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Helena weekly herald. [volume] (Helena, Mont.) 1867-1900, April 07, 1887, Image 6

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THE COMMISSIONERS.
MEN WHO WILL ADMINISTER THE
INTERSTATE COMMERCE LAW.
Fortralts and Short lîioçrapliioal
Skrtrlirt of Messrs. Cooley, Morrison,
i Sohooniuaker, Walker and Bragg—A
Hoard Composed Entirely of Lawyers.
The question of most intense interest just
now to railroad managers, and indeed to the
great mass of Americans, whose prosperity
depends so largely on railroads, i« as to the
practical operation of the interstate com
merce bill. And it is not to l»e wondered at
that opinions vary, from the warmest eulogy
to the most extravagant denunciation; for
the act is not only a novelty in American
legislation, but its provisions are so complex
that the w isest lawyers differ radically as to
their proper construction, and the most ex
perienced managers are hopelessly at sea as
to their practical effect.
While the bill contains many regulating
provisions, public interest centers chiefly on
Uvo. One prohibits what is called "pooling;"
the other forbids discrimination in charges,
other than that corresponding with distance,
between long and short hauls. In other
words, a railroad company is forbidden, some
slight exceptions aside, to charge more than
one-tenth as much for hauling a ton 100 miles
as for hauling it 1,000 miles. It has long
been the cause of angry complaint that com
peting lines between cities 500, 1,000 or 1,500
miles apart hauled freight at a bare margin
altove cost and indemnified themselves by j
extortionate charges between adjacent
points where there was no competition.
Against this alleged abuse section 4 of
the bill is aimed, and there the controversy
will arise; for the section is confessedly am- i
biguous, and contains exceptions and reserva
tions on which lawyers may exercise their
ingenuity at great length. The commission
eismust decide upon the force and effect of this
and other important sections; and it is
reasonably certain the matter will go before
the Federal courts and must lie finally passed
upon by the supreme court before its mean
ing will be generally accepted.
Judge Thomas M. Cooley, of Michigan;
lion. William R. Morrison, of Illinois; Hon.
Augustus Sehoonmaker, of New York; Hon.
Aldace T. Walker, of Vermont, and Gen. W.
L. Bragg, of Alabama, appointed by Presi
dent Cleveland to execute this law, are all
lawyers noted for their experience in ques
tions affecting railroads.
WILLIAM R. MORRISON. THOMAS M. COOLEY |
ALDACE T. WALKER.
W. L. BRAGG. AUGUSTUS SCHOONMAKER.
Thomas M. Cooley was born in Attica, N.
Y., Jan. 0, 1824, and after acquiring a fair
education studied law at Palmyra, and re
moved to Michigan, where he served as dep
uty clerk and register in chancery. In 1857
he was chosen by the legislature to compile
the laws of Michigan, and did tho work with
such ability tliat he was immediately after
named to organize the law department of the
state university at Ann Arbor. He was the
first professor appointed to deliver lectures on
law in that de]iartment, and also served as
reporter of the supreme court, In 1804 he
was elected justice of the supreme court of
Michigan, a place he filled for twenty-one
years with marked ability. His work
entitled, "Constitutional Limitations of
Legislative Powers in the States," ranks
among the great American legal classics. In
JSS6, Judge Gresham, of the United States
circuit court for the circuit including Indiana,
appointed him receiver of the Wabash Rail
way company, and he was engaged in that
work when named as commissioner. His ap
pointment as receiver was regarded as the
best that could have been made, and his
present appointment gives equal satisfaction.
He is a man of austere morals, strictly tem
perate, an indefatigable worker and in poli
tics a Republican.
William R. Morrison's career as a lead
ing Democratic congressman is too recent
and well known to require detail. He was
born in Monroe county, Illinois, Sept. 14,
1825; graduated at McKendell college in that
state, entered soon after on the practice of
law and served four terms in the Illinois legis
lature. Ho has served eight terms in the
national house of representatives. He and
Judge Cooley are therefore men of national
reputation and tho most widely known mem
bers of the commission.
Augustus Scboonmaker has so far only a
state reputation, but in New York he ranks
high as lawyer, legislator and judge. He was
born March 2, 1828, in Kingston, N. Y. ; ob
tained only a good, common school education,
and was admitted to the bar in 1853. Ten
years after ho was elected judge of the court
for Ulster county and filled that place eight
years. In 1875 he was elected to the state
senate as a Democrat, and in 1877 was chosen
attorney general over Lyman Tremaine by a
majority of 11,541. In 1879 he was defeated
for the same office by Hamilton Ward. He
has taken a rather active part in politics and
served as delegate to three national Demo
cratic conventions.
Aldace T. Walker is a native of Vermont,
and is 47 years old. In 1861 he entered the
army as a lieutenant and rose to be lieu
tenant colonel. He then studied law in
the office of Judge Edmunds, now senator
from tliut state, and after practicing
a few years in New York city, returned to
Rutland, Vermont, where he resides. He
has won a very high reputation as a railroad
lawyer, and is the author of the Vermont
railroad commission bill, adopted in 1S8G. He
is an active und enthusiastic Republican, and
Ids appointment is said to be offensive to the
Democratic leaders of his state, who allege
that he was chosen at the instance of Senator
Edmunds.
Gen. Walter L. Bragg is the only southern
member of t he commission. He was born in
Alabama in 1838, but resided in Arkansas
from 1843 to 1861. He was educated at Har
vard university and Cambridge Law school;
and after the war settled in Alabama in the
practice of the law. In 1881 he was made
president of the Alabama state railroad com
mission, and during his four years in that
office adjusted many questions concerning the
power of the state and tlie rights of railroads,
his decisions giving great satisfaction to the
people, but not to the companies. He was
one of the first six>keu of as a member of the
national commission, and a powerful light
was made against his appointment; but
President Cleveland made a careful examina
tion of his work in Alabama and pronounced
Auin eminently qualified for the place.
She Trusted the Lord.
m First Christian Lady—Ise gwine terchutch
to tank de Laud dey ain't no mo' erfquakes.
Ain't y o' gwine, too, my sister?
Second Lady—No, no, my sister, I no
gwinel Will you attend de brick cliutch?
First Lady—Do brick cliutch fu' tru', but
don' yo' trus' do Laud ?
Second Lady—I trus' de I-and, aw my sis
tar, I trus' uni, but I aeber fool wid um.—
Ufa.
WASHINGTON LETTER.
A CORRESPONDENT DESCRIBES A
PRESIDENTIAL RECEPTION.
Hoit tlie IVople of This Blessed Beptlb»
lie I'lork to the Executive Mansion to
Behold the I'irst Man and tlie First
Lady of tlie Land.
[Special Correspondence.]
Washington, March 2$.— People who
never saw a White House reception—and I
supposa that not half a million of our fifty
millions ever did—think they would like to.
and main - think they could not see enough of
them. Weil, they could. There are thousands
of good people here at the capital who could
see the«e big social affairs as often as they
chose to walk a few blocks from their fire
sides, and they never see one after they have
seen their filmst.
Still, it is a scene that one may well endure
something in order to behold at least oncai
It is worth an American's interest liecause it
is an entertainment given at the first mansion
of the land to the people. No citizen of any
other land enjoys an equal honor. In the
first place these receptions are always given
in the White House, and that venerable old
mansion w as designed by its architect, Hoban,
for the purpose. It may be said that ho did
not succeed, but he did not know how large
and populous our country would in time be
come, nor how tho old house would be
thronged when tho people want to pay their
respects to the man the}' have chosen to be
president, in common with many other in
stitutions founded by the men who made our
system of government, the White House has
turned out to be a very different thing from
w hat it was intended. It is a grand old saying,
of which English speaking people are very
proud, that "every man's home is his castle."
But here is an exception in the White
House. The president of the United States
is invited to enter it and make it his
home, but not to imagine for a mo
ment that it is by any means his castle.
His front door may be opened by the hum
blest bootblack in the nation, if he be clean
and decent, at any hour of the day, and al
most any hour of the night. Everybody
may wijie his feet on the beautiful carpets
in his parlor or even on the lace curtains that
trail on the floor, if he so please. All
day long, every day in the week,
men, women and children straggle in
and out of the famous east room,
which, although it is not exactly
the parlor of the president's house (for he has
several other parlors to which the public has
the entree only on stated occasions), yet was
intended originally as the parlor of the house,
and corresponds to what in nine-tenths of the
homes in this country is the parlor.
...
Aêîi lr ■ «
m «II Jah
m
i
- u
___
AT THE RECEPTION.
This house, in which the head of the nation
lives, is unlike any other house in another
respect. The tide of humanity that rolls into
it at one of these big receptions enters not by
the door, but by a window. The double doors
under the big porch are kept closed. This is
necessary in order to have a place for tho
marine band in the hall. A bridge reaches
from one of tho windows in the offico hall,
over tho basement area, to tho walk. Over
this is stretched an awning which extends
also some distance along the walk. On rainy
nights this is something of a convenience—
not to shelter all who come, for it could cover
not fifty of tho 10,000 people who some*
times press into tho AVhite House at
a singlo reception, but it serves to
give people a little chance to get
less wet than they would be just before
entering. The crowd begins to gather early.
Sometimes a long string of early birds lines
the curving sidewalk that leads to the White
House porch. First come first served is here,
as elsewhere, the great American precept.
At 7 o'clock there are usually enough on
hand to satisfy any ordinary host By 8
o'clock the Marine band, resplendent in red
flannel and brass buttons, marches in. These
brilliantly uniformed fellows are all enlisted
men, who get $21 a month. The leader,
Sousa, also an enlisted man, gets $90 a month.
This famous band first performed at the
White House on New Year's day, 1822, and
has made music at every great entertainment,
levee, reception, funeral or parade held at the
capital since it was organized. Its origin was
a funny one. Some of our ships, cruising in
the Mediterranean in the early years of this
century, picked up a lot of Italians who were
playing on tlie streets of a little seacoast
town. They were kept on shipboard for their
music, and on reaching this country were sent
to the capital to play at parties and balls.
This little handful of Italians was the nucleus
of the Marine band. Some of the descend
ants of these musicians are now among the
wealthiest professional and business men at
the capital. The members of the band live
in the Marine barracks, are allowed to marry,
keep shops and stores and play at the theatres
and at private parties, when not required for
official occasions. The band always plays at
a presidential reception the original state
tune of "Hail Columbia," the music of which
was written in Washington's first term by
Pfyles, the leader of the only orchestra in
New York at the time. In John Adams'
time Judge Hopkinson wrote "Hail Colum
bia" and put it to Pfyles'tune. Up to that
time the music was known as "The Presi
dent's March."
There are of course many kinds of recep
tions at the White House. We are thinking
now particularly of those to which the public
are invited. There are especial receptions
for the diplomatic representatives of foreign
governments, officers of the army and navy,
judges of the supreme court, senators and
members of congress. These affairs are very
brilliant. The diplomats attend decked out
in their court uniforms, 6ome of which are
magnificently emblazoned with gold lace.
The dapper Japanese, the Chinaman, wear
ing his stiff, rich silks, tho Turk in his red
turban, are there observed and observing.
These receptions, exclusive as they are, take
on the greatest importance in the eyes of
society people. The presence of so many
foreigners tends to reduce conversation to a
minimum. Although the numlier of people
|n attendance is limited, the mansion is gener
ally crowded. The ladies are there, and the
magnificence of their toilets is something that
it would take a cross between 8 hakes peare
and Worth to describei
The president's receptions are announced
through the newspapers. When it is stated
that they are public no further invitation is
necessary. All strangers at the capital are
at liberty to call. Etiquette prescribes no
part.eular dress. You will see all colors, all
styles, all degrees of wear and tear. The
public reception is no respecter of persons.
Children go, old men who can stand the strain
of waiting are there, and our colored brethren
come also. The hours are from 8 to 10 p.m.,
but they lengthen out to 11 and sometimes 12.
At 8 o'clock, wheu the door keepel's at the
window receive the word to admit the wait
ing throng, the White House and the grounds
present a busy and exciting scene. The
curved carriage way, from gate to gate, is
covered with carriages and cabs, packed away
side by side, while a continuous stream of
other cabs and carriages rolls and rattles in
one gate and out the other, while Pennsyl
vania avenue, in front of the White House, is
packing full of vehicles.
J
AFTER TIIE RECEPTION.
It takes quite a number of well trained at
j tendants to manage the immense crowds,
j These at the window, who admit the throng
j pressing over the bridge, are tall, sturdy fel
! lows, who can in a moment bar the way and
stem tlie oncoming tide. They stand back
until thirty or forty people have entered the
house, when they cut off the stream of hu
manity'. In this way all the evening they
keep the crowd from overflowing all control,
and make it possible for every one to spend
some time in the AVhite House and then de
part, making room for those who are still
waiting. Various ways of handling the
crowd after it has entered the building have
been followed. The usual course is to send
the stream of callers up the office stairs into
the main hall on the second floor, down its
length to the private staircase, down again to
the main hall on the first floor, along to the
door of tho red room, through this room into
the blue room where the president receives,
thence into the green room and the east
room. Each person is presented to the presi
dent by the marshal of the district, to whom
the caller has first announced his name. Then
he is presented to Mrs. Cleveland by the
superintendent of public grounds and build
ings. At present both these officials bear the
name of Wilson. The former is always a
resident of the district, the latter is an army
officer detailed for this duty. Tlie ladies who
assist at these receptions are the wives of cab
inet ministers, or, in their absence, whoever
of their household is there to represent them.
The room back of the line, in which stand the
president and his wife and the ladies assist
ing, is filled with ladies and gentlemen who
have been specially invited to the reception.
In the east room there is a general com
mingling of everybody. The main hall and
the east room are beautifully decorated with
flowers and palms. All the evening they aro
densely crowded with people who really seem
to be enjoying themselves in observation of
these present and conversation upon every
thing of interest. This, of course, is the
pleasantest part of the reception. The long
hours of waiting are past, the stiff and stale
form of being presented to the president is
over, and one has time to catch his breath
and chat a little if he pleases. There are
celebrities all about you—generals and judges,
authors and inventors, philanthropists and
multi millionaires. It is like any other mass
of Americans: the rich, tha poor, the fashion
able, the common, the titled, the obscure, the
vulgar, the cultured, the learned, the ignor
ant—these are all here. The faces are various
and the most of them unknown to us, but to
one who has spent a year or two in AVashing
ton they seem quite familiar. Even if we do
not know the names we know the faces, and
if we do not know the faces we know the
types. By listening one may learn more.
For instance, listen I Two well dressed ladies
in street dress aro talking at our left.
"What a jam!" "Oh, it's nothing to the
Democratic from Away Back.
The Courier-Journal belongs to this class.
It is a Democrat dyed in the wool, a yard
wide, and warranted not to fade. It is a
Democrat, and not afraid or ashamed of its
Democracy. It is a Democrat from the head
waters of bell for sartin and the forks of way
back. It can drink out of a tin cup, but pre
fers a gourd. It can wear a biled shirt, but
prefers homespun. It looks back to the days
of the log rolling, the quiltin' and the fish fry
as the halcyon days of the republic, and
would restore the simple morality which
doubted the virtue of making money by
swindling and the wisdom of inventions
designed to increase the population by steam.
It is sometimes called a Bourbon ; and, if to
be this is to be a Bourbon, then Bourbon it
is, and we are proud of the title. And, please
God, we shall try and keep the old log heap
burning on the hill—with light for the blind
and warmth for the chilled—through the
long, dark night of cowardice, ignorance and
disaffection.—Louisville Courier-Journal.
There were 500 more marriages in New
York city in 18SG than in 1885. Not less
than 1,590 widowers were married again, the
number being 345 in excess of the widows.
About 3,000 of the brides were under 20years
of age. Only one man was married for the
fourth time, and only one for the fifth time.
—Harper'*, Bazar.
"What a jam!" "Oh, it's nothing to the
last one." "Who are those horrid people yon
der?" "That man with tho lop eye?" "Yes,
and the girl with the bony neck." "Those
are the AVillowwigs." "You don't say. Why
he's literary." "Yes, and that's his daughter
she's engaged to Lieut. Fortune, and they are
going to build here next year." "Isn't Mrs.
Cleveland entrancing?" "Lovely; and she
don't give in to fashion, either." "Her neck,
you mean?" "Yes." "But she might." "Yes,
she has a magnificent neck." "AA'hy do we
always call it neck?" "Even when we mean
almost half the body." "Hush!" "These are
the Highcheeks; he used to keep a saloon."
"And she took in washing." "But they've got
40,000,000 now." "They' show very' little of their
vulgar beginnings." " AVhen their mouths aro
shut." "Did >'ou see them in their box at the
opera last night?" "Did you ever see such a dis
play? I know he was tipsy." "Well if she
wasn't!" "Look there!" "It's Congressman
Van Gelt." "He can hardly write his name,
and never makes a speech, because he can't
read it." "His wife has gold teeth. Did you
ever notice? Tho whole set is built of solid
gold on the old roots." "She must be a bril
liant conversationalist." "Yes, wheu she
opens her mouth wide."
This is enough to show that human nature
is a good deal the same here as elsewhere.
The assemblage gradually pours itself out
through the arched doorway, through which
for eighty odd years so many presidents have
passed to greet their callers daily or semi
weekly. In the main hall the throng
soon resolves itself into a procession,
with a current set in toward the con
servatory'. It is here the president, they say,
told his love to pretty Miss Folsom. In sooth
all these rooms are rich in associations. In
the east room, we just left, Nellie Grant was
married. There the body of Lincoln lay the
day after he was struck down. There even
staid John Quincy Adams danced with Dolly
Madison. There Jackson exercised his
hounds. There Tad Lincoln played horse
with his father. There the little Lamont
girls aired their dollies during their sojourn
iu the White House in the summer of 1885.
At length the stream of people winds its
way back through the main hall and out
through Louis Tiffany's artistic glass parti
tion into the ante hall, and once again out
under the portico into the fresh aiT. It has
been a long, tedious, exciting evening. Y'our
spine feels as if it would drop out, your bead
aches, your legs are numb with hours of
standing. Once is enough! John Aye.
THE DEAD PASTOR.
Soma Stories About the Rev. Henry
Ward Beecher.
[Special Correspondence ]
New York, March 14. —The newspapers
will be full of stories about Henry Ward
Beecher for weeks. Here is one he once told
of himself: At one time the faculty decided
that the religious tone of the Amherst college,
where he studied, needed to be raised, and
resolved upon a visitation of the students
in their room for that purpose. One day
he saw Professor Burgess, an immensely tall
man, making his way up stairs toward his
(Beecher's) room,and, anticipating a visit from
him, he hustled all his chairs but one, the
legs of which had been shortened one-half, into
his wood closet. Seated with a bo"k, on
his low chair, he bade the professor come in,
and of course proffered him the seat. Back
ing up before it, the tall professor stooped
and began sounding for it, and at length suc
ceeded in touching bottom and settled down,
bringing his knees quite up into his face and
presenting altogether a very comical aspect.
For himself, repressing his risibilities with an
j iron nerve, Mr. Beecher said he stood and
' meekly awaited the expected homily. But
j the professor, under the circumstances, proved
1 unequal to it, and after a moment's inspeo
j tion of his knees burst into a loud laugh, in
which Beecher heartily joined him, and, with
the remark that he believed he would call
again, he struggled to a perpendicular and
bowed bimself out.
Joe Howard, writing for a New York
paper over a year ago, told this story;
"Beecher was always a great swimmer.
There was in those days near Fulton ferry a
huge floating bath house kept by an old time
exhorter named Gray. Thitb er Mr. Beecher
used to go in his younger days, with head
long jump, plunge deep into the East river
waves, spouting and puffing with all the
energy of a full developed whale, an expert
swimmer, a diver better than any boy in the
City of Churches. The price for a bath was
a shilling, and I shall never forget the odd
sensation I experienced one day when, meet
ing the dominie in the street, he asked if 1
would go down to the ferry and take a bath.
I was about 8 years old, and not overburdened
with spending money, and blnntly told him 1
would like to go first rate but I hadn't got the
shilling. A quizzical look spread all over his
ruddy face as, laughingly, he took me by the
hand and said: 4 Come along; when you ask a
young lady to take icecream with you you
don't expect her to pay for it, do y< u?' "
Beecher's habit of reading when traveling
on railroad trains favored both his eyes and
his brain. He did not ]>ore over a book con
stantly', but satisfied himself with leisurely
references to it. After reading not to exceed
a l>age and a lialf he used to drop the booll
into bis lap and rest in reflection and window
gazing for a few minutes before Le resumed
his reading. This process of bool, study wai
gone over with uniform exactin'*
had enough "inwardly digested,"
a doze till refreshed and then
book again.
They say that he had little idea of the value
of money, and a well known writer tells this
story to back it dp:
'•I was passing the office of J. B. Ford & Co.,
when they were his publishers years ago, and
Samuel Wilkinson, one of the firm, called me
in to show me the proofs of the illustrations
of the first volume of the 'Life of Christ,' on
which Mr. Beecher was then engaged. 1 had
admired a great many of the prints when
AVilkinson, coming to a new one, suddenly
snatched it up and exclaimed : 'Fee that nowl
There is an illustration of Mr. Beecher's ig
norance of the value of money. That steel
plate cost $400 and he has made a correction
which compels the re-engraving of the whole.'
It was the title page, beautifully executed on
steel. It read, as engraved, 'Life of Jesus
Christ by Henry AVard Beecher,' etc. But on
the margin was written in cramped characters,
to be inserted after 'Jesus' and before
'Christ' a comma and the word 'the,' the
latter looking so like a capital 'H' that I
read it so aloud; whereupon AA'ilkinson
laughingly explained what it was. Beecher
laughed over it a year or two later when I
told him of it, and admitted that the idea of
the peculiar title had come to him after the
volume had been written, and he at once
adopted it without the slightest thought of
the cost to his publishers."
But everybody agreed that he was a great
preacher. AV'alter AVibebly.
When hf
went into
■nt to thf
HANS VON BULOW.
Shut Out of
Had
First Night—His
Temper.
[Special Correspondence ]
London, March 7. —They produced Bu
fer's new opera, "Merlin" in Berlin the
other night, and it was a great success.
But there was not more interest in
the performance itself than in the treatment
that was accorded
Hans Von Bulow,
the celebrated
pianist. For they
wouldn't let him in,
and this in spite of
the fact that he
had a ticket, the
same as everybody
else who wanted to
get in. AA T by did
they do this? Be
£ cause he had criti
^cised the manage
ment of the thea
tre. Von Bulow has
a very trenchant
HANS von bulow. pen and a very keen
tongue, and he is always gettmg into
trouble.
During the latter part of 1884 he made a
public exhibition of himself in Vienna. At a
concert attended by the leading members of
the aristocracy he stepped forward to the
front of the platform, and, taking from his
pocket The Fremdenblatt, addressed the
audience in a tone of mingled ill temper and
irony. He said that the journal in question
had found fault with his previous rendering
of Beethoven's "Egmont," and that, as he
would not like to wrong the great composer
again, his orchestra would play instead the
"Academical Overture" of the Austrian
Brahms. The public indignantly protested,
and called for Beethoven's overture, which,
after some hesitation on the part of Herr von
Bulow, was produced. Brahms' "Academi
cal Overture" was then expected, but Herr
von Bulow, after putting on his overcoat,
once more addressed the audience. "I can
not render it on the pianoforte," he said, "and
my musicians are too tired to play it them
selves." It would be difficult to descrilie the
angry feeling roused among the public of
Vienna at that time by Herr von Bulow's
behavior. It is questionable whether he will
ever be asked to play in Vienna again.
The Wrong Man's Deal.
It is Mr. Blumenthal's deal, and Mr. Cohen
polishes his glasses hurriedly with a view to
making a careful survey of the shuffle. Mr.
Blumenthal's friend, Mr. Dinkelstein, consid
ers it an appropriate occasion for a remark:
"Mister Cohen, I heart you vas a cood chudeh
of diamonds. Vill you gincHy look at dis
chenuine blue vite, soffen carat"- "Ox
guse me," replies Mr. Cohen without remov
ing his eyes from the pack, "I giffs no atten
tion to diamonds on Chakey Blumenthal's
deal. I vas lookin' for glubs."—New York
Sun.
The Unsatisfied Wail.
Soon the frost will have taken
Its grip from the earth.
And the spring time awaken
Birds, flowers and mirth;
No more on the paving
AVe'll drop with a thud;
Instead, we'll be raving—
"Great Cæsar, what mud!"
—Boston Budget.
On an average 30,000 books a year are
now published.
JENNY JUNE.
She Wonders If Education Teaches Us
Anything After All.
[Special Correspondence.]
New York, March 14. —Does education
teach us anything? I begin to doubt it, and
I think it would at any rate be a fair question
for a debating society. Men and women learn
all sorts of things nowadays, but they do not
seem to think of applying what they have
learned, or at least what they have been
taught, to the circumstances of every day life.
We study equations and the calculus, but we
have not learned to number our houses so
that they can lie seen, even in broad daylight.
We talk about ventilation, but we shut our
selves up in furnace heated houses or stove
heated rooms, c es .lent cracks or crevices that
admit a breath ot fresh air, and discuss the
latest scientific developments in sanitation in
rooms that ars filled with atmospheric
malaria. Our street cars and public buildings
have still no means of changing the air or ad
mitting it from outside but by opening win
dows and making a draught, which is death
to nervous and sensitive people.
The Nineteenth Century club of New York,
the latest exponent and collective represen
tative of modern thought and culture, asks
for "evening dress," upon its cards of
Invitation, from women, to whom evening
dress means the lowest of low necked bodices
and no sleeves at all. This in a public art
gallery where the meetings are held, which
will hold 700 or 800 people, and where the
only means of ventilation which has ever
been tried is that of laboriously and with much
noise opening great sliding windows, which
pour in a perfect blast, and are then as labori
ously ground back into place, and the room
again made a hermetically sealed can. It is
said that one lady is dying of pneumonia
from these severe alternations, but more, one
would suppose, would die of asphyxia.
It is curious, but there is a great deal
of fact in imagination. I never go into a
street car that I do not find its atmos
phere so bad that I want to get out
of it as quickly as possible. There
are ventilators, but not one is ever
opened. Twice every day Isay to a con
ductor: "Please open some of those ventilators,
the air in this car is poisonous." He perhaps
opens one, or two—generally on the same
side—with a jerk, and some rheumatic person
glares at me, but I feel happy, all the same,
for I know the air of that car will be better
when I leave it than when I entered it. The
work of the imagination is seen in the con
viction of the rheumatic individual that he is
suffering from that purification of the air.
If be had not seen it, if a certain amount of
ventilation was effected as a matter of course,
he would simply feel the beneficial effect of it
and not dream of injury; but it is the revolu
tionary aspect, the sight of fresh air, which
frightens him.
It is hardly to be believed h}w many people
still sleep with their windows closed tightly,
and rendered even more deadly with weather
strips. They may read all the books on
sanitary science, attend courses of lectures on
hygiene, know Professor Huxley by heart—
it does not make a particle of difference, they
stick to their habits and their traditions, in
spite of what they know.
If we are to look for education and its re
sults anywhere outside academy walls, it
should lie in such well dressed anl refined
looking assemblages of people as are seen at
tlie Metropolitan opera house and the best
theatres. Yet the interruptions, the parade,
the talking, the laughter interpolated upon
the performance by ignorant idiots, who have
not brains enough to understand the artistic
interest or sense to appreciate the rights of
others, are daily subjects of complaint, and
have become a real dread to those who go
with a serious purpose. The well merited re
buke which came from Miss Genevieve Ward
to a theatre party who occupied a stage box
during her engagement in Philadelphia
shows that other cities besides New York are
afflicted with this class of illiteracy. Great
artists, accustomed to respectful treatment,
and absorbed in their work, are startled from
it as by a shock, or confused by the giggling
and irrelevant sounds which have nothing to
do with the work in hand. Miss AA'ard
stopped her speech while such an unseemly
exhibition and disturbance was in progress,
and, addressing herself to the delinquents,
said sweetly: "I am really afraid we are dis
turbing you. Shall we go on?" A few such
lessons might teach even ignorance itself
something; but few artists have the presence
of mind of this highly trained and experi
enced actress. Jenny June.
WASHINGTON NOTES.
Something About Three Very Rich
Statesmen.
[Special Correspondence.!
Washington, March 22.—I saw some
$125,000,000 leaning against a section of
the senate wall, not larger than four feet wide
and six feet high, not long ago. The wall
stood tho weight very well, and the two men
who represented it did not appear to be
heavily burdened. They were Leland Stan
ford, of California, who is said to b9 worth
$75,000,000, and James G. Fair, of Nevada,
who is said to lie worth $50,000,000, The two
millionaires were talking earnestly together.
Stanford had his hands in his pockets, and
Fair was fingering his black watch chain.
The immense wealth of the two men was
not shown by their clothes. Neither of them
wore pui ple or fine linen, and their two
suits together cost probably not more than
$70. They wore no jewelry, and I noted that
Stanford's eyeglasses were rimmed with black
rubber. They had good, strong faces, and
that of Fair was rather intellectual and clas
sic. Fair is the grayer headed man of the
two, and his hair and beard are now of a dark
iron gray. Stanford's hair is dark brown and
his beard has a reddish tinge. Both men are
tall and well made. Both have good physiques,
and I doubt not both sleep well of nights. A
generation ago neither was making over
$1,500 a year, and now each of them must
have an income of more than that a day.
Verily, tlie truth of great fortunes is stranger
than the fictions of Monte Christo.
Speaking of Senator Fair, I saw his suc
cessor. William M. Stewart, the other day.
He does not look much like his picture,
and his hair is now as white as snow. His
beard is a great long bunch of frosted silver,
and the top of his head bids fair to become
bald if the thinning process continues to go on
with advancing years. Nevertheless, Senator
Stewart is a fine looking man. He is fully
six feet tall, is as straight as a Norwegian
pine, and weighs, I should judge, nearly 200
pounds. He has a rosy, fair complexion, blue
eyes, which look out under white brows,
and regular features. I saw him talking
with Senator Fair and I noted that the two
men were of about the same build. Senator
Stewart is now 00 years old, and it is a gener
ation since he was elected to the senate as the
first senator from Nevada in 1864. He served
then twelve years and he left the senate to re
side in San Francisco. He lives very finely
there and is a man of wealth. His house,
which the Chinese legation occupies here, is a
castle iu appearance, and it rents for a sum
equal to the salary of the chief justice of the
United States. Senator Stewart is a man of
much education and culture. He is a graduate
of Yale, and western men tell me he is one of
the finest lawyers on the Pacific coast.
He is a self made man, and began life
as a farmer's boy in New Y'ork. He
taught school for the money which sent him
to college, and went west at the beginning of
the gold fever anil made a fortune. He lost
this and made another, and repeated the ex
perience several times since then, though
his wealth at present is said to be much less
than when he was in the senate before, and
when he built the palace which is so valuable
now, but which was so long known as Stew
art's folly. He wll be an important addition
to the Republican side of the chamber,_and
will. I doubt not, be one of the leading social
entertainers' ■ he next season.
J'URx.
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W
ATLEE
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Will be sent FKEK to all who write for it. It is a
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w 3 m-feb !0
Established 1864.
A. G. CLARKE. THOMAS CONRAD. J. C. CURTIN.
CLARKE, CONRAD & CURTIN
Importers of and Jobbers and Bétail Dealers in
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HARDWARE.
SOLE AGENTS FOR THE
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Vlaifor« Iq the City are respeetfnlly invilrtl to call nn*l Examine onr Good«
anti price« betöre purchasing.
ALL ORDRES RECEIVE PROMPT ATTENTION AND SHIPMENT.
CLARKE, CONRAD & CURTIN,
32 and 34 Main Street, -
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What Mr. Beyer says:,,:;
.Catalog^
Please
:ccpt my
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It would be a rather lm«thy list if 1 should name all, but
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Southern Michigan 2k first premiums were for vege
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' August Beyer, So. Bend, Ind.
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who tills a farm or plants a garden, sending them FREI! my
Vegetable and Flower Seed « 'atalocue, for 1MS7. Old customers
need not write for it. 1 catalogne this season the native Wild
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FURNITURE!
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Irish Holdings.
London, March 31.—In the House of
Lords to-night Earl Cardigan (Conserva
tion) presented a bill providing for the pur
chase of Irish holdings, or, in other words
for the abolition of the system of owner
ship created by the act of 1881. It was
proposed, he said, to admit lease-holders
to the benefit act of 1881. [Cheers]
Lease holders whose leases have expired
prior to 1881 (numbering 160,000) were to
be admitted to the benefit act of 1881 in
the same manner as those whose leases
expired in that year.
Expelled front Germany.
Paris, April 3.—Antoine, protes tor del
egate to Reichstag, who was expelled from
Germany, has arrived at Pagni. In an
interview to-day, he said : "I was sitting
in Cafe Turc at Metz, as was my custom
at 10 o'clock at night, when a detective en
teral, glanced around and departed. Then
a sub-inspector of police entered, placed
me under arrest and informed me that I
mnst leave the country immediately. The
police accompanied me to my home where
I bade adieu to my wife and family and
did not leave me until I was on the fron
tier.

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