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Helena weekly herald. [volume] (Helena, Mont.) 1867-1900, April 16, 1885, Image 1

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Volume xix.
Helena, Montana, Thursday, April 16, 1885.
^Tl|r illr fitly l^jcralH.
R. C FIS« 0 W FIS«. » J. FIS«,
Publisher* u ml Proprietoi *.
Circulation of any Paper in JCcntana
Rates of Subscription.
111 nil « uni'.' .
» ( Months. (In iwlTiiin > l................. ............. 2 00
Tlirw Month», in ><f»iiw )._....................... ] iq
HW* 111 •
Four Hollar* per y«-ar^
HiwluKf, in nil c*ts#*n, I'rrpnid.
»Tty >ii(v«<*ri1i«*r».<h-liveiral bycnrri< r,fl 50» month
Oni' Y«-nr, by mail, in mlvmics'i............ f!2 (X)
Mi* Months. by limit, (ill wlvmirri............... 6 ID
Three Mouth», by nmil, (in advance'........... 3 II)
*4' Ail com munirai ions «hotil«! be aihlresaedto
FISK BKOS , Publishers,
Helena, Montana.
Two track yurda, two i«t« k yard».
Two I .a. k yard« (inward .
({i|(bt for the coal-yard shed
Kan the half dozen.
Forward, the Oat liriicnde |"
< hi toward tlic »bed» they made
Over the find lack fente
Climbed the lialf dozen.
Forward, the Cat Brutade!"
M'v there a cat di-iuaved ?
Not till lie felt on hi» lark
A hard brick (five Inina crack.
Their«*» not to reason wliy ;
The)re* not to make reply ;
Tl srea l>ut to »kip and fly.
Of. to tlie laat lack fence
Kroke the halfalozen.
i.oola to the right of tiiem.
»tide« to the left of them,
Hrickliata tiehind them
Tliimi|ird. humped and thiimlerrd,
.«formed at with hoot» and aiioe».
That not e but »k'lled hand» cun u*c,
Into the shed of coal
Kii»betl tlie half-dozen.
Bright all tlieir eye«did ahire.
Waved all their tails in air.
( haning the younir mice there.
While all the world wondered.
< inly the Iwck was cracked.
Yet BOW tlie> all iiad 'tni* M
Wounded, disheartened.
Mcattere.1 and «undered,
A damaged lialf-dozen.
Boots to the right of them,
«hoe* to the left of them,
Bncklmta liehind them,
Thumpud, i>um|ied and tliundered.
Follow««! by liulls«>f lead.
While every hero Wed—
One «in the last fence—dead—
IWk from the old coal »lied.
Ml that wns left of them.
Of the noble half-dozen.
When can llieir many wars fade "
Kelle« of tin- charge they made.
All eats wonder.
Kemember the Cal Brigade.
Kemenilier the charge they made,
lluit-oii--. half-dozen.
I have weathered the turbulent cape of storm»,
- <>f passion Mow
I hao- sheered by the reefs that gnash to'foam.
The »hallows thay lurk below ;
1 bave joyed in tlie surge of the whistling sea.
Mid tlie wild strong »tre«u of the gale.
A- my brave hark quivered ami leaped, »live,
To the strain of its crowded sail.
Then the masterful «pirit wa» on me.
Ami with Nature I wrestled glad ;
And danger wa» like a passionate brhle,
And love itself was half inaal.
Then Life wa» a storm that blew me on,
Amt Wew as the wild winds Wy ;
And Hope was a pennon streaming out
Wgk u|i to pixy with the »ky.
Oil the golden days, the glorious day«
mot " > owl
Oh the dreaming nights with silent tears
Ntath the sky's mystermus Sent '
Oli tlie light light heurt and strong desire.
And the pulse's quickening thrill.
When Joy lived with us, and Beauty smiled.
And Youth list its free, full will'
The whole wide world was before us then,
And never our spirits fsiled.
And we m ver looked lawk, but onward, onward.
Into tlie Future we sailed.
F.ver Iwfore us the fur horizon
Whose dim and exquisite line
Alone divided our Karth from Heaven,
Our Life from a Life divine.
Now mV voyage is well-nigh over.
Ai «I inw stauneliesl spar» ate gone ;
Am! my sails are rent, ami my harnacled bark
I bog' slowly and heavily on.
Tin- faint hreez«]cornea from tlie distant shore
With its odorsdim and sweet.
And ««am in tlie »lient tiaroor of peace
Long parted friend« t »hall greet.
The voyage is well-nigli over.
Though at times a cupful of wind
Will rattle the rope» and till the sails.
Amt furrow a wave liehlml.
But the sea has liecoiiie a weariness.
And glad into port 1 shall «-oine
With my sail« all furie«! and my anehoritropped,
.Ami my cargo carried home.
Tlie pure. Oie (•right, the beautiful,
Thai stirrrsl our hearts in youth.
The impulse «if a worth!*-»« prayer.
The dream of love ami truth.
Tlie longing after something lost.
The spirit's yearning cry.
The striving after better hopes—
i :. • - « t lung- »Ini • n; »« r da
The timid band stretched forth to eid
A brother in his need.
The kindly word lu "nefs dark hour
That prove» a fricml indee»l ;
Tin plea for mercy, softlv breath*»!.
When justiee threiUen» nigh ,
The sorrow mg» of « contrite heart
The»« tiling» »hall never die.
Izrt nothing pas», for every ham!
Must find some work to do .
Lose not a chance to w aken love.
He Ann ami just ami true ;
So «hail a light that cannot fa«le
Beam on thee from on high.
Ami angel vorne» »ay lo tli*e.
' These things »hall never die."
In days supreme of f»md delight.
When happy thoughts within usdwell.
Like vestal» robed in stainless white
Who time their f«*t-teps by the swell
< *f sweet-volaed lie!la upon the air—
Then have we lea»t the m-ed for prayer.
In day« obscure«! by veiling f«ilds
t if grief, or clouded o'er with drca«l.
While dumb suspense relentless holds
It» sword ahov e the shrinking head—
Then, even in Ihe sou Is ih-spair,
I* not the il(r|K«t need of prayer.
"ince to the dark (ietlixeiuam'
The pitying niigeis, soon or 1st«-.
Must come with tenderest minwtry.
And each blithe «lay is but the gate
To «oine rieh temple, rising fair,
Which build» to heaveu a golden stair.
Ah, »ad are they who know not love.
But fur from imissioiTs tears anti smiles
l>rift down a moonless aes, beyenri
The silvery eoaM of fairy ialea.
And sadder they whose longing lip»
Kiss empty air. and never touch
The «lear, warm mouth of those they love:
Waiting, wanting, »uttering much.
But clear a» amlier, fin«' as musk.
Is life to those who, I'llgrim-wisr.
Move haml in hand from dawn to du.sk—
Lach morning nearer Paradise.
Oh, not for them shall angels pray
They »tand in everlasting light ;
They walk in Allah's »miles by day
Am! nestle in hi* heart hy night.
Sketches of His Life in
Pen and Pencil.
Story of the Great Warrior's Mil
itary Carear.
The Silent Soldier at West l'oint —Through
the Mexican War —At Itohiiont, Fort
I lonel«on. Fittsbnrg lzndiiif,
Vicksburg. Lookout Moun
tain. Petersburg ami
[Copyrighted I
The life at Ulysses 8. Orant is a romança
an eventful, wonderful and interesting as any
thing ever evolved from the brain of a novel
ist. He has lived in a time of extraordinary
activity in the development of this country,
and has figured in it» history more conspicu
ously than any other man living.
— f r V * • r M t } i 'J >
/Z )
9 r, Ô. v
He was born at Point Pleasant, Clermont
county, Ohio, on the 27th of April. 1822. No
one dreamed then, nor for many year» there
after. that he was to be the man of destiny
who would bear our banuer through the
storm» of w ar to peaco and freedom.
Tlie boyhood of Grant was not more re
markable than that of any child in the same
circumstances. Indeed, the am»-dote* of his
childhood in no way convey the idea tliat
ho manifested any precocity. He was the
eldest of six children. His early aum wild
ings were severely plain, his father, who was
of Scotch descent, tieiug a dealer in leather,
neither rieh nor poor, but ranking among the
hard workers of a young ami grow ing »tat«*.
The humble home where Grant was born is
not unknow n to the public through the en
graver's skill.
At the age of 17 Gran? entered the Military
Academy at West Point. Those who believe
that a name has much to do with the destiny
of its owner will find confirmation of their
theory in the accident w hich gave him the
name he has made famous. He had been
cbristemsl Hiram Ulysses, Iwt the .•ongrees
man who pr<» tirisl his ap[M>intment, by mis
take wrote him down a» Ulysses 8. Grant.
The authorial« » at West Point and the secre
tary of war were petitioned by the young
cadet to correct tho blunder, but no notice
wa» taken of th«> reqotwL Uh --•» S. Grant he
had l»s*n re«sird«vl an<l Ulyssns S. Grant ln«
remain«»!, tho namo now so w«irhl-w wlo in its
fiune having l»«'u bestowed through u <««u
gressnuuis defect of memory. The iuitial»
U. 8. suggested "Uncle Sam'' to his comrades,
a nickname bo newer lost, and one peculiarly
prophetic in view of his extra«>nUnary can«er.
During the war ho was not infrequently uick
named "Unit«sl State* Grant" awl "Ùncoo
ditional Surrinler Grant," the U. 8. Fx«ming
to have sj»« ial significance in th«eo day*
which "tri.sl men's soula" H«< gra«luat«sl in
1N43, twenty-first in n da«» of 4!1, his commis
sion of br«'vet Rivund lieutenant ami his
diploma both styling him Uly»««» 8. Grant.
The Fourth infantry was his regiment. He
remain« 1 in th«« army 11 year», ami. accord
ing to Gen. Adam lLuieau, was in every bat
tle of the Mexican war except Buena Vista.
He reoeivtsl two brevet? for gallantry, and
was later stati«>ned at several |«<sta on tb«>
Canada frontier, and finally in California and
Oregon, in 1(*4H he marri««! Julia T. Dent,
daughter of a merchant of 8t. Louis. In
1S54, being then a capta m, 1 m< resign«»! his
commission in the army aud removed to
Gravots, near St. Louis when» he o(iernted a
farm. There his daughter Nelli«*, now Mrs.
Sartoris. aiul oue or two of her bn>thers were
Imrn. Th«* place w as know u as the Wish-ton
Wish. While residing there Grant made an
effort to obtain the i**ution of < «>unty sur
veyor, aiui was deeply di»ap(» tinted at not
succeeding. Ho rauovtd his family to 8t.
Louis after an experience as an agriculturist
which could «carccly bo ealksl brilliant.
There, in a w««e cottage, the young soldier
wrest 1««1 with the pecuniary problem of life
with very indiherent sutxxsis. Ho c uld find
no enipkivment, aud l«ing but »{Mringiy sujv
plied w ith ca»h, saw the exchequ«*r diminish
without pnwpcct*ofacorres]>«.'ii<hug in<Toaae.
Like many others who were destined to per
forin gr«<at things, he was made ai'quainteal
with th«* luetiae«»» eff poverty aiai consequent
anxielies. He tried the real estate business
and failed. In lMiO ho weiit into the leather
trade with his father and brotlier at Gal*»na,
Illinois. l|e*luul four slaves, which he pre
sente«! to a friend before leaving. Grant was
not an aliuliticnist. His achiev -ment « during
the war were inspired by his desire to crush
the rebellion and preserve the Uniou, and not
from any pivjudico against »lav my.
The hr .«king out of the civ U war found
Grant, tlx» future leader of our armies, an
obscure citizen, working industriously to sup
port himself and family in a »moll inland
town, lb- was wholly unknowu. without in
fluent«-, and apparently without ambition.
He wax unacquainted with tuen of position
and (»«wer. and bail no i»-rsotial knowledge
of gr*at affairs. Even s n his own field, the
military, hi» knowledge was limited. He
had never commanded more than a company
of soldiarv Ho had served under Sc< >tt and
Taylor, but only ax a subaltern, and had not
been brought into intercourse w ith them. He
had cast Imt ouaxuhe for president, aud knew
bo politicians. Army ofli.-ers and western
trad« rs comprised bis w hole aispiaintan »*.
Even the cnopWBBa of his ou u distri« . .
who had been nine »u e e a d v« years taern
pro«». wj a unknown to him. th'Mgb he a.'ter
wardx l«cauie one of Grant's warmest
At this time Grant «al 89 years old, the
fatlier of four Hu dren, tlie el«le»t of whom
wax 11. He li v««i in a little h«>u«e on one of
Gakna'c ,.<any hills, and devoted his tune to
ératber. 11nis did tlie war and his destiny
find him. *'e\v of his countrymen even knew
of his existence. For him tlie future held
fame and honor in unstinted measure
w-rapped in its impenet rable folds. But none
saw the light of hi» star lief ore it rose; none
read the riddle of his romantic destiny, M»>ti
to reveal itself in events that were to shake
the world. He himself »aw not the signs
that augured his future. He carved out bis
career blindly, ax all do.
On the 13th of April, 1801, Fort Sumter
fell. On the 15th President Lincoln made his
call for tr««ip», and on the 19tli Grant was
drilling a conqiany of volunteers in Galena
Four days lat«*r betook it to Springfield.
From there lie wrote the adjutant general of
the army, ofTcring his service* to tho govern
ment in any ra|in<-ity in w hich it cared to
make use of him. Tins letter, which would
now lie a valuable historic document, called
forth no reply and was not considered impor
tant enough to preserve. This neglect, in the
won!» of an Amiandale peasant much qu<>t«»l
by Carlyle, ''could nae hinder him of God's
Grant rengim-d a; Springfield and helped
to organize tlie . ol on teer troop* of tb** state.
After five weeks of this Work, which his mil
itary ediu atioii bed «i»fially fitt.sl him for,
Gov. Yatiw offered him the Twenty-first regi
ment of Illin<>ix iufaiitry. JL-foro mviviag
his comm.ssii n as colonel he wen* to tTncio
oati to »»«■ Ma j.-Gen. McClellan, then in com
mand of Ohio volunteers. He had known
McClellan in tho ol«i army, and hojssl lie
might offer him a place on hm »tall. Twkve
be went to headquarters without finding Ä1*'
Clelluu, and then returned to Illinois w ithout
having nientioned hi» eriatnl to anyone. He
took command of his r,fjinient early in June
and marched to Missouri. Ueportin ;t*» Pc .
Gen. Pop«*, he was stationed at Mexico, al> * it
50 mill's north of the Missouri river. Th«»
prt'sidcnt commission« d him brigadier gen. iwl
of volunteers in August, a pnunotion he first
bean! of through the uews|>apers. At this
time Maj. Gen. Fremont was in (smiman i of
the states and territories known as th • West
ern Department. He transfemsl Grant to
Ironton, then to Jefferson City ml !'• :i t«i
the cominai-l of the district < f Montheas« Mis
souri, w «th headquai u-r» at Cano.
The young commander's first military
achievcricut was the seizure of Padu«'ah.
Kentucky, whi.-h <«>niin&ii<l<»l the navigation
of both tix* Tenues»«»' and th«? Ohio. Kentucky
had l»»' u halting on neutral ground, which
hail u>>t lieen recognized by th«* Unit««l States,
but which Cteni'ral Polk, th.s C«»nf«»leraU»
oomiuamler in that region, was '.he first to
break. Polk seinsl Columbus ai»«l Hickman,
on lh«> Mississippi, and threaten«»! Paducoli
within three days after Grant as»utin«l las
new coniman«!. Grant heard of Polk's a«l
vaucc nod at once n< >t ified tho K«*utuckv legis
lature and telegraph«sd Fremont at St. («oui»
"I am getting ready to go to Paducah; w ill
start at 6:30." Still later: ''I am now n«?arly
re-od v for Pa«lu<-ah should no tel«-grain arrive
pre*v«'nting the movement,"
No reply reached him, and at 10:.'!f! that
night, the 5th of 8ept«»mber, he start ««1 up
the riv«'r w ith two regiments, a light l«attery
aftil t wo gunlHiat». lvin l.ng at l'adueah at
8:30 the next morning he sei»' I the city with
out a gu» having Isvu tired. Brig. Geu.
Tilgbmun and his staff, of tho Coufwh'rat*'
army, burn«»l out of town toward the south
by th«* railroad whilo Grant was gating
ashore. Si xt«»'n mil«?* away a force of 3,800
Conbderat«'- werestathXMxl, an«I ( «mi federate
flags and st« >re* were numerous in the town.
Grant's promptitude saved Paducah an«i the
(Xintrol of the Ohio ri v«*r. It alx » straighten d
tho lm«'kbone of neutral Kentucky, whine
legislature at once passed resrtutions favor
able to tho Uni< >u and sj» >ke of neutrality u .
In this movement Grant defii'.irl the deter
mination w hicli afterwanD was so markt» l
and «««Him« til««! upon in his gi-iieralship. Ha
l«'ft Paducah in cliarge of a garrison at noon
the sam«> day arnl returned to Caire, where
lie re« 3 eiv«d Fremont's permission to take
Paducah "if be felt strong enough."
For two months aft«*rwanls he held th«*
country at the junction of the Ohio aisl Mis
sissippi and iHscipliiad his for««*», winch by
Nownler numbend nearly Jn.ixiu uieu.
Being subonlinate to Fremont he was al
lowed to make no movement of importance.
--- ii/
s. M) ek
He wanted to take Columba«, an impor
tant point on the river twenty miles below
Cairo, but not until tho 6th of November was
ho ordere«l to move down the river. He had
3.1CX) men on transports, conveyed by two
gunboats. A section of artillery, two
squadrons of cavalry and five regiments
constituted Lis force. Some of hia nu n l»».t
only bet'n in poseasion of their arms a few
days, and w«re as raw as children and as un
disciphntd as cowboy«. McCkruaud was
the only gt'iicral officer iu his Command, »ml
he had never hoard th ping of an unfriendly
bullet. Ixigan, now so well known, w-as
w ith him a» colonel On the Ttb he landed
at Hunter's Point, ou the Missouri side, an«l
mar<'h«»l on Beluion^ u««r which tho Con
f«d«*rates had pitchtd their camp. By 8
o'cltH-k his entire «»immaii'l, except one
Imt talion guarding the transports, was in a
warm engagement, the gunl»*«ts being en
gagt«l with tho batteries at Columbus. The
fight la«t««l f«»ur hour». Grant with
the skirmish line. His horse »a
»hot uialer him. McCleruaml lost threu
hoi>«*s, and every colon«*!, as well as the raw
recruits, : ought furiously without flinching.
They «lnive th«* Confederates to the river
bank, took several Uundr<«l prisoners, cap
tured all tlie artillery and broke up the
camp. Vi< tory, however, was t««j much for
the Federal troop». They Gs-aine di.»>r
ganizol, aud insteud of following up tlie
enemy as be cowered on the river bank, tic
soldiers set about 'jluudering, while th«irof
tleers, untaught iu the propriété-* of military
life, mad«? |nitriotic »tuiup Kp?««-h(*x. To
stop the phmdering Grant oedertd his staff
offieers to h«'t the camp on fire. The uu*u re
turn««! to the ranks and the nian h to the
trunsjMjrts lM»gan. Meanwhile Confederate
n*-enfor<«*meiit»urrivtd, and, combining w ith
the defeat«» 1, cut Grant off from his trans
porta "We are surrouiKled," sai«l an of
fl« er of IBs »taff, riding up, sonn what agi
tât««!. ''Wall," said (»rant, "if that is so, we
must cut our w ay out as we cut our way i.i"—
one of the condensed »]s«« h«s of vv loin
and determination for which lie afterward
grew famous. He charged and «li>|ierM«l
tli^ enemy, m«*et.ng with but »light re
The danger of this, hi» first fij'iit, wa* not
yet over, ho" «»ver. He <1 «»n to the
landing, got m* «st of bis force al»>anl, »eeing
to everything in his «»flleers l»'ingt«sj
inexperienced to ex«« ute bi« «>rd«*r» w ithout
sjieeial dins-tions. A force of lii'-u had l««*n
■eut to gat In-r up the wounded, and when the
mam l»«ly was lH-arly embarked he r««le
back to withdraw the rear guartls, which
were to have «?overe«l the nwn twinging in
the wounded. They, being uu op': -ti? atod
in military observ aaoes, had thought fit to
retir«*, au«l Lad return««! to tiw transports.
Grant fouisl himself outside of b.s own
troojis with the «ueniy aiivaucing up n him
ami tiring chi hi* transport«. He s::w that
the men in .**.*;ireh of the wound «1 i*>uM n«»t
i>e savtd u:id r>>>le sl«iwly ba«k to the ta ns
port». As he wore a private'» oven util, he
was not recognised as an ofti««*r. ti. :ting
near the trau^i*>rts he gallop««! swiftly to the
river. In* b«irs»* »lidingdown the lank on its
haunche»; a plank w as put out for him, over
which he trott««l his horse aboard t. . h u
rain of musketry. Hi* convoy of g..::lsvi*s
tiara opened an tiie Confederates with gmt
de*tnn *:*'ii, and small ksa Itasnmn ■ «■». ( d
by 5 o'ck-k tlie transports were out of r- <*.
ThLs battle confirmed Grant in his policy of
"nodetoy," on which he always afterwanl«
a«-te«l. This engagement »treugtlientd the
««mfideie-e of his wiklier* aud mode them
<»>urag««>us f«>r the future. Ixmg afterwanl»
the " Heine mt men" w ere among the »tunli«?».!
aoldicr « in the army of the Tennessee.
K-f >
s- .
■ r_ Mivt,

".Yo tern is r.^reiif unconditional and im
mediate surrender*
For nearly two months Grant disciplined
hi* troojis in the district of Cairo. In Jauu
arv, ls6J,*by order of Gen. nall««*k, hera«>v.»l
a force of* - '. (XXI men, urn 1er McCleruaml ; fr«>m
Cairo ami Bird's I'« iiit tow anls May field and
Murray, hi West iventucky, ami wut two
br brade* tiireateuiug Coll"'*'*»'« »««l the Con
feierat • ÜU-* Iz-tw«- qi that an l Bowling tireen.
Tlu-ro was no fighting, but tho object of the
movement was acconpUsbed.
Ho long»«l to take Forts Henry ami Doael
don, hut was silenced w hen he broached the
subject to Halle - k. Not till the 2d of F«-l>
niary was he permitted t«> leave Cairo w ith
that intention. With 17.(XXi m«-n on trans
port«, am-oiupanied by Admiral Foote w ith
•«even guuUiatx. he «tart««!, landing at Bailey's
ferry, on tho «-ast l«ank, thn»* mil««« triow
Fort II« nrv. which be t«*«k after an hour and
a half I fire from the gunboats on the 6th. the
main body of the Couftslerate garrisou hav
ing retresbji upon Fort Donelson.
Grant det«*nnined to take Fbrt JVineiaoa on
the 8th. Uu the 7th his cavalry penetrated
to within a mile of the fort, aud the infantry
ami cavalry on the east bank of the Ten
u«-*»ee were not!fled to move on the 8th.
"w ithout incumbrances," and with two days'
ration* iu ttw-ir haversack«. Heavy rain»
had flooded the country. making itimpOKsible
to move liaggageor artill-ry, and «ielaying
the attack. R**-en fori emeu ts were secured,
but Halleck's on 1er» to Grant were always of
a defensive and not aggressive character.
Fort Donelson, high on it* range of bill*,
raciivled by a formklat le atmtix aud gar
risoned by 21,000 men. w as one of the greatest
stn >ughol«Ls of the«-u«-my. It* fortification*
Lad b»«*n strengthen««! since the fall of Fort
Henry. re-rafnrceturat» had imared into it,
and Buckner, Pillow and Floyd had been suc
cessively sent to command it, each ranting
hi« predecetaor, w ho remained to serve under
the new superior.
On the 13th Graut got into position. Skir
mi«hers w«-re thn>wu out in Iront and several
smart fights occur re d, (hi the night of the
13thb**wa* «-stabli»li«»l on the h**ights, jiar
alk*! with the enemy's outwork«. The
weather suddenly l«»-ame intensely «» >ld. The
tro««ii». «-otniiell»«! to bivouac in line of liattle
with arm* in tlsir hands, within musket
rang** of the «*n. my'* breastwork.«, suffere«l
«ktranelY. No tin** could be built, many of
the men wer « w ithout blankets ami with in
suftici«*iit ration». Tliat was an awful night,
never to be forgiattca by tho** w ho partici
pate« l iu it. There were no tents and as the
night wore on »now and hail frii, wrap
ping the waiting men in a bitter
blanket of ire. Mauy were frozen. The Con
federate pk kets fired an uncertain but inces
sant rain of bullet«. The groan* of the
wounded, th«' pitiful calls for Lelp and water,
made the hours «! darkness terrible. The
next day re-enforcements arrived, and for
hours an irregular tire of shar| shorter», with
occasi< nal discharges of artillery, was kept
up. Iu the afterno >n six gunboats, in com
mand « >f F> <rt , attacked the fort at •fix) yap'»
and were* worsted. Anoth«.*r night of cold,
danger an«l sufferin" for tlie tr««>p», Grant
then having iSäJXrii *n.
At da» n«>u the I5tli the ineiuurable Biege
of Fort Douelson wa* liegun in earnest, the
enemy ««lining out of his works aial attacking
the Federal line on the right. McClernand.
McArthur an«l lz*w Wallace were engage«I.
McArthur giving way with heavy lo»». Me
demand and Wallace repaving it. The Coo
fislenit«-». however. f:til««l to make tlwir way
through the F«»i«-ral lines, aixl were p-tiring
but th<- F«*derai tr«»>|-s were «lis«-ou raged aisl
dis-irdered. There was a lull. Grunt was
ali»- at at the flagship when the attack oc
]h-turning to hi» Liead<|uar;ers. and apprise«!
of tho v■ I ni» «.f tlav morning, he «.nleresl tl»
tr< -I »tl.nt bad not D en engaged tomakoan
iniints'lati* i -ault. d he assaulting column
wa« led by F. Smith. Up, up the »tee|
hui, und« r the ti« r«e Are of the enemy, wen!
the Federal column, inside the mlreuchinenta,
rrlnle McUiernaud and WaJiace suppirted
Smith. A*i hour i.n«l a hr.Lf. :« re of dayiiglit
would have given Grant tins victory, but
ilaj'kne»* over«* ok him. The next morning
Buckner s* ut t<> u-k hn* terms, while Floy«l
and Pillow e»<up««i across the river with a»
many tiuo|is as two steamers coukl «aury,
deserting th«* remain«ler of tlu ir tpiop».
(;.-..nt replied: "No term* «*ru«*pt un<«>u*li
ti :.:d lu* 1 immediate surrender *an be a *
cipted. I propuee to uovu immediately ujioa
yo^r work»." The tenus were «mipli lwitli.
and th«* 8iiir» an l .''trijes » «'ii fiutUi>»l ov«*r
Fort Duuelsou.
The secretary of war at once recoinrneuded
(irautfora major gearalcy of volunteers,
and the president notninated him the sauu
■lay. In a letter made public St a:., on »aid :
"V\!:at. under the bk~*sing of Providence, I
cerne. vi? to be tbe true organisât i<in of vic
tory ami military «« mbin&t-oii to end th -
w ar waa declared in a f«*w words iu G«*a.
Grant's metrage to Gen. Buc*km*r: 'I pm;xjae
to move inuii«*diat«-ly on yourwork».'" From
tfc«* in« ment Kort D«>uel*on surren« iere«l G.x
Grant ha< i a naté -nal faim*. He wa* a"ig:j.»i
to th * m-w military district cf Wc*t TTin
, w ith ''limit* not defined," on the Ulh of
i i - ruarv, and Slit-rman to the d: t *t of
Gan a Tla-y had Leen at Wi-»t point to
get her. but Sh«*ruian had graduât« «1 three
yea- » « arlier, and they bad not, up tn that
time, l-ct n intimate, Tlie siego of Fort km
«'bell brought about their first off:«-(d inter
coursc, Sherman forwanling Grant troops
am! supplie*. An exc hange of letters after
tin- surrender of the fort was the t»-gimiing
of n warm friendship letw n th«*:n which
neither time Uor change ha dmimiaiaxl.
Immediately after tlie capture of F«>rt
Donelson (traut f«.-ll und.r Halk-ck'* d --
pleasure. and wa* mnurtd from hi* com
mand. The story is best told by himrelf hi
hi» article on the "Battle of Sailoh" in tho
February uumber of Tbe CYntxry;
Aft« r the <-ai>tur<* nf K"rt Donelson, wtth over IX.
OMeffretlve nic ian l all th«-ir nsan tlmi of «var. I
bellevisl mtieh limre <*«-ul-l be a«-«**'iiijrtUhe<l Wltllu.lt
fUrtht-rSBcrillceof lif.-. « larkavlllr,a t"»n betw<-«*a
Donelson ai«' I Na-h* l.l«-, in il.e Mat - of Tenu«- <e.
mil! ou the <o»t lauk «>. the Cuniberlami, w:«* g irr.
sone«l bjr th«- en«-mjr. Ka»hv 11«- w.i« also zurr» *n« J,
and wa» probably the l*-»t pn<v|»lon«»l th'|M>( at t.'i
time tn tlie ( onfetlerm-y. Albert M'lney J><hii»lon
oei-upt«»l To willig Urecii, Ky.. with a large fon-v. 1
le'.iev«»!. anrt my Information Justified the U-.lef
that the e j.lai'«-* would f».l Into our hand» without
a battle. If threaten«^ aromptly 1 determined not
to misa this ehance. Bit being only u district «ou
mander, and under the !mni«?dlate ordert of («eu.
Haileek whose hea«l«juarter» were at Kl L-ul». It
wa» my duty to «-otiunuuli'ate to him all 1 propose«!
to do, and to get hi» approval. It po-stole. I did so
i-iiuuiunl' ate. ami, r«?eelvlng no reply, act.-d upon
my own Judgment. Tbe result proved tiinl my In
formation was «-orrect. and »ustaui«-«! m/ Judgment
What, then, was my »urpt .se, after so much ha .
been aevompbsh«-d by the trtrips under my lmmedl
ate command, between th* time of leaving Cairo,
early In February, aad the 4th of March, tom-elve
from my ehh-f a dupatch of the hitter dab*, aayln
"Tou will pla«-e Maj Osa. C. F. Smith in «-ouiuiuml
of ezp«-dltlon. and remain y«>ur»e|f at Fort Henry.
Why do you not obey my orders to r -port atren«,-th
and position of your command?" I was left virtually
luarrekt ou board a »learner, without even » guard,
for about a week, when 1 wa» rt-i- a-ed and uidered
to resume my « otnmand.
He again tuuk coniman«! on the Pith of
March, and a few «lay« later removed Lis
headquarter» to Savauimb, ' is army «-i>u&n>t
ing of fivô divisions.
Thi» celehrnt«-«l l«ittie wa» fought on Sun
day aud Monday, the 6th tu» I 7th of April,
1862. It took it» name from a little log
chu « h, know n a* Shiloh church. The scent
of the engageun-ut is a thk-kly w.»»i.»l,
though broken, country, n a.-king back fron
the bluff* at Pittsburg Lauding from two 6
three mile». Grant an«l hi* staff were break
lasting at Suvanuah w hen ho first Lourd the
fire of th«? enemy's attack. Grant's horse
having «lipj»»l and fallen on his master's leg
on the 4th, at the time of the battle rua« for
»ome day* after («rant wa* unable to walk
without th«* ai?l of crutches. Hi* bout Lad
been cut from his foot. Hearing tho firing
he boarded a transport aiul started for the
front, arriving tla-ro at 8 oVkxk. Tlie his
toric bat tie w :«* already t»n. Sw-ruiau, I'rt-u
ti»», McClernand, Huriburt an«! W. H. Wal
lace, with .ti.ixsJ men, were there. The Con
federate fcm*. according to Bad«*au, w as a
little over 4<(,*XX). There was hard fighting,
small panics, retreating and other sign* of
dismay among the Federal tro«>jjs, and ira
new ed vig«»r « >n tlft part of the toiemy. Nelson
and Lew i* Wallace were coming with re-en- !
forcement», but the battle wa* going awry. :
( «runt w a» every w h«*re ou tla* field. «» >u»tant iy
und« r fire. In hi» own a*-count of it he say»: i
Thl» «' of «h • flv,- d:«nion*ei; k '»K«-l tb<* f.rst «1 st at
sh! «5iw . re* entirely raw. amt many *»f th- iu liaj
onl r* < ' '«'<1 tnelr arm* ou th-* way frm« their
■tale* to Die ft l i Many of t litui h»>l srrlv-«»l but a
■lay or t»o t»« f"ri . a.«*l v*e-»> liaplly olrte In luo«t
Un ir uiu-ket» a'-eordlmr to rii* - manual. Ttn-ir of
B*'« r» w . re equally lzn- rant o' their Untie« Cutler
llie»« «or • UwUBCt*, It Is not a-lonUblnz (list many
of th- ri fiio ut» bnlii' at tin? Ilr*t (Ire. I > two
run. a* 1 Bow P iin uiher. the «••louela U1 tlu tr
regiment» f.s iu the Heiu ou Mr»; In arlin; the whistle
«■f the •■!;* tnv '• bullets III theM? rMMtlS «»«lime!»
v.e: ......... lull' nal cowarJa, unlit f< r any militai-)
j - »m. ImtNut M th*oCkwr« in<i m«-n led out of
>.a . r by tlu-m. Better tr>» |>» never went U|h«iiu
I, at t field than many of these ..(tl-er* ami men
ifterwarrt |>toveil llkemseiV».. t> la-, wlio rt--d.
I «u I - »ln« ken. at th<- first whistle of Intilets and
she 1 at Shiloh.
Geucr&l All»*rt Hidnev Johustou, Cou
fsderate ««•miuauder, wa» kiilt«l on tin* first
day of Shiloh'» battle. Jefferson Duvi»had
early sai*l of biin that be regard««! his ser
vice t«> ihe Confederacy a» worth more thun
th * a t-ts-inu of on army of 10.000 m< u.
Night f«*ll aud found the tight uufluiabe«L
lliu gui.liouls con:iuu«*d to fling »hell* into
the C*>nf< «h* rate lines, tlie wood» *-aught tire,
and only a m«*r«-iful rain »avt«i the wouud<«l
from 1* mg burn««! alive. Buell an*l Geu.
Lew YVaila««* arrivel aud th«« ol«l liu»*s wer«
reformed. Grant visit*» 1 e«u*h division coin
matidcr aft«-r dark, directing their positioii.
tuid ordering un aCuckut early «lawn. At
last, returning to the iuudiug, lie made h«»
headipiart« r» under a tm*, ami laydown in
the rain t<> rest. Tlie |iaiu in hi* »wollen
ankle and the drenching rain made him rési
liais, ami uftcr midnight he moved to the log
..ou»e on th»j K*tnk. This w as in use a« a hos
pital. tilled with the wounded ami dying
groaning with anguish. "The sight," «avs
Grant, '•was nu*n* unendurable than en
countering the n?liel fire, ami l returned to
my tree iu the rain."
The next «lav the battle w.-ut on uutil
Beauregard ami h * fontai b»«tt u final re
treat, (»- .ut having loct over iti«*n.
Sherman ha* *a.d tb it bo never afterwards
saw such terril le fight n % Grant w rites
at AM
Shiloh wax the moot »«-r«-r* battle fouxht at the
Wo t «lurlikgthe w ar. jtB'l b^l few la the f-^t «*iiual'-!
itf. rhar'l. d'-t* nn.:«t^.1 flgULna Isawain» ■ « flelil
In our |>n»««-«»iiin ou !'.«• m»«>U'! «lay, ov«*r w n.i-h Lu
Coiifi-'lcrat«-« hart i:.:««le rep- at««l char:-« the «'ay
l»-r r . k.ii nw ikI v« It «leu't that It w >u. J hu*e I- u
«•> w.i.k a*"«,.» the «•l«-ur:iiK, In any «llr.«?
Bon, h : pin a on il*'M<t l«»lie». w Itliout a foot touch
InKtix-i pm I. (•■« oue |>.irt, which luul evl'b-utly
t:'* I» < u I :<•* .1 for nevera!yearn, barite* h«wl |n>wn
up,«» IS to the h I, ht of eirtit or teu fit. Th n?
was in>t oue <)f tLcue I-ftet.in !iu«t aupleteed by bul
let-. The »ntali« r on« « w-creall eat down. Contrary
toall my exp--ii » e up to liât time auiltolioex
jx-rn nee of th« army I waa tl««i« «.«jtnmaiullug, we
were ou the deft*nut««?.
Tliis liattle convince«! Graut that the war
would be prolonged, atul developeil hi* views
as to the c««u<luct of it. Armies and not
stronghol«l* should I»? suialued or destroyed,
h«- thought. He believed, too. tliat it would
to an ngouot ijY *if blood to Sj»emi it rfMilljr
m a vigorous canquL^uT "
Immediately following th«« battle of Shiloh
minor* fl«<ode«l the country prejudnial to
Grant, and in all ojieratiotis in the theater of
war be was igu< >red for the next two m< Hitb*.
Hi* situation wa« regarde« 1 by the army a*
oue of disgrace, aud was doubtless the most
disagreeable period in his entire career. He
tells the story iu the following words:
Bbort : y after the battle of Shiloh bail been foaght
O n. llalln-k B>nnl his b- a.lquarn-r» tu Tituburg
Lamlltig, an.l a»s'ime«l command of the troops In the
flelt! AUii'.ugh next to him in rank, nul uotuinai-y
Inco-umami «g my u» n district am! arutv. I was I,
non»! a» mm h as If 1 had berk at the m<>»t UUtaut
polut of t.Tritory within my JurlMlIctlon and al
th' ugh I w as iu «-otnmaud of all the tnoz at Shiloh,
Iwa» not p> riaitted to »«?«« «me of the reports of lien.
Ltt'-ll or hl» subordinates In that Imt:!«? until they
were pubU»b'«l by the war department long after
B.eevent, In cvnuequen -e I never myself male a
Iu . r« port of the engagement.
/ Vi « V
In July Hall *<*k w as assigned to the com
mand of all tla- amu«.*», »upei-s««hug McClel
lan. He went h» M asiuugtou. und Grant wa*
left in (s>nunuiMi of tl»«- army of the Teuu«*s
tw, a little more indepeutient than when Hal
le« k had been present in the field. He di
rected the movements in tho battles of Iuka
aud Corinth until the troops arrived in the
presence of tbe enemy, though he *vm eight
miles from the fight at Iuku and nearly forty
from Corinth.
M«*rit, when uuat-eouipauied by outward
display, is always slow to be r**e«►gniz««l. and
Grant in his military ear««*r w a« no exception
to this ( «iveraal stupidity. Hi» simple man
uers aud direct sp«?ech were mistaken for the
exprese-:o:i «*f a ««numonpla<-e mind by ofti
cer» above and below him. Hi* rnirrram*
were considered eividenta, and neither
his judgm«*nt nor ability w-a« even
guesned at. (h-*i. Badeau. in hi*
"Ijfe of Grant," »ays: "It is iiu
1 » »sible to un<i«*rstan<l the early history ol
the war without taking it into lux-ouut that
iH*ith«-r the government n«>r its imi»>itant
«•«»umiiiijders gave Grunt « trabt for intellec
tual ability or military gei.ius. Hi* other
qualities w«*re also rated low. Ite.-au*? h*
was |iatk-ut some thought it iui|»x»»ii>le tc
provoke him, uu 1 he«rause of his «raininess it
was supposed that he was stoluL In liattle
or in «tiuqjaiguiug he did not M«*tu to care or
consider so much what the enemy wer* do
ing as w hat he himself meant to do; an«! tin.*
trait, to enthusiastic and ev«m brillant sol
diers, apgitrared inexplicable. If he |»«*«-iM*d
acquirementa he ap|M?ari«l utusm* ions oi
them; h<? male no allusion to «lu? s»-ho«iis,and
never he»itat««i to transi- r«-»« their rul«« ;
when the o>-ira»i«>n scein«»l to him to demand
iL 8o he neither won men's heart* by bland
i?Juneuts uor affe t«»l tla-ir imaginations by
brilliancy of bedav;or; n«>r did he wempro- i
found to those who are imprra*«t«l only by a
display of Itraming."
On th«* 4th of November Grant s«*iz.«d La
Grange and Grand Juncti««u. On tbe 14th
hi» cavalry entered Holly Springs, and dr«>vo
tho enemy »< uih of tho Taliahatclue. On the
20th the enemy » cavalry tlaslunl into Holly
Springs. 28 miles in Grant'» resu. and cap
tured the garrison, w it hall it* »tor«*-. AL'ou
federate raider cut tlie railroad to Uoliunbus
at several jHiiutz, sev ering Grant s ouly hue
of couunuui'-ation with tbe north and with
parts of hi* own couiuiaud. Holly Spi-iugs
was ca!>turv»l whilo the trooj»- were in th«*:r
Lied«, for which thecouuuziudiugoflicerof the
po»t was dism.s*ed the aervk-e. For over a
week Grant luul no communication with the
north, and for two week* no supplies. Then
was learn«» 1 the »««-ret of how an army may
live without supplies, useful afterward* to
Grant w licn in the rear of Vicksburg and tu
Sii« miau i.i his march«-* thron .ht. .vrviaaud
the Carol.ua». When tie* « ..izt-iis, nusdiy
women, « aim- to hi* h«*adqiiart»*rs to see h«»w
he bore tiw? low« o( Holly Spriugs, aud aak>«l
him exultinglv v\ hat he would «io tiovv that
his soldier» bad nothing to eat. h«* calmly in
fomusi them that hi» soldier« would find
pleut y m limn Un ru» aud storehouses.
While («rant was moving on V icksburg,
cutting «-unais. gathering supplia« aud watch
iug the enemy's mov eiueut», th*? country and
the gov eminent had grow u inqialieut. His
slowness was criticided; old rumors about his
jjeraonal charoctor to«»k wing», his soldiers
were said to 1*} rapully dying, aud hi« re
moval was urged. But Lancolu soul: **I
rattier like the mau; 1 think we ll try him a
litlie longer."* This speech sau» l Grant and
the couutry.
Jeffer *hi Dav is had named Vicksl»urg the
Gibraltar of America. Nature as well as ait
had made th<* Confederate fortifications there
weli-mgh impregnable. Grant's plan was
to move ms army below Vicksburg,
even cutting off his own communi
cation» hazarding everything in the cer
tain hope of victory. Deti-ut meant total
vnnihilation. ( hi t be night of April 16 thtra
aimer i and t n I urge., loaded w ith ration»
nd lorage. we.e run |«ast the l«i ; er' jo, con
v .i.ed by seven of Admiral Porter's irou
a l». The steamer* were inaini si by volun
• *r crew* from tbe rank.». Porter led th?*
v.ay on the Benton and Grant r«*main«*l on
ueof the trau»|«>rt.», where he could watch
tli .* operations, tliou ,h »hot and »licll fell all
areun 1 him. To di»|» 1 the fav oring dark- '
ne«s th«? Conf«»l.*rate« hr««i tlie houses along
l»>th »i«le* of the »Lure uutil the Mis»ia»ippi
was light as day. Every traus|»>rt was
■truck, the Henry Clay wa« burned to the
wat«*r's ««i'^e. and for two hours and forty
minutes tbe fl«eta were under fire. But at
last all w ere out of range and darknes* set
tled down on tWtaan I city.
Grant's march through tlie wilderness
about Vicksburg is hi -torie, and bia successes
then-ill were due to L«s «»»m lusion that rul«*s
of strategy laid do.v u iu 1«« >ks diouid be rio
la!*«i when common sense dictated. In 20
days he had marche«l more than 2» si miles,
L*?at«-n tw o armies in fi\ «* Iwittles, «raptured 27
htravy cannon and 61 :,:•««•» of field artillery,
taken over 6.<mü pr.»ouers and killed and
wound«*d as many more. He had, says Ba
deau, fonrad thee vu uation of Grand Gulf„
■t*ize«l the capital of tlie state, destroyed tho
railniod:'. at Ja-ksoti for 30 miles aud invest*«!
the prin«*i|Mil »trouguold of tbe Confederates
uu tlie Mississippi. It has been «owpared
with the campaign of Napoleon at Ulmarnl
hi the tlr»t i » «lavs of Napoksm in Italy in
/'•» ^__.
Y _
Grant b«>gan the stonning of Vicksburg on
the 16th of May, gaining Home ground, au«l
on the 22d a gérerai assault began. All «lav
long coiu an* of men moved against th«* en
emy's stn ughold, oui v to be us-t by a »tag
gering fire, under which th«*v nraoil««! to the
shelter of the hillsides, which were thick with
the dead an 1 dying. Tl«e Couft-derratoa, be
hind their |«urapet», »uffi-red little in compar
ia>n. This a suult is sa«l to h*v.j be-u un
|raml «-l«»l in the hisDirvof modern times.
Thr thonsruid Federal soldiers w< re kill«»!
Tlie c unit on Vicksburg having fail««! Grant
deter . iis»l «in a »a-gc. Then In-gun those
king «lays of bonibardin -ut.w h«-u thehemme«!
in Coofeilerato« «laily »av/ th«*ir supplie« dim
inish without h«>|ie of repl.-nlshuic it, thrir
8[>irit* dr. «'p and tbeir strength fail. After
the »iegehad last««l mon tha.i 40 days, when
riding around his Mue* une day Grant
stopp««! at th-- h<iii*eof a Confederate woman,
who still clung to her »liatteiral wall*«, and
asked f«ir wrater. 8he a»ki»l bun tauntingly
if ho ever expected tog«*t int - 1 V icksburg.
"C'**rtainly," bo aus were» 1. "B*it when:"
"I cannot toll exactly »bi*i I sha:i take the
town, but I mean to stay li**n till i d«i, if it
tak«*s me thirty years.''
At last, «m the 3d of July, IViiibertotl a-k<«l
Grant's term* for tbecrapitolatio i of th«* city,
awl the white flag flouted from th«i head
«guartersof thebe»i«?g»«l. Grant » iuisw< r was:
"The uui-ouditional sum-mh-r of tho city and
garrison." lb«* twogvi.ends cotifenral, but
left the final decision till later. Grant thi-n
n*turiH«i to bcadqoartors, and for th«* first
time iu his life hel l what might I« < ailed a
couu«*il of war. Ho finally permitted the
(oufetleraD** to march out on parole, anil
tlH"o terms were aci*e(itoii. On tlie 4th of
July tho garrison of Vu ksbnrg man hed out
«if the lines th«*y hal so 1< >ug an«l bravely d«v
f«*n«l«xl and stackol tln-.r arms in frunt of
their conquerors. This event w a* really tbo
blow whh-li broke the backbone of tho reliei
li* >u. It stniggled tin nearly t w*«> years longer,
but It never recovered ite confidi'm«. Vlii*
surrender pat into Grant's ban Is th • lar.-twt
cajitun* of men an«l material* made iu the
[« «iXCLCßEII ON SK« «INI» FAtiK.]

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