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FISK BROS. - - - Publishers. R. E. FISK, - .....Editor. THURSDAY. APRIL U 188 b Harvard College lia* but one l»ook left of the library given to it by it* lonn der All of the rest were destroyed by fire in 1764. _____________ News iroiu Eagle K«*-k. Texas, rejiort* the limling «f rich «old field* in the Sant* Kona mountain«, about 100 tulle* east ol the place of that name. The citizen* of Chicago have found it necessary to organize a Vigilance Commit tee not only to secure honest election*, but to secure justice of any kind. Mrs. Annie Drvrv, of New York, a poor widow with five children,woke upon Friday morning and found she had inherit ed three lug building* and her children had $50,000 each. IT is reported that Miss Lawrence, a rich New York l»elle, is al*»ut to marry L»rd Vernon, an Knglish I'eet, who turns out three tons ot butter daily from his dairy in Derbyshire Iris comforting to know that the jew Commissioner cf Agriculture comes into power in time for a full sorghum campaign the present s a»uu. JSweetuess will fairly overload the western zephyrs. The Nevada Legislature ha* passed au auti-treatiug law, which makes it unlaw ful "for any jierson or jiersons to treat or , entertain gratuitously any other person or persons to or with any spirituous or malt liquor or liquors, wine *or cider, or^any l« vc;age whatever." At the recent municipal elections in Chicago and St. Iavuis, the vote of the former was about HO.OOO and of the latter 40,000. It is the pretext for considerable exultation and Insisting by the Chicago pres*. Perhaps the Chicago repeaters are more expert in their profession. Peace between San Salvador and Guate male is officially announced, with general amnesty. It is a happy deliverance from |M**ibly serious complications to us, aud all the lietter for being so speedy. The prosj»ect of a peaceful confederation of the Central American States is lietter thanj a forcible one, attempted by Barrios. Washington Star ■ It isaeommon eom plaiut that the "workers" have got left ; ami to see how mach ground there is left for their sighs, one has only to turn to the files of the newspapers, of the dates im mediately following the 1th of March, and read tue columns of hopes ami claims m the political gossip of the hour. In scarce ly a single case ha* the man who was "pronrnently named," ' well liacked' and ''strongly pushed" for a place, got it. The act of the German Keiehstag in raising the duty on American grain and meats will not discriminate against us or in favor ol' any continental power, nor will it go into effect for two years to come. Germany has a treaty with Spain by w hich the duties oil grain are fixed for that length of time, and by our treaty we are entitled to the same treatment as the most favored nation. Our petroleum will have to pay no higher German duty than that from the Caspian basin. Theke La* t»een a wonderful obscurity ami delay in announcing the figures and results of the roeeut municipal elections in Chicago ami St Ianiis. On the face of the returns both are Jiemocratic, but there is to l*e a contest iu Chicago. W bile the cities teem to lie the natural stronghold of Democracy, it may lie as well to notice that all the larger cities of Ohio repudiat ed Democracy by decisive majorities, not withstanding special legislation that was expected to make them solid forever for Democracy . Democracy . The Missouri Colonels wanted the St Lotus Postmaster bounced aud a Democrat put in bis place. This was the answer ot Postmaster General Vilas to their request : "We do not intend to interfere with men whose 'erms of office have not expired Where Republican office-holders are proven to lie incompetent or direlict in duty, it will lie considered that they are subject to removal on charge*, but those charges must net 1st of a partisan character. Po litical questions will have nothing to do with the change*.'' When the term of our present popular and efficient Surveyor General expires, aside from his being his own successor, we know of no one else more competent aud worthy to succeed him than Col. W. W. Del auey, as suggested by the Mineral Argu*. No one has doue mon*, surveying in Mon tana or knows lietter from actual acquaint IBK how to unravel her tangled moun tain knots, or trace her valleys and their silver thread.*, than Col. Delau-ey, who came in with Mullan aud has staid by Montrna iu all her varied ami swelling fortunes. Col. DeLacey's appointment would honor his party, honor the adminis tration. honor »he Territory and honor the sfiea The Connecticut Equitable Trust Com pany recently lost $ 14.500 of interest on money loaued, by a decision of Judge Treat, of the United states District Court of Southern Illinois, under the plea of usury. The money was loaned at ten per cent., a* allowed by the Illinois statutes, but «lx n it was attempted to foreclose the mortgage, ^he j lea of usury was set up on the ground of the incapacity of the corpor ation to loan at a higher rate than that authorized by the laws of Connecticut. This plea was sustained and the eutirc in terest forfeited. There are many millions of Pastern capital loaned iu the West that would be affected by this ruling. Judge Treat is one of the oldest judges upou the district bench aud high authority. | , LOCATION OK THE COURT HOUSE. It was to have been expected that there would ^be a great variety of opin ions about the location of a new Court House, and many influences brought to l>ear to induce a change from the pres ent location. The bill that pa-sed the last Legislature, providing for the erec tion of a new building, coHaiued noth ing looking to a change of location. It di 1, however, contain a provision for securing ampler grounds in connection with the present site, by giving power to condemn adjacent ground aud thus enlarge the present site. It would certainly be a-king the County Com missioners to assume a great deal of re sponsibility to abandon the present site altogether and take new grounds on any terms, though the advocate* of change might be able to show some special ad vantage*. It must be remembered that the Court House is to be a county building aud not a city building, so that the idea of having it any more centrally located on the city area cuts little or no figure. The jieople of the county outside of Helena may not have any special preference about this location, but tfiey are accus tomed to the present site, and so far as they have an opinion to express they would undoubtedly sav let it stay where it is. We believe the Commissioners have acted prudently iu the matter and that their action will meet general approval The .*|>ecial act under which they are acting gave no power to change the lo cation. but, by implication certainly, confined them to use the present site, remedying its only alleged liefert by providing for an enlargement of the f rounds by condemning adjoining prop erty. This might have been done by extending the ground* to the east so as to have had the eastern front toward Rodney street, or bv extending the grounds to the south and coming out on Broadway, as they have done. We do not know which plan would have been cheapest and most convenient. Prob ably the Commissioners considérer! both plan* and consulted some architects in making the choice they did. It was out of the question that any selection they could have made would have been re ceived without some criticism. By the present arrangement the old court house can be be nsed till the new one is fully completed and then we shall all be glad to see it torn down and moved out of sight for ever. It would be a calamity to have it turned , over to the city aud used as a city hall. The new court house will probably l»e large enough to furnish the city with all the rooms needed for every department of city business at much less refit than it would cost to erect a separate build ing in any part of the city. We have no idea that that the ground which the Commissioners seek to condemn will cost more than from 112,000 to $15,000. The balance of the amount provided for the cost ought to give us a building by far the finest in the Territory, suitable foracapitol building for many years, with ample room in its three stories for all the office. for county, city, Territory and for the United State* officers in part. SEW KKAGE. Helena is not the only place in the Territory interested iu the proper solu tion of this question. Every city, town and household has a vested interest in i understanding how to dispose of waste, j filth and offal without poisoning the soil and the atmosphere, and if possible makt these sources of sickness and |>e*t ilence contribute to the fructification and beautification of the surrounding premises and adjacent country. No one who studies the subject at all will reach the conclusion that our great fiume that wa* built last season h at all fitted for a sewer, and the attempt to use it as such will certainly lead to serious ar.d aggravated trouble*. We need deep bed-rock sewers, |»er manently constructed of durable ma terial, from which no noxious gasses shall escape to poison the atmosphere whi -ii our people are compelled to breathe. But something more still is needed. We can no more allow this poisonous mat ter to escape beyond the limit* of the city, to infect the water courses in the valley and poison the atmosphere of other localities. Even if we should extend this costly system of sewerage clear to the Missouri river it is still questionable if it would be allowable to infect the waters of so large a stream. What is needed, as it seems to us, is the early application of the system that prevail* in Berlin aud l'ari*, of treating the sewerage matter a* fast as it form* by some deodorizing process that will de stroy the poison and prepare it iu *ba[>e to l*e used a* • fertilizer to spread over our soil and produce fertility. It is said that this system has l»eeu ap plies! in the model city of l'ullman, uear Chicago, and if it succeed* there, we see no reason why it may not iu Helena. At the close of the great Napoleonic war* in 1 —IT the public debt of Great Britain reached the highest limit, i», ••>•1,477, about four aud a quarter billions— considerably more than our own at the close of the civil war. The Crimeau war, 1854-1856, coat England i 1UO.000.000. To carry on such a war alone over all the seas and in the highlauds of Asia would cost probably a good deal more than the Cri | mean war did, and there is little or no chance lor England to win anything. She would loae the whole cost ot the war and might lost- some of her colonies. There is no telling but she might lose ner control of the ocean commerce. For if it ever < t<> .i.. i..; on an non and steel basis, it will undoubtedly come to stay. ! i SHAMMY STRUCTURES. The collap*e of a block of eight five story houses in New York city, reported yesterday, with the serious if not fatal injury of many of the hands employed, shows how crimes of vast magnitude may be committed right under the face and eye* of the resident* of a great city provided with high salaried officers whose business it is to see that such gr-rts and fatal carelessness and fraud is not permitted. The crime is no le** be cause there are several guilty ones con nected. The con'ractor may be most guilty, but the man for whom such a frail structure is erected is also guilty, and certainly the officers whose duty it i* to see that ail buildings are securely and substantially put up, is as much or more guilty than the contractor. It would seem as if self-interest would prevent such waste of material as in this case. This is of course an extreme one, but the possibility that it could occur at all, give- rise to a sense of general inse curity. For one that actually falls in before completion, how many there must Ik* that barely e»ca|>e such a catastrophy and are liable to go down any day with score* of occupants. It is a generally observe«! and con ceded fact that, as a nation we build in securely. There is Uh» much haste and Uh» much attention U» mere appearance. It is a matter of common criticism how many quacks we have in all the professions. But there are just as many and a-- dangerous quacks in all the arts and trades. M«*n put themselves forward as architects and master builders, who ought U» be serving as apprentice*. House* are built with defective plumb ing, sewerage, and ventilation, by which a large share of sickness and death is caused and charged up to the inscrut able ways of Providence. When we consider all the loss of life, health and property that result* from detective building, we may be easily convinced that it does not pay. It is time to call a halt and create a public opinion that shall demand a change. Our new towns in the rapidly growing West are peculiarly exposed to suffer from this class of unsubstantial and de fective structures. We have a rials of houses, known currently a* balloon frames, from the gauzy material of which they are made and the readineas with which they rise, in a single day sometimes. They are as unsubstantial as tents and not more safe or fit to live in. with no provision whatever for drain age or sewerage. Even Helena, though so many of this class of house* have been weeded out by our frequent tires, is still cursed with too many buildings of this class, and they are still going up all around us every day. It would be better for us in every way to build fewer house* and have those more substantial, safe and healthy. We have plenty of g<H*d building stone, and more of it ought to be use«!. Whai is good as a protection against extremes of heat and cold, is g«n»d a* a safeguard against tire. It saves fuel and conduces to health and comfort. The lessons t«> be learned from losses an ! calamities elsewhere, are for us to apply to our own circumstances and actions. _ The report ot a Nez I'erce outbreak proves to have little or no foundation in fact, and we hope there will prove to be no more foundation for the new story of an Apache outbreak. These Indian wars are great disturbers of the jieace and have served for many years to deter emigration to the frontier. It may ' he too much to say that we are in no danger of ever »se ing any more Indian wars, but it is true, as every observing and thinking person < an easily satisfy himself, that the chances are much less than formerly, and are every year growing still teas. There are many co-operating causes, but one of the princi pal ones is the great change in the habits of life of tbe Indians, in the disappearance of game. They have had to abandon their nomadic way of life and depend on being fe«l by daily rations at the agencies or go to cultivating lands. This soon changes the Indian disposition and bis ferocity of nature is soon tamed. It may not be so healthy for the Indian to lead this idle life on vegetable and farinaceous diet, but it is healthier tor the whits man surely. If with this change of habit and diet the government will increase its efforts to educate the Indian children, especially give them industrial education, the chance of future Indian outbreaks will soon be less thantLat of socialistic hots in onr great ! cities and labor strikes, which rnn into i violent excesses. It is a good thing, per haps. that the Indians dislike to leave their native places. They are becoming yearly more concentrate«! in localities so far apart that there is uo chance for a general ris ing. and they are more easily watched. It may lietter suit the purposes of the Chinese Emperor to proclaim to his sub ie« ts that tbe French have humbly sued for peace. but we fancy that this form of the statement will « reate a breeze m I'aris and it may amount to a storm that will sweep away all discretion and all hojv for peace. The French are crédité«!* by other nation* with excessive vanity, anil such .in insult to their pride must prove a national affront. Tbe Kmperor's intentions are all right. He too has a vain nation to deal with, and wiil no doubt tie able to satisfy the French Minister that his lan guage was only diplomatic in iorm to allay prejudiée against foreigner* and prevent tumultuous outbreaks anti acts of violence, such as murdering missionaries and their converts. Possibly the Emperor could find in same of the French dispatches an equal oversight of essential facts. The in terpretater of such diplomatic language must consider the market for which it was I intended. BUSINESS PROSPECTS. There is something unsatisfactory »nd to a great extent unaccountable in the present business situation and prospects of the country. It does not seem to be owing to any one cause, and it certainly is not confined to any narrow limits, but it extends all over the world, worse, of c«»urse, in some localities, but every where recognizable. It may be over production by the multiplication of |H)wer and the invention of improved machinery. In this country prices seem to be low enough to stimulate trade, aud there is plenty of capital. But for some reason that we cannot understand capi tal seems unuusally and unreasonably cautious of investment. It is generally observed that trade is always more active in a rising than in a falling market. People *«*em to think, though prices are conc«*Ie«l to be very low, that the may go still lower, and hence hesitate to carry any more st«»ck than en«»ugh to meet imme diate «Jemand.-. We see no reason for apprehending much further decline or any long continued depression. The great fall in railroad stocks a year ago made'a great many sick and weak, and they have not got over it yet. But everything seems to be near or <]uite down to bed rock, and whether there is war in Europe or not, the United States are reasonably sure of a fairly prosper ous season. We are at peace amon'g ourselves and with all the world. We have an abound ing credit, vast accumulated wealth, and incalculable resources. Our greatest want is for more peop*e to eat our pro visions and buy our gixxis. Bather than have men killed in continental wars we wl»h that all destine*! for such a late might be sent over to us. We can use the last one of them to advantage, both as consumers and as producers. The departure of 100 puddlers from Pittsburgh to work in an iron mill in New Zealand is not a sign that the "age of iron" is over in this country. On the «-ontrary there is every reason to believe that we are just on the eve of the greatest era of de velopment in this direi'tion that the world lias dreamed of. The reason gived of this emigration of the 100, is that th i substi tution of steel for iron is taking away their employment, but the same material is ne cessary to make steel as for iron, and though new processes of production may come into vogue that will make the pro duction easier, shorter and cheaper, re«iuir ing a less number of hands, the growing demand for steel in the erection of bridges, the construction of ships, cannon, and for all the arts, and even in the construction of houses, will surely increase in this coantry every day as long as time lasts. The or d«*r received in Philadelphia, last week, for six war ships of tbe Esmeralda pattern is enough of itself to insure employment for many hundreds of men for the year to come. When we have ship yards capable of turning out vessels ot' that type, we may reasonably expect that they can build just as good ones for oar own government. If war goes on, as now seems likely, be tween England and Russia, we may expe«'t that the carrying trade of the world will again fall to our hands, if we are willing to take it. Russia can certainly outfit more privateers to prey on English com merce than did the Southern Confederacy on our own. It is not at all unlikely that within a year our fiag may tloat over more iron and steel ships of commerce than any other in the world. DAVID A. Wei.us, the great Democratic free trade expounder aud apostle, is on a visit to Mexico, and it is reported, has be come a stout champion of reciprocity with that country, from living an opponent at the outset. It is not unlikely that his visit was in the interest of the Adminis tration, so that it could adopt a policy for luture action. It is a very significant fact at all events, if it does not represent the policy of the present Administration. The fundamental idea in all these treaties of reciprocity is the very oppmite of the free trade theory. Free trade teaches that all intercourse among natrons should be as free •s possible and regulated by general laws, while reciprocity teaches that the com merce between nations shonld be regulat ed by special treaties altogether, based up on the productions, resources, the exports and imports of the two parties to ea«-b commercial treaty. If Mr. Wells favors reciprocity with Mexico, we see no reason why he shonld not favor it with all the governments of North, Sooth, Central and Insular America. This is the policy that Mr. Arthur'» Administration started out to establish and is one that we believe the good, practical sense of the Amerwan peo ple of all parties will heartily adopt and adhere to. If we remit duties to any na tion. we expect that it will reciprocate. The commercial favors that we bestow will call for others in return. Ail rational, sat isfactory, profitable aud durable intercourse between nations a* lietween individuals must have this mutuality. The Chicago Inter-Ocean of the 11th de votes thrce column* and several illustra tions to Fergus Falls. Minnesota, the county seat of Otter Tail county, nam«td from the venerable 1'resident of tbe Mon tana Pioneers. It is l«>omiog up rapidly a* a great «entre of wealth and industry, and in time may become what Minneapolis is to-day. Tbe foundation of its prospec ta e greatness lies iu its possession of a magnificent water power. Within five miles there is a fall of 175 feet and an average flow of 60,000 cubic feet of water per minute, which engineers estimate can be improved to yield a jiower of from ten to fifteen thousand horse power. In 1 —*0 th« popalation was 1,200 ; inOctolier last it had reached 7,500. Its flour mills have a «opacity of 1.500 barrel* per day. The city has a ÿ JO,000 high school building, three national banks and other things to correspond. a dangerous allien. The news of the massacre by the In dians at Frog Lake, in the Northwest Territory, shows the mischief of having such allies. It is easv enough to rouse them to war, buf it is beyond anvone'» power to control ïjem when once roused and their barbarous taste for blood and plunder has been awakened. We know that if Riel could have influenced or con trolled these Indians he would not have allowed the butchery of Catholic priests, his own friend*, and those whose work was solely one of peace and benevolence to the Indian. Gen. Middleton, we are glad to see, has refused to encourage Indians to take the field against the rebels, knowing well that when once armed and started on a career of blo«)d*hed they make little distinction of friend and foe. It may be some mitigation of Riel's conduct in enlisting the aid of Indians that he had no other source to lot>k to for aid against the government forces. But he ha* taken a fearful re*jK»n*ibility and it will alienate the sympathies of many who would otherwise have regard ed his stand to secure the rights of the half-breeds with complacency or oj>en favor. The murder of women and children and other non-combattants fills the heart of universal humanity with loathing aud detestation. We cannot think without a shudder of the p«n»r scattered settlers in their distant isolated homes surround ed by their helpless families,exposed to barbarities such as red-devils alone know how to inflict. The wide wilderness where this bbiody work is going on, the absence of all means of communication, makes the sit uation seem more dreadful. There is no way of apprizing those exp«»sed to this sudden and dreadful danger of their peril. There was no general th«»ught or fear of an Indian uprising. 8uch occurren ces have fortunately been rare in British America. Hundreds may and probably will be butchered aud their *a«l story never known. We very much suspect that the troops sent out from the eastern provinces are poorly fitted for Indian warfare, either in their equipments or by experience. They expected only to meet small bodies of half-breeds in a stand up fight, but to fight Indians will require a discipline 1 that they know nothing about. They have to deal with with a foe that never is found where expected and that never fights except when it ha» tue advantage. There have been rumors to the effect that the Indiai.s of Montana have mani fested signs of uneasiness and a dispo sition to take the war path. We believe these rumors have originated only in fear, but it is enough to put our garri sons on the watch, and it requires ex treme vigilance and effort on the part of •>ur* Indian agents to keep th« ir charges in sight and contented. Indian wars will soon be over and their horrors will live only in history. The danger from this source is greatly reduced already, but not passed alto gether. The most righteous cause will be in jured by inviting Indian alliance, and this so tar is the worst charge that has been placed to Riel's account. Se< retaky Bavabd's reply to an ap plication for government aid fur the dyna miters nnder arrest in London is very polite and proper, but withal very severe on the applicants. He says he will always be ready to assist to the extent of his ability any American citizen engaged in lawful enteiprizes abroad. It is the only true doctrine, and it is surprising to notice how many there aie with such defective ideas of the rights and duties of American citizens, as to think that it is the duty of our government to protect any citizen, no matter how heinous a crime he may have perpetrated. The gorernraant cannot be too careful in protecting the rights of our citizens abroad, hut it should also be re membered that citizens owe a correspond ing duty to onr government, and should not when abroad violate the laws of the coantry where they may be sojourning. It ia the government's duty to see that American citizens are not unjustly accused and condemned. We have lrequently gone further and asked leniency for those con victed ol violations of law in other coun tries. But those who go abroad for the purpose of committing crime have no right to ask or expect that our government will shield tnem. They offend against our own government as well, when they do so, and to some extent bring reproach and do in jury to every good citizen. Democratic suis-ess in the recent Mich igan election for Supreme Judge and Uni versity Regent, does not cut any great figure politically. It is neue the less a shame ami misfortuue tnat so ahie a Judge as Thomas M. Cooley should have lieen de feated. It was tbe liquor interest that did it,the same influence that has become sueh a disturbing element throughout all tbe Western States. It is the daik horse in every election. Tbe prohibitionists on tbe one side and tbe free-liquor men on the other are elements that unsettls all politi cal «-alculations. The great mass of the people «1«» not lielieve in either extreme, but would prefer a pretty high license. This is one of the questions '.hat it seems iwpo-'sible to settle, so that it will stay set tled. Tilt Minneajiolis Tribune is rather sar castic on its near neighbor, in speaking of prarie-fires in St 1'aul that approached within seven miles of the nearest habita tion. ____________________ A CORRESPONDENT writing from China, says that infantry soldiers in the Chinese army receive for their pay 3? taels of silver each month. This is a!»out $4.75, and out of this sum they have to feed and clothe themselves. 1 JUSTICE TO INDIANS, INJUSTICE TO SETTLERS. as at is I After Attorney General Garland ha* recently examined the subject with all the means of forming a correct opinion on the ca*e, it would be pre*umptioua to think otherwise than that both he an«l the President were convinced that his pre decessor had uo legal authority to open the Winnebago reservation on Crow creek . in Dakota, to settlers. But while conceding gtnid faith and intention, we lielieve a great mistake ha* i been made and that it will result in wrong and suffering to thousand!«, whose rights and interests ought at least to l>e as precious in the regard of onr rulers as those of the Indians, Suppose techni cally this land was still within a treaty reservation and require«l something more than an Executive order to o|K*n it. There is no contradictory evidence of these fucts, that it is not occupied by tbe Sioux to which it would seem righttnlly to belong ; that, by permission, about *»U0 Winnebag«»es are temporarily occu pying a corner of it ; that this portion still left to the Indian occupants is more than 200 acres for every one, old aud young ; that there is no game on it for Indians to sulisist by hunting; and that they have more land left than all the In dians in the Unite«l States could culti vate. Would it not then have been wiser, more humane and *ul»stantially just and equitable, to have let tbe mat ter rested till the Indian Committee of tbe Senate, of whom Dawes is chairman, could have negotiated for the removal of this ch»ud upon the title and satisfied the Indian owners. It is just as true that by virtue of President Arthur's proclamation these settlers, 3,OHO or more, have gone on to these lands in g<K»d faith and not as trespassers. Sn»me have taken their families, all have spent time. lab«»r and money, some of them the last dollar they had in the world, in the ho|»e and expectation of gaining for themselves and families a little home. To drive these settlers off now and comj*el them to lose all they have expended to reach the spot and the improvements they have begun to make is a grievous wrong that it seems to us might well have been aroide«!, and therefore ought not to have b«?en committed aud cannot be ex cused. We know that the Eastern press has made a great outcry over this in vasion of Indian reservations and the sanctity of treaties, and it is quite fash ionable all over the East to speak of the "rowdy" and "lawless West," and judg ing from the fact that the President has only found room in his Cabinet f«»r a single Western man, he probably share* in full the prevailing Eastern idea that all Western men are little more than half civilized, and prefer to restart to vio lence rather than obey lay. These con siderations are some excuse for the the President, but it i- none the ie*s a great mistake and a great wrong. History will show that the Indians were n«»t any better or half as well treated by the first settlers in the east, but were promiscuously butchered and the captives »old as »laves. And who are these lawless western men. w ho are systematically supjnised to be always in the wrong and entitled to no share in the government ? They are none other than tbe sons, brothers and neigh bors of these same eastern folk.* who claim to be the sole surviving repre sentatives of justice and all the virtues. The exercise of just a little common sense would satisfy these eastern Phari sees that if trans|H»rted to the same sec tion of the country where their brothers have goue they would very likely act and think as thev do. It is not only poor policy lor a young city to go into debt, but the charter of our city prohibits it. Policy and law unite to forbid the folly, and it cannot be regarded in any light as parsimony to confine ex penditures within legal limitation.*. Both limit of indebtedness and of taxation were set, beyond which tbe city government coaid not go, however mach it might be inclined to do so. It was an evasion of the charter to levy three times as much as was needed for the support of the tire depart ment and then transfer tbe surplus to the general fand. It is not good economy either in individuals or municipal corpor ations to spend money before they get it, and reduce the insufficient sum they ex pect to have by paying out considerable for interest. It doesn't strike us as com mendable prudence to bay ground for city building« when it was clearly impossible to get the means to build without incurring indebtedness bevond tbe legal limit, unless there was some unlikely possibility that just as good ground could not be had at just as reasonable figure*. when the means would be in hand to use and improve it. But there is no use of whining over |»ast mistakes. We should do the liest we can under the circumstance*. And it is very dearly the duty of the City Council now not to spend any more in improving the ground* they have, than « an l*e spared from the tax money to lie rollected in No vember, allowing for other ne«-es.sary ex jienses. and to make no contracts to lie paid for till the taxes are collet-fed. There is no greater necessity that we know of than to act withiu the law, and there is no surer way that we know of to kill a city than to make taxes so excessive as to drive away people and dl-K-ourage private enter prise and investment. The full olliiial title of the portion of the British j ublic debt called consol », is "The consolidated 3 per cent retimed an nuities. They arnuunt to .£» 30 , 000 , 000 , or about half of the entire public debt. The debt of Great Britain dates from the time of W illiam III. At his death it stood at L'iCl,-203.00, and the interest paid at that time was 8 per cent. THE OFFICES. The Montana member of the National Committee, we may well surmise, is almut as completely nonplused as any one of hi* political size can be who presumed his simple appearance lielore the President was sufficient of itself to completely over turn that part of the political universe for which he claimed a preeminent right to speak. Mr. McCormick grievously sor rows that Democrats will quarrel and fight instead of rowing to an amicable under standing and agreement with respect to apportioning the spoils atrording to pm-e dencc, as the party bosses look at it. In his consultations with Democrats herr and at Butte tbe Committeeman was umler stood to insist that to secure any consider ation whatever for Montana, there must first lie a unity of action of Democrats, and second, a successor to Governor Car penter before other offices i-an hope to secure attention. Unfortunately the |»arty is unable to agree upon a division—which Democrat should have one and which the other office—and the contention for the Governorship is as fierce and lively as for any other. Maginnis is making a persistant fight, ami is impatient that the President does not give some sign of handing him a com mission. Knight and Wonl aud Clark, and Mitchell, of the Kentucky and Mis souri contingent*, have strong pretensions, and each of them has points in his favor that the ex-Delegate cannot hope to sum mon to his aid. Of the rank and file there are a large number who insist that tbe President should hohl steadfast to the civil service idea* out lined in his numerous utterances, and all such Demo« rats are persuaded that no ap pointments will lie made except as vacan cies occur. With the history before him of maDy if not all of the Montana as pirants, the President ha* cause enough to proceed cautiously and with deliberation when considering Territorial applications. When Dr. Swallow, for instance, yells, "Turn the rascals out," the President ha* I justification enough in retorting, "Keep the rascal* oat." The re«-or<l of Federal officials in this Territory is of the highest i best, aud is known to every depart best, aud is known to every depart ment in Washington. Such offi« i ers are hooked to stay till the expiration of their terms, and at the end of that time not many of tbe Deiutxrats now aud for months past figuring to succeed them w ill get their places. Denn* rats will lie chosen, hat they will lie of a class different from many of those who have cheekily pushed themselves to the front since Cleve l an d was i nstalled in the White House, We have been very strongly convinced for a long time that there were two things that could lie accomplished by our general government in connection with the post office that would prove of incalculable benefit to all tbe people in tbe country. One ot these is the establishment of a savings department, such as is now in *ue cessful operation in England, and the other is to assume control of all the telegraphing business as a legitimate part of the postal department of the government. We have sometime* felt impatient at the apparent indifference on the part of the public to th«5*e great reforms so clearly aud largely to the public advantage. i'erbap* there will be one advantage iu this «lelay, for there is promise of a revolution impending in tbe telegraph business by which the further u»e of the Morse alplialiet will l»e done away, and all mt'ssage* will tie sent by a machine like a type writer and re ceived in print that any one can read with out special edu«-atiou lor the husiuess. It will greatly simplify the business and re duce expense ami avoid so many incon venient and distressing error* as now con stantly vex printeis and provoke the pro fanity of readers. This new invention is said to he completed and ready for use, hut we suppose is kept tiack to perfect patents and negotiate contracts. Tbe gov ernment ought to buy the patent for the country and use it through its own agen cies. _ There was never a more revolting, barbarous and cowardly crime ever per petrated by unadulterated savage* than the blowing up of a Chinese wash house in Anaconda with giant powder, killing a half dozen innocent and unsuspecting in mates, an account of which was puhliahe«l ■n last evening's Herald. It will not do to pass by such serious matters practical jokes, appealing to and relying upon tbe very general antipathy against the "heathern Chinee." They are not to blame for being Chinamen, and we should a thousand time* prefer to lie tiorn and for ever remain a heathen than he tbe Chris tian fiend that could iu mere wautoones* perpetrate a crime that would make an un tamed tiger cower in shame. It would lie an insult to brutes to call such a creature a brute. If law ami its administrators are no blind and inefficient that they cannot ferret out the offender, at leant there should lie such a vigorous effort made l»y all good citizens, aud such au expression of opinion, that no ODe else would Ik- induced to seek glory or have amusement of such a tle\ il ish sort. The only mitigation the case a»l mits of is that the perpetrator did not in teud to do more than »«-are the occu|Kints of the house, hut the law supposes that a man intends what are the natural results ot his acts, and in this case it was wanton, fiendish murder. It is not for what the South was or is yet that Northern men insi.*te«l in aims that its occupants shouhl not take that section out of the common country, it was more for a principle, that no State should decide fo« itself, without regard to j the general mtereata, when it n.;_ I draw from the I uiou. It was also that slavery might be wipe«l out ami honest lalior l»e respected and be its own master. The expense was indeed great, hut we lie lieve that time will prove that tbe gam more than justified tbe whole rout, and that the South, with all Its loe.*» *, has lieeu the greatest gainer as well. It may take two or three generations yet. hut we art certain the «lay will come when the South will lie rich, prosp«Tous an«l «-ontented and a thou'and times better off in every re spect tliau it secession had triumphed and slavery continued.