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)#Mn WmM FISK BROS., - - Publishers. R. E. FISK, - Editor. SAT1K OAÏ. JAXl'ARY 1, 1881. [Written for the Herald.] TBE ÜI5HÏ5 OF TEEE1TQE1ES IN IBS ELECTION OF PRESIDENT, BY HENRY X. BLAKE. The citizens of the United States have has been disregarded since the nineteenth centurv dawned. The members of the Fed cral Convention wished to avert the evils which had been attendant upon the popular flections of nations that existed before 1787. Governed by this purpose, they rejected by a Governed by this purpose, they rejected by a large majority thc proposition to confer upon flu*' people the right of electing the Chief Magistrate of the Union. Their deliberations .1 i i* 1 . resulted in the adoption of the second article, which provides that each State shall appoint a number of electors, who are required to vote s, and that the President and for two persons, Vice-President shall be chosen from the list of these persons. "No Senator or Represen tative. or person holding an office of trust or prolit under the United States, shall lx 1 ap noin ted an elector." The twelfth amend iiieiit to the Constitution requires the electors lo designate the person voted foras President or Vice-President, but the essential features of thc original system have not been changed, It must Ik* conceded that strong reasons were urged ;n support ol this method ot " cluising " these officers. Alexander Hamil pointment of the Chief Magistrate ot the United States is almost the only part of the ton in the Federalist , which was published March 14th, 1788, writes: "The mode of ap-1 system, of any consequence, which lias es caped without severe censure, or which has received the slightest mark of approbation When we review the from its opponents." history of the intense and bitter campaign that was fought by the friends of the Con stitution to secure its ratification, and see its enemies mass their forces and attack every pari in the hope of finding a vulnerable point,! it is a safe conclusion that this "system" was unmolested because it was impregnable. Many commentators have expressed their earnest approval of this American principle in politics, and a reference to their opinions may be instructive. Chancellor Kent in his Commentaries observes: "The mode ol elect ing the President appears to he well calcu lated to secure a discreet choice. * :i :: ' This would seem, prima fade, to be as wise a provision as the wisdom of man could have devised, to avoid all opportunity for foreign or domestic intrigue. * * There is no other mode of appointing the Chief Magistrate, ; under all the circumstances peculiar te our j political condition, which appears to unite in itself so many unalloyed advantages." Ham ilton in the Federal id, which has been cited, ays : " 1 venture somewhat further, and hes itate not to affirm, that if the maimer of it | be not perfect, it is at least excellent. '•*■ This process of election affords a moral cer tainty that tin* office of President will sel dom fall to the lot of any man who is not in an eminent degree endowed with the requis ite qualifications. * It will not be too strong to say that there will be a con stant probability of seeing the station filled by characters pre-eminent for ability and vir tue." From these and similar remarks by other writers and the members of the Federal Con vention, wc learn that the electors were to be selected on account of their integrity and eminent fitness for this exalted honor ; that j it was their public duty to exercise their pri vate judgment in voting for the most worthy person for President; that their ballots would be controlled by patriotic motives and could not be attracted from their course by foreign Joes or domestic friends; and that they would have no personal ends to subserve in their official conduct, because they were citizens ' holding no positions of profit or trust under j tile United »States. It was not difficult to : point out the most skillful helmsman for thc j ship ol'state during the first two administra- i tions of the new Republic, and the electors with one mind named Washington. Dur ing the succeeding administration of John Adams partisan fires were kindled in every village of tin* country, and this Utopian fab ric of the creators of the Union was destroy ed in the flames. From that epoch to the present month the electors have been auto matic in their action, .and, in reality, have had no greater power or discretion in voting for the President than the elector of Hesse Cassel. The delegates to conventions, com prising persons who entertain the same views j of the policy of the National Government, j nominate candidates for the highest offices ; ill the gill of the people—not the elec tors. What is popularly know n as the spirit ' of the Constitution has last its vitality in an-11er other respeet. The Senators and Représenta lives and persons holding office of profit or trust under the United States, who are ineli -1 gible to the position of elector, in order that they cannot influence the choice of the Presi ». . . ! dent, are not only members of the national po litical conventions, but they are the leaders of every laetion and wield a vast authority in se lecting their candidates. The electors, who vot ed recently for James A. Garfield or Winfield S. .r , ,. ,, i Hauc-ock for I resident, executed respectively | the will of the Itepublican National Conven - 1 tion and the Democratic National Conven tion which convened for these objects. If an elector should [»erforni his duty according to the original system, which has been describ ed, and vote for a person for Chief Magistrate who had not l»een designated by his political organization, he would be condemned to in famy, and would _ ,. j "Godown To thc vile dust from which he sprung unwept, unhonored and unsung." 11 * 8 proper to comment upon another de partr.re ol'this generation from the ideas pre vailing in the last century. The privilege of "chusing" the electors was conferred u]>oii the States, and the voice of the Territories was silenced. In ISfjS, the Republican Na tional Convention, after a discussion in which Hon. Wilbur F. Sanders of this Territory sus tained an honorable part, and vindicated most ably the right of the delegates from the Territories to act by their votes, abolished all distinctions between the members. This precedent was followed by the national as semblies of the party in 1872, 1876 and 1880, and in pursuance of the decisions of the last, the call for the future convention in 1884 their ballots at four conventions for the per sons who triumphed in the canvass, and thereby shared with the States the high priv- 1 ; ilege of voting for President and Vice-Presi dent, n effect, the delegates to such bodies, by the faithful performance of their duties, by the faithful performance ot tneir unties, can fill the niche designed for the electors by j the Constitution. j j The vriter, who participated in thc Repub 1 i nn r» VotiAnol fVim-ûnf imi 111 1 Ptill fiCSlPvf i 1 | bean National Convention m i»»u, can assert bom actual knowledge that there will he no ; j retreat from this advance # movement. The : Democratic councils have opposed this inno vat ion, although they have sometimes given to contestants from the Territories, which were ignored in the official call, the pinch beck bmble of a membership without any ] votes. During my sojourn in Cincinnati, j while he last Democratic convention was in session the proposition to grant to delegates ! from tie Territories equal rights with those f j from tte »States was a subject ot conversation, j not discission, for there was only one opinion utteredby those in authority, that of unqual ified cotdemnation. The report of the eom a seats ii this assembly, vas adopted imani ! mouslyand a motion to allow the Territories , 1 mittee,that considered and denied the prayer of the ctizens from Territories who claimed representation upon the Democratic National ; ; Commitee was rejected, in my interviews ; with n»ny delegates the sole reason that i ! ' vas givn tor this \ icw ot the question was r i loundei upon the tact lhat the Territories ; have n. electoral votes. This is not a sub | jeet of lartizansliip, and the welfare of the j Territoies will he promoted by a change of this poicy by the Democratic party. The j argumet which has been presented may be ; refuted>y the following considerations: The .'resident and Vice-President are ofti j cers of the United »States, which embrace I within heir boundaries a region that has been I divided for known is »States and Territories. The Terri tories ae »States in embryo, which will be ad of no convemence into communities ! mittedinto the Union with the sovereignty of the, oiginal thirteen as soon as Congress so provide! by legislation. The only standard which hs been consulted in determining the proper tme for this action has varied with ; cver y deade. After each census the nupi j ,>er of iniabitauts forming a district for thc 1 ? election o' a member of the National House of Represeitatives has been increased, and it has been assumed that no Territory should be allowed t> enter the condition of »Statehood, | unless it con ai ns the same population. There is no law or lxed rule controling this subject, and the consiliences have been of general as well as loul interest. The Constitution declares that " he number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thou sand, hut each Stak* shall have at least one Representative.' At the time that th\s clame was adopted by die Federal Convention every ! »State had over fifty thousand " numbers." It j is evident that tie admission into the Union I of Territories hating less than thirty thou- ■ sand was contemplated, because the foregoing j tu of on a . ,, . not inapplicable to the ong limitation was ____ _______ ____ _ • , t<* ».i. 4-4 4- i 4 j » mal States. It the constitutional standard, , ; and 'thirty thousand" could be applied by Congress, all the Territories, except Idaho, would liecome »States. The clause of the Con stitution, which provides that "new »States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union," is a grant of [lower without any re strictions as to population. The Republican National Convention has enforced the rule of equity which considers that as done which should be done, and treat ed the Territories according to the relations which they should sustain to the Union. We have seen that the Territories are entitled to gates from a demand as a right under the Constitution admission into the family of States, but Con gress refuses gto ivc its consent until the number ot men, women and children rises to certain figures. As the Territories are de prived ot their electoral votes through this wrong, there is no justice in the position that they should for this cause lose the privilege of balloting for the candidates for President in a political convention. The absurdity of this position may be shown by its application to the »States. If it is proper to exclude dele it, tie 1 iis * --------------— » 4 * kor, » » National Convention, L. f y îepresent Territories which can- J because they ^ ______________________ not vote for electors, why should States like m . Vermont and Iowa, that will repudiate its nominees, be permitted to dictate candidates States which wiil give them thekelttoml ballots? Another question may be asked in this connection. If it is political wisdom to admit into a national convention member? for take from »States, which are sure to vote against * its candidates, why should it reject delegate» - _ . J rail full . . Territories that cannot yield any liLs lllJ toi teolyBCTte. The same logic woulc lire to etee itadooM^raimt déterres like K'pnti.xi-t- t, . .. ' a ^ God . ^ and i^exas, mid desjierse the with national assembly of the Greenbackers, be-! love cause they are like the Territories and have bu no electoral votes. There are two ancient maxims which seem to be pertinent to this matter: that reason is as the soul of the law, and that when the reason ccpt of the law ceases, the law'itself ceases It mmit be adm^that Z li : tothe creation of the electors in the choice of : a Pi-esident and \ ice-President ceased to exist many years ago, and that this provision of tc ! Bacon says " He that will not apply new rem edies must expect new evils, for time is the greatest innovator.'' One of the certainties of the future is the adoption of an amend ment to the Constitution that will abolish the electoral trustees, and confer upon every American citizen, dwelling inside of the lines of States or Territories, the power of voting directly for President. Those who maintain that the Territories should be deprived of the privilege enjoyed by the States in national political councils cannot justify their conduct by standing upon ground which has been re moved by the progress of the age. A national convention of partisans is not, ■purpose of proclaiming their views of public affairs and making nominations for President 1 and Vice-President. It is not an assembly of Republicans, or Democrats, or Greenbackers of the States alone, but the whole country, and the wishes of every section should be j ana tne wisnes oi every section snouia oe consulted so that the majority may rule. No j advocate of a political dogma living within a ! Territory should be disfranchised by his j 1 i.1_____ 1 ll TTS1 4 -, « P Tl. « ! brethren in the »States. The people of the Territories have a deeper personal interest j than those of the States in the occupant of the Presidential chair, while he nominates | their governors, judges and other officers, jt would be unjust to conclude these sug gestions without tendering an apology in be half of the Democratic party for its action on this question. The persons assuming to rep resent the Territories have not vindicated by j argument the claims of their constituents he -1 f ore an y Democratic National Convention. the recent session of this body in 1880, j Mr. Pulitzer, ot Missouri, denounced in scorn- ! ful words the motion to allow each Territory : a member of the National Committee. How was he answered? This was the golden occa- j sion for a Territorial delegate to champion the interests confided to Ills charge, and speak i not on ]y to the audience in the hall, but the world, and future as well as living genera-j kons. Where was the orator who would rus } 1- jjfi e Sanders in 1868, from the Territo- i r j a ] benches to the platform to rebuke the ! insolence of Pulitzer, and defend the vital Then principle which had been attacked? was no "Abdiel faithful found Among the faithless" delegates from the Territories, and amidst such an eventful and disgraceful silence a great privilege was lost. When the friends of this measure were recreant to their trust, no censure attaches to those who were gov erned the Prisions of thcir predecessors , j i : and opposed it, for "Who would he free, themselves must strike thc | Wow." ^ ^ __ j ^ - our ßi s fi 0 ? rd el . J our t . 0p BISHOP TUTTLE'S FAREWELL EPISTLE. To the Clergy and People of Montana : Dearly Loved Friends: In an hour or two the Rev. L. R. Brewer is to be conse Then is made over to him the name I have always been proud of and have loved—the Bishop of Montana. It becomes me to say my good-bye. My heart, torn with sorrowfulness at this rup -1 tu re, tells how you are imbedded in it Precious memories crowding themselves up on me this hour, witness how lovingly good you have been to me. Let me say out my sadness. The valleys and hillsides, the very nooks and crannies of your Territory, are dear to me from association. Your clergy and men and women'and children and homes more dear from ties of fond afiection. I were a stone statue could I speak this farewell unmoved. Sad indeed sit I now to write it. Sadder settles the feeling at this hour when my oversight of you ends, that I have I not done for you or among you as well as J G J ought or might. Things have been done , T , that I ought not to have done and left un done that I ought to have done. Y ou have once and again said kind words to me alxmt my dili gence and, as you were pleased to see and call it, my faithfulness. Love prompted these words, and my heart is touched at recalling :hem. But God knows how, to Him and me, his your picture is marred by selfishness ind earthliness. The book of my pastoral stewardship of your souls closes itself nowunto tie one only opening of the last: Great Day. 1 am praying God to forgive the debts and licks, the wastes and losses and sins of un iithfnlness in that record, for the merciful feivior s sake ! But. saddest crowds the thought, that i nany of you whom I dearlv love and who lave been tenderly kind to me, have not jlaced yourselves freely and fully on the lord's side as earnest communing Chistians. )ear, dear, friends, I beg you, I pray for you, ; iirn you to God in faith and prayer and ' •bedience- and Holy Baptism and Holv Cmn- ! minion. »Seek ye the Kingdom of God and iis righteousness. Be grate '. . ; , , . » 4 - ii o y°ur ». v kor, and kmd to your own souls. Wanne ; L. f h no , hamiiness in it for von mrl ™ „.„11 _ ! m . e ' and coming death no well-founded peice wlthout thrist But }>e my CÏOfSlll S word oue 01 gladness. Montana ^Bishop of its own. 'TLsThe right | tlimg *° r Montana to have - Tls tilie But be my closing word ouc of gladnss. i for her to have him. Let us "thank God £nd take courage," you w ith me and I with vku. ! * ^ y0U * ove and as you e l°\ ed aud helped me. Give him y dir rail eontldencp nr» Lie LnnUc Cli»ni. full confidence. Stay up his hands. Chier liLs heart. Under him prayerfully make you ! lire ilaxter's can® grow and the churck's ; brethren lieloved! Good-bye! That meals, God be with you! He will helpfully bile j with you, if y^ou trustfully' lean on him. Yy love and prayers are yours. With an almost ! bu ^mg heart I lay down my pastoral »stiff' as Bishop of Montana. God help me. Àmea. I DAN'L. S. TUTTLE. ; * ' A young man possessed of no fortune e: ccpt a brave and energetic wife located thr** ,, , ' ^ lltomHdel — — ^ a wagon and harness for'$135,' anT^d mules for a like amount, on credit, and weit tc work. His homestead is now free fron paid for and he owns considerable stocl • [Written for the Herald.] IBS MONTANA MISSION OF TBS METHO DIST SFISOOFAL CHURCH. BY KEY. F. A. BIGGIN, A. DENT. M., SUPERINTEN In response to your kind invitation to pre pare an account of our mission and its work for your holiday edition. I take great pleas ure in communicating such facts as are at j my command or have come within my observation. Its boundaries are defined by | the Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal not, Church to include the Territory ot Montana, third parallel of north latitude ; and, also, ; so much of the Territory of Idaho as lies di of I rectly north of the Utah mission, and also | the Fort Hall Indian reservation. That part | of Montana included in the Black Hills mis j sion is between the 104° and 105° w. longi "" and 46° n. latitude—a small southeast corner, more easily Black Hills region. At various jioints throughout this vast area siun is oeiweeii uic iu j tude and the 45° and 4< a ! portion of the southeai j reached from the Black « ! A4- 4-Vtn/ j are interests of Methodism committed to the of care of this mission. The extremes of our | work, by the usual routes of travel, are 700 miles apart in one direction and 500 in an other. It is the duty ot the Superintendent to visit each section as often as practicable, and to report the condition of each field to the corresponding secretaries of the Mission j ary Society of the Methodist Episcopal -1 Church. At most of the important centers we have j preachers in charge, to whom are committed ! the oversight ol our churches and the mem : bership of the same. They are supported in part by the people and in part by funds ap j propriated from collections to the missionary cause of our church. YV heuever a charge is i able to support its own preacher, the kinds of the Missionary Society are withdrawn and go to build up a new work unable to bear alone its entire expenses. We have as yet i but onel sef-supporting charge—the Lemhi ! Circuit, with headquarters at »Salmon City, , . Idaho. This was the last organized. The people of that locality, however, are thrifty, liberal and public-spirited, and appreciative of the institutions of Christianity. There are other charges on nearly a self-supporting j basis, and in a short time will compare very i favorably with church work anywhere. The fields we already occupy are : Helena. Rev. S. P. Longstreet, pastor. Here : we have a fine brick church and a neat, nice a membership of 95, with a tiour ... . | ishing »Sunday School. Preaching by the pastor j every Sabbath, morning and evening. Con gregations are good. Bozeman, Rev. George Conilbrt, pastor. In this charge we have the largest Protestant church in the Territory—a brick edifice that would do credit to a much larger place—a membership of about 30, with a flourishing ; Sunday School Tirn+Vw»r CY.ixfni-f i Hrotner vomioit preacnes j twice every Sabbath to intelligent and appro- \ ciative audiences. ! Glentlale aüd Jeffersol i valle >'> Iiev - Hu ë h | Duncan, pastor. We have a neat frame church ! at fYlenclale, built under the supervision of Brother Duncan. It is located on Main street, j and centrally planted for that growing place, j It has been most generously helped by the j gentlemanly officers of the Hecla Mining Company, and our church work there will ever he indebted to their kindly aid for its prosperity. Brother Duncan also preaches at various places in Jefferson valley—at Fish Creek, Waterloo, Iron Rod and Twin Bridges. At some of these places we have live mem bers and interesting Sunday Schools, with a church membership of ?>5. The outlook is hopeful. Beaverhead and Bannack, Rev. W. C. Ship pen, pastor. There are seven preaching places i and two church edifices, one at Sheridan and j tlie other at Bannack, with a membership ol | 75 and several flourishing Sunday »Schools, j Fifteen hundred dollars have recently been j raised for the erection of a church at Dillon, j which will lie completed as rapidly as pos as pos sible. Virginia City, Rev. \V. A. »Shannon, pastor. This is a prosperous work. Grace M. E. Church is a monument of the liberality of j 4i.„ e«a.i r«*,. hm-------------:_4 ---- 4» I. the »Social City. There are six appointments, j In the farming settlements contiguous— j Meadow creek, Madison valley, Ruby valley, j Adobetown and Puller's Hot Springs—we i liave good congregations and liberal support ers. Our preacher travels from fifteen to twenty miles between appointments, reach ing Virginia every Sabbath evening. There Ls a membership of about 35. with .several Sunday Schools. d.Garv in, B. D., pastor. W e h f\ ea beautiful brick church nearly com- j pleted—the gem of the mountains. It is like ! — cannot be hid Mem y uuimummu. xuem . ,)ershi P about 70. Our Sunday »School at ; Butte is as prosperous as any in Montana. prosperous The entire church work, under th* efficient i 40 h ? eftaL H f h f recently completed a par of is exceedingly | sonage on the church lot, in the rear of the ; church * ^ un Di'ei and lort Benton Rev M J ' ' 1 Hall, pastor. This work Ls new, but exceed- j ingly hopeful. Our pastor travels almost constantly. His circuit Ls aliout 100 miles ! »» * a i yet : long. Owing to the difficulty of securing snital , k . 1)tac e of worship, wê have not or 8 : ' nized »* Fort Benton. As soon as possi- : We we will erect a church on lots already provided At »Sun River and Chestnut settle L nt . Chestnut settle & "°° d congregations and lib eral su PP°rters ; as also at South Fork of Sun River. Salmon City and Lemhi valley, Rev. L. C . 1 A ley, pastor. Recently organized, with fine ' ^ P Kecently or ^ prospects. Our membership is about 20. The ^ ^ P ' C hearty sympa ' hy Wi ' h ° Ur W ° rk ' and haV ' CM " rib " tol lib - T'^ ^ erally to the support of the church. Miles City. Rev. George Aldersou, a local preacher, has maintained religious sendees for some time. Owing to the pressure of „*i»„ , _ , , 1 other engagements, I have been unable to visit that section, and cannot speak from personal observation. It is our purpose, how ever, t<> aid in a vigorous work in this locality. Missoula and Bitter Root, no pastor. We have a neat frame church at Missoula, at present occupied by other denominations. As soon as we can get a suitable man and are able to provide for his support, we will re occupy the field. There are other and important fields which ; we will soon occupy. We have now nine I regular preachers and eight church edifices, ; „ , onn » , , and over 300 members. We have, also, i ,, , , , .. . several worthy local preachers, one ot whom, I Rev. W\ W. Van Orsdel, deserves especial There is expended annually from $5,000 to i $10,000 that comes from the East to aid in ; this work. Our missionary and church ex- j tension funds are liberally bestowed. The people are also liberal in their aid. _ preachers are earnest and active, and will | j compare very favorably with others engaged ! i n similar work in Montana or elsewhere. j | My duties as Superintendent take me ! everywhere throughout this vast mission j ; q ~ I j field. I know the character of our people as few others do. Iam mast thoroughly con ; vinced that Montana and Idaho cannot be surpassed for the general intelligence of their j inhabitants. Our lawyers are able and learn ed. The bar of Montana will compare fa vorably with those of the largest cities. Our j physicians are skillful. Our merchants and business men of various avocations are shrewd and prosperous. Our newspapers cannot be surpassed for their energy, greatness and ability. Our country, too, is prospering. ; Every locality lecls the inspiration of a new Hte. The coming year will bring unusual ; prosperity. Our valleys are beautiful; our mountains are grand; our ranges almost ! boundless ; our mines are fabulously rich : and numerous. Ouv climate, too, though ! sometimes rigorous, is healthy and in vigor ating, and for so northern a locality remark ably tine in winter. Since November 20th, and during all of the cold weather, 1 have traveled nearly 800 miles, most of the dis tance in my own buggy, over the main range of the Rocky Mountains from Idaho, and only using a sleigh for thirty miles in one of our valleys. This distance could have been traveled as easily in a buggy or stage coach. This fact will show how open for travel our routes are even in winter. , , .. i , , ; \\ e have reason to teel proud oi our A\ est 1 I ern home. Every Montanian should rejoice j in the prosperity of our Territory, and also ; in our church work. Our schools, too, are 0 ur pride. Where do the common schools j excel ours? I am * glad to see everywhere j such interest manifested for the welfare of j the schools, ! The work of the church is to build up society. In every locality the churches should he sustained. I am gratified to see the pros-1 ! perity of the general church work of Mon- j i . t- . . , , i j tana. From a personal acquaintance and as- ; \ sociation with nearly every preacher of our ! own and other churches throughout the Ter ritory, I find them the peers of those I have met anywhere. Our young men are educated and active, graduates of Eastern colleges and j promising. Our older ones have come from j some of the finest pulpits in the East. Gen j erously aid and support them in their exalted our frontier field it is remarkable. I firmly j believe that the itinerant is nowhere more ! kindly received by the great mass of the peo calling, and in the near future Montana's so ciety will equal the most refined on earth. I notice in every community a growing in terest in church work. I-'rom the nature of i it pie than in Montana. Owing to the building of new homes and many other circumstances incident to a new country, there is not that generous financial liberality everywhere man ifested as exists in some places, but it is be coming more general, and a more hearty wel come can hardly be extended. The stage i comp anies charge us only half fare. Many | Pi hotels charge nothing, or greatly reduced | rates, while nearly every house of the ranch men is open to our incoming. Not withstand ing our Eastern friends are often uneasy i " , . .. *■ j about us m our far off field of labor, w e i travel at less expense, with less fear of dan- ! ger or suffering, and even with less inconven-i s I. ..... •- ! ience than in the same way to the same ex tent in any country. I hope with the com ing of the tide of greater temporal prosperity there will also come greater spiritual activity, until every valley and mining camp shall be decked with these grandest of adornments, Temples of the Living God, and warm Chris tian home to which to welcome the stranger. EDUCATIONAL COUNCIL. On flic 4th day of January, 1881, there will of of of is convene in Helena the most important educa-1 tional meeting ever held in Montana. This ; * & C01 W1 council in the interest of public education | ill consider thc present and prospective ; i v alue of our land grants, our future need j j- th t sh ]d ° j inaugurated ol) j of l^bcy^that shouldjiow ^inaugurated to ol>- ; «f institutions of higher «dueatta». tod the i tain them; our need ot normal institutes " " 1 ' fi»r llin i l'»i in ,nnf . 41» rt : un and schools for the training of teachers; the defects in our present system of examining : A ». . , , , ; an d licensing teachers ; liovv to secure a com- r petent, thorough and economical supervision ! of schools ; the remedy for weak districts | of and short school terms; and such adjust-: P , ...» » » , ments ol the school law as will secure j promptly its demands for reports and stalls- j 0 MONTANA COAL. G< >al of a good quality has been found in various parts of Montana. The Carbon Moor mine, fifteen miles distant, supplies a very considerable amount of coal for Helena con sumption. It is of good bituminous quality, is used for fue. and biacksmithmg purposes, and makes a fair article of coke. Coal veins have also been developed near Bozeman, on the Dearborn, north of Helena, on the Mis souri below Benton, and at other points. This is a source of wealth that will take great prominence in the Territory in future years. of its in of [Written for the Herald.] SUBLIMITY OF MONTANA SCENERY, «V JOHN POTT EU. In the general appearance which the r U( .. ° t ie toun presents, Montana is one of m °' f 1 )U tuiesqm regions in the world ; T ' ^" Cry ' COnSlsti,1Ji ot * mountains, rocks, ; " li ^ S ' (an A° n?> and lapids, is all on the I " 10S sa ^P eru ous stale. The extent <>i vision, ; bl ' ore( ' l P ure Atmosphere, stretches hnn deeds ot miles over a country filled with Wt, . J 1,1 '°tn mountain ranges, beautiful vallevs and » I •' au( i \er dant foot hills. An idea of immensity is j u . separable from the scenery. To a person who first time, and who all his ustomed to the same level Mississippi valley, the i ni . i I )reS81on ls that ot awe and wonder. There . j quires time to com l>rehend | attractlons to theIU \ ! Asi(le lrom the interests inspired by the j mimens,ty ot thc «mountain scenery, it is sab ! * ect to so man A changes ot light and shade as j render » ,he " 10st remarkable of natural ; phenomena. There is no spectacle which is a vastness and grandure about it which iv It grows in magnificence continually; the longer one I lives amid its beauties the stronger are hj s " lldeS that is grand in scenery, with s that is terrific in nature, like a mountain storm. Language can convey no idea ot' the grandure and sublimity of one to a person who has never witnessed it. It mocks alike the skill of the painter and the imagery of the poet. To behold one is but to witness "Heaven's fiery steed beneath liis warriors forni Paws thc light clouds and gallops on the stor It is no uncommon spectacle to behold at a distance of fifteen and twenty miles asun ; der, four or five storms, each presenting its own peculiar phenomena. At the village ot Bozeman, and in fact at almost any point in the beautiful valley of the Gallatin, tin* eye ! can follow the peaks and ranges over a cir : cumferance of four hundred miles in extent This vast view embraces three or four separ ate ranges, which branch out from the mail. range of tin* Rocky Mountains. At Helen;: the main range stretches along the liorizfen, visible to the eye, one hundred and fifty miles. A more extensive view than this is obtained about midway between the Sun and Dear born livers. At Deer Lodge the mountain view comprehends parallel ranges al*5ut twenty-live miles asunder, which traverse either border of the magnificent valley of Deer Lodge lor a distance of eighty miles. These mountains are very lofty, rising hun dreds offeet above the line of perpetual snow The same may be said of the ranges which ; skirt the Bitter Root valley. Everywhere m . » „ -, ., , - . . I the territory the mountain is omnipresent— j and the various phenomena of light and ; shade, of storm and darkness, which it pre stlds never twice the same has much to nothing of these wonderful gorges. They are j appreciated as a new and striking feature is do in implanting local attachments in the breasts of the inhabitants, from which ever afterwards they refuse to be divorced. Another grand feature, scarcely less com mon than the mountains, are thc numerous canyons through which the rivers iu their descent to the valleys flow. The people of the Atlantic States know comparatively i American scenery. The immense canyons ; Yellowstone • are destined at no distant day to take foremost rank among the marvel ous works of nature. The Upper Canyons in some places a vertical mile in depth, and so narrow, apparently, that one could clear the gorge at a bound. You look down thou sands of feet into a rocky chasm, to behold at the bottom the mighty river dwindled to a thread, broken into tiny waves, madly dash ing with impotent fury against the eternal walls which confine it. This canyon is fifty miles in length. At its head the river breaks into two cataracts, one of one hundred and twenty-five, and the other oi' four hundred feet in height. In its passage through, flit* canyon it falls more than three thousand feet, an d as the canyon has never been fully ex plored, it is not improbable that there arc <dder cataracts in it even more stupendous than the one already mentioned. The beholder turns from this mitiit v chasm filled with sublimity at its vastness—leaving it in its supreme solitude a lasting monu ment of the most marvelous and wonderful works of nature. The canyon of the Prickly Pear, thirty miles north of Helena, on the Fort Benton road, is une of the most picturesque and beautiful Pi eces o * scenery in the Territory. The »stream "nmifes! (Seither sid^ffitit^t a dfstanw varying from twenty rods to half a mile asunder, lofty rocks, perfectly insolated, cov ^red »riti 1 . pines and presenting their perpen dicular sides to the traveler, rise from the bottom nearly to the top of the canyon, The passage of the Missouri through a lofty s P ur °* the main range, properly named by Lewis and Clarke the "Gate of the Motui tains," is another stupendous gorge, while the great falls of the river near it, next to those of Niagara, are not surpassed in extent and grandeur by any in North America. There are many other canyons in the Territory, which are full of grandure, and remarkable lor stupenduous scenery. One of the most novel and interesting tent ures in mountain scenery, as well on account of its rarity as the multiplied form of beauty and interest it presents, is seen in the effects of elemental erosion upon the friable rocks. The most wonderful exhibition of this kind is on the banks of the Missouri, about one The river mds at this hundred miles below Fort Benton * n ds passage through the bad la L ------------- 1 il -— SÄteXi" i n some p l acea this rock shoots up into co carpments a thousand feet or more in height : of tha river, at a height of fifty or sixty aW the water . In both of these locality ^ the rock has been wrought by the wind an<l un i v» 1 .,+a ».m, *» 41 fri'PIl i 1 li 1 !) 11 1 V. A rain into countless forms of great beauty. A thousand capricious freaks ot thc e*h , mciit.-> meet the eve at a glance. Immense castle.*'. r i va uj n „ j,\ ( . x tent and grandure the largest and most magnificent architectural structures of Europe, occupy confronting bluff and rith P odds ' Pinnacles perfoiateu 1 holes; citadels, churches, groups ot stat u?ry ' are scat tered along either bank 0 f tlio river, constituting one of the marvelous and exciting pieces of scenery m the world. It is entirely unlike any other natural scenery on the continent, and tills tin* lieholder with astonishment at its extent, magnitude and variety. Thc lower valley of the Yellowstone, by the frequent passages made by that magnificent river through the long ridge of yellow sandstone that traverses its banks, is beautified with an immense ex tent and variety of scenery, far »exceeding hi magnitude and grandure the much admired scenery of the Hudson. This river, as well in the beauty of its lower valley, as in the wonderful springs, volcanoes, sulphur mourn tains, and the magnificent lakes around its source, possesses attractions which, when Montana is accessible by railroads, will have thousands of tourists annually from all parts of the civilized world.