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m <1 Net Volume xxi. Helena, Montana, Thursday, April 21, 1887. No. 21 <n,c lilcchly ifjcrahl. 8 £ FISK 0. W. FISK. ». J. FISK Publishers and Proprietors. Largest Circulation of any Paper in Montana -O Rates of Subscription. WEEKLY HERALD: One Year. (In advance).............................$3 00 Wx Months, (In advance)............................... 1 75 Three Months, (in advance).......................... 1 00 When not paid for in advance the r**e will he Four Dollars per yeaii Pontage, in all cases, Prepaio. DAILY HERALD: City Subscribers,deli vered by carrier SI .00a month One Year, by mail, (in advance)................. S'J 00 Six Months, by mail, (in advance)............... 5 00 Three Months, by mail, (in advance)........... 2 50 If not paid in advance, S12 per annum. 00 - A 1 communications should be addressed to KISK BKOS., Publishers, Helena, Montana. FAREWELL TO PASSES. Farewell, a long farewell to all my passes ! This is the state of man : To-day he puts forth A well-filled book of passes; to-mortow travels And pays for naught ami laiasts of influence ; The third day comes a frost, a legal frost, And—when he thinks full surely that he is \ deadhead, every road demands its pass And then he pays, as l do. 1 have traveled, J.ike little wanton lioys that pay for nothin«:, Tluwe tuanv summers on a raft of passes, But not quite far enough. These courtesies At length broke from me, end now have left me The victim of habit—to the mercy Of a law that ne'er will iecognize me. Base I ulloro and associates, I hate ye ; I feel my purse now opened. O how wretched Is that poor man that hangs on railroad favors! There are, betwixt that pass we would aspire to \nd that refusal of our mild requests. More pangs and fears than wrecks or mishaps have, Asul when he falls he falls like alderman, Never to pass again. AT THE («ATE. At the gate, 1 will wait. At the gate of my thought. Till the wonderful key. In turning for me, (Jives the truth, that is sought. When this treasure concealed, To rue is revealed, When the spirit divine. Shall symbol its sign— At the gate. Again 1 will wait— At the gate of the dead. Till it swings hack and shows, < Jod's mercy that flows. Toward some pitiful need. That nourished indeed. May turn in its time, To a purpose sublime— To a sanctified fate, That may again wait At some other gate. A LAW AGIN IT. "Our church has got a bran' new man. The Baptis' preacher can't come near him. And Sunday being bright and warm, 1 thought I'd like to go and hear hint; But if I know'd 'twas fashion day, With women dressed like fancy picters, To take my inind in sermon time, l'd stayed at home and read the Scripters. "I'm old and I'm old fashioned, but 1 notice quick what isn't decent. And I say women act like geese. In aping every style that's recent. They comb their hair straight up behind, And put in arrers for to pin it. And friz and bang it down in front; There ought to be a law agin it. "They buy the highest hats there is. And make 'em higher yet with trimmin', And feathers frizzlin' out, until They look like Injuns more than women ; And bustles! land, I saw one girl Who couldn't sit straight up a minute, I say it's awful—and I say. There ought to be a law agin it. "'Twan't so when I was young—why then The girls at church was worth a seem'; They didn't dress till folks forgot To praise the author of their bein'; Our gowns was neat, with buttons up And down, In modest rows to trim 'em, I mind Aunt Polly Jones declared There ought to be a law agin 'em. "But she was queer; I recollect The bunnit that I got one summer llad lace and roses on the side, And so it like to overcome her. For when she saw that bunch o' lieej With artificial posies in it, She just rolled up her eyes and said: 'There ought to be a law agin it.' " Good Cousin Phoebe stops and smiles, Her thought has taken new direction The context 'twist the then and now Calls up her past recollection. She quite forgets the modern style. That makes the modern woman sinner. For clothed with youthful grace again. Her worn out garments come and win her —Mrs. G. Archibald in Burlington Hawkeye. "WITH ALL HER FAULTS." ! It's true she writes a scrawly hand. Puts in two "t's" where one would do, And spells "dog" with an extra "g"; But not a girl in this wide land Is half so dear, and very few One-tenth as sweet as she to me. Dear thing! she sometimes says "I seen," "They was," "I's not," or "So be you"; "Them's yours," "They's good"—harsh to my ears; But she is still my loTely queen, Whose heart beats are to mine most true. And will be yet for many years. Some say that love is blind, and I Would add that love is deaf also. Though grnmmarless and spelling bad* Mv love is handsome, sweet and shy The secret of our love you'd know? She's only five and I'm her dad. —Mark Bennett in Judge. Bermuda. I warble! Bermuda is the subject of my pe-ans, Potatoes, onions, not to say its be- ans. I .et others sing its myrtles and its lemons. My muse will celebrate the produce of its gem mans. The lowly onion takes up most the isle; It dots the land for many a mile on mile. Its perfume's wafted to our coses. And mingles with the scent of roses. The smell—we have to make tho most of; The taste—no mortal here ran boast of. For when they're ripe—that very day, They dig them, pack and ship away ! Potatoes go in countless number; Not one is left t he ground to cumber. All are sent off : the stock gets short. And then the cry is: "Let's import." —Hartford Daily Times. Making War on the "Growler." Away with the "growler!" the "growler" must go. Away with the beer can, that fountain of woe. Away with the tempter and his power to ensnare The angels of childhood who pass by his lair. Away with this sin breeding author of woel Away with the "growler!" the "growler" must go. —New York W. C. T. Union Song. Sprained His Hyphen. All true Irishmen chuckle to note that Sir Michael Hicks-Beach has sprained his hyphen. ""Philadelphia Record. OSTRICH FARMING. HOW A CALIFORNIA OSTRICH FARM IS CONDUCTED. Cost and Profit of the Experiment— What the Dig Birds Eat and How They Are Cared For—Their Great Talent for Pacing. [Special Correspondence.] Los Angeles, March 26.— This palm land about which the poets write so impassionedly and tell of its "ladies with eyes held down,'' has developed a new and interesting industry —ostrich farming. A car load of the big birds from Africa arrived here recently, and it was a sight to see them escorted to their future home. The royal fowls were attended by some Madrasese men and women, as the people of that tribe and ostriches get on better together than any others. The y ketch ley ostrich farm is six miles out of the city*. It is succeeding so well that several others will doubtless be attempted be fore long. Une other has been started. How ever, ostrich farming is an experiment that requires some capital, as a full grown pair of birds is worth from $700 to $S00, and a single young one six months old cannot be bought for less than $100, and often costs $200. Dr. Sketchley was one of the pioneers in ostrich farming in Africa. He spent many years there in the business and was very suc cessful, He is the author of several books on the Ostrich and the Lest method of making him profitable. He visited Los Angeles, weis delighted with the climate and determined to see what it would do for his favorite birds. The result is his profitable farm of sixty acres, on which are thirty pairs of beautiful, full grown birds, and ever so many young ones. All the big birds he imports directly from Africa, landing them at Galveston. The doc tor finds that California ostrich farming suc ceeds even better than ho expected. The os triches are as healthy as in Africa and far more prolific in eggs and feathers—results, too, duo to this soft, delicious climate, which increases tho productive power of all animals. Each big bird weighs from G00 to 400 pounds and is from eight to twelve feet high. Tho male is black and is much tho larger; the female is gray. The white ostrich feath ers, so beautiful and so expensive, are found on both tho male and female birds among the loose feathers of the wings and tail. It is their rarity which makes them so much de sired, for experts consider them, in some re spects, inferior to the other feathers. 'A' *9 \ y / -------- AN OSTRICH RACE. A female ostrich is 4 years old before she produces any eggs; but she will produce her first crop of feathers at the end of the first year. Every seven months thereafter her feathers are ready for market. She will pro duce about twenty-five very fine feathers and a large number of less valuable ones. Tho feathers are not plucked, but are cut off quite close to the skin with large shears. The op eration is said to be painless; at least the men who cut the feathers say so, and tho ostriches have not contradicted it. A week after the cutting the stubs dry and shrivel to such an extent that they are easily removed. Tho longest and finest white feathers are worth $4 a piece at wholesale, and good ordi nary feathers $200 a pound. The first clip pings from young birds average $40 in value. After a farm is stocked, if all goes well, the returns on the investment are large. Tho hatching is mostly done by incubators. This relieves the feminine ostrich's mind from much maternal responsibility. She can keep her feathers slick, step around at leisure and be as giddy as she pleases. She even has time to vote and attend missionary meetings if sho wants to; and as for gossip she can drink her fill. Speaking of drink reminds me that the old idea that ostriches seldom or never re quire water has been exploded. They not only drink frequently, but they show a de cided fondness for the bath. Dr. Sketchley keeps a water trough in each pen largo enough to afford the birds ample bathing fa cilities. When it comes to age these monster birds are little short of immortal. Nobody knows just what their average age is. In Africa some of them are known to be over SO years old. Com and alfalfa constitute their food. Al falfa is a beautiful plant of the Luzerne fam ily. This menu causes tho ostrich to produce more feathers and of a better quality than any other diet. The doctor's farm is a sort of colony. Each male is mated, and the pair are set up in housekeeping with two acres of ground. The land is fenced off into lots of an acre each. The two birds are kept in one of these lots until they have eaten off all the alfalfa, when they are transferred to the other, and are kept alternating from one to tho other all the time. Foot races between tho ostriches are inter esting diversions. I had the good fortune to see one. We stood in a broad, open space between the ostrich pens and the house. The door of one of the pens was opened, and in response to the doctor's call t wo massive birds came running toward him. He caressed them a moment and showed them a handful of figs. They like tigs overmuch. Two men then threw nooses about their legs, and we walked aw.iv a quarter of a mile. Then at a signal from us ilie birds were released, and the race began. And what a race! No professional runners on human legs could ever dream of making such time. At every stride they cov ered from eleven to fourteen feet. Their great necks were stretched forward and upward to their longest limit and their wings were working like the arms of a powerful engine. Like the wind when it pushes the storm cloud they came. They kept nearly abreast for about half the distance, and then one began to forge ahead. He increased his lead till within a short distance of us, when he glanced back and saw that his competitor was con siderably in the rear. Then ho slackened his pace, relaxed his neck, and jogging up to the doctor got his figs and several well earned ostrich when feeding is from 20 to 22 inches, when walking for pleasure 26 inches, and when fleeing in terror from 11).^ to 14 feet. Racing for figs stimulates them to do their best in making time. Certainly they could take no longer strides under any circum j stances than I saw them take. Near Anaheim, twenty-five miles from this city, on the Southern Pacific railroad, there is another ostrich farm. Mary Somers. JOHN GODFREY SAXE. ON X' AT Death of the Man TYho Was Once Known as the "American Hood." The poet Saxe, who died on the Gist of March at Albany, was scarcely known to the new generation of readers; but some thirty years ago he was hailed as the great coming satirist, tho "American Hood," etc. And, in deed, two or three of his poems published about that time gave promise of a brilliant career; in particular bis satire called "Pro gress" and his purely humorous poem with out a moral, "The Proud Miss McBride," were read and laughed over by all the readers of the time. Especially did they please the young and ardent, and this was looked upon as a favorable sign for bis future, as the ap plause of the young, to a certain extent, an ticipates the judgment of the next age. But after 185G there seemed no more growth in the poet; since then his only work has been lecturing and the production of an occasional composition in a different vein, and gener ally inferior to his earlier pieces. John Godfrey Saxe was born in June, 1816, at Highgate, Yt., and graduated at Middle bury college in 18G9. In 184G be enteret! on tho practice of law at St. Albans, At., and remained till 1850, but did not make a success in the profession. Dur ing the time he was wearily waiting for clients and business be relieved his dull ness by writing sa tirical sketches ot all sorts cf persons and things in Lis acquaintance. A JOnx G. SAXE. few of these were thought fit to publish, and "Progress," a satire, attracted great attention. As we read it now we readiiy seo that it only interested the people because of its satirical references to the Mexican war and other events of the era; now that the contemporary feeling is gone and the contemporary and local flavor evap orated from the poem, we can barely under stand, much less enjoy it. It was not a |x>ern for all time. His "Rape of the Lock," "The Times" and "The Proud Miss McBride" had a somewhat more enduring fame. Indeed, it makes an old reader melancholy to recall the many brilliant writers of the decade of 1840-50 whose works are now almost obsolete because they dealt so exclusively with the events and so faithfully portrayed the feel ings of their time. We simply cannot feel as did the partisaas of the Mexican war period, and that which stirred their blood like good wine falls cold on our unwilling ears. In 1850 Mr. Saxe removed to Burlington, Vt. , where for five years he edited The Senti nel with great success. Thereafter he devoted himself to lecturing, at which he made a bril liant success, and maintained a reputation till 1S74, when be suffered in a railroad acci dent in Virginia and never regained bis vigor of body or mind. Soon after this he lost in rapid succession his wife, three daughters and his oldest son, which afflictions seemed for a while to have completed the ruin of his fac ulties. From 1SG9 to 1S81 he lived in Brook lyn ; since that time with his only surviving son, Charles G. Saxe, in Albany. Socially he was quite witty and genial and a great fav orite till his misfortunes jiroduced a settled melancholy. ROBERT GARRETT. Portrait of the Youngest ltallroad Pres! «lent in the Country. [Special Correspondence.] Baltimore, Md., March 28.—For some time now the attention of the railroad world has been centered upon Robert Gar rett, the head executive of the Baltimore and Ohio, and the youngest president of a great railroad line in this country. Mr. Garrett has been attracting a great deal of interest for several months. He gave the grandest ball of the season at an ex penditure of $20, 000 in the finest mansion in the state of Maryland —a house that cost a cool half million. He took a party of friends in private cars to the Mon treal carnival and occupied while there the biggest and most costly residence in the city. And now he figures as the cen tral figure in the biggest railroad deal that tho world bas ever known. He is only 40 years old and he has all _______ _____ _ high position and (T fortune - of $15,000,000 can give him. He believes in life. He always dresses in the latest style, has suits of clothes and canes and hats and shoes and neckwear galore, and he has a fresh bunch of violets as regularly as his breakfast. Everybody knows him in Baltimore, and it is a curiosity to soo him promenading the fashionable streets. He is kept bowing almost continually. He Las a smile that is worth a fortune. It charms the ladies, puzzles the men and baffles the re porters, and it abides with him always, adding youthfulness to his face and gladness to his heart John W. Garrett was to the Baltimore and Ohio what Scott was to the Pennsylvania road, what Vanderbilt was to the New York Cen tral. His eldest son was Robert. Robert was a gay boy at Princeton college, and it was not thought that he would ever do anything brilliant in a business way. But just here was where public opinion was wrong. He pitched into work and became one of the boldest, hardest working railroad men in the country. At the death of his father he be came president of the great corporation. His management of that trast is recent history, and the story of the greatest deal of modern times is, of course, well known. Mr. Gar rett's sister, Miss Mary Garrett, is the richest unmarried lady in the country. ROBERT GARRETT, tho pleasure that a l'errectiy Legal. "George," said tho senior partner to the junior in a law firm of three, "I thought you told me that Alfred had gone out of town on legal business? I understand he's down the road on a visit to a young lady." "Well, 6ir " said George, with an injured look, "it's not illegal to call on a young lady, I be lieve?"—Puck. THE ART DESTRUCTIVE. CONSIDERED ESPECIALLY AS AP PLIED AT SEA. # .!:: IS'!? v-Vjfe TORPEDO BOAT BUILT FOB DENMARK. There are torpedoes to go entirely under water in a straight line, guided by automatic rudders; others to go with aportion above the water; some to l>o projected from a machine, and many more to be propelled by machinery in the torpedo itself. Nearly all are arranged to explode by percussion on striking the ves sel aimed at ; but some are to be operated by wires and guided by the engineer at a safe distance. They are all cylindrical, rather ici the shape of a very slender cigar, of every length from five feet to thirty and of v ary ing weights. The greatest speM attained by any yet reported is thirty miles an hour—this by the Whitehead torpedo in England. Tor pedo boats vary still more widely—from those which go entirely under water, carrying con densed air for the men, to those which differ but little from ordinary gunboats. Of the latter class is tho boat lately completed for Denmark. This floating engine of destruction is built of the finest steel, is 140 feet in length, and constructed to secure a very high rate of speed and admit of rapid turning and maneuvering. It is expected to maintain a uniform rate of twenty-two miles an hour. The Messrs. Thomycroft, who made this boat, and the Messrs. Yarrow, their great rivals, now employ over 2,000 men in this line, and each firm can turn out one com pleted boat a week. 4 UNITED STATES TORPEDO BOAT ALARM. The Alarm, torpedo ram, was designed by Admiral Porter, and is the only torpedo boat owned by the United States government. It is 173 feet long, 27 feet 6 inche? wide, has a draught of 12 feet, and projecting from the bow is an immense under water ramming prow G2 feet long. This is covered with wrought iron armor four and a half inches thick, and in it is the torpedo machinery. This consists of a spar thirty-five feet long, which can in an instant be run out twenty five feet beyond the point of tho prow. On the end of this spar the torjiedo is to lie placed and fired at will by means of electric wires laid in grooves along the spar and running to a firing pedestal on deck. Still more ingenious is the Mallory Propel ler, by which the screw driving wheel can be shifted to a direction almost at right angles to the boat and thus whirl the latter around as though on a pivot. Un the bow, above, is a heavy gun, and Hotchkiss and Gatling ma chine guifs line the sides. So it is gunboat, ram and torpedo boat in one. But the most novel, and, if successful, the most formidable of recent inventions, is the torpedo gun. Lieut. Zalinski describes it as a "pneumatic dynamite tor)>edogun '—that is, a gun for projecting dynamite torpedoes by compressed air. The liarrel is sixty feet long, of iron tubing, and lined with brass to secure smoothness. It is expected to throw a cylin drical brass or steel torpedo, eight inches in di ameter, and carrying a charge of sixty pounds of dynamite a distance of two and a quarter miles! The torpedo is exploded by an elec tric fuse within it: one kind by shock on con tact with the vessel; the oilier to ignite in a given time by chemical action, whether the \ «■ rr«* THE ZALINSKI CCN. torpedo strikes or not—this in case it be de sired to drop torpedoes in the path of an ap proaching vessel. The gu* is so accurately balanced and the chambers of condensed uir so well arranged that only one man is re quired to aim and fire it, T esta that seem l>erfectly satisfactory baye already been made with this gun, and mich has been writ ten and said of it. Among other plans de vised by its inventor is a gunboat upon which two guns of greater caliber than the one under consideration will be mounted. A boat of this design is now being constructed for the United States government. 'Hie balloon for the Paris exhibition of 1889 trill carry up 100 persona. Examples of the Most Improved Torpedo Doats Afloat—The Wonderful Dynamite Gun Designed by Lieut. Zalinski, U. S. N., ami tlie Work It Can Do. Our civil war almost revolutionized the art of naval warfare; recent inventions have com pleted the revolution. Between those who Lave sought to make an invulnerable vessel and those who have as steadily improved de structive appliances, we seem to have been trying a naval solution of the old "catch"— what would happen if an irresistible force were to strike an immovable body? Tor pedoes have long been used against navies; in the civil war they came into play more lurgely than ever before, and since then hundreds of ingenious inventors have striven to bring them still nearer perfection. During the last ten years $100,(XK),000 have been expended by European governments in experiments to secure a reliable torpedo. In this country, too, immense sums have been spent by firms and individuals; and yet most of the machines invented have proved of no great value. Three, however, have attained a high degree of efficiency. They are known as tho Controllable Automobile Torpedo, the Siins Edison and the Howell. Along with these in ventions have come the invention of torpedo boats, rams and guns, of which we present three illustrations, the first of a torpedo boat built by Messrs. Thornycroft, of Lon don, for the government of Denmark; the second of the Alarm, a United States torpedo ram, and the third of the very remarkable gun lor projecting dynamite torpedoes, de signed by Lieut. Zalinski, of the United States navy. THE RED MAYS FRIEND. SACHEM HAINES, A REMARKABLE FIGURE OF THE WEST. . • . < £ 9 * v'A.li /■ -M. ÄV 3 va \ V 4 A Phenomenally Active Man Who De fends the Indian's Deputation—The Native Language Not a Jargon—Indian Dress Compared with That of Civilization [Special Correspondence.] Chicago, April 5. — Une of the queerest characters in the west is Elijah M. Haines, the sage of Waukegan. 1 know Elijah well, and think him a remarkable man. Though threescore years and ten have passed over his head, he is as lively as a boy in his teens, and the activity of his mind is something wonderful. He edits a law paper, writes law books by the score, corrects in the press everybody who goes astray on matters of history, is writing his reminiscences of fifty years in Illinois, carries on a large publish ing business, is the tutor and general referee of all the justices of the jieace and township officers in the great state of Illinois, attends farmers' conven tions and discourses learnedly on drain age and tiling, and finds time, besides, to dabble a little in politics. In fact, Elijah is a great politician. He has been in the Illinois legislature so many Elijah M. haines. times that every body excepting himself has forgotten the number. He never forgets any thing. He has been three times speaker of the house, his last election, two years ago, giving him a national reputation. It was a peculiar, almost picturesque, election. Elijah was the leader of the Independent party. The party consisted of Elijah himself, solitary and alone. There were seventy-five Republicans, Seventy-five Democrats and Elijah. The Re publicans didn't want him, nor yet the Dem ocrats. They were so earnest in their disin clination to take him that only after a mouth of squirming were they able to swallow the bitter dose. Then Elijah was elected. He proved a great speaker. As a parliamenta rian he is without a superior in the wild west In fact lie has written a book on parliamen tary law. lie was so much a parliamen tarian that with him in the chair the house couldn't do much of anything he didn't want it to do, and in some way managed to do about everything he did want. He was speaker when the lamented Logan was re elected senator, and before his death Logan testified that but for the old man's wonderful control of the turbulent elements in the house there would have been disorder and (sheil. Though ceaselessly and phe nomenally active, Elijah always has time to talk. Ho is a wonderful talker. You are lucky if you get away from him in two hours. He talks to some purpose, too, and the time flies. His memory is prodigious. He will tell you of incidents occurring when Chicago was an Indian trading post, and never forget a name nor skip a detail. Notwithstanding his years, he can make a political campaign with the best of them. Such "mixing" among the voters, such art, such riding night and day, and speechifying and string pulling, as Elijah is capable of, you never saw. Is lie not a wonderful old man? But Elijah M. Haines—they say the "M" stands for Melchizedek—has a hobby, and it is of this hobby I wish to write. Elijah's hobby is Indians, or "Injuns," as lie invaria bly calls them. He has studied the red man as others have studied geology, or physiology, or psychology*, or baseball. Ho knows all about Indians, lias a vast collection of Indian curiosities, possesses probably" tho largest library of Indian books there is, occasionally travels to far off Indian territory or Montana to visit and study real live red men, and is, notwithstanding his other activities, writing a book on Indian names and occasionally de livering an Indian lecture before western col leges and societies. I never heard him lecture, but I once spent a Sunday" at his beantiful home on tho shores of Lake Michigan, and I heard nothing but "Injun" from Saturday night till Monday morning. During a few hours of fitful slumber 1 dreamed of Indians, only to be awakened shortly after daybreak by a war whoop from my host, calling me once more to the council lire. During that Sunday I learned more of Indians than I ever knew before—more, in fact, than I had sup posed anybody knew. "Why, Rot long ago," said Elijah, the prophet and patron of the noble red man, "a prominent officer of the l nited States army, writing officially from a frontier post, spoke of the Indian language as 'a jargon.' Jar gon, indeed! This officer, and millions of other jieople, don't appear to know that the Injun language possesses a regular organiza tion, that it is perfectly complete, exempt from all confusion and irregularity, and governed by r fixed laws. It is particularly rich in names for all objects of nature, throughout the vegetable and animal king dom, even down to the smallest object. True, the Inju i had some flighty notions in select ing his own rames, generally" going to the heavens for them, and bringing down such examples as 'Au-be-tuh-ge-zhig, a center of the sky; 'Ba-kwa-me-au-she,' low pealing thunder, and ' Wau-kun-nung,' tlie morning star; but he had some sensible ideas concern ing the diminutive, the feminine gender and other phases of speech. For instance in some groups the female gender was invariably marked by the terminal syllables 'equn,' as 'Baum-wa-wa-ge-zliig-equa,' woman of the thunder cloud. It was not neces sary to s[>eak of an Injun woman as a madame or a miss—her name in itself indicated sex. And look at the sim plicity and charm of this method of adding the diminutive, when we English speak ing people want to pay one of the fair sex a compliment of calling her a little rose bud woman, we have to employ four words, beginning with the 'little' and winding up by telling v im» it is that's little—i. e., a woman. But ti.e 1" tian does not de*it that way. H_ says 'kem.e,' meaning rosebud, adds 'anee,' signifying little, and finishes with 'equa,' woman — 'kenne-anee-equa' — little rosebud woman. Isn't that neat? Ur' course it is, and it is a fair sample of the simplicity and form running through the Injun's whole language, which the army officer called a jargon! "Did you ever stop to think how much our language is indebted to the Injun? He gave us such names for animals as mink, alligator, moose, raccoon, skunk, opossum, muskuksand and prefix to muskrat; lie gave us hackma tack, tamarack, mahogany, samp, succotash, hominy, tobacco, potato, tomato, squash, mango, pecan and persimmon. I remember *..... some time ago a learned paper on the origin of the word 'skeezucks,' so often heard in New England, the writer tracing it back, or trying to trace it, to the Normans. The fact is that that word is Fequot for a worthless fellow. And what would we have done for geographical names but for the Injun? »Seventeen states bear names which he gave us—Connecticut, Ala bama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, Texas, Arkansas, Missouri, Mich igan, Kansas and Oregon—as do six of the eight territories. Nearly all of the principal rivers bear Injun names. Many of the Injun names have been corrupted until their original form and significance have been lost. 1 Few people understand that the words Miami and Maumee, names of rivers in Uhio, are really one and the same, the former being the French and the latter the English orthogra phy of the Injun word "Me-au-mee." "Moreover, the Injun has given us hun dreds of words and terms in daily use, now parts of our language, and their origin un known or forgotten. He has given us many apt expressions, and metaphors, too, such as 'to bury the hatchet' for making peace; 'the rivers run with blood' for war in the country ; 'you have spoken with your lips only and not from the heart;' 'you stopped my ears' for keeping a secret; 'singing birds,' meaning tale bearers, story tellers; 'I will place you under my wings,' and 'suffer no grass to grow under your feet,' or 'no grass shall grow on the war path.' "I know it is the fashion," continued the red man's friend, "to denounce tho Injun character, and to echo Gen. Sheridan's epi gram about all good Injuns being dead ones. But let me tell you that in one respect at least tho Injun, in his uncorrupted state, was superior to his present successor as master of the soil, and that was as a citizen. His at tachment for his tribe was remarkable. There have been few Injun traitors. In their love of country they were proof against all temptation and fear. If we had a few Injuns in our big cities now, and could naturalize them and elect them aldermen and county commissioners, we'd l>e better off. The honor of an Injun's tribe and the welfare of his nation were always first to be considered, personal prosperity or advancement being in variably of secondary importance. "There's another thing about the Injun. Take him as a man, among his people, one of his most prominent characteristics was that of due respect for the individual rights of others. The Injun was never a thief until the white man taught him how to steal ; he never cheated his neighbor, nor run off with his tribesman's horse nor his friend's wife. The Indian lias been charged with thievery, but as between him and the white man history records the fact that the latter was the first offender. The first larceny committed in this country was by a party of Plymouth Rock Puritans. While exploring the country for a site for a new settlement they found a quan tity of corn stored up by the Injuns for win ter's use. The cribs were not locked—the red men didn't know that there was such a thing as stealing—and the Puritans took the corn and carried it away. Some apologist for the Puritans has said the ancestral New England ers intended to recompense the Indians for the property" so taken whenever they could find them, but history does not record that they ever found the identical Injuns who owned the corn and paid them therefor. This expla nation is not very satisfactory, at any rate when we take into consideration the fact that the Puritans at tiiL time were ai med w ith guns and swords, and in pursuit of the In juns. a small and peaceable tribe. Perhaps they were merely chasing the Injuns to re compense them for the corn. In native Injun life but one crime is known to their society— murder, and for this the penalty is death. With the red man the penalty was inflicted by some relative or party aggrieved. White men hire a person called a hangman to do tho same thing. No true son of the forest could be induced to assume the position of an exe cutioner for mere pecuniary consideration, "It is not impossible that the primal idea of an American republic was borrowed from the Injuns. They were the original Repub licans. Their government was not one of force, but of acquiescence on the part of the governed. Their leaders had no great power. Councils were frequent, and in council age, experience, wisdom and bravery counted for more than rank. They had no ballot box, but war chiefs were selected for their deeds of valor in the field, while continuity and sta bility of government were generally secured by making the office of civil chief, or patri arch, hereditary. "Civilization has often sneered at the In jun's fantastic dress, his painted face, his grim ornaments and his exposure of bis breast and arms. But let me gi' e you some facts about this dress matter. True, the In jun paints his face, but so does the white woman, the difference being that the red man's paint signifies something—his rank, some of his feats in battle or the chase, or his reputation for wisdom or bravery—while the white womans paint is used simply out of vanity and for purposes of deception. The same is true of tho bird claws which the In jun wears suspended about his neck. They mean something, as do the quills, the scalps of animals or enemies with which his person is adorned. But doesn't the woman of civ ilization wear bird claws and feathers, too, and the skins of animals, merely to be fash ionable, and without any" significance what ever of character or individuality? Every ttiing an Injun wears in the way of orna ment. every line painted on his face, has its significance, and is, from his point of view, a proper part of his individuality. In civilization it is right tho other way. Here we destroy individuality and do our l»cst to ape one another. Gf course the Injun has been corrupted by his association vith white men, but in his native state his general character—virtually without vice as an individual, intensely patri otic. invariably respectful to the aged, truth fill, brave—was as well worthy of admiration as anything that can be found in history." Elijah, it will be seen, has great confidence in the red man. and has reasons to give for the faith that is in him—a faith which was strong enough to survive the discouraging failure of a test which he made a year or two since. Having tttking a liking to an Ojibway (Chippewa) youth whom he saw during a visit to the reservation of that tribe, Elijah brought the youth to Illinois and set him to work on the farm. lie wrs a tali, noble look ing fellow, with an eagle eye and raven hair, proud and self contained, and for a time his patron fondly exhibited him to all visitors. Three months later that son of the forest had become a drunken, lazv lout, and such a ter ror to the hen resists and women of the neigh borhood that Elijah was compelled to send him back to the reservation. "All due to the evil influences of civilization—demoralized by civilization," says Elijah. W alter Wellman. tier out into the kitchen and see how many tramps the cook is feeding at my expense. "_ Detroit Free Press. THE DAKOTA FLOODS. Pictures from the Distressed Regions of the Northwest. Readers are so accustomed to thinking of Dakota as a land of drought in late summer and autumn, and of frozen solidity in winter, that the news of destructive floods there comes to them as a startling surprise. Yet great floods are no new phenomena in that territory; they excite public attention now only because the region subject to them has so lately filled with inhabitants. Dakota floods arise from two curiously distinct causes. M THE BISMARCK RAILROAD BRIDGE. On the eastern border the Red River of the North has a general course due north; as a consequence there is occasionally a complete thaw around the headwaters of that stream, while the ice is still firm 200 miles northward, down stream. Naturally, therefore, the upper floods burst up the ice, heave it into enormous masses and some times force it out of the river channel and far out on the adjacent prairie. The double agency of flood and grinding ice makes such floods peculiarly destructive, but for tunately they do not often occur. A similar thing occasionally happens on the Missouri, though its course is southeast and toward a warmer region, and the cause of it is found in the peculiar "Chinook Wind." This is a warm wind from the Pacific ocean, called by the Japanese "Kuvo Siwo." Occasionally in winter, oftener in early spring, this wind takes such a course as to blow through and over the lowest passes in the Rocky mountains of British America; it then sweeps southeast along the eastern base of the big coteau, through Alberta Assine boia and the northwestern part of Dakota. The mercury rises in a night from below zero to above the freezing point—in rare instances as high as 55 dogs, above zero. The snow disappears as if before a warm south wind, the ice, three or four inches thick in the Missouri, suddenly loses its tenacity, the waters rushing in, burst up tho ice and the masses sweep down with resistless force. But the river below latitude 46 degs. is beyond the influence of the "Chinook," and the ice even in March as firm as rock; then the floods from above pile their floating ice on it or burst it by hy draulic pressure from below, and a terrible 5 _ FLEEING FROM THE FLOODS, elemental war ensues. The ice continues to move on till a gorge is formed which dams the waters ; this holds till the immense cur rent bursts through it, then all is swept clear till at another narrow place in the stream another gorge is formed and the war of the elements is renewed. Of course the floods above the gorge rise to an immense height and overflow all the low lands. The illustra tions represent the scenes attendant on such overflows, and are taken from photographs and sketches made this year at Bismarck. Great damage has been done and many lives lost—full details not yet estimated. In some places the ice was heaped 100 feet above the ordinary river level before the mass gave way. No railroad bridge in the world could stand such a shock; but our engraving shows the Northern Pacific bridge at Bismarck resisting a minor flood. All the low land near there is entirely submerged. C. H. J. TAYlOR. Appointed Minister to Liberia, tlie Negro Kepublic. C. H. J. Taylor, lately appointed minister to Liberia, was born in Alabama in 1855, and is therefore but 32 years old. He was graduated from Oberlin, Ohio, when he was but 20 years eld. He afterward took a course in the law school there, and began practice in Leavenworth, Kan. He remained there but a short? time, however, and '• then moved t o Kansas City, where ho lias since re- c. u. j. taylok. sided. Mr. Taylor took the stump during the campaign of Gen. Wade Hampton in South Carolina in 1875. He is one of the youngest foreign ministers representing our govern ment. John E. W. Thonqison, of New Y'ork, min ister resident and consul general to Hayti ; Moses Aaron Hopkins, of North Carolina, minister resident and consul general to Li beria; Henry C. C. Atwood, of Louisiana, consul to San Domingo; James C. Matthews, of New \ ork, recorder of deeds for tho Dis trict of Columbia, in the place of Frederick Douglass, resigned, and James M. Trotter, of Massachusetts, recorder of deeds in tiie Dis* triet of Columbia, in place of Mr. Matthews, are other colored men given good positions by' Mr. Cleveland. A Civilization and the Coat Tall. As the race degenerates and civilization grows effeminate the effect is seen upon the coattail. It gradually recedes. It surrenders more and more of its rights ami privileges. Its area of independent activity is narrowed until it sinks to the degraded stution of a cuta way*. The "steel pen," the "claw hammer," the "spade"—for there are various terms of re proach and ignominy einjiloyed to indicate the state of subjection—mark the extreme period of luxurious and effete decay. After this its fall is rapid. The fall, parailoxically enough, consists in crawling up the back, until the once respectable and impressive member of the body politic of dress liecomes a mere reminiscence, such ns is attached to some kinds of military uniforms.—Brooklyn Eagle.