing date March 24th, 1880, Lieut. Edward Maguire, Corps of En gineers, in charge of the improvement of the Missouri river above the mouth of the Yel lowstone, devotes considerable space to a description of the river above the Great Falls, and recommends the removal of obstructions, the clearing and deepening of the channel at different points, etc. The report is an inter esting and valuable document. It gives a minute and careful account, not only of the work done on the river above the Falls since, and including the reconnoissance of T. P. Roberts in 1872, but also of the various plans heretofore suggested for overcoming the ob stacles that have prevented the use of that portion of the river for purposes of naviga tion. It also sets forth in strong terms the benefits which will accrue to our people when the river above the Falls shall be navigated. The following extracts will show his views upon the nature of the river and the work necessary for its improvement : "The river from Stubbs's Ferry to the mouth of Suu river may be considered as presenting an example of "Slack water navi gation,'' in which, in lieu of locks, one finds natural chutes. It consists of alternate pools of varying lengths, separated one from an other by short pitches of rapid water. These pools are as a rule comparatively sluggish, of a depth varying from 3 to 14 feet, and gener ally free from rocks. In the canyons, how ever, the channels are choked by numerous rocks which are very large and in many cases project far above the low water level. They would constitute serious obstacles to steam boat navigation, but can be readily and rap idly blasted and removed. "The least depth of water found by me was twenty inches, and that only in very few places. These places could readily be im proved, in some cases by means of dams closing the lateral chutes, and in others by means of wing dams. The material for these dams is to be found in profusion and easy of access. I am of the opinion that the 'pitches' separating the pools will not prove difficult of ascent, it being understood, of course, that the beats must be small and provided with powerful machinery. Fuel of the best quality will, for a number of years, be found in close proximity to these places, and consequently should be cheap. "With the exception of Half-Breed Rapids, I do not think that the ascent of any of them will require "laping a line." These latter rapids, however, present the most serious ob stacles to navigation in the upper river. The river is here divided into two chutes by Half Breed, or as Lewis and Clarke termed it, 'Lone Pine Island.' From the head to the foot of the island the fall is great, being, as Roberts estimates it, not less than eight feet in about 1500, and tne current is very swift. The channel is, however, deep and free from obstructions except at the foot of the island, where it is literally filled with immense rocks. The work to be done here will be simple in character, and I am, at the present time, un der the impression that it may be rapidly ex ecuted. The only obstruction below Half-Breed Rapids, as reported by Roberts, is to be found at Black Bird Ripple. There I found some rocks, (which should be removed), and only twenty inches of water. The scant depth being occasioned by the division of the river into three chutes by two islands, the remedy lies in closing the lateral ones. Eelow this place, Roberts reports but one ripple (Shot Gun) with two and one-half feet depth, but I found scant two feet. A dam here would be of great benefit. The bottom from this point on is sandy and the stream is reported as a 'continuous pool varying from five to twelve feet in depth, 600 and 1200 feet wide, mak ing numerous bends through a rich grazing region.' * * * * * * * * # * "I would suggest, then, as a project for the work of the coming season, that a party be sent to Half-Breed Rapids, and the chan nel there having been cleared of rocks it should then move in succession to Black Bird and Shot Gun Ripples, and construct the necessary dams. This would constitute a good season's work for one party. In view of the small appropriations annually made for the improvement of the Missouri above the mouth of the Yellowstone, I would not recommend the working of more than one party on the 'upper river.' I hold to the idea that the river below Benton should be first improved, inasmuch as the 'upper river' will be useless unless boats can navigate the lower. ****** * ** "Edward Maguire, "Lieut. Corps of Engineers." On the seventh and last ballot in the Cincin nati Convention Mr. Blaine had votes from New England States as follows : Connecticut........................................ 2 Massachusetts...................................... 5 New Hampshire.................................... 7 Island.................................. 2 Rhode Maine Total..........................................30 In the Chicago Convention he is assured of the following New England votes from the start : Connecticut................ $ Rhode Island........................ g New Hampshire................................ 10 Massachusetts...................................... 5 Maine........... ""14 Total............................................ As between Mr. Blaine and a third term, after the first ballot, the former will receive one-half of the Vermont and Massachusetts delegations, bringing his total New England vote up to 66, or more than twice what it was at Cincinnati. He will also gain 28 votes from Indiana, which gave him no support at Cincinnati ; 22 votes from Michigan, which was then against him ; 6 votes from Califor nia, which was evenly divided; and 15 to 20 votes from Ohio, which was for Hayes from first to last. These gains amount to 109 votes. IIELI* THE NEW COMERS. Some ExcellentSutftfeNtiouM from "Liten. tleld.'' * Clancy, April 19tb, 1880. To the Editor of the Herald: In a recent number of your paper, wherein you make mention of the increasing number of immigrants now en route and likely to find their way into the country the coming sum mer, many of them in search of and requir ing immediate employment, you considerately express a hope that the people of Helena will use their best efforts to assist them in their endeavors. I have not your paper at hand, and quote from memory. This is to my mind a very easy method of getting around a Uifti cult problem, which is the giving of proper encouragement and assistance to persons com ing here in quest of employment and perma nent homes. Many of the States and some of the Territories have made liberal appropria tions to encourage immigration, and have even sent their agents to European countries for such purposes and are to-day reaping the rewards of such an enlightened course by the increase in their population, causing a pro portionate addition in their productions and general prosperity. I am told that your citi zens at one time made a soit of feeble attempt in that direction, but the subject was soon allowed to die of its own free will. The fact was, probably, your people could not see the money in it. Many of them are anxious to encourage a class of immigrants known to have liberal means and abundance of money in their possession. This class of persons is the sort of people they wish to assist, Scrip turally, by. "taking them in." It is not my intention to convey the notion that your citi zens are not as good, kind-hearted, liberal, generous, etc., as are generally met with. Iu fact, I know personally that many of them possess those good and charitable qualities in abundance and draw on them liberally at times, as many recipients can attest, the writer among the number. But it is a w r ell understood fact, that what is everybody's business "is no one's affair in particular," hence I apprehend the subject of attending to the new comer's wants and requirements will not receive the attention it so deservedly merits. Hence I take the liberty of making a few remarks and giving some suggestions on this interesting subject. It is well known that a great number of the mines of this Territory, some of them very rich, are allowed to remain undeveloped for the just and simple reason that the tariff of wages has been so high that the owners' have not dared to employ men to work on them without first having money in the bank to meet such men's wages. Most of those mines would be worked if men could be got at $25 to $40 per month, (with good board included). Whereas if you promise $75 to $100 per month, the chances are very great that if you are not a man possessed of money, your mine or works will soon be un der a multiplicity of clouds with leans, judg ments, lawyer's fees, mortgages, &c. Hence, I contend that it would be better even for the working men, (and being one myself I know of what I write and am no advocate of starv ing wages to starve on,) to be secured on sure pay and constant work the year round. This would also benefit the worker morally by keeping him out of the way of temptation in squandering his hard earned money which, when exhausted, he is often politely, if you will, told to vamose to other parts. How is all this to be accomplished? Establish an office for such a purpose, let it be a public matter, and kept open and free to all. Let those in want of work as well as those desiriDg to employ men, go there and record their wants and the amount of wages they are willingly prepared and able to pay for such assistance, and I venture to predict you will have made a start in the right direction to assist the new comers, as well as to benefit our Territory, by a development of its now hidden vast mineral resources. Having reserved a large amount of ammunition in the shape of argu ments for a future occasion, and giving you this merely as an entering wedge in the hopes that young, wide awake Helenaites will take up the cudgels and lead the enterprise to beneficial operation and results. Yours, LITCHFIELD. Northern Pacific Railroad. Washington, April 21.— In the Senate to day, Windom, from the Committee on Rail roads, reported with amendments the bill ex tending the time for the completion of the Northern Pacific railroad. The bill as amended extends the time given the company for the completion of its main line and !ts branches six years from the pass age of the act, subject 4o the following con ditions : First—Actual settlers on the agricultural lands embraced in the grant to thft company shall be entitled to purchase from the compa ny one quarter section, or a legal sub-divis ion thereof, on which they shall have settled at the price of $2 50 per acre. All lands sold except by way of mortgage to aid in the con struction of the road, shall be subject to tax ation according to the laws of the State or Territory within which they may be situ ated. 8econd—The company arc required, with in one year after the passage of the bill, W commence the construction of its main lins between Portland, Oregon, and a point as far east as Walla Walla, Washington Tern toiy, and to complete, equip and put in ope ration the entire main line between these two points within four years from the time of the commencement of the work. Third—The right of way of the company where it passes through any canon, pass* etc., anywhere on its line, shall not prevent any other railroad company from the use and occupancy of the passes in common with the Northern Pacific road.