Newspaper Page Text
! Written for the Herald.]
OUR GOOD HEALTH. 15 Y DK. J. J. LEISER. "! did not come to Montana for my health," is a common business interlogue of the old Montanian, while his av erage piety and sane-i titv are such as to assure us that he did not come here on a religious pilgrimage, and we must sigh both for his physical and spiritual l^in«- • but the world is full of afflicted, who j would gladly leave friends and home and | t!ee to the "Rockies and beyond," if they could thus escape the ills their native place ; subjects them to. Many advantages are there j in Montana to lure them here, which I shall ; discuss but in doing .so can give evidence and f experience only so far as pertains to the Me- | tropolLs of the Territory—Helena. ! Montana is a healthy Territory. There 1 few to dispute the assertion, for, after ____________i,; 0 f«n„ o , 0 .. 0 ic nn due consideration of our history, there is no ground for dispute. Yet, to establish it as a fact, which we need not stop to consider, I diall venture upon proofs patent to us all What are our prevailing diseases V There , arc none. In a burial list of twenty-*»« | rases—a yearly list ending September 1st- j there were not three eases of any one disease ; 1 of eighty-five county patients treated the past year in the Sisters' Hospital, there were not six cases of any one disease, save rheu , mat isra, of which there were about that num J '. . . - . ... I her Now, loi a country to be unhealthy i ____ . J; ; there must lx* some especial cause in such country to create sickness, and if there I>e • any cause it must necessarily act nearly in j one direction, and we shall have a prevalence of one or of several special diseases—endem ics, we call them. For instance, the Middle ! and Western States have a prevalence of in termittent fever, the New England States a urevalenet* of consumption, the Southern : States a prevalence of cholera, yellow fever, i tc. We have no disease that is peculiar to Montana alone, nor one that is particularly j prevalent. What is the history of the diseases that af- ' llict us? Within the year we have had three cpidomics—epidemics that are peculiar to : the civilized world over. The first, measles, was very mild, and in a population of about « v .V itf« • ,000 _ _ ... there were only two deaths. Whooping cough followed, from which there were two deaths, all extremely young children. Diph- 1 thcria. the last, from which we are just re covering, caused the death of ten or twelve, j and seems to us severe, but in comparison to . . , r ,. . its effect upon similar towns 111 the States, j we can scarcely give it the name of epidemic, ; Pncuinonin is more severe with us than it is in the States, but is less common. The past spring was a long, severe one, with many changes, and in consequence it witnessed a number of deaths from consumption—such confirmed cases no were lingering from year to year and living beyond the usual limits of I heir time; ere these cases it was almost im possible to recall a consumptive death in this town. Mountain fever, one of the diseases peculiar to the Rockies, Is only met with oc cixionally. It is dangerous only as it re lap**-* into typhoid. Only the mountaineer is subject to it, and it seems generated by Miinc element in thc waters of the mountain streams. Rheumatism is the most frequent disease we have, and yet 1 am positive it is not more prevalent than if is in the Eastern States, and 1 think it is more susceptible to treat nient. Thus, we sec those diseases that do reach ns arc less frequent than in most other localities wherein they exist and arc almost without exception leis virulent. What are the positive evidences that we enjoy a healthy locality? It was shown that Ihm* died in Helena the past year, ending September ist. 19 per thousand inhabitants, hut after the non-residents were subtracted, the number seemed reduced to 1*2 per thou sand. Of these, one-sixth only were child ren sueh an unusually low proportion as uiust prove that something else than cli Äiitic causes must lx.* at work to produce the »per thousand deaths. This is easily found üWtl\c pursuits, the life and the habits ot the population. Subtracting thc deaths • U ° t0 . eXlK)SUre and a( ' ddeuts t0 '' hich min ; CIS and prospectors subject themselves; such, tin* riotous living ot herders and freighters, and we have left as deaths from Inc to the riotous livimr ot herders and ..... . , ... natural causes, due to climate and locality, an extremely low* mortality. Of course we must except our present epidemic of diph theria. the first that has reached us. A « lass of disorders that are temporary are xperienced by pilgrims to Montana, as they tv the same in all elevated regions. Being an ' almost one mile aliove the level of the sea, k' are subjected to a raritied atmosphere and diminished atmospheric pressure tquence one's circulation experiences )b»g(' in its regulation, and attending certain nervous disorders. Time adapts the chances, and he becomes himself The raritied air causes one to suffer from dvspnoja, hut in a year or two ung capacity is so increased that he i . . es up his deficient oxygen in increased ira tion. I ides vouching for all the above is result of experience, I am able to frengthen them as facts, from certain cli îatic causes. We are in whal is termed by 10 kand Acts a "desert land;" w*e have lit ( nun, and in consequence our atmosphere very dry, as well as very light; a carcass lie sheet, instead r f decomposing, aided additional moisture alisorbed !rom the '!17!r ,, rT Ut ' i,80wn ■ no " ,ore . ra » id - ; ■it ' L? cs aPtCearcely .aintingthe j t t . a ,. HS necca8R rtly axoid tbe 1 Ol d« asKi o, haeteru dtie, that are due 1 t„..! nB T",' 10 " "" d >Utrifying " m * i matter. Further, the sir being very w <* escape those bronchial disorders and troubles so prevalent in damp, wet fines peculiar to the Atlantic coast. We excessive changes in temperature, but on *y necessary to remind one's readers a dry air, however cold, is only bracing, eae never raffe» any inconvenience to igan« of reepiration. It seems to me ; quite plain that we escape more effectually the ravages of such diseases as are always lurking about one's lungs than do the inhab ; itants of any other section of our country, J Still, besides, we are so lavishly provided by ; j nature ' vith nature ' s oures tkat we are alm08t I tcm P ted to court 8ickuess that we "V revel inthe cures, which are pleasant as well as | sure * We havc immenae «P ™« 8 on a11 sid <* j " minei f + 8 P™* 8 ' suI P hnr ,fP rin f : hot s P rin S s ' hot sulphur spnngs-all in their in j tensest P° wers ' and for aU such ilIs that are | chronic enough to transport to the realms of * kes< f^eut medicants we can haughtily ; ^ : to the dogs !" j summin ë up, who dares to say we ; are not justifiable in repeating: Montana is f ver ^ healthy! We must needs be on the look | out for the blizzards that sometimes overtake ! the trav f ler and the herder ? we mu8t not be 1 to ° 1Q8olent w » th the hostile, who still occa S10na11 * crosses one's trad ; we must not be th e "best man" in every crowd met around the drinking saloon and allow the next best to get the "drop on us," for all these things are unhealthy ; but as far as concerns dan , lurkm 6 " bo "' iu <*»!«« <* &»*>*, | » " ■"* «ounttte, we need not etrw be in j ,car and ,rerablin S lest we become a sudden 1 ' .................... WOOL GROWING IN MONTANA, ____ , . , r . , Wool growing in Montana is becoming an . i A A , , * I important industry, the product lor the year i , * . ... , . J ; 1680 yielding upwards of a quarter of a million dollars. To the flocks clip ped in the Territory during the past season have been added many others, driven in from California, Oregon and Washington ! • j ! : Total Territory, aggregating within a few hundred ! j ot 100,000 head ot sheep. The wool exports i for 1860 reached 1 ,.' 100,000 pounds, disposed 1 of as follows : Purchased by a. J. Davidson, Helena. Purc^^^o^her'd^iers ,lin ............ 950, OJO fhs. j (estimated).......................................... 200,000 ;t> s ! Shipped i.y ,vool growers (estimated).., j.yi.iw p.«, | ____ ( ....................1,300,000 tbs. I The product was shipped to Eastern mar- j kets, the larger part going ;u Boston. Trans- j portation was divided about as follows : j gj ' river ................................... mm tb» I The average price wr ixüïud for th^ nro- ! P5 I L 1 r' r ................ _________________ ___ _______ duct paid bv y Ir Davidson was 071 ' C e ntS- i jjj s pur chases were distributed in the several j count i es as follows : r<cwis and Clarke ......................................los.oooibs, " Madison ................................................... s'soo " Gallatin............................................... 58 000 Missoula................................................... ^500 '' clot^u ...'.Ï.'.Ï.'.'.'.V.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.Ï.' .......................... 59 oa> " Beaverhead : 59,000 .........................132,000 a A BOOK FOR STOCKGROWERS. " The Beef Bonanza, or How to Get Rich on the Plains," is the title of Gen. James S. ! Brisbin's book, recently published by Lip- j of i pincott & Co., Philadelphia. It relates to j raising cattle, sheep and horses in the Great ! West, and embodies a mass of interesting j j facts and figures accumulated with great care j and presented in most attractive shape. It j is clearly printed, neatly bound, and hand -1 . somely illustrated with numerous engravings, A copy, just at hand, enables us to copy a few extracts, which would have been in I creased to columns had we got possession of it at an earlier day. Large sales ofthevol nine are being made in the States. Five thousand copies ought to be bought iu Holl tana, as a generous part of the book is given up to Montana stock matters. The price is $1.50, postage paid to any address. Lippincott Jk Co.. Publishers, Penn. "LOST IN THE SNOW." The absorbing romance under this title which occupies the better part of our eighth page reached t he office of publication from London, England, on Christmas day. It was Apply to Philadelphia, i ; specially written for the Holiday Hebald by Lieut. Hanuay whose story a year ago, j it will be. remembered, was awarded the 'Lost in the Snow" was sim 111 " 111 " l rememueieu, >\a« uwarucu me ; capda ^ pnze. Lost in the Snow was sug » es * e to t e aut or bj the teiriblc j lence ot 1 K luad taua 1 Casej, whom aim j .wanderings for seven days on the Benton ^he^verelt Storms a^wW oHhaf^ ! crest storms and cold ot that ^ear, . a d 1 the Montana public , i 18 famdlar ' The »nee is in Lieut. Han- j ar ^ Iuacrer ' ■in wiixti tne Aiontana P u,,jl< is familiar. The romance is in Lieut. Han may's cleverest style and will «reitlv in- ! I - ! ' . great! : I torest a large numlier ot our readers. TEN MILE MINING DISTRICT Adjacent to Helena is one of Montana's | mos« important mineral sections, a* yet com- j par " tlvdy onde ' d ° I>ed - ^nrnonly known as tit en 1 e is net. »etween tortv and 0 fifty patented gold and su>er locations have ............................................. . . t^^ extractum and sale, to the extent that ,hls has P r0 ^uted, have shown there 111 hlgb valne iu the markets of the Territory. p Changes in ownership oftnany of i erties are takiug place, and the working of | t r. IaoiIo Will ! a score or more ot the P rominent leads wi ll a commence in good earnest the present year. t * The Ten Mlle L)istrict * with tbe sea f ou of = 1881 ' P ronuses to take a froid place m the , a mining operations oKJe ntral Mon tana. OUR BEEF EXPORT. i Income of our Scock Men from Beef Mut- : ton and Wool. During the year 1680 there were driver. 4 .__^ ,...a ^ ! tke British posseaiioui 10,000 head of beef and there were cousumed in the Ter ritory, including the military posts and In ^ ^flOO h «d. The income of our stock rataem for the year can be shown by the following figures : »,000 beef cattle, @ 8» .............................. 1900,000 5.000 calves @ ». ........................................ 25,000 10.000 mutton sheep ® H ........................... «,000 1.300.000 fife wool • t7'A ots........................ 357,500 To»i.................... . ....................................Ji.»ijoo This is the cash income, and does not, of eonne, include the increase of herds and flocks, which wonld at least doable the shore amount. [Written for the Herald.] FRUIT GROWING IN MONTANA. BY FEED. M. WILSON'. It Is within comparatively a short time 1 j j ; that the"sü^ecï of fruit growing has come ......._...... Failure, however, attended the first efforts to be of general interest to the people of Montana. The altitude of the Territory and the extremes of cold which are sometimes experienced seemed insurmountable obsta cles to success, and the failure resulting from the earlier experiments appeared to decide ! the matter beyond the possibility of doubt. ; : ; made to introduce fruit in nearly the whole of thy Western country. The pioneers of Illinois. Wisconsin, Nebraska, and those es pecially who lived in Minnesota and Color ado, believed in their day that fruit could not be successfully grown in those States, and their first experiments served only to confirm that opinion. Thousands of orchards were planted and large outlays of capital made, which resulted only in discourage ment and pecuniary loss, ft was not until a more careful study was made of the pecu liarities of climate, soil, and the cultivation of fruit, that success was finally attained. In in considering this fact, is it strange that w r e in i Montana in our experience shouH but repeat ! the history of the past ? The fruit trees that were first planted in ! ! the Territory w ere set out w ith no regard to location, were usually in bad order, and re ceived little if any attention. That some have survived under these conditions, and have for years produced their annual crops, is good evidence that by care in selecting hardy varieties, in properly locating orchards j and intelligently cultivating them, fruit i 1 0(1 locallties * may be grown here as well as in more favor is, to The first fruit trees planted in Montana 1 "ere b «>uglit from Walla Walla, Washington | j Territory, by Philip Ritz, in the year 1867.1 ! They*were loaded upon pack horses, and by ! | this mod* of conveyance taken across the 1 ( of conveyance taken across the J I Cœur d'Alene Mountains to Missoula. Fort i j Owen was at that time an important trading 1 be _________________________ ______________ j po ,st : and Major Owen, for whom it was nam- ! j etl, purchased and set out one thousand trees. | and I The remainder were disposed of in various ! portions of the Bitter Root valley, in Mis- tain ! ______________________ _______________ __________ soula and vicinity. Unfortunately the grass- ; hoppers made their appearance the same sea- j son, and stripped the greater portion of the j trees, which in consequence died. In plant intr these trees the fatal mistake was also ! mg these trees the tatat mistake was also | made of selecting damp or marshy ground, j and it was only by accident that more favor- j able locations were cbosen. The first attempt ! resulted in such general failure that the ef- fort, was in great measure abandoned and the matter considered to be decided. -V few, however, continued the almost hope- less task of setting out new trees year after At lier year. When the winter was mild they would prosper, but when it was severe they would j winter kill and usually die. In 1875, Bass ! Bros., of Stevensvillc, who were among the j and most determined ill their efforts to succeed, j planted an orchard on a well drained hill- j the side, and from that day their labors have [often been well rewarded. ' The a In choosing a location for au orchard, it is ' a matter of the first importance to select. i land which is moderately dry, where the of is growth may be controlled by irrigation, bench ; lands adjoining the foot-hills being prefer-1 able, as the soil Is usually warmer and the ! localities less liable to frost, which frequently j affects bottom lands three or four weeks to earlier in the fall. If the land is cold and ; wet, the sap, instead of returning to the roots 1 i at the proper time, is kept in the upper por ; tion of the tree until thc beginning of the win-! ter season, and in consequence there is much j greater danger of winter killing When j placed on higher ground, where irrigation is necessary, the water can be turned oft', the sap returns to the roots, the growth of wood f0l , he VMlr , W!v and the tree is in j cond i t j on withstand the effects of cold weather. The apple is an upland tree, and | ^ bas ]x*en the experience in Montana that ; j the same varieties of fruit grow a third larger > j n s j ze 011 than on low, damp ground. Wiuter killiug has ^ cbserved ^ be raost | ! T™ i" upon those sorts of trees . that make tllft most sappy and vigorous , growth and those which continue to grow j late iu the falL growth and those which continue to grow in f » n . », ! W hen affected l>y it, m old, : trees, large portions ot hark start from the stems, thc larger limbs hang loosely for a ! while and then fall oft'. The buds alone re tain vitality, and upon the return of spring , ^ ______________ r ____ o sometimes succeed in establishing the neees j ^ «,^<*«011 wit h the soil, and restore the | circulation of sap. The result is the deposit [ 0 j tlie usual annual layer of woody matter, : which incases the dead portion. The best _. w „ .^on, to repair the injury. Young trees cau Jje well protected from this danger by p i ac ing a shock of corn or a layer of heavy brown paper loosely about them. This allows ! | t he ground to freeze around the roots, permits ! C a f ree circulation of air, and protects the tree t * rom tk e sun in winter. It sometimes hap = pens that thc sun will thaw out one side of , a tree? which afterw ards freezes. In thc East [trees are frequently seen which have been i killed on the south side and are alive on the north, which is protected from the sun's rays, of : It is, of course, necessary to select such va rieties as are liest adapted to our climate, ! attended to at the time the tree is planted, ,. Mulching is very important and should be In oi fi. a fi... 1 This ie accomplished by pladag coarse litter or partially rotted hay or straw around the roots of the tree, covering a space of from ; of six to eight feet in diameter and a foot in j depth. Trees protected iu this manner need ! in little water or cultivation. IRRIGATION*. Too much water affects the trees quite as unfavorably as too little. Early in thc sea son the gronnd should be kept in good grow ing condition, such for example as would be required for vegetable* Wat«« should he an to turned ou ** soon as ths ground begins tobut dry and irrigation continued until the middle ■ ! ; : of August or the first of September, when ; the earth should be allowed to dry up. After the wood is well ripened and just before the ground freezes it is necessary to irrigate again, giving the entire surface a thorough soaking. When this is not done the tree will frequently die during the winter for want of moisture. Ditches should not ordinarily be nearer than five feet to the trees, though much depends upon the nature of the soil and the ease or j difficulty with which moisture penetrates it. j exposube. j The question of the best exposure for or- ! chards has lieen much discussed in all fruit j growing sections of the country. Many dif- J fering views are held, but it is safe to say that j in Montana a northern exposure is to be pre ferred. The greater danger to fruit is from early frosts, which destroy the blossoms, and the later in the spring the sap can lie kept in the roots the less is this danger to be fear ed. It is true that the frost in the fall w ill come at a correspondingly early date, but a degree of cold that would kill blossoms would not affect fruit, especially that which has not ripened. Many productive orchards have different exposures, the south and east having generally been preferred, but for the i reasons given it would seem best, w henever i practicable, to select land facing toward the I north. In choosing an orchard site it is also ! important that one should be selected w hich i is, as far as possible, protected from the w inds, which sometimes blow with sufficient force to loosen the fruit from the trees, and when they are heavily laden, breaks off large limbs. Ample protection may be afforded, should the locality require it, by planting about the or- ! chard a row of cottonwoods, with willows I between them. Where this is done it would ordinarily be necessary to run an iiTigating ditch beside the line of the protecting trees. 1 The cottonwoods should be placed about ! * | twenty feet apart and not nearer than thirty j feet to the orchard. The willows would oc cupy the space between the cottonwoods. The cost and labor of thus protecting an or . j Thecost and labor of thus protecting an or- j chard would not be great, as it would only ! be necessary to place willow and cottonwood j _____________ limbs in the earth, and they would take root 1 and grow without requiring attention other than that of irrigation. The grand old moun- j tain rages which surround our valleys make 1 . J _______________ _____________ _________________ each of them a sheltered nook, when com- ! pared with the bleak prairie regions of Iowa, i 1 Nebraska and Minnesota. ! Tt is not uncommon to see in the East ! forests and nrehnrds enmnletelv covered with ' forests and orchards completely covered with ( sheets of ice, which is more destructive to 1 young trees and fruit than the severe winter \ weather which we in Montana sometimes ex- ' perience. The test age ot which to Irons plant trees is when they ore four years old. j At that time they will have form and shape 1 established, which is a matter of much im- 1 portance. They also come into bearing ear- i " lier and have younger growth. As yet none of the great enemies so common elsewhere to both trees and fruit have made their appearance in Montana. In many of the Western States the gopher is a formidable foe to young trees, i a more vitality than those 0 f | [often killing them by eating off the roots, The borer, a worm which eats into the roots is ' and body of the tree and eventually destroys i it; the curculio, which stings and poisons en tire crops of plums and cherries ; and worst of ; all, thc cattapillar, which frequently destroys the yield of whole orchards, are yet to be ! heard from. j Fruit growing has but recently passed the limits of experiment in the Territory, and it ; is only in Missoula and the Bitter Root val 1 ley that the efforts have been continued for a sufficient length of time to demonstrate what may lie accomplished. The exhibit of j fruit at the Missoula county fair this fall j comprised thirteen varieties of standard up is ples, among which were the Northern Spv, ° ' Red June, Willow Twig, Dutchess of Olden Pippins, Ram burg, Red Astriean, Winter bow, Romauite and Ben Davis. Crab apples of many varieties were also exhibited. The | varieties of apples which experiment has ; proved to he the best adapted to our climate > are the Duchess of Oldenburg and the Red Astriean, which are as hardy as crabs. They i | were first brought to the Bitter Root valley in the year 1870 » and have never yet inissed a crop. This season an apple called the ! Wealthy has been introduced from the Ge ' Wealthy has been introduced from the Ge ' .. , . .. . „ I Leva, Netv Tork, nnisety, and, as it has aU | the good points of the other two, will un- ! <k.Jd...u..Z__________--------- ! doubtedly prove as valuable. Less attention has been paid to the culti , ration of cherries and plums than to apples. _________________ __________ r ___ _ but the few experiments made have resulted | quite as favorably. There are two cherry! [ trees at Missoula, twelve years old, that have | : home regularly for some years, and the past season were heavily loaded. The fruit is large I There are two cherry Plums were first planted in Missoula in 1866. They have thrived from the outset never yet having missed a crop. The trees ! planted were yearlings, and liegan bearing when five years old. While in Missoula last fall, I was shown in the garden of Judge T. M. Pomeroy as large and richly flavored green gauge plums as I have ever seen. Two young trees yielded him this season three bushels. ! Egg plums and damsons are grown with ! equal success. The few* trees in thc gardens of Missoula yielded this year a total of twenty-five bushels, ground. mi , . , ,. , , ep um lee is av ', tuer than the apple, and requires more In consequence it will thrive in damper ! 1 _______ 1 PEACHES. Peaches have been grown in some portions ; of the Ritter Root valley, but it is not proba- ! j ble that they will ever prove a certain crop i ! in Montana. Our cool nights retard the ! ripening of the frnit, and early frosts will in ! an average season destroy it. | PEARS. No experiments, so far as I have been able to learn, have yet been made with this fruit Hundrafe of trees, however, were planted last summer. There seems little question tobut that they will prove a certain crop, The flan in Montana most extensively en gaged in fruit growing are the Bass Bros., of Stevensvillc, who have a nursery of twenty acres, which contains 1,400 trees. A large . portion of them are still too young to bear, but their crop this year amounted to about 150 bushels, half of which was standard fruit, and the remainder crabs of different va rieties. As before remarked, the only portion of the j Territory in which the experiments have j been extensive is in Missoula and Bitter Root j valley, but it is nevertheless true that in ! eïeI ï section of Monta " a the fact h " s been demonstrated either bv chance or aet j J ua ^ e *P eri ® nc ^ j j In Deer Lodge valley, Mr. Addison Smith j planted some years ago a number of Trans -1 Cendant crab trees. Unfortunately the en- ! closure about them was broken down by cat- j tle and the young trees eaten ofl. One, how -1 ever, sprang up from the roots and this sea- j son bore half a bushel of apples. The loca tion is not a good one, being badly exposed, while the soil is not more than three or four inches deep. Several years since, at the ranch of Poindexter & Orr, on Black Tail Deer Creek, Beaverhead valley, the pits of some California plums were thrown out upon the i ? TOund ' a ^* r kad ^ >eeu eaden - I #f theM t<H,k reot * nd 11 flne ,r * e U P' which this season was heavily loaded with i fruit. In Ruby valley, at the mouth of Bevins gulch, Mr. John Renfrew has an orchard of fifty yeung apple trees, the greater portion of which are of standard varieties. The crop * his «™ty ! In lhe Prickl y Pear valle y and in Helena I man y experiments have been made in »""S crabs of different varieties, and the trees this year bore prolifically. In Lemhi valley, Idaho, at a point eight miles distant ! * rom * ke ^ ne d *' ld * n ^ * ke * wo Territories, j a " d eighteen miles from Horse Prairie, Dr. j j who did not believe it possible to raise fruit j Kinney planted an orchard four years tgo. ; He was much ridiculed by his neighbors, ! a j who did not believe it possibie to raise trait. ! in that localit Y- His orchard now numbers j j two hnndred trees > onl J a portion of which j 1 ar0 bearing ' His cro P of fruit this •> ear ; amouuted *° 100 bushels > which is atout i j e( ï uall >' divided between crabs and standard . [ 1 »' ades - 11 will thus lie seen that expert- , numtj huvci alvûo/lir 1 intelligent effort fruit may be "rnwn in ! ! men * 8 have » lr e»dy demonstrated that by | i 1 grown in I ! nearIy every portion of * h e Territory. II is : ! ^needed by theibest authorities on pomobgy ; ' ^kat where melons and tomatoes will ri)en j will also thrive. In the valley of the ( 1 Iruit wm 8180 tnnvc - in tne valle J 01 the I \ ^ e ^owstone and of the Missouri at Ben on, j and p0 * n ^ 8 * ower down the river, where tlese J Te S < ' tab,es ate laiscd wi ' hoat difficnlt I> U wiU not ,w »«**"* to await the mul1 »<' «Penment. I do not hesitate, therefor«, to UI B e thc P' a »tiiigof fruit trees, for they trill " ot onl - v our homes ' bat also l' 1 '™ a80urceo1 pl easure an< l profit that will veil repay thc trouble and cost of their cultivation. ; in i a 8 S re g a te upwards of 5,500 tons, of which j HELENA MERCHANDISE. Helena s merchandise shipments for 1880 j amount more than two-thirds came by rail j ami the remainder by river. Of the total, i ! a ' K)u ^ 2,000 tons were consigned to Butte and | en- ! °rt i er points where branch houses, dring a of [ ^ ar ë e business, are located. The actual mer- | j j ( ' baudlse transported by the Utah & Northern be ! radroad ^ 01 entire Territory during the : year was about 11,000 tons, of which Helena the mei chants shipped 4,500 tons, or nearly one it ' tkiril of the whole îimount. val for of j 8011 purchased and shipped hides, etc. fall follows : up- : ayxxriJir/Yii S ................ % ?4^ pouads HIDES as I J** 51- ' el K antelope skins, weigh. 15,000 ' Fur, weighing................... 6 (XX) ! 10,000 sheep pelts, weighing ......«o'ooo *• Estimated shipments by other houses in the Territory : ~T i , . T _ .. i During the year just closed, A. J. David- I ; : I i J 1 8.000 beef hides, weighing............... 2.000 calf hides, weighing................ ...221,000 pounds .... 16,000 lbs. BULLION EXPORTS. Exports ot Montana crude and refined sil has i V er and other bullion for 188ft font nr» is ft»i Zs ' " P ** fol ' Hc . .... ... TOLXDS * ! ! H » Ua < G,eadflle) huUwn............................. "»676,868 <are aild nia tte from Montana Copper (Jo., 0re aild matte from Montana Copper Co., i „ I of Butte........................................ 3 , 358,898 aU | * "• »• ............. ! A,u - Mont "*» Co., AVickes........................ m 000 i ; uuKSès. - 7 ". : hieedmg and raising of horses in the TeIritory is turning an important factor in | is 0 ™ stoek "Crests. Very few horses »re | | 801(1 to °ut the Territory, and we are unab ^ e gather any reliable statistics in re- , I to tbe * ncrease por 1890. At a low* es- | in WHY STOCK-GROWERS PROSPER ___ I Tke income of the stock raisers of Monta- j ar taon • , »• . . i year 1880, including increase m ; herds of cattle, flocks of sheep and bands of | horsey and the sales of beef, veal, mntton and i W<X)1 ' can ,>e reliabl y placed at between $4,- j 500,<W0 and ^ ">^19)999. Three-fourths of tkis aftlouut tlivided between 1,000 men; ! and one-half of the sum total lie ! twcen 250 men.________^_______ RAILROAD BUILDING. ter) ____ It is expected that the Northern Pacific ', Company will construct not less than 250 water.-, » .... ,, ! dnri ioai ** a tu th ttTi ^ during the year 1881, and that the Utah & Northern Company will build not less than 150 miles. the that - - ! Those who think that Montana is ill-suit-1 . i ^ to s,lstain a krge population do not take j wil1 ! into consideration how many can find em- ; chea ! P% ment beneath the surface when our | quartz mines are well opened. So, too, those fall into a like error who think most of our people will be forced to be idle during the long winters. The season and weather are alike unnoticed by those whoso work lies deep in the mines. this Ths nude population of Montana predotn- j and inates in the ratio of neoriy throe to on«L [ . [Written for the Herald.] GEORGE ELLIOT. BY H. E. B. The loss that the world of letters suffered a few days ago in the death of Marion Evans Cross—destined to be known forever in the popular mind by her name of the pen, George Elliot—is one that cannot be easily over estimated. Professor Huxley recently ex pressed the amiable conviction that when a scientist reaches the age of sixty years he should be strangled or put out of the way by some equally effective means. I am not go j ing to contest the proposition ; indeed, as to j some of them, I would not insist upon wait ing for the fullness of three score years. But, ! though George Elliot had attained that age, j we were not ready to lose her. That ineom parable bonanza of rich fancies, noble thoughts j and inspiring sentiments had yet precious ore to yield, and it is inexpressibly sad to know that it is closed against us forever. The three great writers of English fiction that the latter half of the century has pro duced are easilj* named : Charles Dickens William M. Thackeray and—for woman, in fact as in law, will claim her dower of one third in the field of human achievement— George Elliot. To which of these the criti cal judgment of the cold-blooded century that will follow us will award precedence is a question not to he hastily answered. Chas. Dickens is a name to be mentioned with rev erence, for he has peopled the planet of fancy with personage 1 ., that "the world will not willingly let die." But there are spots on this literary sun His characters are, for the most part, caricatures, each of whom upon being introduced is labeled with an eccen tricity, as with a tag, and the reader is told in substance that he will hereafter recognize him by his label. Then his villains are such hopeless and inconceivable fiends—such take people very long to guess « horn Quilips and Pecksniffs and Squeerses! And a s to his finer sentiments—well, it didn't take people very long to guess Disraeli meant by the character in his new novel named "Gushy." Thackeray is pronounced by current criti cal judgment to be the greater artist, and it [ s probable that the years will not change this opinion. But Thackeray's works are al most a perpetual sneer; he was nothing if not cynical. Something—let us not inquire what—had curdled the milk of human kind ness in his great breast Of the literary faults thus suggested, and in suggesting them I am only echoing the voice of those who have a right to criticise, George Elliot is ab solutely innocent. When she attempts the portrayal of a character, the work is done consistently and symmetrically. The por trait may not lie in alio rilievo , but it is al ways distinguishable and always human. ( I am sure I am only one of thousands of wo Then, far from being cynical, the very es sence of her writings is a broad humanity— an unfailing sympathy with all created be ings. True, her colors are mostly sombre, and her denouements are often disappointing. men who would have paid her something to marry Daniel Deronda and Gwendolen.) But so, alas ! are the colors of life sombre; so are the denouements of life disappointing. Sift j n g this criticism, we shall find it to lx*— "If she held her image to the view : Tis nature pictured too severely true." 1 have spoken of her-broad human sympa thy ; I cannot speak with any approach to justice of her wondrous resources of learning, her quaint, irresistible humor—always, and sometimes unforgivably, held in subjection— i and her exquisite art of construction ; but 1 I . . * „ ,, , ' » ; conclude with the prediction that m the constellation of English fiction, equal with Fielding and Scott and Dickens and Tliack : eray, will shine through the ages the name I of George Elliot. This is a poor, shriveled leaf of laurel that I lay upon the tomb of the foremost woman i of her time ; but let it not be said that even J on this border of Saxon civilization her gen ius was without recognition—her death with 1 out a tear. ' * ! rnesch, Mi's. Godreaw, Mm. Ryan (Vestel), and At the Bazaar. List night Chas. Krandall, Nick Grom \Ii*s. G Miss .Josephine Edwards were the fortunate i w : niip _ , "^ers ot the following prizes. Gold-mount ed meerschaum pipe, child's instead, child's i h f , anV £ KooW nnA ; rocker, mtants lurmshed basket, and elegant card table. Promptly at 11 o'clock to-night, : the polls will close on the voting for the scarf, and the most popular young gentleman | is expected to he on hand to receive the con | those whose have *0 The crowd at the Bazaar last night H as , much larger than on any previous evening, | which testifies in a flattering manner to the I two or more of the larger and more elegant j ar ? oles L^ U J take ^ all turn i out m full force to patronize the Bazaar. Tne ; walking is gootl and the atmosphere fresh | enough to induce a pleasant and cheerful eir i culation.___ During the recent holidays poultry has sold in the Helena market at 40 cents per iwund and eggs at $1.25 i»er dozen. For j tunes could he made in those articles at one quarter of such prices. Good but ter) too, is scarce and high, and yet cows and pasture are both cheap. Isn't this an invi tation to dairymen ? The objections urged heretofore against the comfort and health of living in Montana, that there is a scarcity and expensiveness of fruit, will soon disappear, for success attends . cultiv ation at home, and the railroads wil1 800,1 ifc into our mid8t plenty and chea P* ________ ^ ___________ -The production of pork in the Territory this year will exceed by one-third that of any other season. Notwithstanding the high price of grain, our fermera find that swine growing is profitable. The Library Association of Wickes have recently ordered 116 volumes from the East, and have a balance in the treasury of $00, with which tp purchase others.