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* m Volume xxi. Helena, Montana, Thursday, June 23, 1887. No. 30 <TI|.f lllcfltly jfjcralil. fl. E. FISK D. W. FISK. A. J. FISK. Publishers and Proprietors. Largest Circulation cf any Paper in Montana -O Rates of Subscription. WEEKLY HERALD: On« Year, (in mlvance).............................S3 00 M)i Months, (In advance)............................... I "5 Three Months, (in advance)....................... 1 00 When not paid for in advance the ra'e will he Four Dollars per yeaii I'ostaKe, in all cases. Prepsio. DAILY HERALD: City Subscribers,delivered by carrier SI .00a month One Year, by mail, (in advance)................. SO 00 Sli Months, by mail, (in advance)... ........... 5 00 Three Months, by mail, (in advance)........... 2 50 If not paid in advance, SI2 per annum. •#"All communications should be addressedto FISK BROS., Publishers, Helena, Montana. Mr». Cleveland's Photographs. The demand for Mrs. Cleveland's photo graphs is »till active. Fifty thousand have already Issui sold, ami the Washington pho tograph- r who holds the negatives is printing D"0 pictures a day of the handsome ''first lady." 1 he net profits in eight months have reached the satisfactory sum of £7,QUO. THE JUBILEE YEAR. Her Gracious Mnjesty Victoria Has Reigned Half a Century. AN EPITOME OF HER REIGN. \ lYriod of Wonderful Progress in All Directions, Sketch of the family Life of the Em* i pro* of India and the Kuler of the ltriti-.h People—Windsor Castle and Its Wav*» Hu! moral, tiie Queen's Own Home. [Copyrighted by the Amt rican Press Association.! On the 20th of June Queen Victoria com pletes the tiftietli year of her reign—an event to excite the enthusiasm of Englishmen in all jiarts of the world. The ceremonies of the jubilee year, began in India in February, bave since coiitimmd in other parts of the empire and are to end in grand display all over the British empireon the closing day. And surely no equal period since the advent of man on this planet has witnessed such advances in science and sjeed, such rapid development in the useful arts, such an increase of comfort, liberty and enlightenment. Since Victoria ascended the British throne the population of the United Kingdom (Great Britain and Ireland) has increased 80 p»r ent.; the aggregate wealth has more than trebled; the foreign commerce has almost trebled; nows jiapers and schools, churches and benevolent organizations have grown as never liefore, tmd accomplished practical results as they grew. Laws have improved, humanity ad vanced, wages increased and the prime ne cessitiesof life cheapened, till now it is the deliberate judgment of the most cautious statisticians that the British laborer is JO per cent, lu tter fed, 40 per cent, lictter housed, 50 j l«-r cent better clothed, and 150 per cent, bet ter ed urn ted than lie was in the short reign of j William IV. Victoria is the granddaughter of George ; III, and the eighth in descent, through tho female line, of that James Stuart who united the crowns of England and Scotland. So from all sides—English, Scotch and German —the queen's family lias been royal, ducal or otherwise noble for twenty-live generations, near Î100 years. When the Saxons in Eng land w ere conquered by the Normans the line of Alfred the Great was united with the royal line of Scotland; the alliance was fur ther cemented by tho marriage of a later Scotch king with the daughter of one of tho Norman kings of England, and still later, Margaret, daughter of Henry VII of Eng land, married James IV of Scotland. In the meantime nil the disputed claims to the thron* of England had been merged in one by the man iageof Henry VII (Henry Tudor) to the primvss who was heir to the house of York; so the offspring of Henry's daughter V V®\W ;,v.iä Sw in QUEEN VICTORIA. and the Scotch ki.ig stood next to the English line in right of ciaim. Henry VIIPs son, Edward A I, died in boyhood; his half sister, Mary, though married, died childless, and the remaining sister, Elizabeth, never mar ried. Bo on her death her father's line w-as extinct, and tho crown went to her cousin, James M of Scotland and Janies I of England, lie was a coward, a jiedant, a glutton and a voluptuary; but he was the undoubted heir of Alfred the Great, of the Plantagenets both York and Lancaster, of Henry Tudor, and of William the Con queror. Add that he had more learning than wisdom, and a vanity that would have been ealled childish if it had not been too disgust ing, and one may see how easily ho came to 1 x ! k ujx>n himself as "divinely appointed." His win Charles I was beheaded ; his son I hartes II died w ithout legitimate issue, and the latters brother, Janies II, was driven away by the revolution of 1088, after which it was enacted by parliament that none but t j ote-tants should wear the crown. So - Tary, [daughter of James II, was set up, ''Uh her husband William III; but they died childless. James' second daughter Anne s,i 'ceded, but she died childless, and so the rot« staut line of Charles I w as extinct, and ie claim went Lack to James I, and to his -^ughur Jîlizabeth, w ho was married to the j j ; Elector raiatine in Germany on ren, ... 1613. She had a daughter, Sophia, who had married Ernest Augustus, sovereign of Han over; so the British parliament, anticipating the death of Queen Anne without living issue, had enacted that the crown light should be "in the Princess SopLia and the heirs of her body*, being Protestants." She died before Anne, however, and her son be came king of England and elector of Han over as George I. This brought in the house of Hanover and the four Georges, and finally \ ictoria. In the meantime the ( 'atliolie side of the old Stuart line, namely, the descend ants of James II through his Catholic sons, had become extinct, so all claims of all races, religions and dynasties are once more united in Victoria. George 111 was succeeded by his oldest son George 1\ , who died without legitimate issue and was succeeded by William IV, third son of George II I. Early on the 20th of June, 1837, he too died without legitimate issue; so the right to the crown went next to the fourth son, Edward, Duke of Kent, but as that prinee had died soon after the birth of his only daughter, Victoria, she succeeded to his rights. There still remained the fifth son of George III, Ernest, Duke of Cumber land; ami as the 'a.v cf Hanover did allow' a woman to reign (that country had become a kingdom), Ernest succeeded to tho crown and took himself off, to the great de light of Englishmen of all ranks, who de tested him and were pleased with the separa tion of the kingdoms. Victoria was born at Kensington palace, May 24, 1819, and was therefore but 18 years old when she became queen. Her mother had reared her in great seclusion, and her education and training were excellent. The dignitaries who went before daylight to announce to the princess the death of her royal uncle relate that "to prove that she did not keep them waiting she came into the room in a loose white night gown and shawl, her night cap thrown off and her hair falling upon her shoulders, her feet in slippers, tears in her eyes, but per fectly collected and dignified." Lord Mel bourne, the prime minister, set the meeting of the privy council at 11 o'clock that day; there the queen took the coronation oath, and the cabinet ministers and other privy coun cilors swore allegiance to her and expressed themselves charmed by her gentle dignity and engaging manners. The proclamation of the new sovereign and her speech in person from the throne in the house of lords followed soon after; but her public coronation and the brilliant pageantry connected therewith took place tho next year—June 28, 1838. While many persons of royal blood and many noblemen from vari ous parts of Europe appeared in the proces sion, public interest centered on Marshal Boult, Duke of Dalmatia, Napoleon's strong supporter, commander of the Old Guard at I.utzen and opponent of Wellington in Spain, lie had been sent by Louis Philippe, king of the French, as ambassador extraordinary ?.. '■<? THE QUEEN IN HER CORONATION ROBES, for this occasion, and was received by all ranks of the jieople with the w ildest enthusi asm. Another conspicuous figure was the Austrian ambassador, Prince Ester hazy, whose dress was literally ablaze with diamonds. Indeed, "the Esterhazy diamonds" became a synonym for grandeur. The reception of Boult, with other acts of the young queen, indicated that an era of lilierul ideas had set in, and the effect w as heightened by tho fact that soon after she conferred the honor of knighthood on Bir Moses Montefiore, the first Jew to be elected sheriff of London and the first to receive honore from a monarch since the beginning of the religious ware. Complete emancipation of Jews and Catholics, and many minor measures of liberty, followed in due course. The queen was surrounded and supported by able men. The AVhigs, or Liberals, as now called, were in power. At the head of the cabinet, as prime minister, was Lord Mel bourne, and his great opponents in the house of commons were t lie eloquent Lord Brougham and the acute Lord Lyndhurst. Other famous men then in parliament were Mr. Grote, the historian of Greece; Edward Lytton Bulwer, afterward Lord Lytton; Lord John Russell, Lord Palmerston, Sir Robert Peel, Mr. Glad stone. Mr. Roebuck and Lord Stanley, after ward Lord Derby. Daniel O'Connell still re mained, but his great work was done, and tho rest of his public life was painful and for the most part unprofitable. Disraeli was just beginning to l>e known, but universally ridi culed as a fop and charlatan. Soon after three very noted men entered parliament: Richard Cobden, the advocate of peace and free trade; John Bright, his co-worker, and Thomas Babington Macaulay, whose rather brilliant parliamentary career has been quite obscured by his greater brilliancy as essayist and historian. With all these and many more able men in public life, with general peace in all her dominions and the enthusiastic love of her people, the queen seemed to begin her reign with the fairest of prospects. THE QUEEN'S MARRIAGE. Tlie ltoyal Family, (Residences and Home Life. On the 10th of January, 1840, her majesty announced at the opening of parliament that she w ould soon marry her cousin, Prince Al bert—a step, she trusted, "conducive to the interests of my people as well as my ow n do mestic happiness." The marriage took place Feb. 10, 1840. His Royal Highness Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emanuel, Duke of Saxony and Prince of Coburg and Gotha (such were his full titles), was born Aug. 26, 1810, and was therefore three months younger than the queen. They became lovers early, and one of the ladies in waiting relates that the queen was sorely tried by the royal etiquette, which demanded that she should make the first sug gestion of marriage. After the interview she reached her chamber in great agitation, and, being comforted by tlie lady, remarked: '•I am indeed agitated, and with good cau<^ I have just proposed to the prince." tier chosen husband was at once naturalized by act of parliament, given the title of prince consort and an annuity of £50,000 sterling per year, and it was enacted that in case he ^4 >i AI-BEUT, PRINCE CONSORT. )utlived the queen he should be regent of the j kingdom till the heir came of age. Prince Albert, though distrusted at first, soon won the hearts of the English by his purity of character and unaffected devotion to tlie duties of liis position. He devoted himself to various reforms of a social nature, esjieci ally the abolition of dueling in the army, and was tlie active promoter of the Crystal palace scheme of 1851. He was the friend of peace and liberty in all nations. He died, after a very short illness, on the 14th of December, 1861. The queen long remained inconsolable for liis death; lier protracted seclusion caused much murmuring among her subjects, and even now her romantic devo tion to his memory and extreme partiality to his personal friends provoke criticism. Nine children, of whom seven still live, were born to the royal pair; all the nine married, and several have children, so the queen has seven living children, thirty-one grandchildren and six great grandchildren. The queen's oldest. Victoria Adelaide Mary Louise, born Nov. 21, 1840, is the w ife of the crown prince of Germany, and thus the descendants of the queen will occupy the seat of power in that empire. The next child, bom Nov. 9,1S41, Is the present Albert Edward, prince of Wales; in 1863, March 10, lie married the Princess Alexandra Caroline Mary Charlotte Louise Julia, oldest daughter of the king of Den mark, by whom he has two sons and three daughters, so the succession to the throne w ould seem well secured. Alice Maud Mary, third child of the queen, born April 25, 1843, married the Grand Duke of Hesse Darmstadt, and died Dec. 14, 1878. The fourth child, Alfred Ernest Albert, Duke of Edinburgh, born Aug. 6, 1844, married the Grand Duchess Marie of Russia, and is rear admiral of the royal navy. Helena Augusta Victoria, born May 25, 1846, is the wife of Prince Frederick of Bchleswig-Holstein. Louisa Caroline Alberta, born March 18, 1848, was married March 21,1871, to John, Marquis of Lome. These two are well and favorably known to Americans, as the mar quis was some time governor general of Canada, and visited the United States during his term. Arthur William Patrick Albert, Duke of Connaught, was born May 1, 1850, and on March 13, 1879, married the Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia. Leopold George Duncan Albert, Duke of Albany, born April 7, 1858, was married April '27,1882, to Princess Helene, of Waldeck Pyrmont, and died March 28, 1884. The queen's youngest child, Beatrice Mary Victoria Feodore, born April 14, 1857, was married July *23, 1885, to Prince Henry of Battenburg. We need not wonder that t he marriage portions and large annuities asked by the queen and granted by parlia ment have often excited lively discussion, both in the house of commons and among the people. The intermarriages of royal families give rise to strange relationships in Europe; and it is matter of note that the longest wars are waged between nations whose monarehs are very near relatives. In fact all the monarehs of Europe to-day, except the sul tan of Turkey, are blood relatives, every one of them descended on one side or the other from John of Gaunt, son of Edward III cf England. The queen has told us much of the happy life she led with the prince consort, especially at Balmoral, their country seat in the Scot tish highlands. There nearly all the court ceremonial was laid aside, and the happy couple enjoyed themselves like a country gen tleman and lady of the middle class. It was far otherwise at the regular British court, espec ially at Windsor castle, the established royal residence. This noted structure is situated just east of the little city of Windsor, a place of some 12,000 inhabitants, on a high ground above the right bank of the Thames, twenty-three miles from London. An iron bridge across the Thames connects Windsor with Eton, the seat of learning; both places are very lieauti ful and well supplied with elegant homes. The royal castle and attached buildings cover twelve acres of ground and stand in a tract of alternate grove, grass plat, lake and garden, called "little park," though it is four miles in circumference; southward from this ex tend the noted Windsor avenues of old trees, which connect with the "great park," eigh teen miles in circumference, and west of that again is the great Windsor forest, with a cir cuit of lifty-six miles. Almost every rod of h 14 fü Y. WINDSOR CASTLE. all these is historic ground; for this was a residence of the Saxon kings nearly 1,000 years ago, and has rurely ceased to be a royal home at any subsequent time. In those groves and shaded walks have been held many conferences and many arguments made that settled the fate of dynasties, and from the gates have ridden many couriers bearing dis patches that have changed the destiny of nations. The castle projier w as founded by William the Conqueror, but almost entirely rebuilt by order of Edward I IT, the architect being the noted William of Wykebam, and, ----- -o «tifice was finally and com pletely remodeled under direction of Bir Geoffrey Wyatville. St. George's chapel is noted for the beauty of its Gothic architect ure, and in its vault lie the remains of many royal personages, among them Henry VI, Edward IV and his queen, Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, Charles I, two of the Georges and William IV. In the round tower state prisoners were formerly confined, and the unfortunate James I of Scotland was some time a prisoner there. Half a mile from Windsor castle is the small palace of Frog more, which was tlie residence of Queen Charlotte and of Queen Victoria's mother, the Duchess of Kent. Despite the grandeur of Windsor and its historic associations with ner most glorious ancestors, the queen's heart home is at Bal moral, in the Scotti'h highlands. So charm ing was life there to the queen and prince consort that she lias taken the world into lier confidence since her husband's death by writing a book on their life in the highlands. The prince leased the estate in 1848, and bought it in 1852. It is located m the parish of Craithie, Aberdeenshire, on the right bank of the River Dee, and comprises an area of 100,(XX) acres, in which is a tract of 1,000 acres of almost primeval forest, and 30,000 acres of deer park, which includes forest, open glade, bill and valley. The air is cool 7 ■■■ the warmest season. The Ben-a-bourd, a picturesque mountain peak near by, furnished Prince Albert his favorite evening view; so the queen chose that as tho site of her memorial to the prince, which was erected in 1863. At Balmoral she has always been accom panied by her daughter Princess Beatrice, and the marriage of the latter to Prince Henry of Battenberg lias made no difference in this respect, liis pleasant manner has made him a great favorite at the little court and among the Highlanders. There are few visitors to Balmoral. The Prince and Prin cess of Wales often come, making their home at Abergeldie, and at times other members of t lie royal family or in\ itetl guests are there. The queen s[>eiids much of her time in the open air, walking about the grounds or in the groves with her favorite collie dogs, or seated on the lawn, reading, or driving about the neighborhood, occasionally visiting the local gentry. Bhe also visits the homes of the cotters (we might call them cottagers) frequently, and they have many tokens of her kindness in the form of books, pictures and photographs. Bhe is often present at a christening or a funeral. But w ith all these gracious ways, her majesty is decidedly "near," as the peasantry say—a British form of the American slang "close"—that is, she calculates the outgo of tho sixpences more than royal ladies usually do. Even at Bid moral she devotes much of her time to study ing the management of her estate and the condition of her funds, as »veil as tho affaire of the nation. A lady in waiting, two young ladies a« maids of honor, a cabinet minister, an equerry, a doctor und a secretary make up the entire suite, and the household service is quite limited. It is far otherwise at Windsor during the season. There is a regiment of attendants of all ranks, from duke to dustman and from lady of the bedchamber to scullion. The total Ls about 1,000. At the head of the household forces is the lord stew ai d, with a salary of £10,000 a year, appointed by the prime min ister, and 1 1 * r lore a political official. He is command' i.i chief of every employe in the household. i-v<-pt the ladies directly about the pervm of he queen, the re'igious staff and the stable corps. He appears at court on state o - -ions, and appoints all his subordi nat -. li'iitenaut is the master of the il r.lull MBP Mil mm n It Vi IOI V \ ft iV THE CAVALIERS' ROOM, WINDSOR CASTLE, household, who receives £1,200 a year, and lias a private secretary at a good salary. Next comes the lord treasurer of the house hold, who pays tlie bills and gets a salary of £1,(HX) a year. These three constitute the board of green cloth, and sit as judges of all offenses committed in the palace; and to as sist them and keep the record they have one secretary at $1,500 a year (as it would be in American money) andthreeaccounting clerks a t $ 1,000 each. Then there is the elei k of the kitchen at $2,500 a year, the chef at the sa mo and his four assistant cooks at $1,750 each, the chief confectioner at $1,500 and his assistant at $1,200, the chief butler at $2,500, the table decker at $1.(XX), and his assistants at salaries somewhat less. There are also yeomen of the pantries, ladies of the linen room and a vast array of chambermaids, lamp lighters, washers, etc. The coal depart ment alone employs thirteen persons. Directly about her majesty's person are the mistress of the robes, the groom of tho robe», tho keeper of the pri vate purse, or financial secretary to the queen, eight maids of honor, as many tied chandier women and numerous maids for other functions—all these under control of the lord chamberlain, who receives $10,000 a year and is assisted by the groom of the stole. Next to the ladies who attend directly on the queen come the gentlemen of the private household, viz: Eight lords in waiting, as many grooms in waiting and divers gentlemen ushers of the privy chamber, grooms of the privy elinml>er, grooms of the great chamber and pages of the back stairs. In short, life at the court even in the most ordinary times is carried on with such pon derous social machinery and routine that it almost makes one tired to hear of it. But in addition to all these, there are two distinct sets of officials for extraordinary occasions, with independent functions and different co< les of ceremonial and etiquette. At the head of one of these is the marshal of the ceremonies. He manages the etiquette on all state occasions and conducts foreign ambassadors to the queen's presence. The other is the court of the marshalsea, which has legal jurisdiction of all crimes and mis demeanors committed anywhere within the nrivate domain. It is a regular court «if justice, w itli the same general law as other English courts, but with far more ceremony and vastly more excuse in proportion to the work it does. The knight marshal, who is the same as sheriff or chief of police to this court, is a tolerably important jiersonage with $2,500 a year, and has eight deputies, besides a few sergeants and secretaries. The foregoing gives but a mere outline of the system. There are departments of music, amusement, medicine, charity and literature, in all of w Lieh liberal salaries are paid. The guest invited to dine with the queen is expected to remain at the castle overnight. Arriving late in the afternoon he is conducted at once to his apartment, w here he receives a call from the master of the household, now Bir J. (J. Cowell, and if he desires, can have tea and lunch at once. Full court dress is required for the dinner; atul ut 8 o'clock the guests are conducted to the great gallery, as it is called—a private picture gallery, never ojiened to the public even when they are allowed to visit the castle. At 8:30 the queen and Princess Beatrice enter, salute the guests and lead the way to the dining room, which, if the company is small, is a comparatively cozy little room, w itli a broad window open ing upon the central court of the palace. BirJ. C. Cowell arranges the guests and presides at the table. Conversation is not in order, though the queen often chats with her daughter. The time for eating is short, then the queen and the ladies retire and a fewmin utes after the maste 1 * of the household gives the signal for the gentlemen to leave, and thereafter they can do very much ns they please, as they will meet the queen no more. They can smoke or play billiards or whist in the rooms for those purposes; they can listen to music in the drawing room, or read in tho library, <>r yawn and stretch themselves in their own apartments, as, no doubt, many of them feel like doing. They can retire when they please and have break fast in their own rooms, or in tho gentle men's hall down stairs, as they like, but they are expected to leave as early as 1L next day. Meanwhile the queen lias sjient the evening in her private room, has retired early, risen an«l breakfasted early, and taken her morn ing drive before noon. EPITOME OF THE REIGN. Grow tli <•( (lie Empire and Improvement of (lie People. Her ma jesty's accession was cotemporary with a rebellion in Canada. In the eastern province, now Quebec, it began with the com plaints of the French that they did not enjoy equal rights with the English; there was much trouble, two or three sharp fights and some bloodshed. In the western province, now Ontario, there was a demand for popular election of a parliament, with full control of the finances, and equality among churches in receipt of gove rnment, funds; but there a large majority was loyal, mid tho rebellion was treated with contempt by the governor, Bir Francis Head. Nevertheless there were dangerous complications with the United States, ow ing to the acts of American sym pathizers with the insurgents and the de struction of the American steamer Caroline, which tlie loyal Canadians set loose in the Niagara and let her run over the Falls. But all these matters were amicably adjusted, the Canadians obtained a very literal system of government and in 1842 the last difficulty was removed by the Webster-Ash burton treaty defining the exact boundary. Canada has since made such rapid progress that all the colonies, from Prince Edward Island to British Columbia, are now united in a confederation, and a new nation of 5,000,000 people and nearly 3,000,000 square miles bor ders tho United Btatos on the north. The government is a happy combination of the British and American systems, each prov ince self governing in local affaire and the Ottaw a parliament over all. The Marquis of Lansdowne is now governor general and Sir Johir Macdonald is Lead of the government as i premier and leader of the Tory majority in the house of commons. The Chartists next began an agitation for universal manhood suffrage, parliaments elected yearly, vote by ballot, no property qualification for the rights and duties of citizenship, payment of a salary to members of parliament and the division of the United Kingdom into parliamentary dis tricts according to population. Fanatics and impostors multiplied. One Thom proclaimed himself the new Messiah ayd had thousands of followers, chiefly in Kent. Thom shot dead a policeman who sought to arrest him. Soldiers came and the mob attacked them; they fired one volley and stretched Thom and many of his adhe rents dead. A wild orator named Feargus O'Conner inflamed the people to madness. Formidable riots occurred at several places. Very many Chartists were prosecuted and im prisoned by the government. The European revolutions of 1848 blew the Chartist excite ment to a fever heat; and a monster mass meeting was called for April 10, 1848, on Kensington common. A hundred thousand laborers were to assemble and march with a petition to the house of commons. The gov ernment forbade the meeting; but all London was in a panic. The Duke of Wellington posted soldiers to protect the public buildings, and many thousand special .stables and policemen were sworn iu. Among those who volunteered as policemen was Prince Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, then an exile in England and soon after to be emperor of the French. At the las; minute the Chartists yielded, and thereafter their power seemed to vanish all at once. The best of the meas ures they asked for have since become laws in England. The Chartist riots, the agitation for the re peal of the corn laws and the general move ment to improve the condition of laborers appear to have unsettled many minds; and, as generally happens in such case«, a spirit of assassination was excited. June 10, 1840, Edward Oxford, a boy of 17, fired twice at the queen as she was out driving with her husband; the jury pronounced him insane and he ended his life in an asylum. Another attempt on the queen's life was made May 30, 1842. This was by John Francis, a young machiiiest, and on the very spot w here Ox ford's attempt was made. He fired tw o shots, at but a few feet distant; but it was set up on his trial that the pistol was loaded only with wads. He was found guilty of high treason and sentenced to death, but the queen commuted it to imprisonment for life; and on the very day after the commutation was pub lished a hunchback named Bean aimed a pistol at her majesty, but was seized and dis armed by a boy standing near. The pistol was loaded only with paper and fragments of a clay pipe; so Bean escaped with the very trilling penalty of eighteen months'imprison ment. On May 19, 1849, an Irish bricklayer discharged a pistol, loaded only with powder, at the queen, for w hich he was transported for seven years. On May 27, 1850, Robert Fate, who had been discharge« 1 from the po sition of lieutenant iu the Hussars, struck the queen across the face w ith a cane as she was entering her carriage; he also received sentence to seven years' transportation. And finally, on Feb. 29,1878, h 17-year-oid boy, Arthur O'Connor, aimed a pistol at the queen ; hut it proved to be unloaded and to have a defective lock. He received twelve months' imprisonment and a public whip ping; and there were no more attempts at as sassination or intimidation. By the factories act of 1844 children of ten der years were excluded from the mills, and the hours of such as were admitted limited to seven or ten per day, according to age. By another act it was absolutely forbidden to employ women or girls in the mines and col lieries. Following this came the long and heated agitation for free importation of food. By the corn laws of 1815all foreign grain was tariffed at a rate w hich practically forbade its importation, except when scarcity raised the home price almost to the famine line. Tlie Irish famine compelled parliament to take action, and though Bir Robert Feel had taken the post of prime minister as a Con servative, he went over to the Radicals on this point, and in June, 1846, the corn laws were absolutely repealed. This was followed rapidly by removal of taxes from other arti cles of food, and consequently by a vast in crease in import and consumption, and since 1850 Great Britain lias been pointed at as the one great free trade nation in the world. Tlie Irish famine which forced the action of Feel and his colleagues liegan iu the autumn of 1845 with a peculiar blight upon the potato—the standard food of the poor. In 1846 not only did the plant wither under the blight, but the potatoes rotted even in the cellars and pits alter living dug, when a[> parently sound; and the long reign of misery 0 — - | PRINCESS AND PRINCE OF WALES, iiegaii. The lowest estimate puts the num ber w ho died at 200,000—not of actual famine so much as of the fever which followed it. After this came the "famine clearances," as they were called, by which tenants who could not pay their rent were assisted to emigrate; and iu less than live years Ireland lost 2,000, 000 of her population. In one season 200,000 Irish landed at New 1 York; and of the first 1<X),UOO who left their native island it is esti mated that 19,000 died on the ocean or soon after landing. A wail of rage and anguish went over the island, and famine was fol lowed close by conspiracy and rebellion. The uprising was suddenly put down, then followed raids, arrests and state trials, end ing in tlie transportation of many men like John Mitchell, Thomas Francis Meagher and William Bmilh O'Brien. But an era of milder government had set in, and these men escaped or were pardoned. In 1S40 began the war with China, com monly called the "Opium War," which Eng lish moralists severely condemn, and, indeed, the nation only became involved in it through being misled by her representatives in tue east. The result was that China paid indem nity of £4,-500,01)0 sterling to England, ceded the island of Hong Kong and opened live ports to British trade. During the same year England joined with Russia, Austria and rrussm m n guarantee to maintain the integ rity of Turkey, and pursuant to this treaty these powers put down a rebellion in Egypt. In January, 1842, tlie British suffered a frightful humiliation in Afghanistan, their entire army of 4,500, w ith 12,(XX) camp fol lowers, being destroyed bv an uprising of the people. The next year they reconquered the country. In 1844 there was a bloody war in India with the Bikhs. In 1846 Lord John Russell succeeded Bir Rootrt Feel as prime minister and adopted many lilieral measures. In 1850 tierce religious controverey prevailed in the kingdom, but the result w as to abolish the few remaining distinctions. In 1851 the noted Crystal Falace was opened, and in the five and a half months of the season was visited by over 7,000,000 people. In 1852 the Earl of Derby, Conservative, succeeded Lord John Russell, and a fierce, short war w ith Bur muh took place, iu consequence of some Brit ish traders having been cruelly treated there. The British captured the seaports, and early in 1853 the king sought peace and ceded the Fegu province to the British. In 1*54 noted Crimean war began. England and France declared w ar against Russia on March 28, and soon after landed their forces in the »5 -- %l Jt. MARCHIONESS AND MARQUIS OK LOHNE. Crimea, where they were joined by the Turks, and the tedious siege of Bebastopol began. The battles of Balaklava and Inkermann and the wonderfui/vharge of the Light Brigade" were incidents of this w ar. The sufferings of the British troojis and the general inefficiency of the commissary department showed that tho sinews of British war administration had been relaxed by the long peace since Waterloo called peace beea use they had no wars with other than half civilized jieoples. In this war Florence Nightingale began the system of nurse and sanitary organization which is such a pleasing feature of recent wars. Fence was made by the treaty of Faris March 30, 1856; but all the settlements made iu it have been unsettled by subsequent events. In 1857 the Sepoys, native troops in the British service, rebelled in India and massa cred many hundred English, including women and children. They were subdued and pun ished w ith extreme severity. In 1856 began another war with China; the French and British fleets bombarded Canton; the Chinese made trade concessions to both nations, and have since maintained ministers at the courts of other countries. In 1858 Japan granted the rights of trade in her port to Great Britain, and after that to other na tions. In 1861 the American civil w ar began, and the failure of the cotton sup ply brought misery to nearly a million Brit ish laborers; but after the terrible winter of 1863-64 partial supplies came from India and elsewhere. 1 he British authorities allowed vessels to be built in their ports for the south ern Confederacy", which became privateers, destroying American merchant vessels. For eight years the two nations were hostile in feeling, hut in 1871 the mattere were ar ranged by treaty, and a court of arbitratioi at Geneva, early in 1872, derided That Eng land should oav tb# United Sit—*» • —- » damages. The dispute about the island of San Juan, in the channel between Vancou ver's island and Oregon, was referred to tho Emperor of Germany, who decided that it lielongeil to the United State», whereupon the British evacuated it. In the early part of 1*01 the queen's mother, the Duchess of Kent, died, and on De i- . 16 that year she !<>»t her husband. The American war was soon followed by the Fenian troubles in Ireland, largely ex cited by Irish-Americans, veterans of our war, and these continued at short intervals for several years. In 1870 the Frotestant church establishment iu Ireland was abolished, chiefly by the exertions of Mr. Gladstone, and since Jan. 1, 1871, the tithes for that church have not been collected. In 1870-1, also, the elementary education acts were put in force in England and Wales, by which parents are compelled to school their children between 5 and 13 years of age. In 1872 voting by ballot was established. In 1874 Mr. Gladstone and the Whigs went out of pow er and Mr.Disraeli became prime minister, with a Tory or Conservative government, and soon after began the heated struggle over Irish affairs, w Licit is just now in its most ex citing stage. Meanwhile, in 1868, had oc curred the war with Abyssinia, in which Bir Robert Napier, with 10,000 men, captured King Theodore's capital, the king committing suicide. And now England became still fur ther complicated with the affairs of Egypt and the east. On May 1, 1876, at the in stance of the premier, Queen Victoria was proclaimed empress of India, and on Aug. 18 Mr. Disraeli was raised to the peerage for liis services, becoming Lord Beaconstield. Bir Stafford Northcote succeeded bun as leader of the house of commons. All this time the "eastern question," so called, continued to agitate Europe and em barrass the rulers of England; Lord Salis bury and Bir Henry Elliot represented Eng land at a conference held with other great powere at Constantinople, but nothing was settled. In 187.5-6 there was war between Turkey and some of her rebellious Christian subjects, led by" Servia, and on April 24,1877, Russia once more declared war against Turkey. After some preliminary defeats the Russians swept all before them, and their armies were almost within sight of Constan tinople when England interposed. Bismarck invited the great powers to a conference, which met at Berlin, Lord Beaconstield re presenting England, and adopted the treaty of Berlin June 13,1S78. By this treaty the Christian subjects of tho sultan were secured-a degree of self govern ment; but other troubles Lave followed, as these diverse Christian races agree in noth ing but dread and hatred of the Turks. Tho Blav and the Greek, the Berb and the Bul garian, the Roumanian and Montenegran distrust and despise each other, while all of them persecute the Israelite. Bo the in trigues of Russia and the uneasiness of Eng land continue, and the year 18S7 brings us renewed uncertainty on the eastern ques tion, the morning paper confidently predict ing war when the evening paper hail given cheerful assurance of peace. In 1S79 occurred the Zulu war, in South Africa, made notablo by tlie death of the Frince Imperial, only" son of Napoleon III and Eugenie, who volunteered in a quarrel not his own, and died in tho desert by the spear of a barbarian. His father, captured by the Frussians in 1«70, died in exile at Cbiselhursfc, England, in Janu ary", 1875; and Eugenie, lor twenty years em press and leader of fashion for the civilized world, is now passing an old age in obscurity, a childless widow. In Ireland, also, there is renewed trouble. The tenants have formed a league and com bined to fight for lower rents, and after assuming protean phases, the contest is just now threatening to become civil war. The Tories now in power in the British parliament propose a system of severe coercion, which is resisted by Gladstone and the Literals; and the contest is shaking the kingdom. In all other parts the empire is at peace, and the rivival of trade gives promise of general con tent for this year of jubilee. VASSAR BROTHERS' HOSPITAL. A Model Institution at tlie 8eat of t as *ar College. We present herewith a view of a new hospital designed to be a sort of model for this class of buildings. It is called the Vassar Brothere' hospital, and is located at Pough keepsie, N. Y., the seat of the famous Vassar college for young ladies. It is comparatively small, according to the new idea of construct ing several detached hospitals rather than one large one, so that any one inay be torn down if there be good cause to believe it un fit for use. Indeed, some hospital authorities now maintain that such structures should be entirely of w ood and torn down at the end of a few years' use; but experience has not yet proved this view eoiTect. The Poughkeepsie hospital is of brick, and in a complex style of architecture, as tlie pic ture shows, with tow ere, turrets, gabled roofs and arched doors and windows. The grounds cover fifteen acres. The building consists of a central corridor and two wings of exact ly equal make; each wing and the pro »longation of the center terminates in towers; the center projects to the front, and the en tire arrangement is calculated to secure the liest possible arrangement of wards, bath room, operating room and offices. The struc ture is designed not only for these purposes, but to secure thorough ventilation ; and this KYt is ingeniously secured by a system of pipes through the building, by w hich all the I t ) <A' si Si T n SSI . J »■-. VASSAR BROTHERS' HOSPITAL, foul odors are conducted to one of the to were for escape. The interior finish of all the rooms is smooth and hard, with no mold ings or elaborate work to increase the labor of cleaning. The uses of the hospital are, first, for the unfortunates of Poughkeepsie; second, for those of Dijchess count v, and third, for those of New York. Its chief in terest to the general public, however, con sists in the fact that it is built upon a plan conceived in accordance w ith the latest con clusions of medical science, and success there in securing jierfect ventilation and prevent ing gangrene will lie of vast lienefit in build ing ho-pitais hereafter. No YYontier. "You say the murdered man was leaning against the fence when the prisoner hacked him to pieces " cross examined the lawyer.' "Now, while this *.us taking place bow did you stand f" "I—I stood aghast," was tLe trembling re ply.—Judge.